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A randomized control trial to assess the effect of distraction technique on pain during immunization among infants

Author: 
Mrs. Rimple Sharma and Ms. Charanjit Kaur
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Immunization is an important part of health promotion and disease prevention strategy for all children and it is essential in the provision of primary care to infants, but pain experienced by infants during immunization makes it a distressing experience for the infant, parents and practitioners. Aim: The aim of study is to assess the effect of distraction techniques (light and sound) on pain during immunization among infants coming for immunization. Materials and Methods: A Quantitative research approach and Randomized Control Trial design was used to assess the effect of distraction techniques on pain during immunization among infants (0-1 year) coming for immunization in Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib (C) Hospital, Ludhiana. 90 infants were selected by simple random sampling technique and randomized in three groups- control, experimental group I and II. During immunization, standard care was given to control group, light producing toy was shown as distraction to Experimental group I and sound producing toy to Experimental group II. Pain was assessed using Neonatal Infant Pain Scale. Results were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings of the present study revealed that the mean pain score of Control group was higher (6.87) as compared to that of Experimental group I (3.27) and Experimental group II ( 2.50). The difference between mean pain score of infants in Control, Experimental group I and Experimental group II was found to be statistically significant at p<0.01 level. The difference in mean pain score between Control and Experimental group I and also between Control and Experimental Group II was statistically significant at p< 0.01 level and the difference in mean pain score between Experimental group I and Experimental group II was statistically significant at p< 0.05 level. Conclusion: During immunization, in Control group, maximum infants experienced severe pain, in Experimental group I (who were given light producing toy) mild pain and in Experimental group II (who were given sound producing toy) maximum infants had no pain during immunization. Distraction was found to be effective in reducing adverse behavioural response to pain and Sound was found to be better distractor from pain than light.

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