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Impact of change in climate on the historical monuments in western Himalayan region (Ladakh)

Author: 
Phuntsog Tundup, Tsewang Tamchos and Tsewang Norbu
Subject Area: 
Social Sciences and Humanities
Abstract: 

Jammu And Kashmir State is divided into three divisions Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. Ladakh was added to the state as a result of fierce campaigns of the ruler of Jammu, Gulab Singh to whom the British subsequently take over in 1846 the land of Jammu and Kashmir. The present research paper is an attempt to provide an outlook and effect of climate change on the historical monuments of Ladakh. Traditional Ladakhi structures are constructed with locally available material in harmony with the region’s climatic conditions. The mud bricks in the upper storeys help to reduce the weight of the superstructure and have excellent thermal properties. Unlike modern concrete structures, these ancient historical mud structures remain cool in summer and warm in winter: they are well suited to the extreme variations in temperature in Ladakh, which range from –30o C to +30o C. However, unfortunately, old mud structures are unable to withstand heavy rainfall, and in the last few years there has been a trend towards much heavier precipitation compared with earlier decades. Mud structures are easily eroded by water and, all too often, more than 1000 years old precious wall paintings have been washed away. Recent changes in Ladakh’s climate therefore pose considerable challenges for the conservation of the region’s historical buildings.

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