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Evaluation studies on a tri-sodium citrate based novel formulation* for prevention and treatment of bovine mastitis

Author: 
Ram Bahal Rai, Tukaram Damodaran, Kuldeep Dhama, Sandip Chakraborty, Balvir Singh, Hamid Ali, Sweta Rai and Saminathan Mani
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands caused by several pathogens as well as circulating metabolites, injuries etc. and its prevention remains a challenge to the veterinarians. It is the second most economically significant disease standing next to foot and mouth disease (FMD). In mastitis, the standard treatment is antibiotic therapy (parental as well as intra- mammary infusions) apart from fomentation of udder accompanied by drainage of milk but the success rate is only reasonable. Between 1999-2012, the present long term study was conducted starting from Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands to Northern Plains of India. Animals from Military Dairy Farm, Experimental Dairy, owned by farmers in the villages and private un-organized dairies were included. The managemental conditions varied greatly and accordingly mastitis incidences also. Standard treatment, trisodium citrate and the present formulation have been evaluated considering that trisodium citrate helps in continuous milk production by making available citrate as substrate. It has been observed that clinical mastitis is predominant at 0-2 weeks of calving (67.3 %) while sub-clinical mastitis is predominant during 8-24 weeks period (96.6 %). The standard treatment given one day prior to expected day of calving did not have significant effect on prevention of onset of clinical mastitis during the first fortnight while tri-sodium citrate reduced the incidence to 6.9% against 29.2% in the control population during the period. The present formulation reduced the incidence to 1.3%. In the control untreated clinical mastitis cases, majority of cases developed fibrosis and restoration of milk was less than 10%. The animals who received standard treatment showed moderate recovery restoration of milk varied between 20-60% but 5.7% of the animals developed fibrosis. The animals treated with present formulation showed excellent recovery. The blood and flakes disappeared within 2-3 days, and the swelling subsided in 4-5 days. Milk recovery rate from the affected quarter (s) was between 60-80%. In case of animals affected with sub-clinical mastitis also the animals showed excellent recovery with the present formulation and flakes or blood disappeared by 2nd-3rd day and milk yield was restored. Thus it can be concluded that in comparison to standard antibiotic therapy, the present formulation is more efficacious and cost-effective as far as prevention and the recovery from clinical as well as sub-clinical mastitis is concerned. Its wide usage is recommended to lessen animal sufferings from this economically significant disease condition as well as enhancing milk production.

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