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Use of pollen fingerprints as a tool in forensic science

Author: 
Paramjeet Cheema
Subject Area: 
Social Sciences and Humanities
Abstract: 

Palynology, the science of pollen, spores, algal cysts and other microscopic plant bodies is a multi-disciplinary field with applications in botany, zoology, entomology, immunology, forensic science, geology, archaeology, geography and environmental sciences. Pollen and spores collectively called palynomorphs can serve as valuable forensic tools. Their utility lies in their abundance; different dispersal mechanisms; resistance to mechanical, chemical and biological destruction; microscopic size and specific morphology. Pollen groups charactering different environment and scenes can easily be picked up and transported. Their often morphology allows identification of parent plant which can be related to a specific ecological habitat or a specific scene. Pollens are expected to be omnipresent may it be a fossil, rock, soil and dirt, hair, fur, woven material, packaging material, air filter, drugs, honey, dried fruit, tobacco, tea, stomach and intestine or excreta. As cited in literature, the forensic use of pollen and spores i.e. forensic palynolgy can be applied to cases of forgery, production and distribution of illegal drugs, assaults, robbery, theft, rapes, homicide, genocide, terrorism, arson, hit and run crimes, counterfeiting of currency, fake antiques, removal of artifacts from historic and archeological sites, illegal poaching of animals and cases involving illegal pollution of the environment. Despite being an effective tool, the full potential of forensic palynolgy remains unutilised and ignored in most countries including India.

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