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Hydrogeochemical investigation of ground water in badi of Raisen District in M.P

Author: 
Dr. Ratna Roy
Subject Area: 
Social Sciences and Humanities
Abstract: 

Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers, and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced. We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a relatively recent development in the planet's history: before the 19th century Industrial Revolution, people lived more in harmony with their immediate environment. As industrialization has spread around the globe, so the problem of pollution has spread with it. When Earth's population was much smaller, no one believed pollution would ever present a serious problem2. Today, with around 7 billion people on the planet, it has become apparent that there are limits. Pollution is one of the signs that humans have exceeded those limits. The pollution that passes directly into water from factories and cities can be reduced through treatment at source before it is discharged. It is harder to reduce the varied forms of pollution that are carried indirectly, by runoff, from a number of widely spread non-point sources, into freshwater3. In general, it takes much longer to clean up polluted water bodies than for pollution to occur in the first place, and there is thus a need to focus on protecting water resources. In many cases, clean-up takes more than 10 years. Although underground water is less easily polluted than water above ground, cleaning it once it is polluted takes longer and is more difficult and expensive. Ways are being found to assess where and how underground water is most vulnerable to pollution. Ground water is less susceptible to bacterial pollution than surface water because the soil and rocks through which ground water flows screen out most of the bacteria. But freedom from bacterial pollution alone does not mean that the water is fit to drink. Many unseen dissolved mineral and organic constituents are present in ground water in various concentrations. Most are harmless or even beneficial; though occurring infrequently, others are harmful, and a few may be highly toxic. Naturally occurring contaminants are present in the rocks and sediments. As groundwater flows through sediments, metals such as iron and manganese are dissolved and may later be found in high concentrations in the water. Industrial discharges, urban activities, agriculture, groundwater pumpage, and disposal of waste all can affect groundwater quality. Pesticides and fertilizers applied to crops can accumulate and migrate to the water table. In recent years, the growth of industry, technology, population, and water use has increased the stress upon both our land and water resources. Locally, the quality of ground water has been degraded. Municipal and industrial wastes and chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides not properly contained have entered the soil, infiltrated some aquifers, and degraded the ground-water quality. Other pollution problems include sewer leakage, faulty septic-tank operation, and landfill leachates.

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