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Role of Micronutrients in promoting the health of children-A Review Paper

Author: 
Sandhvi Swiny and Kumari Pooja
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

The health and well being of children depend upon the interaction between their genetic potential and exogenous factors like adequacy of nutrition, safety of the environment, social interaction and stimulation. Micronutrients are that nutrients needed by the body in minute amounts, play leading roles in the production of enzymes, hormones and other substances and help to regulate growth activity, development and functioning of the immune and reproductive systems. Deficiencies of micronutrients are a major global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers that more than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from vitamin and mineral deficiencies, primarily iodine, iron, vitamin A and zinc, with important health consequences. The groups most vulnerable to micronutrient deficiencies are pregnant women, lactating women and young children, mainly because they have a relatively greater need for vitamins and minerals and are more susceptible to the harmful consequences of deficiencies. For a young child, micronutrient deficiencies increase the risk of dying due to infectious disease and contribute to impaired physical and mental development. Its’ deficiencies increase the general risk of infectious illness and of dying from diarrhoea, measles, malaria and pneumonia. These are silent epidemics that affecting people of all genders and ages, as well as certain risk groups. They not only cause specific diseases, but they act as exacerbating factors in infectious and chronic diseases, greatly impacting morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. Micronutrient deficiency conditions relate to many chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis osteomalacia, thyroid deficiency colorectal cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

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