CALL FOR PAPERS

CERTIFICATE

IMPACT FACTOR 2018

Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

Use of serum anticholinergic activity to determine the optimal dose of antipsychotic medication for patients with schizophrenia

Author: 
Kimiko Konishi, Masayuki Tani, Norihisa Akashi, Michiho Sodenaga, Mitsugu Hachisu and Koji Hori
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

In this article, we revise our previous hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of anticholinergic activity (AA) in schizophrenia and expand our commentary on the relationship between AA and schizophrenia. We speculate that the inflammatory system is upregulated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) when the acetylcholine (ACh) downregulation reaches a critical level and then hyperactive inflammation generates cytokines with AA. We also speculated that the same mechanism might be active in schizophrenia; that is, downregulation of ACh or overloading of this system might already exist at even the preclinical stage (in those with a high-risk mental state) and when mental stress is added, the compensatory mechanism might fail, so AA might appear and psychotic symptoms develop. Recently, we reported the significant negative relationship between serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and extrapyramidal symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the theory of hyperactive ACh in schizophrenia. Accordingly, we re-hypothesize that there is a compensatory increase in the activity of the cholinergic system even in the prepsychotic phase. We also re-speculate that there might be an imbalance in not only the dopaminergic system, but also the cholinergic system in schizophrenia. Therefore, substantial levels of AA or antipsychotics with considerable AA might be needed in schizophrenia. Prescription of antipsychotics with AA might correct the imbalance in both dopamine and ACh and possibly achieve remission in patients with schizophrenia. Based on these speculations, we propose the use of SAA as a biological marker for evaluating the optimal dose of antipsychotics for patients with schizophrenia and suggest that, when the quantities of prescribed antipsychotics can be adjusted to achieve an SAA of slightly over 10 nM, the clinical symptoms (extrapyramidal motor symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions) might be minimized.

PDF file: 

IJMCE RECOMMENDATION

ONLINE PAYPAL PAYMENT

CURRENT ISSUE

NEWS

CHIEF EDITOR

Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil

ASSOCIATE CHIEF EDITOR

   

Jean-Marc SABATIER
Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group
France

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport

EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordanian
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran