Production, characterization and sensory analysis of wines (Vitis spp.) from grapes produced in a subtropical region

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Author: 
Tatiana Abreu Reis, Gabriel Abreu Reis, Rafaela Araújo Zambaldi Lima, Renata de Paulo Rocha, Antonio Decarlos Neto, Taciene Carvalho Mesquita and Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of wines from different grape cultivars (Vitis spp.) produced in Lavras, in the southwest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Grapes of cultivars ‘Niagara Rosada’, ‘Bordo’, ‘Isabel Precoce’, ‘BRS Rúbea’, ‘BRS Cora’ and ‘Concord Clone 30’, used to produce the experimental wines, were produced in the orchard of the University Federal of Lavras, from August to December 2013. The winemaking followed the methodology proposed by Malgarin et al., (2006), adapted. The analyses used to physically and chemically characterize the wines were: soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, pH, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars, dry extract, reduced dry extract, alcohol content, alcohol/reduced dry extract ratio, density, antioxidant activity by DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid methods, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanins and color (L*, a*, b* and C). The sensory analysis acceptance test was performed with 50 tasters, who evaluated the attributes: appearance, aroma, taste, overall impression and purchase intention. The different wines produced are within the standards of wine identity and quality, proposed by Brazilian legislation and the values of the variables found in the samples are close to reference values presented in studies with wines from traditional wine-growing regions in Brazil. The wines were classified as dry table wines; the 'Niagara Rosada' wine was light-bodied and the others were considered more full-bodied. Due to the difference among cultivars, considering the biochemical aspect and the grape metabolism, the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds content, ascorbic acid and anthocyanin content varied. These differences suggest the possible interference of soil and climate conditions on the cultivar adaptation response in the region where the experiment was conducted, especially the cultivars ‘Bordô’ and ‘BRS Cora’. Overall, average sensory analysis scores of the samples fell between 4.56 and 7.22 on the hedonic scale, represented by the categories "neither liked nor disliked” and “liked moderately”, respectively, highlighting the ‘Bordô’, ‘Niagara Rosada’, ‘BRS Rúbea’ and ‘Concord Clone 30’ cultivars, which were preferred by consumers regarding aroma and taste, overall impression and purchase intention attributes. Regarding purchase intent of the different wines, the tasters answered "do not know if I would buy” and/or “I probably would not buy", which may be related to the profile of the tasters. In this context, production of grapes from different cultivars (Vitis spp.) for wine production in subtropical regions can be conducted as an alternative for the development and establishment of rural populations, since climate conditions positively influence physicochemical composition and sensory aspects of cultivated grapes. This allows, therefore, the development of products derived from grapes, with competitive features which may be accepted by a different public, which has a preference for dryer wines.

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