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The Prevalence Of The Metabolic Syndrome In The Littoral Region Of Cameroon

Author: 
Gordon Kunbuma Tachang, Simeon-Pierrre Choukem, Jules Ndjebet, Anastase Dzudie and Vincent P. K Titanji
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as it components though low in Sub Saharan Africa, are on a steady rise. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of this syndrome using the modified International diabetic Federation (IDF) 2005 definition in the Littoral Region of Cameroon and to find out the cause of this rise in prevalence. Method: A representative sample of total of 1974(733 males and 1241 females) patients aged between 18 -80 years from 10 district hospitals in littoral Region of Cameroon was surveyed between May 2010 and April 2011. These 752 peri-urban and 1222 urban patients were interviewed on their personal medical history and lifestyle options. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist and Hip circumferences) were recorded using standardized methods by trained and certified medical personnel. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast for fasting blood sugar determination. Results: Based on the IDF 2005 definition, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 8.4 [95% C I] 7.2%-9.7%). Considering the other definitions, a prevalence rate of 2.5% [C I: 1.8%-3.3%] was obtained using the National Cholesterol Education Program –Adult Treatment Panel(NCEP-ATP III) definition and 1.9% (95 %C.I:1.3-2.6%) based on the WHO, 1999 definition. The prevalence rate was higher in urban than peri-urban(2.4% vs. 1.1%).Central obesity was more prevalent in females than males while hypertension and fasting blood sugar had a higher prevalence in males.The prevalence rate of the components [male: female] were central obesity,16.0%[5.3-24.7], High blood pressure 6.7% [10.8:3.3], Elevated blood glucose 1.2% [2,1:0.4] For all the three definitions of Metabolic Syndrome, the prevalence increased with age[18-36years:0.3%;37-55years 1.7% and >56years 6.2%]. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of the MS between the three age groups for all the different definitions (p<0.001). Regardless of the definition of MS employed, no significant difference in the prevalence of MS between males and females was observed. The prevalence of central obesity and diastolic hypertension were highest among the components. Conclusion: This study gave a prevalence rate of 8.4% (IDF definition) in the Littoral Region of Cameroon. The rate increased with age as expected, and there was no significant difference between the estimates for men and women. Central obesity and diastolic hypertension were observed to be the most prevalent components of MS.

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