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Vesicular drug delivery against leishmaniasis in animals: a critical evaluation

Author: 
Ardhendu Kumar Mandal
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

In spite of rapid advances in the development of pharmaceutical medicines, the targeting of drugs to host macrophage, the key cell responsible for body’s defense as well as immune response against invading Leishmania parasite, the causative agent for kala-azar or leishmaniasis, still remains unexplored. Perturbation of macrophage surface by parasites leads to activate oxidative burst and signal transduction for the interaction of host-parasite i.e. macrophage with Leishmania parasite. Amastigotes residing within macrophage phagolysomal compartment are the pivotal target for anti-leishmanial treatment. In general, free drugs cannot overpower main configurational barriers. Moreover, restrictions on ongoing therapy regarding toxicity, efficiency, cost, and duration of treatment may influence in enhanced parasitic resistance. Therefore, vesicular (liposomal and nanoparticulated) drug deliveries have emerged as alternative conventional approach for having not only their improved bioavailability, non-immunogenecity, reduced toxicity and higher carrier capacity but also for promoting encapsulated drug release in parasite-loaded intracellular macrophage cell in a sustained manner.

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