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February 2011

Inequality measures can be classified into two broad categories, such as leftist inequality measures and rightist inequality measures. The rightist view states that equal proportional changes in all incomes leave inequality unchanged, and the leftist view of inequality states that equal absolute changes in all incomes leave inequality unchanged. These are two extreme value judgments. An intermediate position can also be taken into account which would yield an ‘intermediate’ inequality measure.

Essential oils have been important substances since early times. The review of its extraction methods and applications were treated in this study. These include hydrodistillation, hydrodiffusion, effleurage, steam distillation, cold pressing, solvent extraction, microwave assisted process and carbondioxide extraction. Its applications both the medicinal and therapeutics, such as aromatherapy, phytotherapy, antibacterial and antifungal uses, hypolipidemic, antitumor etc. were also reviewed.

Recently, Single-term Haar wavelet series (STHW) is introduced to overcome the difficulties in solving some singular system problems. Preliminary experiments have shown that this method is usually more efficient than the other methods. In this article, STHW is developed to approximate the solution of nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations. The obtained discrete solutions using the STHW are found to be very accurate and are compared with the exact solutions of the nonlinear Volterra-Hammerstein integral equations.

During the past several decades, ground water quality has emerged as one of the most important and confronting environmental issues. In this present investigation, ground water quality of water samples collected from the wells of 10 selected places in and around pulivalam, an area located about 35km away from the Rockford city; Tiruchirappalli has been assessed using the Heber Water Quality Index-1(HWOI-I), a novel and indigenous statistical analysis.

The present research article describes the synthesis of N-Mannich bases of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2 (1H)-ones (DHPMs) using Ethylene di ammonium diacetate (EDDA) as catalyst. The heterocyclic precursor DHPMs were synthesized by Bignelli reaction of aromatic aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate and urea using ionic liquid. Three series of N-Mannich bases have been synthesized by Mannich reaction of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one with different heterocyclic secondary amines namely morpholine, piperazine tetrahydrocarbazole, diethanolamine, imidazole and formaldehyde.

Bullying in schools is one of the features of crisis in the contemporary school system. It threatens pupil’s security and quality of learning. Bullying as a disruptive behaviour has been described as a subset of aggressive behavior that involves an intention to hurt another person by a variety of means. It includes physical and verbal assault and social exclusion. The purpose of the study was to establish teachers’ and students perceptions of psycho-physiological causes of bullying among public Secondary school students in Western Province, Kenya.

The paper explores the influence of fathering and mothering dimensions of parenting on self esteem of adolescents. The study also attempted to find out the differences among parenting variables with self esteem.

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) provides the Human Resource (HR) functions with the opportunity to create new avenues for contributing to organizational success. This study is a preliminary investigation on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude towards using E-HRM among 51 HR professionals in Malaysia. This paper also highlights areas for future research on this unique topic among the HR professionals as a whole.

Now- a- days the rural economy is not based solely on agriculture but relies on a diverse array of activities and enterprises. This aspect is taken account of by recent evolution of the concept of livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries and stabilize their incomes. It is now well recognised that peoples’ ability to engage in supplementary (and often better rewarding) non-agricultural activities is often governed by their relative access to a diversity of asset base.

The electric vehicle is not a recent development. In fact, the electric vehicle has been around for over 100 years, and it has an interesting history of development that continues to the present; however the widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in place of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in specific countries as a result of oil shock and recessions will have a significant impact on the global economy. The aim of this paper is estimating the possible effects of such shift in different aspects of economics as a whole.

Field experiments were conducted for evaluating different organic manures on post harvest soil biology in rice during 2007 and 2008. Both the years rice was cultivated during samba season (August to January). The soil of the experimental farm is deep clay, low in available N (198 kg ha-1), medium in available P (20.9 kg ha-1) and high in available K (271.0 kg ha-1). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design and replicated thrice.

In India, about 80 per cent of the female population live in rural areas and 86 per cent of the rural women works in agriculture and allied activities. Women provide much of the unpaid family labour to agriculture including animal husbandry.

Backyard poultry production is an integral component of rural economy of India. About 70% of the population living in the rural areas face the problems of unemployment/ disguised employment poverty and malnutrition. Hence this survey is planned to study constraints faced by the farmers in the desi fowl marketing. Cuddalore District of Tamil Nadu was randomly selected for the present study. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Relevant data were collected from the chosen respondents through personal interview using a pre-tested interview schedule.

The probability theory of reliability has grown out of the demand of modern technology which says the probability of a system or unit giving satisfactory performance for a specific period unit specified operating condition when a system or unit does not perform satisfactorily, it said to have failed. In the study, the standby unit can work for a certain time period and come to downstate even without failure. It’s working due to some failure. This failure of the units causes the failure of the complete systems due to some unknown reasons.

Continued electrification of traditionally mechanical loads, such as, power assist steering, etc. As well as the introduction of new loads, like seat heating, electric air conditions and AC power points will overburden the traditional 14 Volt power generation and distribution system. With this growing of electrical power demand in modern vehicles, a higher voltage electrical system becomes mandatory. The vehicle industry is currently pursuing a 42 volt system that selected by industry-wide research consortiums as a new standard.

Adrenomedullin (AM), discovered in 1993, is a 52-amino acid vasoactive peptide with multi-functions associated with pheochromocytoma (a tumour arising from adrenal medulla). It is widely distributed in human tissues, especially in cardiovascular and endocrine tissues and is metabolized via aminopeptidase action. It has two specific receptors formed by the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CALCRL) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 2 or 3 known as AM1 and AM2 receptors, respectively.

In the field of cancer biology, the drug and their targets holds a role of paramount importance. Biological network helps in the evaluation and validation of cancer drugs and their targets. It is usually created to simplify the studies. In the present study we have created a protein-ligand interaction network where ligands and proteins are anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and cancer inducing drug targets respectively.

In today’s changing and competitive work environment, stress level is increasing both in the I.T professional as well as the managers. As a result of this , more and more I.T Professional staffs are showing signs of chronic fatigue and burn out. In most cases, stress leads to reduced efficiency in even the best individuals, which in turn leads to reduced working ability. Stress is a problem in almost all the countries of the world, irrespective of whether the economy is strong or week. The stress is called the Disease of civilization stress has been called the Invisible disease.

A study was carried out to assess the health enhancement and immunomodulation in silkworm Bombyx mori reared on probiotic consortium, added as a supplement to mulberry leaves. The consortium was coated on mulberry leaves and fed to experimental animals. Third instar larvae of Bombyx mori were segregated into three sets: first set was maintained on normal mulberry leaves, second set of diseased animals also maintained with normal mulberry leaves and the third set on mulberry leaves coated with the probiotic consortium.

Adsorption of a basic dye, Bismarck brown, from aqueous solutions onto acid activated corncobs was investigated. Various experiments were undertaken in a batch adsorption technique to study the effect of the process variables, which include initial pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, particle size, temperature and agitation speed. The adsorption of Bismarck brown on to the adsorbent was found to improve with the increase in adsorbent dosage, finer the mesh size and at a neutral pH (value ranging from 6-8).

Pastoralism, which is the main source of livelihood to about 120 million pastoralists worldwide, is practiced in the drylands that are characterized by low rainfall and frequent droughts. In the semi arid and arid lands of Kenya (88% of the Kenya landmass), pastoralism accounts for 90% of the employment and 95% of the family incomes and livelihood security. It contributes to about 10% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and 50% of the agricultural GDP.

There is a general consensus that education acts as a catalyst to reduced poverty, improved health and promotion of individual and community development. Although formal education has had great contribution for promotion of literacy, the shortcomings that go with it have led to the drop out in schools, increased literacy and general poverty in Kakamega, Busia and Siaya Districts respectively. It is in this regard that this study identified the role of adult education and Non Formal Education (NFE) as an alternative to addressing issues of poverty, health, illiteracy and development.

Ethnobotanical studies were carried out in rural area of Nanded and Mahur. During survey, the tribal and the rural communities were interviewed to record the information regarding their life style, tradition, culture and medicinal uses of plant species as a remote control of various diseases. Out of this number of plants used by the tribal for treatment of various ailments. 22 plants are used to treat, family planning, quick delivery, abortificient.

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of taurine and glutathione on mercury intoxicated liver tissue of rats, Rattus norvegicus. The rats were divided into six groups, keeping group I as a healthy control. Rats of groups II received mercuric chloride orally at the rate of 5 mg per kg body weight daily for 30 days. Group III and IV of animals received Taurine and Glutathione followed by mercuric chloride treatments. Group V and VI of animals received Taurine and Glutathione alone treatments.

The effects of mercury on acetycholinesterase activity, Na+/K+-ATPase activity were studied in different tissues of rats. Experimental groups were control, mercury (5 mg/kg body wt. orally for 30 days). The acetycholinesterase activity, Na+/K+-ATPase activity were significantly decreased in mercury treated brain tissue. Our data indicate that mercury treatment inhibits significantly brain acetycholinesterase activity, Na+/K+-ATPase activity activity, demonstrating the prevalent mercury effect in vivo on central nervous systems.

Biosensors have been developed to estimate the BOD level of various pollutants. The main objective of this work is to develop a microbial biosensor which can be able to assimilate large number of biological samples and other substrates. The present study reveals that the yeast species Pichia nakasei, Hansenula anomala acted as a new alternate for BOD estimation. To develop microbial biosensor the above pure culture was mixed together in the ratio of 1:1 and immobilized on a special type of matrix and coupled under sandwich model. The constructed biosensor was connected with a BOD meter.

A new series of transition metal complexes of Mn (II), Co (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) are synthesized from a new novel macro cyclic Schiff base ligand with four N donor atoms derived from 4-aminoantipyrine, vanillin and o-phenylenediamine. Several tools like elemental analysis, molar conductance methods, Infrared, electronic (UV-Vis), Electron spin resonance (ESR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques, thermo gravimetric analysis were used to investigate the chemical structure of the prepared ligand (L) and complexes.

Leprosy continues to be a public health problem in India. Cases were selected regardless of their age, sex, religion, occupation and socio economic status. Pathological examination helps in confirming the clinical diagnosis. Clinically exact typing of leprosy is difficult and even slit-skin smear yields poor results. Majority of the cases were seen in second and third decade. Patients of both sexes were affected and it was more in males than in females. Patients from different religions were affected among these most of them belonged to Hindu religion.

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