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Study of histopathological changes in placentae of anaemic women

Author: 
Dr. Sukhjinder Kaur, Dr. Sunita Bhargava and Dr. Nitin Chaudhary
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Placenta is considered throwaway product but it provides insight about maternal and fetal disorders. Severe anaemia during pregnancy can lead to poor fetal outcome and the changes are reflected in the placenta. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate morphological and histological changes in placenta during pregnancy. Methods: 100 placentae from term mothers were studied over a period of one year, of which 75 placentae were from anaemic females (Hemoglobin <11g/dl) and remaining were from mothers with Hemoglobin ≥ 11g/dl. Severity of anaemia was judged according to WHO criteria. Placentae were examined grossly, processed, tissue sections prepared and examined after Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. Results: Anaemic females delivered low birth weight foetuses and heavier placentae as compared to non-anaemic females. Grossly, infarction and calcification was more frequent in the anaemic group. Histopathological study revealed significantly increased syncytial knots, fibrinoid necrosis, stromal fibrosis, calcification, hyalinization of villi in the placentae of anaemic females. Conclusion: The better outcome of pregnancy depends upon the adequate and timely treatment of maternal anaemia which can prevent low birth weights, premature births, still births and intrauterine growth retardation.

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