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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 2011

A simple and cost effective colorimetric method is described for the determination of prasugrel in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The determination of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations is based on the drugs redox reaction with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Phenol reagent). The linearity range for prasugrel of blue chromogen produced at wavelength of detection 725 nm was obtained as 10–50 µg/ml.

In India, prevalence of HIV/AIDS is relatively high and very little is known in the context of HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination. To prevent HIV/AIDS associated stigma and discrimination, it is important to understand the factors related to stigma and discrimination towards People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAS) in India. A community based survey of 796 male youth in urban slum aged 18-23 years is conducted in Tamil Nadu.

A calf with two and a half months of age suffering from anomalous face parts exhibited unilateral features of ‘first branchial arch syndrome' or ‘Treacher Collins syndrome’ with symptoms of deviation of the muzzle to left side, tongue to the left and absence of prominence of cheek on left side left ear displacement and abnormal dentition of right side. Congenital anomalies occur as a result of genetic or environment reasons or due to a combination of both.

Onset of myelination in the spinal cord in goat was studied using 52 foetuses. Oligodendrocytes became distinguishable by 40 days. By the third month of gestation, the tracts bordering the ventral median fissure showed clear presence of lipids indicating the onset of myelination. The oligodendrocytes started to curve around axons to form myelin sheath by 142 days showing that the fibre tracts of spinal cord became differentiated towards the end of gestation in goat.

The study was aimed at observing the normal histological characteristics of gall bladder of Kuttanad ducks (Anas domesticus) using 72 ducks of various ages from day-old to 22 weeks. Gall bladder was a small sac lying on the visceral surface of liver. Its weight increased from 0.03 by day-old to 1.26g by 22 weeks. Thickness of wall increased from 13 μm to 169 μm by this age. Layers of gall bladder from inner to outer were: mucosa, muscularis, perimuscular connective tissue layer and serosa. There was no muscularis mucosa or submucosa.

Onset of depression is occurring earlier in life today than in past decades. Adolescence being transitional period from childhood to adulthood is a stage of emotional instability resulting from demand for separation and independence. Evidence suggests that early intervention for depression in children can improve long term outcomes. This cross sectional study was done in January 2010 to find out the prevalence of depression among pre university students in Mangalore city. Prevalence of depression was assessed using Beck’s Depression Inventory II.

Survey was undertaken in four selected Local Government Area in Oyo state Nigeria in June 2010 to investigate weed plant species used for medicinal purposes. More than 70 different weed plant species were encountered in the study area, out of which 34 were found useful for medicinal purposes. Ageratum conyziodes Linn., Bryophyllum pinnnatum (Lam.) Oken, Occimum gratissimum L, Tridax Procumbens Linn, Chromolaena odorata (L) R..M. King & Robinson, Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. and Morinda lucida Linn.

The software/tool has been developed exclusively for cervical cancer to access the basic information regarding the disease its etiology, signs and symptoms available therapy chemo and radio as well as prevention awareness. One can get a glimpse of the analytical output of the hematological and biochemical attributes which play a pivotal role in the etiology of cervical cancer and its manifestation. It is a comprehensive compilation of the various parameters pooled together to empower cervical cancer researchers.

It has been reported earlier that hormones are secreted by cyanobacteria under water logged rice fields, and thus when cyanobacterial populations are abundant in such environment, might be secreting such substance in considerable amounts which possibly ameliorate the toxic effect of the pesticide on these non-target organisms present in the same environment.

Treatment of soil with insecticides to control subterranean termites causes environmental degradation. Seaweed extracts from Kanyakumari coast (South West coast of India) were tested for termicidal activity against Glyptotermes sps. Gracilaria edulis showed maximum LD50 (0.53±0.36) and minimum LT50 (58.65, 45.69, 42.084 and 39.96min) at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1µ.ml-1 concentrations respectively than the other seaweeds extracts followed by Chaetomorpha indica (0.55±0.7), Chaetomorpha compressa (0.65±0.74) and Amphirova anceps (0.8±0.21) which showed minimum LD50 values.

The effect of Curculigo orchoides Gaertn rhizome extract was studies in ethanol treated male pubertal rat testes. Total lipids, phospholipids andlysosomal enzyme-acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and ATPases were compared with ethanol treated and control group rats. The suppressive effect of ethanol on lipid and ATPases were correlated with the altered testicular functions.

Background: Autoimmune disorders are affect our own body cells by destroying organs, tissues and cells, yet the reason is unknown. Since the causative factor for autoimmune disoreder is questionable. The numerous autoimmune disoreders are available, all those are associated with one another by sharing symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. The affected body part also more or less similar. Among these, Rheumatoid arthritis and sjogrens syndrome receives more attention and turns the whole physician’s concentrations to that side.

Aims: Ethanol and acetaminophen have been separately reported with various effects on the functionality of the kidney but information on the level of impact when simultaneously administered chronically is scanty hence effects of chronic simultaneous administration of ethanol and acetaminophen were investigated. Place and duration of study: This research work was carried out in the Anatomy department of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,Ogbomoso,Nigeria between 2010 and July 2011.

The Phytochemical compounds from Phyllanthus emblica to be identified by GCMS technique. It will show the variety of phytochemical compounds. The CDCS protein which is responsible for mycobacterium tuberculosis and it was retrieved from database. The active site of the protein was calculated by PROSITE tool. The CDCS protein which has only one binding site. The lists of drugs treated for mycobacterium tuberculosis to be retrieved from databank. The hydrophobic nature of the list of drugs to be calculated by ALOGPS tool. The receptor CDCS can be docked with the ligand by Hex tool.

Protein profiling and RAPD of five accessions (Amar, Azad, MAL-13, NDA-1, and Pusa-9) of Cajanus cajan were investigated to evaluate the genetic diversity. The present protein profile revealed that experimental accession Amar (A1) is very close to the accession Pusa-9(A5) and accessions MAL-13 (A3) and NDA-1(A4) are closer at molecular level as compared to other accessions. . A dendrogram constructed based on UPGMA clustering method revealed two major clusters, cluster -1 and cluster-11 comprising of two accessions each.

We investigated antihyperlipidemic potential of a traditional siddha polyherbal preparation SUGNIL from a combination of nine Indian medicinal plants. The current study was undertaken to assess the therapeutic effect of this formulation on lipid profile changes in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats with a view of finding out its possible effect on reducing vascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus.

The local medicinal herbs used in combating malaria among the Urhobo people in Delta state, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Urhobo people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well-developed herbal medicine used to combat malaria and some other common ailments. The survey identified the parts of the medicinal plant used as drug, mode of preparation and mode of administration among the Urhobo people in Delta state. It was observed that some of these plants are used alone or in combination with other plants, which are either taken orally or used for bathing.

Seasonal variations of bacteria in surrounding environment and Etroplus suratensis were studied. Maximum bacterial counts was recorded during (Feb-May, 2009) in water and sediment samples ( 2.78 x 106 CFU.g-1). Bacterial counts associated with fishes was recorded in healthy and diseased fishes (6.15 x 104 CFU. g-1 ) in station II (Buckingam Channel) and Bacillus sp and Micrococcus sp were predominant in gills and skin in healthy fish and Vibrio sp. were predominant in gills and skin in diseased fish.

The integration of mineralogical and geochemical data of a sedimentary rock can reveal the nature of source regions, the tectonic settings of the sedimentary basins and the paleoclimatic conditions. The aim of this research is to determine the dominant minerals in sandstone sample from part of the Eastern Dahomey Basin in order to infer the origin and its environmental effect.

This paper modeled the monthly exchange rate between the Ghana Cedi and the US Dollar and forecast future rates using time series analysis. ARIMA model was developed using Box and Jenkins method of Time Series Analysis on the monthly data collected from January, 1994 to December 2010 and validated. The result showed that the predicted rates were consistent with the depreciating trend of the observed series.

Releasing and measurement of green house gases were from vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels like diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG). Emission rates of CO2, CH4, and N2O are reported.

This paper presents an originally encryption system implemented on a structure of hybrid additive programmable cellular automata (HAPCA). As the development of cellular automata (CA) applications is generally an experimental effort, the research implies the exploration through simulation of the huge space of cellular automata local rules and global states. The encryption and decryption modules are identically and the cryptosystem is featured by its large key space and high speed due to cellular automata’s parallel information processing.

Marigold and Turmeric were used for the extraction of the natural dye material. Tannic acid, Cow dung, Pomegranate rind and Lemon juice were selected as natural mordant to standardize the dyeing effect of Marigold and Turmeric dyes on silk and knitted cotton fabric. The method appropriate for natural dye dyeing on knitted cotton was found to be premordanting by studying with other methods such as simultaneous and post mordanting method.

In this paper, mathematical models were developed using stress strain relations to predict the compressive strength of concrete produced with partial replacement of cement with rice husk ash. The water absorption property was also predicted but based on the assumption that the amount of water absorption in concrete is dependent on the volume fraction of rice hush ash used as partial replacement. Both the compressive strength and water absorption compared favourably with the experimental values and both decreased with increase in rice husk content.

This paper presents certain results pertaining to a single server queue with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. A closed form solution is obtained for the probability that, exactly i arrivals and j services occur over a time interval of length t in a queuing system that is idle at the beginning of the interval. Section 1.1 describes the model. Solution of the model is obtained in Section 1.2. By using Pn(t) , performance measures are obtained in Section 1.3.

In the enzymology, the palmitoyl – co a hydrolase is said to the enzyme that hydrolase the fatty acid. For this enzyme polmitoyl – coa and water are considered. According to available reports this enzymes are effective in regulating of intracellular concentration of acyl coa, fatty acid and co ezyme. Beside the design and construction of effective inhibitors for disabling of enzyme, the study of interaction of enzyme on the inhibitor by using of computational methods in presenting the acceptance model for performance.

Pithecellobium dulce (Kodukkapuli in Tamil and Vilayati babul in Hindi) is a small to medium-sized spiny tree cultivated throughout the plains of India. Its bark and leaves possess astringent property, and leaves have emollient, abortifacient and antidiabetic properties. The antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the fruit peel Pithecellobium dulce was assessed and the results revealed significant activity in the ethyl acetate, methanolic and aqueous extracts of fruit peel.

This paper presents the results of the measurement of natural radioactivity present in the ceramic whiteware samples collected from the Government ceramic institute, Vridhachalam, Cuddalore District,Tamilnadu. Natural radioactivity in the ceramic whiteware samples in mainly due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and their daughter products. In this study, these measurements have been estimated in Gamma-ray spectrometry and their levels for ceramic samples are compared and also the Radium equivalent concentration (Raeq) are calculated and is compared well with the reported values.

L-proline hydrate an intriguing organic material for frequency conversion has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature. Their structural, optical and physicochemical properties were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Dielectric studies, UV-Vis spectra and SEM. The crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with space group P21 21 21. The material has a wide transparency in the entire visible region. It is found that the cutoff wavelength lies in the UV region.

In this paper to find fuzzy modified Newton-Raphson method used for solving non linear equations of the form f(x)=0. The proposed numerical method has capability to solve fuzzy equations as well as algebraic ones. For this purpose with the motivation of avoiding the computation of the derivative of the function f(x), which is involved in fuzzy Newton-Raphson method. Finally, we provide a fuzzy linear interpolation method in solving a non linear equation f(x) =0.

This paper examines potential evaporation over the Lake Victoria basin, a region with very few operational meteorological stations hence scarce data. Data stations within the Lake basin provided rainfall and temperature data covering periods of at least twenty years. Five methods of computing Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) (Penman, Hargreaves, Thornwaite, Blaney-Criddle and Pan Evaporation) were studied for their applicability under the same catchment. The homogeneity of rainfall was done using mass curve analysis and the filling of missing data using Markov Model.

Methyl Bromide is a volatile organohalide well known for its genotoxic properties. Due to its genotoxic nature, health authorities (regulatory bodies) across the globe require that it be kept well within stringent limits in active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished pharmaceutical products. A variety of techniques like HPLC with derivatization, GC with mass detection and GC with atomic emission detection have been employed in the past as well as is currently in use by researchers across the globe for quantitative determination of Methyl Bromide.

This paper deals with the asymptotic analysis of Rotation Bio convection (RBC) in a suspension of phototactic algae. Bioconvection is an interesting pattern-forming phenomenon driven by the swimming activity of various aquatic micro organisms. In fact, bioconvection is a robust phenomenon and is one of the oldest documented collective behavior of independent microorganisms. Further, positive phototaxis consists of motions directed toward the source of illumination and negative phototaxis is, the motion directed away from it.

This paper proposes two online algorithms for estimating stator resistance of an induction motor without using rotor resistance. In this research, we use "air gap power" and "linear regression" methods to estimate resistance of stator in different speeds and torques. These methods are tested using simulation and experimental data from a commercial induction motor. Benefits and defaults of each method will be compared with the other method result.

Teacher talk about terms used in Physics is markedly different from the science talk about the terms, especially in classrooms where English is the language of instruction yet it is a second language to both the teacher and students. Misunderstandings in such classrooms are likely especially if the teacher is not aware of the difficulties between his ways of talking, in relation to how students understand. This paper reports and discusses findings in an investigation on students’ perspectives of teachers’ use of language in defining selected concept in electricity.

North-eastern part of India has the landscape with potential racial, lingual and ethnic diversity which creates ethnic tension and conflict. The complexity of ethno-demographic relationships and subsequent conflicts in Manipur can however provide a wider theoretical framework explaining a particular pattern of conflict. This study attempts to understand the conflict perspectives exist among the Naga and Kuki community in the state of Manipur, north-eastern part of India.

The state is the epicentre of politics. It is the stage upon which the “game” of politics is played. The state shapes and controls and where it does not shape or control, it regulates, supervises, authorizes or proscribes political action and behaviour. Thus, politics is understood as the study of the state.

In recent years, the practice of yoga has gained widespread popularity within the health and fitness industry. The practice of yoga is said to improve physical fitness and the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12 week yoga intervention on shoulder and hip range of motion(ROM) and to compare the strength differences between the left and the right sides of the leg, chest, shoulder muscles before and after its intervention. 21 female subjects (age 34.62±9.866) took part in the study with 12 subjects being the control group and 9 the experimental group.

This study examined the influence of mass media on socialization into sport of Kenyan secondary school athletes. Parental social economics status was evaluated to assess how it may affect the influence of mass media in socialization into sport of the athletes. Data was collected through direct contact questionnaire from 636(320 males and 316female) athletes purposively selected from 40 secondary school in Kenya. The resulting data was analyzed through student t-test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA)at 0.05 level of significance.

In recent years, women and gender issues have become a major area of concern. Seminars, workshops and conference are being held over the world to discuss women issues and women advancement in all spheres of life. Although attitude towards the role of women as homemakers is shifting to being career people, a few women have made their way through the narrow corridors of authority to gradually climb up the management and leadership ladders. Most societies in Kenya have emphasized the role of women as housewife’s, mothers and unskilled laborers.

One of these days is that silicone rubber insulators used increasingly in the power industry. So knowing its behavior under different environmental conditions is of interest to industry professionals. The samples of silicone rubber were placed under electrical and thermal stress. To investigate the aging behavior of the insulation in harsh environmental conditions and provide a method to estimate the remaining life took.

The upper most layers of the Persian Gulf (PG) as a pert of suface waters, along with the lower atmospheric boundary layer, play a crucial role in the air-sea fluxes of momentum, heat, and mass, thereby providing important boundary conditions for both the atmosphere and the surface waters that control the evolution of weather and climate. The principal internal feature of the thermocline is a series of thin, laminar-flow sheets of high static stability, separated by weakly turbulent layers of only moderate density gradient and a few metres thick.

Rivers are started a sea (related to oceans) which are flooding in towns and inside of countries water and flows on them in rivers rout should be conducted using in develop in for living. Human making various structures in rivers coats such as dam. River wall and mills or bridges on them. Could use river flows progressing in solving some problems interacting water sourses. In Shushtar, an old town in Iran, there are two rivers as two branches of Karun.

The commitment of Kenya’s government to achieve Education For All (EFA) goals, and attain gender equality in education, can be threatened by the gender disparities that characterise the education system in favour of boys. The need for constant interventions to enhance girls’ participation in education towards eradicating the disparities is paramount. This study posits that a formal mentoring program can be a suitable intervention and therefore embarked on developing one.

Vitamin C is one of the most important antioxidants that inhibits lipid peroxidation and improves endothelial function. This study aims to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on lipid profiles and as markers of lipid peroxidation among normal humans. A total of 50 healthy individuals were selected, instructed and given the understanding of the purpose of study. The test group comprising 25 individuals were given 500mg Vitamin C tablets one daily for 30 days and control group of 25 individuals were given placebo capsules(Glucose 500mg) one daily for 30 days.

In radar and space communication applications patch antennas have attracted much interest due to their compactness and dual-frequency operation. They are inexpensive to fabricate, light in weight, and can be made conformable with planar and no- planar surfaces. This paper presents the design of a dual-band micro strip patch antenna using IE3D for wireless communication .The antenna is designed as a patch with two slots. The method effectively obtains the geometric parameters for efficient antenna performance.

Acute and diffuse contamination of soil and water by heavy metals and metalloids cause wide, environmental and social concern. Among the techniques used to cleanup affected sites, phytoremediation has recently emerged as a new tool which is cost-effective as well as environment-friendly alternative. After a short introduction to the types of plant-based cleanup techniques, this review focuses on metal hyper accumulator plants and their potential use in phytoextraction technology.

Six production batches (six treatments in each batch) of kindirmo were carried out in this research to study the effects of fermentation times (5h, 12h and 24h), milk type (whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixture), starter culture type (kindirmo and DVI – Direct Vat Inoculum) and starter culture age (24h and 48h) and volume of inoculum (2% and 3%) on pH, titrable acidity and organoleptic acceptability of kindirmo from whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixtures.

The physico-chemical parameters of water samples from four locations of Nizamsagar irrigation canal that surrounds the Nizamabad city were comparatively studied. The sampling locations were selected on the basis of their possibility of pollution points. The physico-chemical parameter like, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca++) magnesium (Mg++), chloride (Cl-), nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), carbonates (CO3-), Bicarbonates (HCO3-) and phosphate (PO4-) of water samples was determined.

Three production batches (eight treatments in each batch) of kindirmo were carried out in this research to study the effects of fermentation times (5h, 12h and 24h), milk type (whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixture), starter culture type (kindirmo and DVI – Direct Vat Inoculum) and volume of inoculum (2% and 3%) on pH, titrable acidity and organoleptic acceptability of kindirmo from whole cow milk and cow–soymilk mixtures.

Wastewater irrigation can pose a variety of potential risks, excessive and often imbalanced addition of nutrients to the soil thus affecting crop production. Objective of the study was to reduce the level of chemical contaminants of wastewater used for peri-urban vegetable crop production by poor farmers in the Tamale Metropolis of Northern Ghana. Studied parameters included ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-) and phosphorus (P) and pH.

The present study was undertaken in maize Zea mays (L.) var. JKMH-1001. Seeds were treated with different concentration of ethyl methane sulphonate, diethyl sulphate and sodium azide in treated level for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 mM which induced chlorophyll mutation and morphological mutation in maize. Four different types of chlorophyll mutants’ viz., Albino, Viridis, Xantha and Chlorina were identified in the treated population.

The present study was made an attempt to differentiate clonal variation of teak clone samples by using RAPD technique. A total of 10 different primers were used to identify the polymorphic variations between the clones. The results of the phylogenetic tree showed the highest genetic diversity (0.93) between the clones of Kerala and Tamil Nadu teaks and the lowest genetic diversity (0.53) was identified between Thaunakadavu clones of TNT 1 and TNT 2 and the results of the present findings could be further useful for the long term breeding of potential teak plants.

In the present study the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of Lead nitrate (1.66, 3.33 and 6.60 mg/L) for a period of 24 hrs,48 hrs,72 hrs,96 hrs respectively. The Gills of the shrimps were then dissected out and processed for light microscopy studies. Exposed shrimps were found to result in several alterations in the histoarchitecture of Gill. The alterations included: necrosis of the epithelial cells of the Gill, hemocytic infiltration in the interlamellar spaces, were observed in the Gills.

An experiment was carried out in 2006 and 2007 at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Agriculture, in two Abeokuta environments to estimate the variability among 18 egusi melon accessions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) ranged from 2.15 % (days to 50 % flowering) to 51.20 % (pod weight) and 2.18 % (days to 50 % flowering) to 63.65 % (seed yield per plant), respectively in the two environments. Similar trend was observed in the genotypic coefficient of variability.

Salinity effects were evaluated on seed germination rate and percentage of six different tomato (Lycoperscum esculentum Mil.L) varieties nationally released form Melkassa Agricultural Research Center. The seeds were grown in petri dish being subjected to six different levels (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) of NaCl concentrations in Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine postharvest laboratory. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design for all levels of NaCl concentrations with four replications.

Rapid identification technologies have led to a better handling of raw materials and finished products in the food industry. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an alternative technology with a potential to replace traditional universal product code (UPC) barcodes. RFID enables identification of an object from a distance without requiring a line of sight. Traditionally, universal product code (UPC) barcodes have been used to automate and standardize the identification process. Even though the barcodes are less expensive, they require a clear line of sight between the reader and tag.

In this study, a comparative analysis of select insect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing five insect orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera) consisting of 24 different species in an effort to study a common set of genes and to understand the evolution of mitochondrial genome with respect to Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 16srRNA and 12srRNA gene sequences was done. To compare the similarity between closely related insect mitochondrial genome sequences, pairwise distance matrix was constructed using the MEGA tool.

The main characteristic of an antioxidant is its ability to trap free radicals and also reduces the risk of chronic diseases. The information on antioxidant properties of various natural sources is still rather scared. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the antioxidant activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Rumex vesicarius L. (Polygonaceae) by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and total antioxidant capacity by Phospomolybdenum method.

Problem Statement: The silkworm requires certain essential sugar, proteins, amino acids, fatty acid, vitamins and micronutrients for its growth and higher production of good quality of silk. The low productivity is mainly due to low mulberry yield and poor quality of leaf mentioned that enrichment of mulberry leaves with supplementary compounds enhances the silk productivity. To evaluate the effect of mulberry leaves supplemented with ground nut powder and black gram powder mixture feeding the silkworm. Approach: The groundnut seed powder and Black gram power in different doses.

The biomedical wastes generated from various hospitals in he Jhansi city are going to inversely impacts on environment and potentially alarming the spreading of hazardous infections due to indiscriminate and unscientific management posses serious threats to human health. Hospitals have no mention of worker’s safety, training, operation and monitoring activities. The rag pickers and waste workers are often worst affected, because unknowingly or unwittingly, they rummage through all kinds of poisonous material by trying to salvage items which they can self for reuse.

This study provides the detailed investigation of phytochemical extracted from Andrographis paniculata using GC-MS and drug designing. We are going to concentrate in docking studies and Protein GSK3ß, which is responsible for chikungunya. Based on docking studies, we can able to calculate the docking scores. The lists of drugs which are treated for chikungunya to be retrieved from drug bank. Based on Lipinski’s rule, the absorption capacity of the drug going to be identified. Among those collected drugs, the Dimethylglycine and Nelfinavir have good absorption Capacity.

In the present paper optical absorption characterizations of RbBr0.95 Cl0.05 mixed crystals doped with Tl+ (0.02mol %) were grown under vacuum by slow cooling from its melt. The changes in the absorption spectra of mixed crystals are due to some complex Tl+ centers. Photostimulated Luminescence observed in gamma rays irradiated crystals resembled their respective PL emissions indicating that PSL in them is due to Tl+ ions.

Sound wave similar to other mechanical waves needs an environment to propagate. Speed of sound wave is about 331.4 (m/s) in air and this value is between 4.5 to 5 times the above value for seawater. Speed of sound in salt sea water depends on temperature, salinity and pressure. Sound propagation in seawater has many applications such as preparing photos of bottom topography, hydrography and appointing the water properties in sea (temperature, salinity, and so on ) etc. It has applications in fisheries, marine mapping, navy force, shipping and other researches and marine activities too.

E-government is a modern way that government department provides services for the public. The level of e-government development is an important standard for a national informationization, e-government can improve government management efficiency, so it is very important that how to improve the public service by the public’s need to e-government’s development. This model applied data mining technique in e-government construction.

In this paper, we present a report of an investigation on the effect of geomagnetic storm on F2 layer of equatorial ionosphere. Of particular interest is the impact on the peak electron density, NmF2 and the corresponding height, hmF2. The main focus is on the storms of March 12-15 and September 18-21, 1989; and those of March 6-9 and September 24-28, 1994. These were years of high and low solar activities respectively. The investigation was carried out by analyzing and Dst data mainly from the equatorial station of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

In Multi-dimensional Data Model [MDDM], a Data Warehouse uses a data model that was based on a multi-dimensional data model. This model was also known as a data cube which allows data to be modeled and viewed in multiple dimensions. Dimensions are the different perspective for an entity that an Organization was interested in. In this study, the design implementation and improvisation of MDDM for the case study of Super Market was considered.

In this paper, an alternate method is suggested to put up the posters, which achieve more improvements in reaching the people. The efficiency of the proposed method of arrangement compared to Bhatt and Jaiswal method has been assessed in terms of reach and frequency. Further we have also presented the values of reach and frequency for these two methods for various values of m and p, where m is the number of posters and p is the probability of seeing the poster.

Pregnant women have been widely recognized as a vulnerable group from health point of view. They need more food than normal person for the proper nourishment of the growing fetus. A total of hundred pregnant women who were in their third trimester were selected for the study. The samples were selected from hospitals like Government Hospital, Kanagamani clinic, Fathima chinnathurai clinic, Abdulla clinic and Ravi Rajendran clinic which have facility for maternal and child care.

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) is an act of impacting knowledge while computer teaches or acts as the tutors which is a supplement to human teachers. The ability to teach each student based on their individual abilities a major advantage posed by ITS and that is why it is being embraced in this work. This work describes the design of an Intelligent Tutoring System that was tagged Scholastic tutor (St*), which has the individual learning and collaborative problem-solving modules.

An important challenge in distributed systems is the adoption of suitable and efficient algorithms for coordinator election. The main role of an elected coordinator is to manage the use of a shared resource in an optimal manner. Among all the algorithms the Bully and Ring algorithms have gained more popularity for coordinator election. Leader election is an important problem in distributed computing systems. In this problem, when the leader is crashed, other nodes must elect another leader. Garcia-Molina’s Bully Algorithm is a classic solution to cope with this problem.

The key asset of any software organization is knowledge, because the whole process of software development is very much knowledge intensive. Knowledge is dynamic and evolves with technology, organizational culture and the changing needs of organization’s software development practices. One way to capture organization’s knowledge and make it available to all their team members is to induce the concepts of knowledge management systems within the organization.

An attempt has been made on the study of the atmospheric Electrical Conductivity and radon Concentration on the Coastal Belt of South Orissa particular to Ganjam District. Meteorological parameters such as temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed, mixing height & Sea breeze effect etc plays an important role for the relationship between radon con¬centrations, ion pairs production & Electrical conductivity. It was found that an increased trend in radon concentration and electrical conductivity were found during night time than day time.

Water as air is an essential need of human and all creations on the earth. Industrial revolution, economical development and population growth also increase of water consumption is in a disappointed situation with regards to water supply. Some countries and Iran are in a bad situation in this aspect, annual rain in Iran is much less than mean value of the world and deserts cover much ands in our country. Therefore we should use all facilities and ways to solve drought problems.

Matrix population models, which are as a result of studies by Bernadelli (1941), Leslie (1945,1948), and Lewis (1942), have provided a good basis on which to analyse population dynamics, using the algebraic theory of matrices, with populations divided into age-classes. Of particular importance is how the stable population structure looks like and this is found by a computation of the dominant eigenvalue of the Leslie matrix, whose eigenvector describes the stable age structure. In this paper, an analysis of how changes in the Leslie matrix entries affect population growth is considered.

Recognition of facial expression was studied in this paper using several properties associated with the face it self. Actually, as the facial expression changes, the curvatures developed on the face and the dimensions of the objects such as eyebrows, lips and the area of the mouth change. Naturally there exist changes in the intensity of the pixels corresponding to these objects. Therefore it was found that the natural eye could distinguish these sharp changes and understand the facial expressions accordingly.

The kinetics of the reduction of colloidal MnO2 by acephate has been studied in an aqueous and different micellar media, viz., CTAB, SDS and TX-100. The reactions follow first order kinetics with respect to colloidal MnO2 in both the aqueous and micellar media. It has been observed that the rate of reduction of colloidal MnO2 by acephate increases and decreases in the presence of TX-100 (non-ionic) and SDS (anionic), respectively. However, the rate of reduction has been observed to increase up to certain concentration of cationic CTAB and beyond which it starts to decrease.

Water as the most important and vital need of human and all of creations on the earth plays an unexpected role in live. Water resources are effective in economical progress in countries; why some industries, factories and companies require to use water to produce their outputs. Water is used to motivate many machines, cool engines and protect productions. Water resources like rivers and seas are essential since influencing on live. We should establish instruments and use methods to reach availability and improvement the resources.

Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs), have an important role to play in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and to move towards a low carbon energy economy. Developing countries like India and China need to plan for an early development and deployment of LCTs for meeting emission targets and for sustenance of increasing energy demand. The migration of global energy systems to low carbon pathways therefore depends upon successful technical, environmental and cost effective deployments of LCTs for grid interactive power generation.

The paper comments on the potential for a new approach that combines the technologies to produce small machine tools for performing macro machining operations on large components. The paper also described micro fabrication systems, such as the micro-factory, and concluded that ‘many benefits will come from applying systematic approach to micro-engineering’; with the achievement of complete process integration. In the field of manufacturing, these machines offer more flexible solutions with the ability to work on different parts of a large structure.

The current efforts in mechanical micro-machining research and applications, especially for micro- turning operations, are surveyed and presented. Micromachining deals with creation of precise work pieces with dimensions in the range of a few nanometers to few millimeters by removing material using cutting tools with defined geometry. The motivation for micro-mechanical cutting comes from the translation of macro-machining domain knowledge to the micro-domain.

This work proposes a representation scheme that uses CAD as a design tool for generating two-dimensional decorative patterns. The proposed scheme is hierarchical and represented as a tree with nodes corresponding to different shapes of pattern. In this work, decorative patterns are viewed as a set of shapes created at three hierarchical levels which are labeled as: Primitive, Motif, and Compound-motif.

Flood as an unsteady gradually varied flow has special importance in river engineering. Because with knowing the exact range of water level variations in a certain location of river, we can make better decisions for decrease harmful effects of water on major structures and also prevent of their unreasonable services. Muskingum Cunge is one of the widely employed methods for flood routing that direct calibration of this method based on previous flood events is not required and the routing parameters are determined according to physical characteristics and hydraulic conditions of the stream.

Persian Gulf, as an important biological aquatic basin in Middle East, joints via Hormoz Strait to Oman Sea and Indian Ocean. Tide, wind, precipitation, solar radiation and evaporation are main phenomena regarding the oscillation trend of water quality variation in mentioned basin. Moreover, the flow entrance from Arvand River to Persian Gulf influences aforesaid phenomenon, extensively. This research bases on Mt. Mitchell statistics collected in NOAA research vessel observation through the Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormoz and Gulf of Oman.

Purpose: Earth, Sky, Water and air are the essential factors of life. Form the Vedic period importance has been given to the nature. Saints preach that rivers are our sisters and earth is our mother. In other words, natural factors are important in our day to day life. In this era man has moved towards instant things. He wants to enjoy every comfort in his life at any cost.

The water supply and sanitation in Nigeria has come under increasing focus since independence, but particularly during the last 20 years when the country participated in the global efforts and initiatives aimed at addressing the problem of low access to safe water and sanitary means of excreta disposal. In Nigeria, the inadequacy of safe water and sanitation services is manifested in the prevalence of water and sanitation related diseases.

Dairy farming occupies a notable place in the agricultural economy of India and milk and milk products are the second largest contributor to Gross National Product (GNP) and income from dairy farming contributes nearly a third of the rural household’s gross income. Tamil Nadu is one of the leading milk producing state in the country, the other states being Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana.

The study was carried out for the period 1982-1983 to 1999-2000 using the variables like income tax revenue, peak marginal tax rate, GDP at factor cost and GDP at current market price along with time, with and without adjusting for the changes in prices over a period of time. To adjust for price changes the data on Income tax revenue and GDP at factor cost were deflated by using the GDP deflator which was obtained by dividing the gross domestic product at current prices by gross domestic product at constant prices in terms of base year prices (1993-94).

Rivers play a vital role in the life of human beings as they supply drinking water, irrigation water and provide cheap means of transport. Due to these advantages, prosperous civilizations, big market centres as well as small settlement sites have developed along the riverbanks since historical past. In accordance with past and modern trend evolution of Barddhaman town (West Bengal), the rivers and streams had changed their surface expression in relation to recurrent floods.

The main aim of this study is to establish if there is a causal relationship between Foriegn Direct Investment (FDI) and economic growth in Nigeria. This study used annual time series variables computed from natural logarithms of gross domestic product (GDP) at current prices, net inflow of FDI, inflation rate and exchange rates, covering a period of 27years that span from 1981 to 2007. The study utilized the Ordinary Least Square, Unit root test to test for stationarity of the time series and Granger causality test to establish the causal relationship between the variables.

The issue of student discipline is a pervasive and constant challenge. Secondary schools in Gulu District have also suffered alarming deterioration in student discipline in the past decade. This study aimed at establishing relationship between school ownership and strategies of managing student discipline in Gulu District with specific objectives of identifying strategies used in managing student discipline. Cross-sectional parallel sample survey design was used in the study with both qualitative and quantitative orientation.

Performance Appraisal is conducted for the purpose of obtaining information to enable management make personnel decisions, such as to identify training needs, promotions, transfers salary increment and motivation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of performance appraisals in organizations. To realize these the study sought including the objectives and importance attached to Appraisal by management. The study adopted a cases study research design. The total population of six hundred out of which a sample of 30% was drawn using simple random sampling.

Present and potential investors need information for their investment decisions, which include the value creating potential of relevant firms. This information helps the investor to estimate the value of the firm which in turn aids the process of investment decision making. At the same time, management of the relevant firm pay serious attention to the composition of the firm’s financial structure as failure to achieve an optimal financial structure may lead to insolvency and financial distress. These can ultimately lead to bankruptcy.

This paper is based on a study to establish public secondary schools head teachers’ perceptions towards implementation of performance contracts in Bureti, Kericho and Bomet districts in Kenya. The study sought to establish these perceptions based on: financial, human resource management, physical facilities and academic indicators of performances contract in schools. Quantifiable measurements were used to determine these indicators. Stratified random sampling was used to select 60% of the public schools in every district to participate.

The purpose of the study was to compare the selected physiological variables among the university level female players of individual and team sports. For this purpose, sixty female players (individual sports: 30 and team sports: 30) of 18-25 years age were randomly selected from different colleges affiliated to Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India. The subjects volunteered to participate in the study. The age of each subject was considered from the date of birth as recorded in the respective institute.

The quranic symbolism is the use of quran from the symbols and signs that show and instruct us the religious facts because where ever that the words cannot say the facts, symbols are the best. The quranic symbolism is a very specific beauty, Gnostics out of the eminent states of the religion.

Background In Kenya, as elsewhere in the world, corporal punishment has been banned as a disciplinary mechanism in schools. The perception exists that this has resulted in an increase in misconduct and indiscipline among secondary school learners. It should, however, be acknowledged that there is a variety of other factors that also impact on the status of discipline in schools and that this increase in misconduct might not have been caused solely or mainly by the banning of the cane.

The use of corporal punishment to enforce discipline in schools, has been banned in many countries world-wide, impacting significantly on school discipline. This study focuses on the disciplinary situation in secondary schools in Kenya. It presents some understandings of the concept of discipline, reviews the status of school discipline in Kenya and describes some existing disciplinary strategies and models from the literature. From this literature review, a model of disciplinary strategies is developed, which is hence tested empirically.

The structure determination of Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy Ni2MnGa is a major challenge. This paper reports the investigation of the structure and properties of Ni2MnGa Heusler alloy from the theoretical point of view using ab-initio and density-functional calculations through Gaussian.

The present study aims to find out the land use/land cover features of Tambaram Suburban region of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The total area of the region is 75.25 sq.km. The study has made use of high resolution IRS LISS IV pan merged satellite imagery for identifying the land use/land cover classes. ERDAS and ArcGIS software were used to demarcate the land use/land cover features of Tambaram Suburban region. Remote sensing and GIS provide consistent and accurate base line information than many of the conventional surveys employed for such a task.

The present study aims to find out the land use/land cover change detection between the year 1998 and 2008 in St. Thomas Mount Block of Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. The total area of the Block is 243 sq.km. The study has made use of IRS LISS III and high resolution IRS LISS IV pan merged satellite imageries for the years 1998 and 2008 to identify the land use/land cover categories in St. Thomas Mount Block. ERDAS image processing and ArcGIS software were used to demarcate the land use/land cover divisions in St. Thomas Mount Block.

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