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September 2012

  1. Khidr, T. T., O. A. A. El-Shamy and M. M. Doheim

    Hexatriethanolamine monomyristate (HTAMM) and hexatriethanolamine monolaurate (HTAML) have been prepared by the reaction of hexatriethanol amine with myristic acid / laurate acid. The structure of the prepared compounds was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The prepared surfactants were investigated as pour point depressants (PPD) for crude oil (PP= 21 ºC) from the evaluation, it was found that, the maximum depression of pour point was obtained by HTAMM (PP = 0 ºC) while minimum depression of pour point of HTAML was PP = 6ºC. HTAMM additive, show stronger interaction with wax than HTAML additive. The X- ray diffractometer patterns of asphaltene in apsence and presence of investigated additives was studied. Surface tension as a function of concentration of these surfactants in aqueous solutions was measured at 35, 45 and 55°C. From these measurements, the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the maximum surface excess concentration, Γmax, the minimum area per molecule at the aqueous solution / air interface were calculated.

  2. Dioggban Jakperik and Michael O. Ozoje

    In this study, the average recovery time of Tuberculosis patients and the associated risk of treatment failure were examined based on a retrospective moving cohort of sixty-one patients in Northern Region, Ghana. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis whiles Product-Limit estimator was used to estimate the average recovery time of tuberculosis patients. It was observed that the survival rates for males and females were 85.71% and 88.46% respectively. It was discovered that, age of patient at diagnosis, category, and type of patient were crucial determinants of treatment outcome. The study reported a median recovery time of 22 weeks in the Region. The risk of relapse and death were found to be related to age. It was also realized from the study that most of the deaths occurred within the first three weeks of treatment. Although, it is generally reported that the levels of drug resistance in Africa are lower than in other parts of the world, measures to provide controlled application of second-line drugs, supervision of drug distribution and compliance, enforcement of Directly Observed Therapy–Short course protocols, and sustained training of all personnel involved in tuberculosis management should be enforced for effective combat of the tuberculosis disease.

  3. Gholam Reza Salvand, Abotaleb Bagheri , Ali Kamoonzade, Ebadallah Hassnour Hashtayjany and Maryam Bagheri

    The aim of this study was examining and comparing coping styles with stress in successful and unsuccessful athletes in Islamic Azad university six area, Method of research (descriptive scientific- comparative causal-comparative) and is the type of field. In this research all participant athletes in vollyball & footsal competition have chosen randomly cluster as statistics sample. First, second, third Champions were recognized as a successful athlete and athlete who were excluded in these competitions are recognized as unsuccessful athletes which through questionaire coping styles scale with stress (Anshl and colleagues in 2000) compared to the innovation and avoidance coping styles in athletes. For analysis of collected Information, use descriptive and inferential statistics such as independent t (t) and one-sided analysis of variance test (ANOVA). Based on the results of data analysis: there is no significant difference between coping styles with stress, in successful and unsuccessful man athletes. There is no significant difference between coping styles with stress in successful and unsuccessful woman athletes. Also Between coping styles with sporting stress, there was no difference between male and female athletes. The results showed that successful and unsuccessful athletes use more avoidance coping style. avoidance coping style help to athlete to distance from source of stress and continuing his or her sport activity in quiet and stressless environement, would increase probability success of his sport activity. While innovation coping style through involvement of Athletes with source of stress, reduction of care, concentration and increasing concern and worry which lead to increasing probability sporting defeat.

  4. Harekrushna Sutar and Vikas Kumar

    The paper presents the comparative study of hydrodynamics of conical fluidized bed dryer. Three types of distributor plates have been used .The influence of perforated plate , punched plate and dutch weave mesh distributor designs on fluidized bed dryer hydrodynamics was investigated for a range of bed loadings and superficial gas velocities. The placebo granulates was used as fluidized material. Wet bed loadings of 1, 3 and 5 kg were used with initial static bed heights of 12, 22 and 30 cm respectively. Gas velocity used are 1.5 and 3 m/s. Standard deviation and power spectrum analysis of the pressure fluctuations were used to analyse the hydrodynamic behaviour of the bed during the drying process. The analysis shows punched plate giving improved performance over the other designs at a gas velocity of 1.5 m/s and bed loadings greater than 1.0 kg.

  5. Valarmathi, S., Ayesha Sulthana, Ramya Rathan, Latha, K. C., Balasubramanian, S. and Sridhar, R.

    Breast cancer risk assessment in western region of Tamil Nadu in India was carried out based on TNM (Tumor, Number of Lymph Nodes and Metastasis) staging using ID3 algorithm and Association rule. The intensity range of the breast cancer was predicted using Fuzzy logic toolbox. Out of 1,862 data the complete history of 181 breast cancer cases was obtained. The parameters involved in this study were age, sex, location, diet, year, marital status, heredity, period of illness, treatment, stages of diagnosis like Tumor [T], Number of Lymph Nodes [N] and Metastasis [M]. Eight set of fuzzy rules were used, the Mamdani max-min inference mechanism was implemented. Tumor size, number of nodes and the metastasis were used as input parameters and the breast cancer risk was obtained as an output. For fuzzification of these parameters the linguistic variables Very Serious (VS), Very Serious Moderate (VSM), Serious (S) and Not Serious (NS) were used in order to give a breast cancer risk prognosis. High breast cancer risk regions in the study area were shown in map using ID3 algorithm, Coimbatore (North and South) was found to be at highest risk for breast cancer by 20% criteria in comparison with other areas. However, this 20% criteria value in the association rule showed 18 taluks including Coimbatore to be the risk regions for breast cancer. Fuzzy Expert System (FES) predicted range of the risk of the breast cancer was found to be similar with the clinical truth.

  6. Prasannakumari, A. A., Gangadevi, T. and Jayaraman, P.R

    Trace metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium and lead content in Lagenandra ovata were studied and the data were subjected to monthwise, seasonwise and annual average analysis. The study revealed that L. ovata is an efficient metal accumulator especially for zinc. Because of the higher metal accumulation efficiency it can be used as a bioindicator for metals.

  7. Vasanthi, R., Vanaraju, G., Baskaran, R. and Anbazhagan, G.

    The study area is one of the Network analysis in vector environments on Chennai City. Chennai district covers an area of 178.2 km2 located on the Eastern Coastal Plains of India. It is situated on the north-eastern corner of Tamil Nadu along the Coramandel coast, a region bounded by the Bay of Bengal and is surrounded inland by the districts of Tiruvallur and Kanchipuram. The area covered by Survey of India Toposheet No 66 C/4 and 66 D/1 of 1:50,000 scale. It lies between 12°9' and 13°9' of the northern latitude and 80°12' and 80°19' of the eastern longitude at an average altitude of 6 meters above sea level. Its coastline is about 25.60 km (2.5% of the total coastline of Tamil Nadu). Network analysis is used for identifying the most efficient routes or paths for allocation of services. This involves finding the shortest or least-cost manner in which to visit a location or a set of locations in a network. Routes and networks are the interconnected features that are used for transportation and include highways, railways, city streets, rivers and utility systems (electricity, telephone, water, sewage). Networks are an important part of our everyday lives and analysis of these networks improves the movement of people, goods, services and the flow of resources . To find out the shortest path in a complex road network in the aspects of specified impedance To make the service area analysis on the location with roads of study area based on the impedance. To find out the closest facility on the road network. To find out the origin-destination matrix cost for many location from one location on the network dataset.

  8. Mwangi Samuel Kimondo, Mugambi Duncan Njeru and Waiganjo Esther Wangithi

    The Kenya government adopted performance contracting as a management control tool through result based management. The study investigated how performance contracting enhances strategic control in public institutions. Tertiary institutions in the country have failed to exploit their full potential in their service delivery hence none has been rated excellent. The study focused on four aspects of performance contracting (work plan management, skills development, feedback mechanisms, reward) that tertiary institutions can exploit in order to enhance strategic control hence performs better. The study employed survey research design and the target population were the tertiary institutions in Nyeri County. Data was collected through questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study revealed that performance contracting had a positive relationship with strategic control but a lot has to be done to strengthen this relationship for better results. The study recommended that further studies be carried out on how performance contracting can be made more real and value laden to the service consumers.

  9. M. Rashidi, S. S. Deokule and M. Abyari

    The plant Aegle marmelos Linn. belongs to family "Rutaceae" known as Bael is the accepted source of the drug and it is found throughout of India. The root of Aegle marmelos was selected for the present investigation. The roots stored at different relative humidities 30, 50, 75, 96 and 100% RH for 90 days. In the present study, total 20 fungal species were isolated from root samples. Fusarium solani (22.25%) showed highest percentage incidence. Quantitative estimation of carbohydrate relation to association of fungi was done. Maximum deterioration of carbohydrate contents and percentage incidence of fungi in the roots was showed at above 96% RH.

  10. Fadhilah Yusof and Ibrahim Lawal Kane

    The study of rainfall time series of two selected weather stations in Malaysia using various statistical methods enabled to analyse the temporal behaviour of rainfall in the study areas. Time-series analysis is an important tool in modelling and forecasting rainfall. SARIMA (1, 1, 2)(1, 1, 1)12, SARIMA(4, 0, 2)(1, 0, 1)12 with constant and ETS state space models based on exponential smoothing were built. All the models proved to be adequate. Therefore, could give information that can help decision makers establish strategies for proper planning of agriculture, drainage system and other water resource applications in Malacca and Kuantan.

  11. Smt Malati C. Hiremath

    The role of women in nation building is as important as that of men. As a better half she takes all the responsibilities of making the man stand highlighted in the socio-economic and religious vistas of life. Hence the role played by woman cannot be denied. The below is an effort to overview the special role of women and welfare programmes for their empowerment

  12. Shankarmurthy, K. and Kiran, B. R.

    The use of Biofuels has been gaining more popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. The present review covers the approach for making plant as Biofuel more economically and competitive with petro diesel. As a renewable energy source, Biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, Jatropha plant, Palm oil, soyabean oil, vegetable oil , Neem oil and algae that can potentially be used as alternative fuels in place of petrol and diesel. In context of climatic changes and soaring prices per barrel of petroleum, renewable carbon source, transport fuels are needed to displace petroleum derived transport fuel, which contribute to global warming and are of limited availability. Biofuels derived from oil crop is a renewable and carbon source alternative to petroleum fuel. As discussed here, Biofuel from plants including micro algae seems to be the most promising renewable Biofuel that has the potential to completely replace petroleum-derived transport fuel without adversely affecting supply of food and other crops products.

  13. Shivani Kothari

    In this paper we first explore the sub-threshold conduction and region. Our analysis indicate that the energy consumption is very less in Fin-FET than CMOS technology in sub-threshold region. In the paper it is also concluded that by using pull down network the power consumption can be reduced further. By using Fin-FET domino logic the technology is scaled down to the 33nm and delay in the circuit is also reduced.

  14. Ajaib S. Banyal and Daleep K. Sharma

    A layer of Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid heated from below in a porous medium is considered in the presence of uniform vertical rotation. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the paper mathematically established the condition for characterizing the oscillatory motions which may be neutral or unstable, for rigid boundaries at the top and bottom of the fluid. It is established that all non-decaying slow motions starting from rest, in a Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid of infinite horizontal extension and finite vertical depth, which is acted upon by uniform vertical rotation in a porous medium, opposite to gravity and a constant vertical adverse temperature gradient, are necessarily non-oscillatory, in the regime , where is the Taylor number; and is the medium permeability. The result is important since it hold for all wave numbers and for rigid boundaries of infinite horizontal extension at the top and bottom of the fluid, and the exact solutions of the problem investigated in closed form, is not obtainable.

  15. K. B. Shahi, S. Dwivedi, Archana Devi, Ranjan Dwivedi, P.K. Singh and D. K. Dwivedi

    Moderate to high heterosis for yield and contributing characters was studied in 27 hybrids involving four tolerant (T) and three susceptible (S) varieties of rice under saline-alkali environments. The trend of magnitude of Mean, heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis in inter and intra groups hybrid for days to 50% flowering and plant height were T/T >T/S > S/S hybrids. For Grain yield the trend was T/T >T/S > S/S for mean and standard heterosis and T/S > T/T > S/S for heterosis and heterobeltiosis. For protein content it was S/S > T/S > T/T. The mean standard heterosis estimates ranged from -31.56 to 51.78 having mean value of 14.22%. As regards to S/S hybrids, these estimates were much lower than those in T/T or T/S hybrids. Straw yield (high dry matter), 100 seed weight, spikelets per panicle, productive tillers per plant and short stature causes higher yields. Hybrids Usar 1/IR 24, Usar 1/IR 26, Jaya/Manhar and Jaya/ IR26 exhibited higher heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis for yield and yield contributing traits.

  16. P. Satheeshkumar and K. Saravanan

    Estimates of variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation and path analysis were carried out in rice for fifteen characters. The highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation for number of productive tillers per plant, grain L/B ratio and grain yield per plant. High heritability were observed for all the characters, except kernel breadth. High genetic advance as percent of mean were observed for all the characters except spikelet fertility and kernel breadth. Grain yield per plant exhibited high significant and positive genotypic correlation with number of productive tillers per plant, filled grains per panicle and total number of grains. Path analysis showed maximum positive direct effects for kernel L/B ratio, kernel length, filled grains per panicle, total number of grains and number of productive tillers per plant. Hence, the selection based on these traits could be more effective in rice.

  17. Wekesa L. C., Muthike G. M., Githiomi J. K and Muga M. O.

    Most work done to advance sustainable production and marketing of woodcarvings in Kenya is unsystematic and scattered. Therefore, the review was aimed at synthesizing information on production and marketing of the woodcarvings. The woodcarvings industry has a rich history in the country. However, the production and processing of woodcarvings has not fully embraced newer technologies and innovations. The production technologies applied are ineffective and inefficient. This state has often compromised levels of precision and artistic making the industry unable to handle the threat from machine-made products. The market access strategies applied include cooperatives, direct marketing, collective action, contractual arrangements and e-commerce. Collective action including cooperatives and self-help groups is highly applied to market products. Cooperatives are preferred due to their associated benefits in terms of higher site prices hence more profits as a result of bulk marketing. Self-help groups are small associations and are increasingly being preferred as an alternative to cooperatives. Contractual arrangements and e-commerce are least applied strategies. Contractual arrangements often result into income stability and improved efficiency. E-commerce is the least applied although it leads to reduced transaction costs and improved information flow. This, therefore, calls for concerted efforts in terms of technical capacity building for actors in the woodcarvings value chain to apply effective and efficient production and marketing technologies and innovations.

  18. Mohammad Farooq Mir, Syed Ifshana, Syed Abida, Showket Ali Mir and I. A. Ahangar

    The River Jhelum is one of the main tributaries of the Indus River and is the longest river of Kashmir valley originating from Pir panjal range of mountains. A detailed limnological study of the River Jhelum was conducted in year 2010-2011. Five study sites were selected for the collection of samples from the Jhelum. The ionic composition of water of the streams varied in close relationship with the catchment pattern of the concerned water body. The water of the river was well buffered and pH > 7 was recorded. In upper reaches the River water was found to be medium hard type (Mean hardness= 93.7±mg/l) and in downstream the hardness was much more (Mean hardness 150±mg/l), it is because due to huge entry of significant quantities of nutrients rich surface runoff from human habitation.

  19. Sandip Choudhury, Subrata Mondal and Sudhendu Mandal

    The present investigation revealed the esterase and peroxidase activity in relation to stigma receptivity of Carissa carandas Linn. , a medicinally important plant belonging to the family Apocynaceae with a view to find out the stigma receptive period and correlation of stigma receptivity with the activity of esterase and peroxidase on stigma surface in order to provide information for fertilization as a basis for plant breeding programme. It Flowered during March to July and opened at 17:00 hrs to 22:00 hrs generally, but sporadic flower opening took place throughout the night. Anthers dehisced by longitudinal slit after flower opening. Single flower produced about 5160 pollen grains. Stigma was wet-papilate and above the anther level. The non-specific esterases and peroxidase were present densely all over the surface on the stigmatic head and in scattered manner just below the stigmatic head which may act in facilitating in vivo germination. Stigma showed maximum receptivity (66%) with mean pollen tube length 219µm after 3 hrs of anthesis, however stigma receptivity retained upto drooping stage to some extent. Prominent presence of esterase and peroxidase were observed during higher receptive period.

  20. Sarathy, T. and Silambarasan, C.

    “In the coming years, one of the biggest challenges for Indian Agriculture would be retaining its youth in agriculture. Unless farming becomes both intellectually stimulating and economically rewarding, it will be difficult to attract or retain rural youth in farming”. Dr.M.S.Swaminathan Growth in agriculture has a maximum case leading impact on other sectors, leading to spread of benefits over the entire economy and the largest segment of populations. The rapid growth of agriculture is essential for meeting the enormous development of the country. There are still a host of issues that need to be addressed regarding the obstruction in the growth of the agriculture sector. Among the several problems in the gross development of agriculture sector, labour shortage plays an important role. This problem originated from the migration of labour from rural to urban areas and thus the shortage of faring leads to shortage of food production which reflects in the selling cost of the products. It causes commodity problem and also affects the development of the country. Beside it is mandatory to find the remedies to overcome this barrier. For this our government should take the responsibility to stimulate the young generation to step forward to take up the agribusiness. This paper deals with factors which will increase the contribution of rural youth in agribusiness, and also it focuses on the reduction of rural to urban migration. Difference in wages, lack of adequate infrastructure in rural areas, unemployment and work difficulties in rural areas are the main factors, which make the farmers to migrate. Government should initiate the agriculture subject at school and college level. Thus will help to motivate the youth to do farming and agribusiness from childhood stage onwards. Moreover steps are needed to be taken for farming occupation, to bring about equitable distribution of income and wealth in rural areas and also to reduce the poverty and thereby improve the quality of life.

  21. Shuchi Kaushik , Archana Shrivastav, and Sudhir Kumar Jain

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common bacterium that lives on the skin and in some people’s noses. S. aureus can cause a range of mild to severe infections. Excessive use of antibiotics has led to drug-resistant strains of S. aureus (MRSA). The ancient practice of vaccine designing was being evaluated in the present study for the in silico development of preventive measure against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Multiple sequence alignment revealed various conserved regions in mecA protein. We predicted one such type of multi-epitope peptide which was having very good potential to induce B cell response and a very good candidate for binding to MHC II molecule. Structure prediction of this sequence by PSIPRED revealed that 22 helix are present in this sequence. The identified peptide can be a suitable target for induction of both TH cell and B cell. This peptide was designed from conserved regions of mecA, so it can be a preventive measure for MRSA infections after suitable experimental analysis. This data can be very helpful for generating antigenic candidate by wet lab researchers.

  22. Yatoo, Ghulam Mohiuddin and Nathar, Varsha Nitin

    Mature seeds of apple (Mallus pumila) Mill. (Cv. Golden delicious) are dormant and do not germinate unless their dormancy is removed by several weeks of moist-cold treatment. We investigated the effect of short-term growth regulator (NAA, BAP, Kinetin and 2,4-D) pre-treatment on breaking of apple embryonic dormancy. Embryos excised aseptically from non stratified Cultivator ‘Red Delicious’ apple seeds were placed in a solution of various growth regulators at different concentration for different time period before germination in Murashige and Skoog’s media in order to remove embryonic dormancy in them. It was observed that only Kinetin pre-treatment at lower concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/l for 6-12 hours) proved to break embryonic dormancy of apple. At higher concentration of Kinetin pre-treatment i.e. 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/l for the time period of 2-4 hours, the apple embryos were transformed to callus. The germinated apple plantlets after one month of germination were hardened in plastic cups contained sterile garden soil, farmyard soil and sand (2:1:1) and finally transferred to green house. The plantlets showed 90 % survival rate. The objective of this study was to remove embryonic dormancy of apple seeds by various growth regulator pre-treatements and enhance germination in a shorter period of time instead of going for stratification for several weeks. This could be very useful in plant breeding programme by shortening the breeding cycle and introducing the apple to tropical regions where prolonged winters are not observed.

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