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Periodontal therapy and salivary nitric oxide metabolites

Author: 
Dr. Priyadharshini, V., Dr. Triveni, M.G., Dr. Mehta, D.S. and Dr. Tarun Kumar, A.B.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Nitric oxide (NO) being a free radical has been evidenced to play a controversial role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. The present longitudinal study aims to investigate the levels of salivary NO metabolites in healthy as well as in chronic periodontitis patients, its correlation with the periodontal clinical parameters and the effects of periodontal treatment on salivary NO metabolites in CP patients. Methods: A case-control interventional study was conducted. A total of 54 subjects -36 CP patients and 18 healthy controls were enrolled for this study. The controls were allotted as Group I whereas the CP patients were divided based on the treatment delivered as Group II (scaling and root planing [SRP]) or Group III (SRP with periodontal flap surgery). Clinical parameters, such as probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and plaque index (PI) were recorded at baseline and at 12 weeks post- operative. The salivary NO metabolite levels were determined using a spectrophotometric technique. Results: At baseline, the salivary Nitrate, Nitrite and NO levels for Group II and Group III were higher than Group I controls. At 12 weeks post-operative the salivary Nitrate, Nitrite and NO levels for Group II and Group III were significantly reduced when compared with the baseline values. It was also evident that there was a more significant reduction in salivary NO metabolite levels in Group III which underwent surgical periodontal therapy as compared to Group II which underwent only non-surgical therapy (p< 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limits of the present study, salivary NO metabolites were significantly higher in CP patients when compared to controls. Its levels were positively correlated with the periodontal clinical parameters. The study also concludes that surgical periodontal treatment carried out in Group III patients showed an effective reduction in the salivary NO metabolite levels as compared to the non-surgical periodontal treatment performed in Group II patients. Therefore, surgical periodontal treatment offers added advantage in reducing the damaging effects of NO free radical.

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