Review on pros and cons of aquaculture

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Author: 
Shiva Kumar, D., Srikantaswamy, S., Abhilash, M.R. and Smitha, N.
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

An understanding of the principles of operation of capture and culture fisheries helps to throw light on the definition of aquaculture. The expressions capture and culture fisheries are self-explanatory. In the former, one reaps the aquatic harvest without having to sow, whereas, in the latter, one has to sow the seed, nurse it, tend it, rear it and harvest it when it grows to marketable size. Culture fisheries are usually carried out in small water bodies which can be manipulated, pre-prepared for stocking; which are often manured and/or fertilized before, during and after stacking; and/or where fish are fed from extraneous sources. The principles of management of capture and culture fisheries are very different from each other. In the case of capture fisheries one has to attempt to harvest maximum sustainable yield by regulating fishing effort and mesh after taking into account parameters of population dynamics such as rates of recruitment, natural and fishing mortalities, fish growth and size at which recruitment occurs. Management of capture fisheries requires knowledge of the dynamics of the fish populations under exploitation. For effective aquaculture, one has to gain familiarity and control water quality to enhance its biological productivity; one has to understand fish nutrition so as to be able to formulate nutritionally balanced fish diet; one has to delve deep into fish genetics so as to be able to evolve new varieties and strains which bestow commercial advantages to the product in terms of superior growth rate, nutritive value, bonelesness, taste, odour etc.; one has to prevent incidence of fish infections and diseases through prophylatics and therapeutics.

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