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March 2010

  1. Koppad, A. G. and Manjunath Gouda

    The study was conducted at College of Forestry, Sirsi, Karnatak during 2005. Stevia three node stem cuttings of size 10-15 cm length and less than pencil thickness diameter were prepared. These cuttings were dipped in 100, 300 and 500 ppm of IAA and Coumarin for five minutes. After dipping the cuttings were planted in polythene bag of size 4" X 6'' containing potting mixture at 2:1:1 ratio (Soil, sand and Farm yard manure respectively) and little vermiphos was also added to this mixture. These poly bags were kept in mist chamber for 35 days. Observations on number of roots and root length were recorded at 15, 25 and 35 days after planting. The study indicated that IAA and Comaorin 300 ppm concentration found suitable treatment for better rooting in Stevia. After 35 days of planting, significantly higher root length (7.40 cm) and number of roots were recorded with IAA 500 ppm followed by coumarin 500 ppm (7.00 cm). However coumarin 300 ppm (6.80 cm) and IAA 300 ppm (6.28 cm) were statistically on par with 500 ppm treatments respectively.

  2. Asadullah Al Ajmi and Ahmed Ali Salih

    The desert environment of the Gulf countries is characterized by high temperatures and limited water resources. Agriculture is by far the largest water user; most of it is used for production of fodder crops. Exotic fodder species, especially Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) is the dominant forage plant grown. This species is poorly adapted to the harsh environment and consumes substantial amounts of water. This study was designed to compare indigenous forage species to Rhodes grass with regard to their ability to utilize water from deep soil layers. Four indigenous forage species were tested; these were Cenchrus cilliaris, Panicum turgidum, Lassiurus scindicus and Coelachyrum piercie together with Rhodes grass in a randomized design with 3 replications. The irrigation regimes tested were; application of the full crop requirement; 50% above and 50% below crop requirement. Water extraction was monitored daily in two soil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm) using Time Domain Refractrometry (TDR). Result indicated that, except under Cenchrus ciliaris, residual soil moisture was high in the subsoil layer indicating poor extraction of water from this layer under limited water conditions. Cenchrus ciliaris however, was significantly different in extracting subsoil moisture, indicating high adaptation to water deficit conditions. There were small differences in water extraction mode when irrigation water is not limited. This study recommended the expansion in indigenous forage species especially Cenchrus ciliaris at the expense of the exotic species under current water resources of the Gulf region.

  3. Hilal Ahmad B.B., Gupta S.M., Razvi M., Ashraf Bhat S., Najeeb, Nawsheeba Wani K. A., Bhat and Mir M.R.

    The present studies were undertaken to find the selection criteria for higher rice yield which this would also help to select the genotypes possessing plant traits with maximum contribution to grain yield. The experimental material for the study comprised of sixteen genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The study revealed that genotypes differed significantly among themselves for all the characters viz., morpho-physiological, biochemical, yield and yield attributing traits. The genotypic correlation coefficient was higher than phenotypic correlation coefficient. Grain yield per plant was significantly and positively correlated with average panicle weight, harvest index and α-amylase. Path coefficient analysis revealed that characters like relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area duration (LAD), spikelet fertility, α-amylase, harvest index, peroxidase, flag leaf area, biomass yield, days to 50% flowering, spikelets per panicle and kernel density would be effective in improving the grain yield.

  4. DarW.A., Bhat J.A., Rashid Rizwan and Bhat Z.A.

    The discovery of RNAi was preceded first by observations of transcriptional inhibition by antisense RNA expressed in transgenic plants and more directly by reports of unexpected outcomes in experiments performed by plant scientists in the U.S. and the Netherlands in the early 1990s. In an attempt to alter flower colors in petunias, researchers introduced additional copies of a gene encoding chalcone synthase, a key enzyme for flower pigmentation into petunia plants of normally pink or violet flower color. The over expressed gene was expected to result in darker flowers, but instead produced less pigmented, fully or partially white flowers, indicating that the activity of chalcone synthase had been substantially decreased; in fact, both the endogenous genes and the transgenes were down regulated in the white flowers. Soon after, a related event termed quelling was noted in the fungus Neurospora crassa, although it was not immediately recognized as related. Further investigation of the phenomenon in plants indicated that the down regulation was due to post-transcriptional inhibition of gene expression via an increased rate of mRNA degradation. This phenomenon was called co-suppression of gene expression, but the molecular mechanism remained unknown. Not long after, plant virologists working on improving plant resistance to viral diseases observed a similar unexpected phenomenon. While it was known that plants expressing virus-specific proteins showed enhanced tolerance or resistance to viral infection, it was not expected that plants carrying only short, non-coding regions of viral RNA sequences would show similar levels of protection. Researchers believed that viral RNA produced by transgenes could also inhibit viral replication. The reverse experiment, in which short sequences of plant genes were introduced into viruses, showed that the targeted gene was suppressed in an infected plant.

  5. Rajalakshmi, S., Krishnamoorthy, G. and Sasikala, S.

    The rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides have been traditionally acclaimed as aphrodisiac. The ethanolic extract of rhizome was evaluated for its effect on spermatogenesis in ethanol induced albino rats. The increased spermatogenesis in treated group was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by an increase in number of spermatocyte and spermatids. These findings support the folk use of this plant as aphrodisiac.

  6. BHAT1 J. A., BHAT, Z.A., DAR W. A. AND RASHID RIZWAN

    In India, about 80 per cent of potato crop is cultivated under subtropical and 20 per cent under temperate to sub-temperate climate. The cultivation of this crop is often affected due to attack of various diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. Among bacterial diseases soft rot Erwinia spp., Bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum, the brown rot pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, the ring rot pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and the scab forming Streptomyces spp. Commercial propagation of potato is normally done vegetatively using ‘seed’ tubers. Therefore, ‘Degeneration’ of seed stocks due to viruses is common as vegetative propagation results in the continuity of several viral pathogens. There are over 30 viruses infecting potatoes, but only five or six are actually important in India/ S. Asia. The losses in potato yield due to one or more virus(s) infecting potatoes vary from low to very high. Generally severe mosaic caused by potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) alone can reduce the yields up to 70-80% while mild viruses, like PVX, PVS, PVM also depress the yields by 10-30%. If the seed stocks are not maintained well or frequently replaced with fresh ones, the virus infiltration reaches 100% level within 3-4 successive crop seasons/years resulting in almost only half to one third yields which is rather uneconomical. In the past two decades, several systemic fungicides and insecticides with significantly better efficacy have been found promising these economically important diseases. Microorganisms that can grow in the rhizosphere are ideal for use as biocontrol agents.

  7. Adebiyi, O.A., Ologhobo, A.D and Ogunwole, O.A

    In an experiment carried out to determine the effects of inclusion of different levels of diatomaceous earth (fossil shell flour) on growth and haematological variables of broiler birds was investigated. The experiment comprised 150 day-old Arbor Acre strain of broiler chicks were randomly alloted to five dietary treatments; control (T1) and four differents levels of inclusion of fossil flour 2% (T2), 3% (T3), 4% (T4) and 5% (T5). The control birds were fed normal diet. Each diet was replicated 3 times with 10 birds in each replicate in a completely randomised design. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in the average feed intake, average weight gain and feed conversion ratio of all the birds on the different dietary treatments with values ranging from 1.04 to 1.26 kg/bird, 0.44 to 0.61 kg/bird and 2.04 to 2.33 kg/bird respectively. The result of the haematological parameters of the birds fed the experimental diets revealed that the various inclusion levels of fossil shell o significantly (P< 0.05) affected the levels of white blood cells, total protein, glucose, globulin and red blood cells of the birds while albumin, packed cell volume and haemoglobin count were not significantly affected (P>0.05). The glucose value increases as the level of fossil shell inclusion increases from 2% (123.00) to 5% (152.75); with birds on diet E (152.75) having the highest significantly value. Haematological indices suggest that the health status of the birds were not adversely affected by the various inclusion levels of fossil shell in their diets. Hence fossil shell could still replace maize in broiler diets up to 5% level; however efforts towards reducing the dustiness of fossil shell could promotes more of its benefits. This study could be extended to layers to know its effect on egg production.

  8. Adu, O. A.

    Thirty-two male large white weanling pigs of 8-9 weeks of age averaging 7.49 + 0.36kg were used to evaluate the effect of dietary copper on fertility of pubertal boars. The animals were randomly assigned in a Completely Randomized Design to 4 diets containing 0.2, 100, 200 and 300ppm Cu/kg. The control, diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively, in a 6-month feeding trial such that each treatment had 8 animals. The feeding trial was divided into 3 physiological phases [weanling (starter), pre-pubertal (grower) and pubertal (finisher)]. At the end of the feeding trial, 4 boars selected at random from each treatment, were each mated to 2 gilts (i.e. 1 boar to 2 gilts) following the gilts’ synchronization to determine the fertility rate of the boars. The mated gilts were sacrificed at the end of the 1st trimester and their uteri cut open longitudinally to check for conception, count the number of embryos therein and the embryo survival rate determined. The results showed significant (P>0.05) difference on all fertility parameters assessed except the foetal crown rump length and the conception rate which was 75% for diet 3 and 100% for other diets. The study revealed that male weanling pigs for breeding could be fed dietary copper of between 100-300ppm for better reproductive performance.

  9. Gurudeeban, S., Rajamanickam,E., Ramanathan, T and Satyavani, K

    Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. Broad spectrum of an antimicrobial activity against sixteen bacteria and six fungal strains. No correlation was observed between susceptibility of test strains with plant extracts and antibiotic resistance behavior of the microbial strains. Qualitative phytochemical test of active extracts demonstrated the presence of phenols, tannins and flavonoids as active constituents. The significant antimicrobial activity of active extracts was compared with the standard piperacillin (100µg/disc) and Gentamicin (10µg/disc). The results obtained in the present study suggest that Citrullus colocynthis can be used in treating diseases caused by the test organisms.

  10. Fajemisin A.N, Fadiyimu A.A and Alokan J.A

    Twenty West Africa Dwarf (WAD) Ewes of 10-12 months old were randomly assigned to five treatments in a completely randomized design experiment to assess the protein, antinutrients intake and digestibility by West African Dwarf ewes fed graded levels of Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal (VALM) diets and the experiment lasted 56 days. The diets were formulated such that 0% (A), 25% (B), 50% (C), 75% (D) and 100% (E) of brewer’s dried grain was replaced with Vernonia amygdalina leaf meal (w/w) respectively. The VALM had the highest crude protein (CP) content, while the profile of antinutients showed that diet E had the highest values. The inclusion of VALM in the diets influenced the intake of Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), saponin and alkaloid significantly (P<0.05) and the intake values of phytate, oxalate and tannin were statistically similar (P>0.05). The treatment effect on the apparent digestibility varied significantly (P<0.05), the nitrogen retention and weight gain values of animals fed diets B and C indicated better performance, while the poor response of animals fed diet E might be associated with the astringent property of VALM which might influence depressed appetite and poor feed utilization. It could be concluded that VALM has good potentials to serve as source of protein supplement for growing ewes’ diets, substituting for brewer’s dried grains at 25% and 50% without adverse effect on the animals’ health, but the effective use of VALM in ruminants’ diets needs further investigation.

  11. Lakshmi, S and Sundaramoorthy, P

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of different concentrations of liquid seaweed fertilizer of Ulva lactuca on morphological and biochemical changes of Vigna unguiculata L. was assessed. The liquid seaweed fertilizer of Ulva lactuca is having a higher amount of organic and inorganic elements. The physic-chemical analysis of aqueous extracts is light brown in colour and it was rich in calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, copper, phosphorus, nitrate and lead. Different concentration of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer was used and the morphological parameters like root and shoot length, fresh weight showed a decreasing trend with increase in seaweed liquid fertilizer concentration with compare to control plants. Chlorophyll a, b and total sugars, protein and amino acids were decreased at higher concentrations. The study reverals that lower concentration liquid seaweed fertilizer was beneficial for the overall growth of the crop plant.

  12. Mumthas, S., Chidambaram, AL. A., Sundaramoorthy, P. and Sankar Ganesh, K

    In this study, the effects of arsenic and manganese on the cell division in root tips of green gram were conducted. For this purpose, Vigna radiata were germinated into various concentrations of As and Mn (5, 10, 25, 50 100 mg/l) at 23-24°C for 72 h. Chromosome aberration assay was used to determine the mitotic indices and rate of chromosome aberration in green gram root tip cells due to As and Mn treatment. The results showed that the mitotic indices were complicated due to different concentrations of As and Mn. However, the increase in As concentration has led to a gradual increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberration and than manganese on the root tip cells during mitotic index. They exhibited many chromosomal abnormalities such as formation of chromosome bridges, laggards, stickiness, precocious movement, formation of binucleate structure and other abnormal behaviors. There was no considerable change in 2n number of chromosome with the increase in As concentrations. It is concluded that the As and Mn has significant mutagenic effect on the root tip cells of green gram.

  13. Rajamanickam, E., Gurudeeban, S., Ramanathan, T and Satyavani, K

    Citrullus colocynthis had been widely used for its reported biological activities in indigenous system of medicine. The present investigation was carried out to find the effect of different phlogistic agents-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced air-pouch inflammation in rats. Methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis significantly inhibited carrageenan, serotonin and prostaglandin E1-induced paw edema. Maximum inhibition was observed in prostaglandin E1-induced paw edema. In carrageenan air-pouch model, methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis significantly reduced the volume of exudate and migration of neutrophils and monocytes. The extract significantly decreased formation of granuloma tissue in chronic inflammation model. Hence, present investigation established some pharmacological evidences to support the Citrullus colocynthis is used as anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. Poongodi Vijayakumar T, Jemima Beryl Mohankumar, Jaganmohan R, and Janaki A

    Barnyard millet (Echinochloa colona), rich in fiber among minor millets processed by adopting different pre-milling treatments such as cold water soaking for 6-24 hours with 20 minutes steaming (Treatment I); hot water soaking for 1-5 hours with 20 minutes steaming (Treatment II); and steaming for 10-40 minutes (Treatment III). The treated millet was sun/shade dried and milled. Both raw and treated millet were analyzed for its physical, chemical, functional and milling characteristics. Results indicated that the dehusked grain contains significantly higher bulk density, true density, total carbohydrate and protein content than whole grain. The bulk density, grain hardness, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and swelling power of both sun dried and shade dried barnyard millet subjected to various pre-milling treatments were in the range of 0.528 - 0.624 g/ml, 2 – 3.78 kg/mm2, 0.899 – 1.586 g/g, 1.094 – 1.848 g/g and 4.62 – 5.425 ml/g respectively. The carbohydrate, protein and crude fiber content were increased with increased hours of cold water soaking, hot water soaking and steaming at p<0.05. The dehulling yield was directly correlated to grain hardness, water absorption capacity, swelling power and protein content. Thus the study revealed that in all means of analysis A4 treatment was considered to be the best suitable pre-milling treatment for barnyard millet.

  15. Lakshmi, S and Sundaramoorthy, P

    In this study, a higher amount of various elements get deposited in the soil and make them polluted. Since, this polluted water reduces the crop production as well as the soil properties. To measure the bioremediation of some tree species like Pongamia glabra, Polyalthia, longifolia, Hesperia populnea, Pithecolobium dulci, Mangifera indica, Moringa olefera, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Samanea saman and Azadirachta indica were grown in the polluted soil upto 90 days. The treatment in which all the tree species are grown in one pot and it showed a remarkable reduction of pollutants. The bioremediated soil showed a better germination in black gram seeds. The polluted soil were mixed with organic amendments like vermicompost, biofertilizer (Rhizobium) and FYM to improve the soil fertility and their toxicity was tested by growing black gram in that soil. Among the amendments, the vermicompost mixed polluted soil showed good results in morphological, biochemical and yield parameters.

  16. Sajani Samuel**, Muthukkaruppan, S.M., Gayathri Shanbhag, N and Senthil Kumar, P.K

    In this study four bacterial colonies (Bacillus spp, two Pseudomonas spp and Proteus spp.) and two fungal spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus) were isolated by spread plate technique and were checked for cellulase production (zone formation) with the help of congo red and NaCl/NaOH. The production of cellulase by bacteria (Bacillus spp , Pseudomonas spp and Proteus spp) and fungi (A.niger and A. fumigatus) were also confirmed by different assay (Gel punch assay, Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose assay (CMC) ). In DNS assay method high level of cellulase production was achieved by Bacillus spp (0.09 µl/ml and 0.08 µl/ml) for coir waste and saw dust as substrate and among fungi A. niger showed higher cellulase activity (0.1 µl/ml and 0.1 µl/ml) for coir waste and saw dust as substrate. In CMC assay high level of enzyme production was achieved by Bacillus spp (0.1 µl/ml and 0.09 µl/ml) for coir waste and saw dust and among fungi A.niger showed high level of cellulase activity (0.1µl/ml and 0.1µl/ml) .Regarding pH, Temperature, carbon source cellulase activity was high when pH was 6 for bacteria and 7 for fungi and for temp the optimum cellulase production was at 37ºC and 28ºC for bacteria and fungi. Among different carbon source cellulose showed higher yield in production for both bacteria and fungi. The crude enzyme after centrifugation of production media were used to determine the molecular weight of the enzyme produced which lied between 6 to 20 KDa for Bacillus for both substrate and that of A. niger was found to lie between 20 and 29 KDa for both the substrate by SDS-PAGE.

  17. Sivakumar, N and Kalaiarasu, S

    Microbiological and biochemical analysis of different curd samples collected from different locations of Tamilnadu India were enumerated for their total bacteria. The higher bacterial population 3.1x105cfu M1-1 was found in Ruby and lower count 1.3x105 cfu M1-1 was recorded in Bhavani. The six different curd samples collected estimated for their fungi and all of them have no mold population. The total lactic acid bacteria in six different curd sample were enumerated. The higher total lactic acid bacterial population (1.8x105 cfu M1-1) in Ruby and lower count (1.0 x 105cfu ml-1) in Bhavani.  The result of the nutritional value of curd estimating the protein and lactose were studied which indicated the highest value of protein and lactose in Bhavani sample notified was 18.20 g/500ml and 24.60 g/500ml respectively and least protein in Raja and Ruby sample notified was 17.60 g/500 ml and lactose content in Ruby sample notified was 23.40 g/500 ml respectively.  The phosphatase test indicated that the microbial contamination was under limit in Bhavani and the pasteurization carried out during processing was good and microbial contamination was move that indicated the absence of phosphatase enzyme.  As there are Good Manufacturing Practices, the curd produced by various dairies on commercial sale in generally good.  From study Bhavani curd sample shows best result among the six samples. 

  18. Asadullah Al-Ajmi, Mushtaque Ahmed and Humphrey Esechie

    Increased salinity in irrigation water due to seawater intrusion has resulted in salinization of large part of agricultural lands in Oman. Government efforts are geared towards restoring water balance to improve groundwater quality with the ultimate aim of leaching the salts from soil profile. Some of these efforts include: controlling digging of new wells and rehabilitation of older wells, construction of recharge dams, reduction of cultivated land, and providing incentives for modern irrigation systems. Research on introduction of salt tolerant crops is also taking place both at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) and Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF) research stations. Efforts have also been made to develop mathematical models to predict soil salinity under Omani conditions from readily available data.

  19. Suseela, M. R, Joseph Pushpa Innocent, D., Laksmi Sarayu and Udhaya, V

    Three hundred female patients attending infertility clinic of obstetrics and gynaecology, RMMCH were enrolled in this study for a period of two years. Exclusion criteria included vaginal bleeding and pregnancy. Two high vaginal swaps were taken from each group of patients in three groups, Group1 comprising of 100 primary infertility patients, Group 2 comprising of 100 secondary infertility cases and Group 3 of 100 idiopathic infertility patients. Specimens were processed anaerobically and the results were analyzed. Bacteroides, peptococci, peptostreptococci, fusobacterium, prevotella, veilonella and mobiluncus were the anaerobic organisms found in bacterial vaginosis. A significant raise of anaerobic organisms (70%) were found in idiopathic infertility cases against lesser positive anaerobic organisms (56%) in secondary infertility. Bacteroides were found predominantly in 30% of idiopathic infertility cases as against 22% of positive cases in secondary infertility.

  20. Viruthagiri, G., Ponnarasi, K and Rajamannan. B.

    Clay minerals play an important role in the gravitational stability of man-made rock piles by affecting geotechnical and hydrological characteristics of the material. FT-IR technique is used to distinguish between different types of minerals and to derive information concerning their structure, composition and structural changes upon chemical modification. The selections of the sample technique used depend on the purpose of the study and on the physical state of the sample. KBr pressed disk technique was found to be very useful for a routine characterization of both di and trioctahedral clay minerals. We have studied the mineralogical characteristics of clay deposits from Keeliruppu, Panruti, Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India. To determine their composition and possible use in local industry. The studied deposits are chemically homogenous, except for the samples richer in kaolinite and sand fraction. The clay samples were subjected to FT-IR analysis in the region of 4000 - 400 cm-1, which can be used to characterize the different minerals. The mineralogical composition of the clays has demonstrated that, taken as a whole, they possess characteristic satisfactory for brick production.

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