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Study of Histopathological Changes in Placenta in Anaemia During Pregnancy

Author: 
Rajendra Madane and Tapasya Bharati
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Anaemia is a potential hazardous hematological disorder that may occur in pregnancy. It is important risk factor for uteroplacental insufficiency and is associated with late abortions, prematurity, low birth weight and stillbirths. The present study aimed to assess the histological changes of placentas associated with maternal anaemia (mothers with Hb level < 11 g/dl) were fifty (50) and those collected from control mothers were fifty (50). All the deliveries were at full term (37-41 weeks) periods and without any obstetric complications or diseases. Microscopic analyses of the placentas were done and these findings were compared. Statistical analysis was performed by using t-test for comparing the mean values of fetal weights, placental weights and placental indices of the maternal anaemia group with those of control group. It was observed that the mean fetal weight of pregnancy with anaemia group was less than those of the control group. The mean placental weight in pregnancy with the anaemia group was more than the control group. Also, the mean placental index of the maternal anaemia group was higher than that of the control group. Histopathology study revealed decreased villous vascularity, excessive syncytial knots, increased fibrinoid necrosis of the villi, increase in villous stromal fibrosis in placentas of anaemic mothers as compared to those of the controls. Incidence and severity of the above lesions increases with increase in severity of anaemia. We concluded that maternal anaemia resulted into bigger, heavier placentas and smaller fetuses, whereas placental morphological changes showed signs of chronic hypoxia and placental insufficiency.

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