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Mathematical model for computation of sustainability of aadhaar based direct benefit transfer under social security pension Schemes in Haryana

Author: 
Susheel Kumar and Kuldip Singh
Subject Area: 
Physical Sciences and Engineering
Abstract: 

Haryana is one of the northern provinces of India divided into 22 Districts, 140 community development Blocks, 6752 villages and 89 Urban Local bodies having population 2.68 Cr, out of that 8.9% are beneficiaries under Social Security Pension Schemes. The State Government has been providing Financial Assistance to the eligible residents of the State who are unable to sustain from their own resources. Assistance provided in the form of monthly pension upto Rs. 1600/- to more than 23 lacs beneficiaries who are enrolled under 9 Schemes of Old age, Widows, Disabled, Destitute Children, Ladli, Dwarf, Eunuch, Financial Assistance to Kashmiri Migrants & Mentally retarded non school going Children of less than 18 years. The annual budget of Financial Assistance has reached up to Rs. 4588 Cr which has average increases of Rs. 50 Cr every year (Budget document of the Government). As per the case study, upto few years ago benefits were disbursed in cash on the basis of data maintained at district level. Cases of fraudulent, wrong and delayed disbursement to ineligible beneficiaries were also reported. Flagging of deaths and other ineligibles was a big challenge. To overcome such problems, data was hosted on central server and online secured access was provided to the department for data updation, processing and disbursement of pension benefits through respective Panchayats and Urban Local Bodies across the state. During late 2014, the State Government decided for Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) to the beneficiaries accounts. Scheduled banks, their BCAs, Post offices, m-Paisa Vodafone were engaged for opening, uploading & updating of beneficiaries accounts with pension database and the goal was achieved in December 2015 for entire state. As a impact more than 1.13 lac beneficiaries weeded out who did not turn up for opening & uploading of accounts. But scope of data cleaning & improvement was still there by using biometric based de-duplication and disbursement. Therefore, the state government, in line with the DBT Mission of Government of India, planned for Aadhaar (Unique ID) based DBT in 2016-17. The DBT process required Aadhaar number of a beneficiary as financial address to credit or debit his/her account, means it does not check for Name, Account no., Bank IFSC etc. Also, the probability of human errors can’t ruled out in collection, typing & manual seeding of 12 digit Aadhaar in beneficiaries accounts, there are chances of wrong transactions. Besides that the beneficiaries who have migrated to other states and maintain accounts there may also get pension benefits by seeding Aadhaar with any of their accounts, which is a violation of eligibility, indeed a beneficiary must be state resident and pension benefits should be credited in the state located bank branches only. Also, a number of beneficiaries who do not have qualifying biometrics scanned due to old ages or other health problems are not issued Aadhaar. Thus, it is difficult to ensure the success of Aadhaar based DBT system as such. Therefore, a Mathematical Model of a random data-set of 500 villages have been formulated using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) and processed using the LISEREL 9.3 & MATLAB to know the relationships between Observable and Latent Variables (LVs) helping to predict sustainability of ‘Aadhaar based DBT in Social Security pension Schemes of Haryana”. The data inputs to the model consists of adoption of Technology (Scalable, Platform Independent, Branding, Usability, Secure) and 25 other parameters on Resources Planning, Aadhaar Enrollment, Opening of accounts, Aadhaar seeding to bank accounts, data digitization with Aadhaar, role of Sponsored bank, mapping with NPCI (National Payment Corporation India) and Biometric based verifications that is e-KYC of beneficiaries etc. Result of the study produces Mathematical Equation of sustainability model, Index of Sustainability which ranges between 0.0312 to 3.1562, Standard Deviation is 0.2946 and RMSEA is zero along with analysis for Goodness of Fit for the model, the sustainability index is moderate therefore given recommendations may be followed in decision making to achieve high level of sustainability for Aadhaar based DBT.

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