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Water pollution: is it a risk factor for CKD?: an observational study.

Author: 
Dr. Arti Muley and Dr. Divya Lalwani
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Introduction: One of the triggering factors for CKDu has been observed to be associated with drinking water. In our hospital, we see many patients of CKD who appeared to be coming from a particular geographical area. Hence, we performed this study to identify the common geographical area and see if there have been reports of water pollution from that particular area. Methodology: This retrospective cohort study included all patients > 18 years old coming to OPD or admitted with CKD. A detailed information was collected regarding patients' residence and their water source and whether water pollution was reported from that common source. The data collected regarding the geographical areas was matched with the geographical areas in previous reports where water pollution had been reported. Results: Total 71 patients were included. 38 did not have any underlying cause of CKD. 25 (75.75%) came from Madhya Pradesh and 12 (36.36%) came from Gujarat. It was observed that the regions from which these patients came lied either in Narmada basin (Khargaon, Khandva, Badwani and Alirajpur) or around it (Dhaar, Ratlam, Ujjain, Mandsor, Vadodara and Godhra). Some previous studies reported that water in Narmada basin was polluted with agriculture and industrial wastes and also contained chromium, copper and iron metals beyond the permissible limits especially in the wet season. Conclusion: Water pollution due to agricultural and industrial waste may contribute to development of CKD even in absence of any other risk factors. A separate study is required for proving causation.

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