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Prevalence of respiratory tract infections in children under five years at Quetta

Author: 
Gulalai Rehman, Allauddin, Kareem Zarkoon and Muhammad Samsoor Zarak
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Objectives: To study the prevalence of respiratory tract infections in children under five years. Background: Respiratory tract infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. These are mostly self-limiting and risk of complications is small. Risk factors for severe complications include malnutrition, low birth weight, passive smoking, non-breast feeding, low socioeconomic condition, and HIV infections. and consequently, most of the morbidity associated with such infections are found in developing countries. The causative agents for respiratory infections are mainly bacterial or viral. although it is not possible to differentiate between the two on the basis of clinical signs or radiology. They are treated either conservatively or admitted in hospital according to the severity of symptoms but vaccination remains the best choice which prevents such infections. This study aims to assess the prevalence of respiratory tract infections in children under five years in the city Quetta. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-made questionnaire. This research was conducted Paeds department of Bolan Medical Complex Hospital (BMCH) and Sandeman Provincial Hospital (SPH), Quetta. Children under 5 years of age were randomly assigned to the study. A total of 153 patients assigned to the study. Results: The study showed a high prevalence of respiratory tract infection in children under five years who were visiting the department of Paeds at BMCH and SPH. Out of the total sample, 38% (n=58) of children were victims of respiratory tract infection where 60% of them were children under age one. Among affected total 58 patients, 31 patients presented with a cough and fever, 15 patients were having the complaints of a sore throat and cough, 9 patients had loose motions with a cough, while 3 patients were having vomiting and rhinitis. Conclusion: This study has identified a high prevalence of respiratory tract infections among the children visiting the Paeds department of Bolan Medical Complex Hospital and Sandeman Provincial Hospital, Quetta. It also highlights the various risk factors that lead to respiratory tract infection.

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