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Hansen’s Disease: Global Scenario And Current Perspective

Author: 
Megha Rastogi, Abhijit Das, Swati Sharma, Poonam Gupta, Madhu Sinha and Man Mohan Mehndiratta
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Hansen’s disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic granulomatous disease. As this bacterium cannot be cultured, it remains the least understood bacterial pathogen. Skin, peripheral nerves & nasal mucosa are mainly affected but this bacterium is capable of affecting any tissue or organ. National leprosy control program was launched in 1955 with an aim to achieve leprosy control but it did not succeed. Later on, global leprosy strategy (2016-2020) have been adopted. Global statistics show that 203600 (96%) of new leprosy cases were reported from 22 priority countries. With 127,369 new cases, India accounted for 60% of the global new cases. Brazil, reported 26395 new cases, representing 13% of the global new cases; & Indonesia reported 17202 new cases, 8% of the global case load. Diagnosis of Hansen’s disease can be done by examination of skin smear, animal inoculation, immunological tests, histopathological test, FNAC, PCR, radiological examination. BCG vaccine was being widely implemented for control of both leprosy & tuberculosis. Mycobacterium indicuspranii (MIP) vaccine has received approval from central drug standard control organization & the U.S food & drug administration (FDA) as a vaccine against leprosy.

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