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Evaluation of nutritional and antinutritional composition of whole seed and kernel meals of jatropha curcas obtained from four different agro-climatic areas of ghana

Author: 
Chikpah S.K., and Demuyakor .B
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

The research was conducted to evaluate the nutritional and antinutritional composition of defatted whole seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas obtained from four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana with the aim of identifying an alternative source of plant protein that can be developed to supplement soyabean meal/fish meal. Jatropha curcas seeds were obtained from four different agro-climatic areas of Ghana: (1. Nyankpala, Northern Region, 2. Dambai, Volta Region, 3. WA, Upper West Region, 4. Techiman, Brong Ahafo Region). The seeds were processed in to seed meals and kernel meals for each Jatropha seed group. Large amount/percentage (77-79 %) of seed cake was produced from the mechanical defatted seeds. The seed meal samples differed in chemical composition. The dry matter content of the seed meal samples (1A, 2A, 3A, 4A) was between (92.27-94.37 %). The crude protein content of seed meals ranged between (27.33 - 29.61 %). The crude fibre was very high in the whole seed meal (21.46 - 24.72 %). Lipid, ash, and carbohydrates contents in seed meals were between (16.52 – 19.56 %), (7.15 – 9.01 %), and (12.16 – 19.35 %) respectively. On the other hand the kernel meals were very rich in crude protein (63.39 – 64.35 %) that did not differ significantly between the kernel meal samples (1B, 2B, 3B, 4B). Crude fibre was low in Jatropha kernel meals (5.55 – 8.25 %) and total ash was between (8.20 – 9.78 %). Jatropha curcas meals contained good amounts of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Total nitrogen was also very high in the kernel meals (10.14 -10.30 %). Jatropha seed/kernel meals contained crude phorbol esters (CPE), phytic acid, and tannins. The concentrations of these antinutrients in the seed meals were CPE (4.87-6.07 mg/g), phytic acid (8.11-9.82 % dry matter), and tannins (0.72-0.93 % tannic acid equivalent). The concentration of phorbol esters reduced by 39 -49 % in the kernel meals and ranged between (2.60 – 3.70 %). The phytic acid content in kernel meals was (6.56 – 7.46 %) while negligible amount of tannins were present in the kernel meals in the range of (0.03-0.07 %). The processing method (removal of shells) reduced tannins in kernel meals by 92-94 %). The kernel meals are therefore better source of protein for animals if detoxified completely.

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