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PCOS, the multıfaceted dısorder – an exposition

Author: 
Shafia Banu, H. and Dr. Jahanaara Razick
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, is one of the most common endocrine disorder in women. It is a heterogeneous complex genetic trait of unclear aetiology. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on the criteria used to make the diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of PCOS include oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, hirsutism, and frequently infertility. Earlier it was thought of as a fertility problem, but it is now known that PCOS is a metabolic disorder like diabetes that can have serious health consequences, if not diagnosed and controlled. Risk factors for PCOS in adults include hereditary factors and environmental factors like physical inactivity, greater intake of junk food, obesity and its associated insulin resistance. Insulin resistance affects 50%–70% of women with PCOS leading to many comorbidities including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Studies show that mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder also occur more frequently in women with PCOS. Weight loss improves menstrual irregularities, symptoms of androgen excess, and infertility in patients with PCOS. Management of clinical manifestations of PCOS needs to be individualised and includes medication for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism along with effective approaches to nutrition and exercise to improve body composition, endocrine features, reproductive function and cardiometabolic risk profile. Proper diagnosis and efficient management is essential to prevent future metabolic, endocrine, psychiatric, and cardiovascular complications. This review article focuses on the various dimensions of PCOS.

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