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Maternal and child health in Bangladesh: Transitioning from MDGs to SDGs

Author: 
Shafi Bhuiyan and Farah Tahsin
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

The strength and resilience of a country’s national health system is intrinsically linked to factors related to maternal and child health (MCH). The centrality of maternal and child health was reflected in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), with two of the eight goals focused on reducing child mortality (goal 4), and improving maternal health (goal 5). While progress towards goals 4 and 5 varied significantly on a global scale, during the Millennium Development period the world saw child mortality rates reduced by more than half, and maternal mortalityratios lowered by nearly half. Bangladesh is one such country that has achieved incredible progress in the reduction of child and maternal mortality (Hossain et al., 2014). The introduction of nation-wide community health care programs and interventions has significantly improved the health and wellbeing of women and children, providing them with accessible health services and support. However, high rates of malnutrition, and the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases continues to threaten the achievements made. The purpose of this systematic review paper is to examine the trend of improvement in maternal and child health in Bangladesh during the Millennium Development period (1990 to 2015), and to provide highlights and recommendations for further health programming in the country. As the world shifts from the MDGs to the sustainable development goals (SDGs), this is a particularly critical moment for countries like Bangladesh to reflect on the successes and failures that defined the MDG period. Along with sustainability of overall development, equity and universal health coverage, maternal and child health are a major focus of the SDGs. To evaluate whether Bangladesh is capable of meeting its SDG targets related to maternal and child health, this paper will review Bangladesh’s progress in achieving MDGs 4 and 5 during the Millennium Development period. For clarity, maternal and child health sections are divided into three time periods: Phase I from 1990-2000, Phase II from 2001-2010 and Phase III from 2011-present.

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