Subject Area

  • Life Sciences / Biology
  • Architecture / Building Management
  • Asian Studies
  • Business & Management
  • Chemistry
  • Computer Science
  • Economics & Finance
  • Engineering / Acoustics
  • Environmental Science
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • General Sciences
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Medicine
  • Nanotechnology & Nanoscience
  • Nonlinear Science
  • Chaos & Dynamical Systems
  • Physics
  • Social Sciences & Humanities

Why Us? >>

  • Open Access
  • Peer Reviewed
  • Rapid Publication
  • Life time hosting
  • Free promotion service
  • Free indexing service
  • More citations
  • Search engine friendly

Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

September 2015

Introduction: Many studies have reported the risk factors for obstetric fistula, but little is known on the causes particularly in Cameroon. Knowledge on the causes of obstetric fistula could help in preventing its occurrence. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the causes of obstetric fistula. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to identify the causes of obstetric fistula treated at the University Hospital of Yaoundé, Cameroon from January, 1, 2009 to September, 31, 2011.

The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the same kidney is unusual. We report a 60-year-old man with ipsilateral synchronous renal adenocarcinoma and renal pelvic transitional cell carcinoma with severe hydronephrosis and a huge staghorn calculus in the ipsilateral kidney. The patient was admitted to the hospital because of right flank pain and hematuria which he had had for 4 months. X-ray and USG revealed a huge stone in the renal pelvis and hydronephrosis of the right kidney and IVP suggested a non-functional kidney.

Cold plasma is an emerging field with vast scope and incorporates broad interdisciplinary approach to the reader ranging from physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. It has recently engaged medicine and dental hygiene in research. Apart from the basic plasma processes and the restrictions and requirements set by international health standards, the review focuses on plasma interaction with prokaryotic cells (bacteria), eukaryotic cells (mammalian cells), cell membranes, DNA etc.

A brain tumor associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is very rare. A 36 yr old female presented with two separate lesions, one in right front parietal (FP) and other in left FP area on MRI. The right side lesion was a tumor and the left side was an AVM. The right side lesion was removed first and was a meningioma, the left side lesion was an AVM and was observed. As it was Spetzler Martin grade - 4 without bleeding. We discuss the operative strategy in case of synchronous disease and review of literature.

Beedi binding profession occupies a prominent place in rural India. For the beedi industry West Bengal is one of the major hub in India. It has to bealso noted that this profession is an unorganized sector of labour which lacks in access to proper health care. Here we present a study which was carried out with 171 beedi workers from two different locations Hasnabad and Kankra of North 24 parganas in West Bengal. Most of the beedi workers were found to be suffering from tuberculosis (TB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which are two important respiratory diseases.

A study was conducted at the Namakkal district in Tamil Nadu to understand the extent of participation of poultry farmers and their families in general management activities. A sample of 42 poultry farmers, 30 extension personnel, 30 technology developers were surveyed using an interview schedule and data were analysed using appropriate statistical tools. The results revealed that the major level of participation was from the family head followed by his wife and family members in housing management and decision making.

The main objective of this review is to investigate the information available on meat sensory evaluation and characteristics of meat. Meat sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used in experimental design and statistical analysis to measure, analyse, and interpret meat responses that are perceived by senses of flavour, aroma, juiciness and tenderness. Meat sensory characteristics can be evaluated by objective methods, instrumental or sensorial with trained panels and by subjective methods, with a consumer panel. It is very important to evaluate the meat for consumption purposes.

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most complex joint in the body, the area where the mandible articulates with cranium. It is formed by the mandibular condyle fitting into mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. Separating these bones from direct articulation is the articulating disc which is composed of dens fibrous connective tissue. Functionally, the articulating disc serves as non ossified bone that permits the complex movements of the joint. Because the articulating disc functions as a third bone, the craniomandibular articulation is considered as compound joint.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) arises from an epithelial cell lineage, and depending on the site of occurrence can have variable presentation and prognosis. The mean age of presentation is typically in the sixth decade of life, twice as prevalent in men. Sunlight exposure for long periods can lead to SCC of the cutaneous variety. History and Clinical examination are diagnostic, but can be supplemented with a edge biopsy, CT and MRI. Management entails a variety of treatment modalities, ranging from Electrodessication, Mohs Micrographic Surgery, Wide Excision, Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.

Accessory ossicles most of the times found incidentally in the foot and they vary widely in their appearance, combinations and prevalence. Accessory ossicles are mostly asymptomatic but sometimes these may become symptomatic due to trauma, degeneration, inflammation, infection etc. Knowledge of their presence and variations is required among clinicians to prevent misinterpreting them as fractures—a common error. Os trigonum, os perineum and accessory navicular are the most commonly seen accessory ossicles in the foot.

Adequate glycemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial to improving outcome of gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and may normalize birth weight (Waldemar, 2016). However, it is still a controversy whether intra-uterine exposure to maternal diabetes is a risk factor for changing hormone levels involved in the development of insulin resistance in these infants.

Trichosporon asahii belongs to class Basidiomycetes and is known to cause both superficial and deep seated infections of increasing morbidity and mortality in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient hosts. Urinary tract infections by this fungus though rare, have been reported earlier especially in association with indwelling medical devices.

Inferior vena cava (IVC) is a composite vessel and the precise mode of development its post renal segment is somewhat uncertain. Because of the various transformations that occur during its development, variations do occur, but are not common. The common anomalies of abdominal part of IVC include absence of hepatic segment of IVC and a double IVC. An anomalous formation of the inferior most segment of the IVC is reported and discussed wherein the IVC was formed by the union of left common iliac vein and right external iliac vein at the level of S-1/S-2 vertebra.

Croton caudatus Geisel is a traditional anticancer medicinal herb of the people of Mizoram, India. In the present study, the in vivo and in vitro anticancer potentials, antioxidant and analgesic properties of C. caudatus leaf extracts were evaluated. Phytochemical constituents of its methanol and aqueous extracts were also analyzed. Methanol (CC-Meth) and aqueous (CC-Aq) extracts exhibited potent anticancer activity in vivo (%ILS ̴ 92.5%) while in vitro cytotoxic activity was noted only with the aqueous extract. CC-Aq extract exhibited an IC50 value 28.36 µg/ml in vitro.

S. aureus produces extracellular protein toxins and virulence factors which contribute to the pathogenicity of the organism. The present work aimed to analysis the prevalence of enterotoxin producing S. aureus strains isolated from bovine and humans origin using reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) kit and PCR. A total of 25 S. aureus isolates out of 374 samples collected from cattle, buffaloes and human were identified, 20 from bovine and 5 from human. Using RPLA, 10 out of the 25 S. aureus isolates were found to be toxigenic with an incidence of 40%.

Laparoscopic surgical procedures aim to minimize the trauma of the open conventional procedures. Advantages of laparoscopy include smaller incisional sites, lower risks of wound complications, reduced postoperative pain and complications, improved recovery, shorter hospital stays, more rapid return to normal activities, and significant cost savings. Endoscopic surgery also involves complications.

A study was conducted to find the effectiveness of game based learning on knowledge of health promotion among primary school children of selected rural schools of Udupi Taluk Karnataka”. Objectives of the study were to find the effectiveness of game based learning on knowledge of health promotion, and also to find the association between knowledge on health promotion and the selected variables. Demographic proforma and structured knowledge questionnaire on health promotion were administered eighty primary school children selected using proportionate sampling technique.

The present study was planned to know the effect of mixed aqueous extract of piper nigrum & zingiberofficinale in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemic albino rats. Phytochemical analysis was done separately on each aqueous extract. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatanins, anthrax quinones, & cardenolides were found in both plants where as cardiac glycosides, steroids, &terpenoids were absent. Forty albino rats were randomly distributed into four groups (A-D) of ten albino rats each. All were fed with high fat diet (HFD) & water ad libitum.

There are conflicting reports on the effect of ABO blood groups and/or haemoglobin variants on the prevalence of falciparum malaria. The present study examined the effect of ABO blood groups and/or haemoglobin variants on the prevalence of uncomplicated (mild) falciparum malaria in a hyperendemic area. A total of 486 malaria positive patients and 486 controls of age ≥16 years were screened for this study. Malaria parasite test, ABO blood group antigens test and haemoglobin genotype were carried out using standard laboratory techniques.

The study was a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics carried out at a paediatric surgical unit of Kasturba Hospital Manipal. Objective: The objective of the study is to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers of children admitted for surgery in the paediatric surgery ward. Methods: Participants of this study were 120 mothers selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire and family support rating scale. Result: Mother’s age ranged from 19 to 42 years with mean of 27.23 years.

Cancer is still a challenging diseases of human community mainly because of the inability of the modern medicine. We can state several reasons for the inability of modern medicine. The most challenging aspects are the development of resistance to the cytotoxic agents, side effects of the drugs used to treat cancer, the ability of cancer cells to behave like stem cells acquiring mesenchymal characteristics during metastasis. So our aim of the research is to formulate a natural drug, which acts as a potential anticancer agent without any side effects.

Omega-3 fatty acids are potent antioxidants and exhibit a biological activities including neuroprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties, and have been suggested to be useful in treatment of several diseases. The present study has been undertaken to investigate the protective effect of omega-3 fatty acid (750mg/kg bwt.) against lead acetate (7.5mg/kg bwt.) induced impairment in neurotransmitters and neurobehavioral in wistar rats.

Aim: Postoperative inflammation is a known contributory factor in posterior capsular opacification. Ocular inflammatory response was studied by measuring micro protein levels in aqueous. Method: Aqueous tap was done during needling for PCO in 25 secondary cataracts. Equal number of age and sex matched cataract surgical cases were taken as controls. Results: Aqueous micro protein level was found to be higher in "after cataract" cases.

BCG vaccine is an attenuated derivative of Mycobacterium bovis which is widely used as a vaccine against tuberculosis and conventional as well as molecular methods have been described as identification test for BCG vaccine. In present study, we compared the results obtained with Ziehl Neelsen staining and multiplex PCR (mPCR) methods for identification of different batches of BCG vaccine.

Introduction: Drug Use Evaluation (DUE) is a system of ongoing, systematic, criteria-based evaluation of drug use that will help ensure that medicines are used appropriately (at the individual patient level). Methodology: It was an Observational Descriptive Study. Drug Utilization data was obtained from the prescriptions of the patients attending cardiology outpatient department in Government General Hospital. The data was collected and Defined Daily Dose of frequently prescribed drugs and prescribing indicators were assessed.

Simulation exercise using cadavers to train bone marrow aspiration technique – second year undergraduate medical student’s perspective. Introduction: Simulation is “the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time”. The main goal is to significantly reduce the margin of error in real life situations. Cadaver had been used to train psychomotor skills for medical students.

Objective: To investigate serum levels and relationship between tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), bone mineral density (BMD) and vitamin D in Bahraini sickle cell disease (SCD) patients compared to healthy controls. Methods: Seventy patients with SCD followed at department of hematology at Salmaniya Medical Complex and 70 sex-matched healthy controls were included prospectively in this study. Serum levels were measured using ELISA kits for cytokines and UPLC-MS for vitamin D. BMD was estimated using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA).

Background: The comminuted and/or long subtrochenteric femoral fractures are considered as a difficult fractures to treat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the success rate of dynamic condylar screw fixation for the treatment of these subtrochenteric fractures. Methods: Total 30 consecutive patients of age 21 to 60 years with subtrochenteric fractures were included in our study. The type of fractures were classified according to AO- classification system and the patients were assessed using the Harris hip score.

The present paper reports the successful therapeutic management of one lumpy jaw in a Holstein Friesian crossbred cow and another suppurative abscess in the buccal cavity of a non descriptive heifer. The Lumpy jaw was treated successfully with intravenous injections of Lugol’s iodine (5%) @ 20 ml at every alternate day for 3 occasions. The second case of soft tissue abscess due to Actinomycosis was also recovered with Ceftriaxone Injections @ 20 mg/kg body weight, IV, daily for 5 days. Moreover, the abscess was excised, drained out and dressed with Povidon iodine daily for 3 days.

Tele medicine is an emerging branch of medicine that eliminates the hurdle of sharing or transfer of data to distant places. Telemedicine uses electronic transmission of data and digital images to distant places for the purpose of diagnosis. There are numerous branches in telemedicine of which this article discusses in detail regarding telepathology. Telepathology is about the practice of pathology at a distance by pathologists. It is already being practiced in developed countries and is being started in developing countries especially India.

The use of platelet concentrate in dentistry is contemporary and revolutionary for the tissue regeneration. Platelet concentrate carries cells, growth factors and some cytokines which is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote natural healing in many procedures in periodontal surgery. This is the goal in periodontal regenerative surgery that is to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of the periodontal unit. Platelet concentrate in the form of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) was first to be introduced and being extensively used for regeneration.

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the role of diabetes management in relation to personality, self efficacy and gender. Diabetes management has been considered with respect to diet, exercise, glucose testing and medication. Diabetes mellitus especially type 2 is very fast growing disease and common in more developing countries. The total sample of the study consists of 80 (40 male and 40 female) medically diagnosed as a type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at different diabetes clinics of Raipur city of Chhattisgarh state, coming from 25 to 75 yrs age group.

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) or Tic Doloureux or prosopalgia is a neuropathic disorder of the trigeminal N that causes episodes of intense pain in the eye, lip, nose, head & jaw.

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Clinical observations and epidemiological studies on genital cancer have revealed an association with sexual behaviour thus motivating research into sexually transmitted agents which may be responsible for neoplasia. Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a lifelong latent infection in sensory ganglia.

Hemangioma may occur anywhere in the body though it is more common in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. It consists of multiple dilated venous channels. It is a spongy swelling and is usually present since birth. It does not show any tendency to involution. On the contrary it may become larger and more troublesome as the time goes on. The Subcutaneous cavernous Hemangioma are very rare benign tumors making up less than 1% of all haemangiomas (Goldberg et al., 2004).

Patent urachus is a well-known pathological and clinical entity presenting usually in infancy or in the elderly (Burns et al., 2004). Urachal affections are rare. Their variable ways of presentation may represent a diagnostic challenge. Urachal sinuses are a rare type of these abnormalities (Nix et al., 1964). Omphalolith (Umbolith) is uncommon under normal circumstances. However in a deeply retracted umbilicus in an obese individual, accumulation of sebum and keratin may lead to the formation of a stone (Russel et al., 2004).

Phyllodes tumours are rare and account for 0.4% of all breast tumours (Dyer et al., 1966). The majority of them tend to be less than 5 cms in size with giant tumours larger than 10 cms being about 20% of these cases. They display a broad range of clinical and pathological behavior and are regarded as falling within the spectrum of fibroepithelial neoplasms. Surgery has been the primary modality of treatment. However the extent of resection and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy are still controversial.

Bio energy provides an irreversible mitigation benefit when it displaces fossil fuels. Mitigation benefits of afforestation or forest protection will be lost if deforestation occurs. Non-commercial energy sources, predominantly fuel wood, chips and dung cakes, contribute around 30% of the total primary energy consumed.

Plants are always used as medicines from long time and there is also a need for studying nutritive value and antioxidant activity of these plants. The present study includes various factors for experimental work and it involves plant extracts preparation from both fresh and dried materials as per methods used and showed significant result for both nutritive values like moisture content, mineral elements, proteins, carbohydrates, reducing and non-reducing sugars.

In order to investigate effects of different nitrogen levels on yield and yield components of dry land wheat cultivars, an experiment was carried out at factorial in randomized complete blocks design with three replications at kohnekand agriculture research station in 2012-2013. The studied treatment was wheat cultivars in four levels including (Rasad, Sabalan, Cross Sabalan and Azar 2) and nitrogen fertilizer rate in four levels including (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg/ha). Results showed that cultivar and nitrogen effect was significant on yield and yield components.

India is the largest producer and exporter of spices in the world and is called as the ‘spice bowl of the world’. During 1960s, with 25 per cent share in world production and 20 per cent share in world export, India was the major producer and exporter of pepper in the world but unfortunately India is losing its comparative advantage in world pepper market. Since the early 2000s, Vietnam has emerged as the leading producer and exporter of pepper in the world market. Kerala accounts for more than 90 percent of the total area and production of pepper in India.

Human cystic hydatidosis due to Echinococcus granulosus larva is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. The disease is highly endemic in Libya, previous studies concentrated on north-east, central and north-west areas of the country. This study determined sero-prevalence and exposure rates of Echinococcus granulosus infection in Southern Libya. This household community-based cross-sectional study was carried in Murzuk province in southern Libya during the period January 2004 to July 2005.

The present work is focused on synthesis and characterization of Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) to study its effects on two Brassica juncea cultivars stressed with different toxicity levels of Cadmium (Cd). ZnO NPs were synthesized by chemical precipitation method and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDX) techniques. Crystalline size was calculated from the XRD results using Scherer equation.

A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of 2012 and 2013 to screen the brinjal genotypes against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and aphid, Aphis gossypii. All the seven brinjal germplasms were infested by aleurodid with low to moderate damage to the crop. The peak incidence was recorded during August of both years of study. All the germplasms were more or less equally infested by this aleurodid, except chhuli makra and sada jhuri. In chhuli makra and sada jhuri, the infestation level of the aleurodid was quite lower than other germplasms and hence both the brinjal germplasm i.e.

A field experiment was done to evaluate the toxicity of certain insecticides with reference to number of sprays against predatory population of spiders and coccinellid beetles on mango. Azadirachtin (0.05%) was found to be safer to spider as well coccinellids i.e. Menochilus sexmaculatus and Coccinella septumpunctata. Endosulfan (0.07%) was relatively safe to coccinellid beetles followed by malathion (0.05%) and carbaryl (0.1%).

Investigations were carried out to ascertain the level of trace metals and physicochemical parameters of ground water inAjata and Gosa waste dumpsites in FCT Abuja. Samples were collected during wet season from ten wells and ten boreholes each in Ajata and Gosa. Samples were taken to the laboratory and were analysed using standard methods (APHA). Result of ANOVA revealed that there was no significant difference in trace metals found in wells with respect to season and location except nitrate.

With the aim of evaluating the effects of agroforestry based conservation tillage (AFCT) on water infiltration and selected soil properties, two tillage types: Agroforestry based Conservation Tillage (AFCT) and Maize based Conventional Tillage (MCT) under three age categories (10, 20 and 30-years) were selected in Wonago District, Southern Ethiopia.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate tolerance of mycorrhizal or unmycorrhizal T. vogelii and V. subterranea subjected to drought stress at early growth phase, in a randomized blocks design; on sterilized substrate; with a mixture of selected fungi (AMF): Gigaspora margarita, Glomus hoi, Glomus intraradices and Scutellospora gregaria. Levels of drought stress were 90, 60, 30 and 15% of field capacity (FC) for control, mild, average and severe stress respectively with or without inoculation.

The study was carried out at Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad. The aim of the study was to evaluate the physicochemical status of Yamuna water in relation to water pollution in Allahabad. In our study different analytical tests were done such as pH, Temperature, DO, COD, Alkanity, Chlorine, BOD, Total Bacterial count by SPC, TSS and TDS. The results were satisfactory according to the guidelines of Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook World Bank Group effectively from July 1998, in which all the standard readings are given.

Colour is a major factor for acceptability of any food item. Now – a – days every food item available in market is dumped with synthetic food dyes. These synthetic food dyes are very harmful for our and our children health. Food dyes may have immediate effect or they may be harmful in the long run on constant exposure. Tartrazine is a popular and commonly used yellow food dye. It is a permitted synthetic food dye in India. The present review is aimed to discuss the noxious role of Tartrazine as it is used in numerous food items available in the market.

Aquaculture plays a vital role in many countries by offering better nutrition, higher income, foreign exchange and better employment opportunities. Aquatic ecosystems are affected by several health stressors that significantly deplete biodiversity. Fungal infection is an important economic and limiting factor in intensive fish production. Microbial quality of farmed fish is largely determined by the quality of water in which they are cultivated.

Collaborative Planning, Forecasting & Replenishment (CPFR) has of late been the holy grail of supply chain collaboration. Its role in achieving exemplary performance of supply chains has been widely documented. This study sought to find out the role of CPFR on hotel performance when the relationship was mediated by cooperative behaviour. A survey design was employed where proportionate stratified sampling was used to select 50 out of 57 town hotels. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires as well interview guides to the procurement\supply chain departments of these hotels.

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a genetic condition in which the male sterile plants are not able to set seeds on their own. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes interact to control male sterility. Restorer of fertility (Rf) genes restore male fertility on CMS plants. In the present study, we genetically mapped a fertility restoration locus using selective genotyping approach in a F2 population of 296A x PVK809 cross. The Rf locus was identified near to the SSR marker Xtxp304 on chromosome 2.

Calcium is an integral component of bones and teeth. Being present in minute amounts, calcium is essential for maintaining several physiological functions. However, most Indians usually consume low-calcium diet. There is evidence of widespread osteoporosis, bone fractures, osteopenia, bone pain and reduced bone mass, particularly in post-menopausal women. Cauliflower green is a low-cost, calcium-rich (626mg/100g) leafy vegetable which can be dried by various methods but the calcium content varies as the processing method varies.

The present strategy of rural development in India mainly focuses on poverty alleviation, better livelihood opportunities, provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmes of wage and self-employment. In this context sericulture is a better option because it is an agro based economic activity which provides immense scope for self- employment. It provides direct or indirect employment to about 7 million people in India. Andhra Pradesh endowed with 37,000 ha under mulberry crop and occupies 2nd position in the country in production of silk.

The effect of consumption of diets containing Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves on lipid profile of diabetic wistar rats was investigated. Fifty (50) female wistar rats were randomly distributed into five groups of ten rats each. Group 1 (normal control) was fed with normal rat feed; Group 2 (diabetic control) was also fed with normal rat feed; Groups 3 and 4 (diabetic, diet-treated) were fed with diets containing 5% and 7.5% Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves respectively; Group 5 (diabetic, insulin-treated) was fed with normal feed and treated with insulin.

Parenting styles are defined as set of attitudes; beliefs and goals parents have and put into practice in their daily interactions with their children. Parents adopt many parenting styles, from quite strict to very permissive one. An attempt was made to investigate the association between parental use of disciplinary styles and behaviour problems among preschool children. The sample constituted 100 (50 boys and 50 girls) studying in three different preschool settings i.e. Laboratory nursery school, Anganwadi centres and Private schools in Tirupati town.

The present investigation was performed during the season June 2013 to June 2014. In this investigation direct method of study were used, includes isolation and direct observations. During these investigation 16 dominant fungi was isolated. Comparative analysis was done as organic cotton field fungi and conventional cotton fungi field. Fungal pathogen of organic field is higher than that conventional cotton field.

The Department of Women and Child Development within the Ministry of Human Resource Development initiated the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in 1976 in India. Under the Integrated Child Development Services programme, anganwadi centres provide children with health, nutrition, and education services from birth to six years of age and a nutritional and health services to pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.

Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum) is generally cultivated for linen fiber or for oil from its seeds. Flaxseed is richest source of alpha-linolenic acid, lignans and other nutritional components. Diet is one of the most important factors that are necessary for the better health of an individual. Provision of diet for the maintenance of physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of concern since ancient times.

Various types of pollutants are present in wastewater discharges form coke industry, but cyanide and phenol are considered as most dangerous pollutants among all. Due to the utilization of natural sources, the phytoremediation is considered as a low cost method which utilizes natural sources. In the current research, Co-removal of cyanide and phenol from waste water was done by E. Crassipes (Water Hyacinth) and Zea Mays (Maize) plants with the application of the phytoremediation method.

Primary calibration method is used by relatively few laboratories such as national calibration laboratories and few large automotive, space or governmental organizations which work at high technological level. The National Metrology Institute of Egypt (NIS) has developed a pressure calibration system that used for calibration of pressure sensitivities. In this study, we estimate the uncertainty of unknown one inch condenser microphone using two known references one inch condenser microphones according to international standard.

Present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of Bougainvillea variegata leaves extract with Bougainvillea spectabillis leaves extract. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic and Ethanolic extract of these plant leaves were tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by observing the zone of inhibition.

The inhibition action of Azadirachta indica gum was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 mol L-1 HCl using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. Results show that the inhibition efficiency increases with decreasing temperature and increasing inhibitors concentration. The effect of temperature (303 - 328±1 K) on the inhibition of corrosion have also been studied. Corrosion kinetic parameters and thermodynamic adsorption parameters have been calculated and discussed in detail. The adsorption of this gum on the mild steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

The CNC machine tools are used to manufacture precision machined components. Generally the component profile & size to be achieved is programmed using NC Codes. Once the parts are produced, the operator will check whether the desired dimension is achieved or not. There are chances that due to the tool wear (predominantly) and other reasons like material non homogeneity, insufficient coolant supply etc. (less predominantly) the produced parts are out of specified tolerance zone.

This work investigated the corrosion behaviour of Jatrophacurcas (JC) crude leave extract on zinc metal in the presence of 1.50 MHydrochloric acid solution at 28oC by hydrogen evolution (Gasometric) method. The results revealed that JC effectively inhibited the induced corrosion of zinc in the HCl solution. Inhibition efficiency increases as in extract concentration increases with optimum efficiency at 50v/v%. Corrosion rate retarded with increase in extract concentration.

The main objective of this project was blending of aniline and toluene with local reformat gasoline, to enhance the octane number of reformat gasoline product from Khartoum refinery (Sudan). Reformat gasoline was tested according to American society for testing and materials(ASTM), Tests included distillation, sulfur content, density, vapor pressure, oxidation stability, cupper strip corrosion, gum existence, lead content, and octane number determination by Cooperative Fuels Research )CFR engine(.

The expression of ‘fuzzy’ alludes to the capacity of managing uncertain or obscure inputs. Rather than utilizing complex numerical mathematical statements, fuzzy logic utilizes linguistic depictions to characterize the relationship between the input data and the output activity. In engineering systems, fuzzy logic gives an advantageous and easy to understand front-end to create control projects, helping creators to focus on the functional objectives, not on the mathematics. In this paper the basic content about the way of fuzziness, fuzzy operations and fuzzy rules are performed.

A study has been undertaken to investigate the quality of service rendered to airline passengers. The passengers who come to airport would report at the respective counters in the first stage with relevant documents and tickets. It is found that for each flight service three counters are opened and passengers are free to join any of the queues at counters. At those counters the passengers are issued with the boarding passes after verification of documents. In the second stage where immigration cum security pass activity is performed.

An unsteady MHD flow of homogeneous fluid due to an exponentially decay line source placed between two axially symmetric infinite parallel disks is considered under the action of a transverse magnetic field. Considering axial symmetry within the system the expression for radial velocity, pressure and skin friction at the disks are obtained for small values for Reynolds number and at a large distance from the source. The influence of decay parameter, applied field and Reduced Reynolds number over the physical parameter of the problem are analyzed graphically followed by conclusions.

Copper (II) complexes containing mixed ligands, Schiff bases (L1=(2-carboxyphenyl)-pyridine-2-ylethyleneamine; L2=5-Br-(2-carboxyphenyl)-pyridine-2-ylethyleneamine and L3=5-NO2-(2-carboxyphenyl)-pyridine-2-ylethyleneamine) and 1, 10-phenanthroline has been synthesized by conventional methods. These copper (II) complexes has been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, FT-IR, electronic spectra, ESR spectra, electrochemical analysis, flourescence spectra and thermal analysis.

The inhibition effect of Pisonia grandis leaves extract on corrosion of copper in 1.0 N hydrochloric acid was investigated by mass loss measurements with various exposure time and temperature. The present investigation revealed that the percentage of inhibition efficiency is increased with increase of inhibitor concentration and decreased with rise in period of contact. In temperature studies, the observed results reflect that the percentage of inhibition efficiency is decreased with increase of temperature and it suggests that the mechanism follows physical adsorption.

Bulk geochemical characteristics include, API gravity, sulfur content, metal contents (V and Ni), bulk composition (saturate, aromatic, polar NSO and asphaltene), normal alkanes and isoprenoids (detected from gas chromatography) were determined for the crude oil samples collected from northern, central and southern province of Gulf of Suez region. These characteristics are used to provide information about source organic matter input, depositional environment and maturation level.

This paper describes “How to Optimize Testing” in software Engineering. With the growing constraints on the budgeting of the software, there is a huge need for reducing the effort spent on various activities in a Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Among all the activities in the SDLC, testing seems to an activity with huge scope for reducing the effort by using optimized testing techniques such as Risk based Testing Approach (RBT).

The magnetic materials occupied great place in the development of modern data storage system. The present study stated the synthesis of soft magnetic Mg-Co ferrite particles in co-precipitation method. The synthesized ferrite was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, SEM, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) analysis. The XRD and FTIR analysis revealed the formation of single phase spinel ferrites. The grain size of synthesized particle was in nano meter range with saturation magnetization of 21.129 emu/g at 12kOe.

Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. (Syn. P. roxburghii G. Don.), belongs to the family Mimosaceae, is a multipurpose tree and a delicious vegetable of Manipur. It shows wide variation in seed weight and seed size. The effect of seed weight and seed size on germination, seedling survival and growth were evaluated. Seeds were grouped into 3 classes each on weight (< 0.8 g, 0.8 - 1g and >1g classes) and size (diameter) (<12mm, 12-13mm and >13mm classes). The seedlings were allowed to grow and various parameters were collected for survival and growth studies.

Ainabkoi settlement scheme, like other million-acre schemes in Kenya, was started in 1960-1967, to settle people from all parts of Rift valley. The programme was supposed to implement planned socio-economic changes, and was expected to work according to set out guidelines. However, most of these guidelines were set along the colonial agenda for land in Kenya. This paper seeks to analyse the colonial context that informed the historical foundations of Ainabkoi Settlement Scheme in Eldoret East in the North Rift region of Kenya.

The study was conducted in Dendi district of West Showa zone (Oromia), Ethiopia. This study intended to assess the problems and challenges that affect both institution and borrowers regarding loan repayment process. The survey was conducted in four purposively selected Kebele Associations which having the maximum number of borrowers by selecting 130 sample households through systematic random sampling technique after defaulters and non-defaulters stratification of the respondents. Out of 130 borrowers 50% were defaulter, and the remaining half were non-defaulters.

Groundwater is a natural resource of the earth that sustains and supports domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. Over half of the world’s population depends on groundwater for drinking water supplies. Its usage is increasing due to rapid population growth, high rate of urbanization, industrial growth and agricultural utilizations. This has resulted to rapid depletion of groundwater which leads to water stress and degradation of these resources.

Phulkari is a rural tradition art of crafting embroidered odhni used by women in Punjab, literally meaning" flower work ". This was adapted for development of women’s kurti for enhancing their look and adding value. The study was conducted in Hisar city of Haryana state. A total of fifteen placements were made (three each for five kurtis) from selected designs. Out of fifteen placements most suitable five placements were selected by the experts for development of kurtis. These were various developed placements of selected designs.

Gender equality is a key factor in contributing to the economic growth of a nation. The United Nations Population Fund believe that economic growth and social equality should go hand in hand, arguing that “gender inequality holds back growth of individuals, development of countries, and the evolution of societies, to the disadvantage of men and women”. The discrimination against women remains a common occurrence in today’s society and serves to hinder economic prosperity.

Gender equality is a key factor in contributing to the economic growth of a nation. The United Nations Population Fund believe that economic growth and social equality should go hand in hand, arguing that “gender inequality holds back growth of individuals, development of countries, and the evolution of societies, to the disadvantage of men and women”. The discrimination against women remains a common occurrence in today’s society and serves to hinder economic prosperity.

A human activity constitutes the physical, cultural and perceptual attributes of townscapes that creates social phenomenon and sense of place. However, human activities in historic waterfront were facing alteration which resulted to place declining and placelessness. This paper discusses the roles of human activities setting that characterized the cultural & heritage waterfront identity of those three waterfronts namely as of Venice waterfront, Amsterdam waterfront and Marsaxlokk waterfront.

The paper presented to study of the Physico-chemical Parameters of Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu. Yearly-wise changes in physical and chemical. Parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Hco3 , F, Cl₂, SO₄, NO⁻₃, Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺ were analysed for a periods of year from 2009 – 2013. All Parameters were exceeds the permissible limit except Ca and SAR

Image character of a waterfront was predisposed most by the history of the places. Hence, landscape elements also a part of history of place that influence the image of waterfront. In order to sustain the city’s images and character, preservation on the visibility of water features as a landmark is important. Recently, the new commercial development which growth surrounds the historical landmark in cultural and heritage waterfront, have indubitable affect to the visibility at those areas.

This paper primarily focuses upon the repercussions of Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) scheme on the out of pocket expenditure incurred by the beneficiaries. This paper examines the pattern of spending by the beneficiaries on various components of JSSK at aggregated and disaggregated levels that is analyzing the expenditure incurred on diet, diagnosis, transportation and medicines separately and collectively on maternal and child health.

Adoption of full extension package is seen as a key driver to increase agricultural production in Ethiopia. However, there is lack of empirical evidence on the adoption of full extension package on teff by farmers. A study was conducted in Dendi district, Ethiopia. The data for the study were generated by employing both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from the respondents. To generate qualitative data, focus group discussion and key informant interview were employed.

Meditation is a mind body practice. The desired purpose of each meditation technique is to channel our awareness into a more positive by totally transforming one’s state of mind. To meditate is to turn inwards, to concentrate on the inner self. Meditation allows all this activity to settle down, and often results in the mind becoming more peaceful, calm and focused. In essence, meditation allows the awareness to become rejuvenated. Hence the present study was taken up to study the impact of meditation on self esteem of college going students.

The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of academic motivation and gender to academic performance among secondary school students attending day schools within Nakuru municipality. The study was based on the Self-Determination Theory by Ryan and Deci which explains two main components of human motivation; (a) humans are motivated to maintain an optimal level of stimulation, and (b) humans have basic needs for competence and personal causation or self-determination.

Sustainable Development needs a new dimension in the present world of modernization. With Smart cities, smart development and smart growth which are a new concept in today’s time; the relative dimension and definition of sustainability change. The need for smart cities and development have in-fact emerged due to the need for sustainable development in light of disadvantages of rapid urbanization, increasing disasters and climate change.

Visiting days in boarding schools have become a phenomenon in Kenya. Each school has its own policies on the management of the whole event, relating to who visits to what is brought to students during visiting days. These policies are often flouted resulting in indiscipline. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of visiting days on student discipline in girls’ boarding secondary schools of Uasin Gishu County. The target population comprised all the 92 secondary schools with an approximate population of 12,273 students. Out of these, 6079 were girls.

Coarsely crystallized, semi precious green and yellow varieties of apatites are occurring in talcosic ultramafic rocks of the Jharol area. XRD data shows that the green variety is hydroxyl-chlorapatite while, the yellow variety is a fluor apatite.

In recent years, nano-based photocatalyst has shown a great potential as a low-cost, green chemical based and sustainable waste water treatment technology. Development of materials for photo oxidation and photocatalysis has followed an evolutionary pathway from usual bulk metals and semiconductors to colloidal materialsand, recently, to nanosized materials. Nanosized materials, whose electronic properties are size-tunable, enable the application of a larger range of semiconductors as a potential material for photocatalytic processes in the fieldof environmental remediation.

India’s art and handicrafts is asset of visual expression, communication and its technical process, portraying the religious, cultural, and social signs of different region. Due to its aesthetics and functional values the craft of the Indian cultures are valued. From the near past to the present time, turned wood lacquer craft in Budhni has thrived to be one of them. In this research work, the turned wood lacquer craft of Budhni including its process and infrastructure is studied. The type of wood, method of turning, lacquering and its finishing are studied in details.

The main objective of present paper is to identify and fill up the research gaps in terms of conceptual aspects and methods of research work on Fluvial Morphology and Socio-Economic Environment in the East-Central part of lower deltaic Bengal. This work will provide a proper idea to develop the method of study to the scholars studying on almost similar type of problems. For achieving the target the author has reviewed the previous literatures thoroughly. The literature survey has been attempted on all most all the main aspects of the research work.

This study was conducted to find solutions on problems that occur in the stage of interaction between students on Haluoleo University campus where in the past five years is often hit by riots, demonstrations, protests, and even dissension among the group of students who violate the ethical and social norms then tend to violate law and human rights. The research objective is to improve social intelligence of student of Haluoleo University through cooperative learning. It is a learning method developed by Robert E.

The banking industry globally has evolved over the years owing to a number of factors that include but are not limited to technological advances, customer tastes and preferences, more dynamic segmentation of products and services, competition which from not only traditional banks but also mobile companies and micro finance institutions. The customers have also become more demanding and informed hence the banks have to put in place strategies that will lead to having more loyal customers.

The study assesses mixed occurrence of trypanosomes in trade cattle brought for slaughter at Kano Abattoir, Northwestern Nigeria. Standard trypanosome detection methods were used to screen blood samples collected from 242 cattle of different breeds and sexes. Overall infection rates of 1.24% was obtained.

The present paper aims to focus on: whether firms of the Zari and Embroidery industry, an important informal localized industry in West Bengal, are leap-frogging. To access the issue, the analysis is based on how small firms of the industry get access to new economic knowledge production, i.e. innovation. The issue is crucial since this particular industry is characterized by the dominance of production units of small firms of the industry who are agglomerated in specific spatial clusters in particular geographical horizon throughout the state.

India capital market has provide a various investment opportunities to the investors, for helping them to invest in various industries and to get the profitable return. Through this various financial products, mutual fund ensure the minimum risks and maximum return to the investors, in the Indian capital market Growth and developments of various mutual funds products has show to be one of the most catalytic instruments in make a momentous investment growth in the capital market. In this con mutual funds text, close monitoring and evaluation of mutual funds has become essential.

The present paper examines the quality of Groundwater in the Study Area of Kalyandurg, Brahmasamudram and Setturu Mandals of Anantapur district of A.P, India. The water quality analysis helps to know the suitability of water for different uses domestic, Agricultural and Industrial suitability of water for various purposes may be studied through important parameters like TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), pH, Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and TH (Total Hardness) and Fluoride contents of the water are the parameters by which water quality is here assessed for 2000 and 2012.

To understand spin and other properties of microparticles, we have to understand Basic Building Blocks of the universe (Fig. 1) (mass – B.B.B Bit or B-Bit) and Information s (Code PcPs) and Divine Mechanics Unit (CCP, Code PcPs and CP). Spin is acquired and unconditioned property of mass part of basic Building blocks and it is (type of spin) by virtue of Atomic genes part of reality. Hence it is not affected by outer stimuli and it has appeared during creation of fermions and bosons and it ends with destruction of these particle after destruction of the universe.

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection leaves a considerable proportion of children with life long sequelae of one or other form. Besides high case fatality rate, the Japanese encephalitis - epidemics, result in variable frequency of sequelae like mental impairment, severe emotional instability, personality changes and paralysis. A retrospective study had been undertaken to analyse different forms of sequelae among 49 partly recovered JE- cases in Perambalur, a Japanese encephalitis - prone district of Tamilnadu from 1990 through 1999.

Introduction: The traditional view is that tourniquets are contraindicated during amputation surgery with peripheral vascular disease because they might cause damage to arteries in the thigh that are already diseased. Seeing encouraging results from studies done by some researchers we hypothesized that use of a pneumatic tourniquet might improve the outcome following transtibial amputation, without compromising wound healing in a population of elderly patients with peripheral vascular disease.

Aim: To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcome and usefulness of umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and AFI in oligohydramnnios at or beyond 34 weeks of gestation. Methods: This comparative randomized prospective study conducted among 150 pregnant women at 34 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation.AFI was measured by 4 quadrant technique and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry done in cases with AFI5 cm and the results were statistically analyzed and compared.

Background: Menstruation is normal physiological phenomenon occurring in woman. Adolescence is a phase of growth when large number of physical and psychological changes occur. Menarche is a significant milestone in the transitory developmental journey of an adolescent. Poor personal hygiene and defective menstrual management practices give rise to repeated reproductive tract infections (RTIs), which are otherwise preventable. Menstrual practices are still shrouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions.

Background: Mucocele is one of the most common benign soft tissue tumor present in the oral cavity. Histologically, there are of two types – one is extravasation and second one is retention type but the majority are extravasation type. Aims: The objective is to determine various factors related to mucocele such as role of trauma due, recurrence, duration, and to find out whether there is any role of psychological stress which initiates trauma like lip or cheek biting. Materials and Methods: 76 cases of mucocele diagnosed at the Department of the Oral Pathology, 2008 and 2013 were reviewed.

Capillary hemangioma is a common vascular lesion occurring in 1-2% in infants, predilection for girls. It presents as superficial cutaneous lesion, subcutaneous lesion or deep orbital tumour. A 1.5 year female child presented with sudden swelling of Right eye upper eyelid since ten days. No systemic complains. A purplish mass was seen over the right upper eyelid with conjunctival chemosis. On ultrasound and ultrasound biomicroscopy 21.13*21.48 mm vascular mass with hemorrhagic cyst was noted.

Data from 558 Friesian-Bunaji crossbreds were used for this study. Season and period of calving significantly (p<0.05) influenced 305-day first lactation milk yield while calf parity number significantly (p<0.05) influenced first milk yield at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months. First lactation yield of crossbreds did not follow a particular trend but was better in animals calved in the late wet season (982.41kg) followed by early dry season (950.45kg) and least in the early wet season (868.19kg).

Recently, the synthesis of 2-hydroxybenzoinoxime, 2-hydroxy-benzoinhydrazone, 2-hydroxybenzoinphenylhydrazone and 2-hydroxybenzoin-semicarbazone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine and semicarbazide hydrochloride in presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide in DMF-water (80%) medium respectively.

All hospitalized patients specially those who are critically ill are susceptible to have Nosocomial Infection. Aim: To conduct a detailed study of various types of nosocomial infections, related factors and control measures for the purpose of preparing a descriptive report on evidence of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Setting and Design: Critical Care Areas through quantitative research approach and non interventional descriptive research design was used for the present study based on Chain of Infection Model (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005).

Introduction: John Flavell in mid-1970s defined Metacognition as thinking about one’s own thinking and its regulation. Then in 1985 he further explained that one’s metacognitive base comprises what one has learned through various cognitive experiences. Over the past four decades, a considerable amount of work has been done in this field with quite a lot of literature published on the construct of Metacognition. No study has yet been done on evaluation of Metacognition levels among undergraduate medical students in Pakistan.

Ionising radiations are one of the dominant external factor that exert deleterious effect on human life. The biological effects of the radiation cause damages to DNAs, lipids and proteins. Exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation causes damage to the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal or central nervous systems. There is a dose dependent effect of radiation on human body.

Introduction: Ganoderma Lucidum was reported contained several active components biologically, such as polysaccharides, triterpenes, sterols, proteins, peptides, amino acids, adenosine, oleic acid, vitamins and minerals. Vitamins were contained among B1, B2, C, niacin, and biotin. While the mineral content included potassium, fofor, calcium, magnesium, copper, germanium and some other makroelemen which totaled more than 200 active elements.

Sixty buffaloes were selected for an on-farm study to elucidate the effect of pre-partum supplementation on body condition score of dam, milk production, birth weight and growth rate of calf among local buffaloes reared under mixed farming system in Bidar district, Karnataka, India. Supplementation was done for 90 days till parturition using concentrate feed of known composition.

Back ground: Petrol, also known as gasoline, is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines, also used as a thinner and industrial solvent. Ingredients in the petrol have got a deleterious effect on hemopoietic cells .Various studies suggested toxic effect of petrol fumes on RBC and WBC. Present study is an attempt to establish the toxic effect of long term exposure to petrol fumes on platelet count.

Objective: This studyis aimed to estimate the rate of schistosomiasis mansoni among basic school children in Kafr Elsheikh governorate (Kafr Elsheikh district) to determine the magnitude of the problem for prevention and control programs. Background: The study area was in Kafr Elsheikh Governorate, uppermost part of the Nile Delta 120 - 210 km north of Cairo. Kafr Elsheikh district is a model for rural Egypt depending on the water of the Nile for its agricultural output. Kafr Elsheikh Governorate has the highest schistosomiasis prevalence in Egypt.

Epulis is a clinical term used to describe a localised growth on gingiva. A vast variety of epulis can be classified based on histopathological examination, like fibrous hyperplasia, peripheral ossifying fibroma, pyogenic granuloma/ peripheral giant cell granuloma. Fibrous epulis is a tumour- like lesion of the gingiva caused by local irritation in the interdental papilla. This is a unique case report of a fibrousepulis in the maxillary region attaining a large size in a year’s time in a 75- year old male.

Ocular trauma is a major cause of visual impairment in all parts of the world. In India the incidence varies between 5% and 10% where as it is 10% to 15% in western world. Eyeball penetration is effected by wide range of objects, Work related injuries; in rural sector penetrating injuries from vegetative materials is common.

Fungal-infection in the burn patient is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality known to cause many deaths remains one of the most challenging concerns for the burn treating team. This study was conducted at the tertiary care level to determine frequency of wound infections by fungus in burn patients and antimycotic resistance pattern of isolates. One hundred & fifty patients of all age groups were included in the study. Samples were collected from the burn wounds & processed microbiologically.

Pet owners should be well aware of the fundamentals of management like deworming and vaccination schedules, frequency of ear cleaning, grooming practice, various infectious diseases that affect pets and regarding regular health checkups.

Presently the whole world is hoping to make “FOOD IS THY MEDICINE” come true. People look out for healthy but functional foods for the management or prevention of disorders. Healthy foods may be developed with medicinal herbs, in order to make its consumption palatable and frequently consumable. In the present study, it has been embarked to venture in developing common South Indian rice based recipes incorporated with Tribulus terrestris (an aphrodisiac herb) fruit powder and to evaluate them organoleptically by using 9 point hedonic scale.

Background: Despite much research,there are currently no established blood-based biomarkers for dementia.The aim of the present study was to assess the circulatory biochemical parameters and their association with cognitive markers in serum of patients with Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and compare with elderly age-matched controls. Materials & Methods: The study population consisted of patients with Dementia (Group A, n = 32), Mild Cognitive Impairment (Group B, n = 28), and elderly age-matched Controls (Group C, n = 30).

Marjolin's ulcer is defined as a malignant, ulcerating neoplasm occurring in cicatricial tissue, and is thought to be more aggressive than the other more common varieties of skin cancers. Butterworths Medical Dictionary (MacNalty, 1965) now defines Marjolin's ulcer as any cancer arising in association with a chronic sinus, ulcer or scar. Cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the abdominal wall from a scar (non burn scar) are extremely rare (Fleming et al., 1990).

With growing significance of social responsibility of business, companies worldwide have relented to embrace the notion of workforce diversity for providing equal opportunities of growth for people irrespective of their gender, race, religion ethnicity etc. The study examined gender diversity policies of 20 U.S. companies by dividing them into two groups, of which first group of companies were led by female corporate leaders & second group never had any female leaders since their inception.

Obesity is becoming a major public health problem with severe health and economic implications. The aim of this study is to find the influence of obesity on lung function by comparing the lung volumes in normal weight, overweight and obese subjects by using Body Mass Index - as a measure of overall adiposity and to find whether the effect of BMI on lung volumes varies between obese males and females.

This article reviews the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection in Indian population. Total 109 different studies were included in this study. Literature search was done by using keywords ‘hepatitis C virus prevalence in India’, ‘HCV and India’, ‘hepatitis and India’ through electronic databases like Pubmed, Google Scholar. Blood donors constituted the largest data of 15,61,371 individuals. The frequency was highest in injecting drug users i.e. 51.22 % (95% CI: 50.80 – 51.64).

Aims and Objectives: To determine the safety and efficacy of low dose, single loading dose and standard Pritchard regimen of magnesium sulphate in treatment of Antepartum Eclampsia. To compare maternal and perinatal outcome in above three regimen groups. Methodology: The present study is a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu, during the period of July, 2014 – June, 2015 after obtaining clearance from Hospital Ethical Committee.

The purpose of this study was to analysis of the challenges and problems of teachers’ assessment and evaluation. The main focus of this study was to investigate the extent of utilizing the assessment and evaluation and its implementation. Four high schools in Adigrat town were selected. Of the respective total population size of the study group, 4 principals, 60 teachers and 200 students as sample size were taken. The data for analysis were collected from students, teachers and school principals in each high school using structured interview and instrument.

An experiment was carried out with 40 oleiferous Brassica species to categorize them under different species considering the morphological attributes and to find out the best genotypes of B. juncea for the future hybridization program. The genotypes showed wide variation for morphological characteristics and thus were categorized under three cultivated species- B. rapa, B. napus and B. juncea. In B.

Background: It has been identified that the ABO blood group system is controlled by a 2 loci gene system: locus ABO and locus H (FUT1), while Dermatoglyphics have been shown to be polygenic multi-factorial traits. Recent advances in genetic analysis have found a multitude of links between these two traits, but conclusive deductions are still pending. The current study was a cross-sectional study aimed at expounding Dermatoglyphics in different ABO blood types among a sex matched sample of 300 Ethiopian students from Jigjiga University, Ethiopia.

The study was carried out to check the anticancer activity of the plant Swertia chirata. The anticancer activity was studied on HCT 116 and Calu 6 cell lines by MTT assay using the methanol extract of leaves and stem of the plant separately at a concentration ranging from 10-320 µg/ml. It showed that methanol extracts of both leaves and stem exhibited anticancer activity on HCT 116 cell lines in which the methanol extract of leaves exhibited more anticancer activity compared to stem.

Drinking water quality is directly related to health. The worlds thirst for water is likely to become one 21st century. In order to evaluate the existing status and trends of different water quality parameters, Spring and Well water samples was collected in Chowdupalli Panchayat, Chinthpalli Mandal, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Euroasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is widely distributed throughout Southern Europe, Asia, and North Africa in Scrub, forest, and arid environments. Even though wild boars are biologically and genetically well-studied worldwide, so far no genetic studies have been conducted in Mongolia. Two subspecies of wild boars including Sus scrofa nigripis and Sus scrofa raddeanus are known in Mongolia based on their morphological differences.

Gingivitis is caused by substances derived from microbial plaque accumulating at or near the gingival sulcus; all other suspected local and systemic etiologic factors either enhance plaque accumulation or retention, or enhance the susceptibility of the gingival tissue to microbial attack. Porphyromonasgingivalis (formerly Bacteroides gingivalis) is an anaerobic, asaccharolytic, gram-negative coccobacillus that is frequently a component of the flora of subgingival lesions of adult patients with periodontitis.

Feeding habit of the fish is very difference in the form of carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous and also there is a large diversity in their feeding patterns. Very young fish prefer to have eat from live feed due to their mouth size and the immaturity of the digestive system, otherwise they do not take the food will have starvation. The nutritional status of feed in fishes is important in determining the ability of fish to resist various diseases. Therefore, there is a clear need for a proper diet to improve the health and to prevent the outbreaks of disease.

The invasive yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes is commonly found in gardens and forests of tropical and subtropical locations. These ants are a problematic pest in both urban and rural environment because of their extreme foraging behavior. The control of these insect pests is by using synthetic pesticides. The use of plant derived compounds is now gaining importance, as they are found to be safe to the environment. The use of non-edible oil seeds of Jatropha curcas containing phorbol esters has been considered as a potential source of biopesticide.

Ratoon stunting disease (RSD) is a pathology caused by Leifsoniaxyli subsp. Xyli bacterium, one of the major diseases affecting sugarcane world production. The accurate diagnosis of the disease presents some difficulties, because once noticeable, not always the symptoms are specific. Therefore, diagnostic tests should include reliable methods that ensure the health report with high sensibility, even in the asymptomatic stages of the disease in plants, such as PCR. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro shoot tips of sugarcane by PCR-specific technique.

This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and activity of Rubia cordifolia, Harrizonia abyssinica, Leucas Calistochys Olive and Sanchus schwein furthii against Plasmodium berghei. Approximately 1x105-1x106 of parasitized erythrocytes with Plasmodium berghei, were inoculated into 7 week old naïve BALB/c mice. On the fourth day, these mice were treated with four plant extracts dispensed using the following dosage; 25mg/kg of body weight, 50mg/kg of body weight, and 100mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 4 days. The negative control group received equal dosage of normal saline.

Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid compound, which is a neuro-active insecticide. The over use of this pesticide requires higher awareness about this pesticide. Present investigation was carried out to analyze the effect of imidacloprid on metabolic enzymes amylase, protease and phosphatase in soil isolates Escherichia coli and Brevundimonas Sp.

Thirty-four genotypes of soybean were evaluated under eight diverse environments to know the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment interaction and stability in performance for seed yield and eleven other characters. It was observed that G X E (linear) component was significant for all the characters except days to maturity, number of seeds/pod, harvest index, 100 seed weight and oil content, whereas pooled deviation, a non-linear component, was significant for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, 100 seed weight, oil content and protein content.

The objective of the present study was to explore possibility of using reconstituted British Reference Standard (BRP) (Catalogue No. Y0000488) beyond its recommended shelf life for studying molecular size distribution in human normal intravenous immunoglobulin so as to reduce wastage, expenses and minimize the dependency on such BRP.

A destructive anthracnose disease of Rauvolfia serpentina L. Benth. Ex Kurz. is found in West Bengal. It’s causal organism was isolated and phenotypically identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporoides. Once in a week survey for two consecutive years of 2013 and 2014 in ten places of 24 Parganas (N) district, West Bengal establishes the presence of disease in all ten places. PDI was recorded by monitoring it’s cultivation at 4 selected areas in and adjoining North 24 Parganas, West Bengal for the same time period.

Background: Malaria and other mosquito vector born diseases prevalent globally. In India, village people often have no or limited hospital facility at their places. Further due to the lack of proper knowledge, local village people have to rely on traditional medicines for treatment of the disease. Ethnomedicinal plants and animals commonly used by tribal people to cure malaria and other fever, in the Meikal hill region of Amarkantak were surveyed and documented.

The present study was carried out to find out the changes induced by one of the type of stress conditions such as heavy metal copper sulfate, It is discharged into freshwater environments in large concentrations as an industrial effluent and severely affect the freshwater fauna, especially fishes. The serum electrolyte changes in the fish, Notopterus notopterus was investigated after copper sulfate exposure at sub lethal concentration.

The present study was conducted to prepare the sunflower seed fortified cookies as influenced by different levels of sunflower seed powder. Sunflower seed fortified cookies were prepared by fortifying sunflower seed powder in different levels to the cookies flour, whereas cookies prepared out of without adding sunflower seed powder were kept as control. The colour and texture profile analysis of the sunflower seed incorporated cookies and control cookies without the incorporation of sunflower seed were analysized.

There are about 25,000 species of orchids estimated to occur in the world. In India, about 1350 species belonging to 186 genera represent approximately 5.98% of the world orchid flora and 6.83% of the flowering plants in India. The Eastern Himalayas and North Eastern, North West Himalayas, Peninsular India and Andaman & Nicobar Islands are the major orchid regions of India. Some orchid species like Dendrobiumnobile, Eulophiacampestris, Orchislatifolia, Vanda roxburghii and Vanda tessellate have been documented for their medicinal value.

This study reports the results of vermicomposting with Eudrilus eugeniae of Parthenium hysterophorus mixed with cow dung in different ratios (25%, 50% and 75%) in a 9 weeks experiment. In all the treatments, a decrease in pH, OC total and C: N ratio, but increase in EC, Ntotal, P aval, Ca total, K total and heavy metals was recorded. The cocoons production and earthworm biomass increased as vermicomposting progressed. The results indicated that parthenium can be a raw material for vermicomposting if mix with cow dung in appropriate quantity.

Stereospermum tetragonum DC. is a medicinal plant belonging to family Bignoniaceae. S. tetragonum is an important medicinal plant; therefore, it’s planting and conservation has been recommended to prevent its extinction. In the present study we estimated the pod length and width, the number of seeds per pod, and number of seeds per kilograms of seeds using a descriptive analysis and the Analysis of Variance. We specified and estimated a regression model to study the relationship between the number of seeds per pod (dependent variable) and the pod length (independent variable).

Most of the species of Aspergillus are dominant and play vital role in the biodeterioration of fruits. Fungal organisms plays significant role in infection, altering quality and longevity of fruits during the storage. The present investigation is an attempt to screen aflatoxin from. Aspergillus flavus isolates, isolated from different citrus spp. Different isolates of Aspergillus flavus were isolated from Orange (Citrus aurantium), Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) and Mosambi (Citrus sinensis). These isolates were grown on liquid SMKY medium.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the Ethanol extract leaf from Jasminum sambac Linn. Qualitative analysis of showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, phenol, steroids, terpenoids and glycosides. Absence of leaves extracts protein, mucilage, saponins, fats and fixed oils. This work deals with the phytochemical screening and GC-MS, FT-IR studies of the Ethanol extract.

The water of river Yamuna caters to diverse needs for the survival of the people. With rapid expansion of industrialization and urbanization the quality of the river is severely affected due to indiscriminate discharge of untreated industrial sludge and some extent to mixing of domestic wastewater with free flowing obnoxious effluents containing multi-level heavy metals, pesticides residue, disinfectants and their byproducts contaminants from the drains into the river which are badly affecting river’s overall ecology.

The use of plants to cure human diseases has been coming from ancient cultures, medicine practitioners used the extracts from plant to soothe and relieve aches and pains. Medicinal plants, and plant products are known to ‘Ayurveda’ in India since long times. In the very beginnings of Botany, doctors in both Europe and America researched herbs in their quest to cure diseases. Many of the plants that were discovered by ancient civilizations are still in use today. About three quarters of the world populations relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health cure.

The aim of this study is to review the histological types of thyroid lesions, their sex variation and mean age of presentation as well as toupdate available literature on prevalence of the common thyroid lesions. This study analyse the data from September 2008 to October 2013. Total 127 specimens of thyroid were studied. Non-neoplastic lesions (99 cases-78%) were more common than neoplastic lesions (28 cases- 22%). The most common entity was goiter (87.87%) amongst non-neoplastic lesions.

A fern gametophyte is a small, photosynthetic organism capable of normal development in culture. It has usually both the sex organs leading to the belief that self-fertilization is probably the rule. But this would lead to great deal of homozygosity and consequently little morphological variation. But it is generally found that ferns exhibit a lot of morphological and cytological variation which is due to cross fertilization. The present study is an attempt to investigate the reasons for these variations by studying the gametophytic generation in Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser.-Jenk., D.

Microorganisms have become increasingly important as producer of industrial enzymes and antibiotics. Due to their diversity in their biochemcial properties and growth characteristics, they are much suitable for environmental applications and genetic manipulations. Hence, attempts are being made to isolate and characterize bacteria from less explored ecosystems so as to have diverse cultural and biochemical characteristics. Coastal sand dunes are one such relatively unexplored marine ecosystem.

An Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in 5 villages of the Balrampur district of Chhattisgarh, India, during the year 2014. Along with field study, personal interview was held with 15 people in each village 10 men and 5 women.Plant specimens were, collected thrice namely monsoon, winter and summer.Following taxonomic procedure the specimens were duly pressed processed. Among the specimens collected 50 plant species belonging to 37 families were much used by Korakutribe for various ailments.

The present work aims to focus on the study of fern reproductive biology by raising the gametophyte population in the laboratory conditions and studying the form, sexuality, gametangial sequence, duration and percentage of male, female and bisexual gametophytes.

The graft copolymers of granular maize starch with two vinyl monomers namely- acrylamide and methacrylamide were synthesized using ceric ammonium nitrate. Gravimetric estimation was used to calculate percent grafting. While acid hydrolysis and infra-red spectroscopy was used to confirm the grafting. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is the right technique to study the surface morphology of starch spherulites as their size ranges between 3 and 100 µm.

Among marine invertebrates, mollusc is one of the potential source of bioactive substances. The number of natural products isolated from marine organisms increases rapidly and now exceeds. The antimicrobial research is geared towards the discovery and development of novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. In the present study a total of 4 extracts from Cypraea arabica was assayed for its antimicrobial activity against ten bacterial and six fungal pathogens. Among all the four fractions fraction 3 (Benzene : Methanol) showed maximum level of inhibition zone 18mm against Salmonella typhi.

This paper delineated the indigenous knowledge system of fishing communities of Visakhapatnam district. The present study is undertaken to bring out the present status of fishing communities inhabiting the Visakhapatnam district and their techno-cultural adaptations. In addition to this, housing types, demographic profiles, economic aspects of the fishing communities have been described in detail.

Cassava particulates obtained from dewatered and unfermented cassava mash were garified using hot air dryer at different temperatures namely; 80oC, 90oC, 100oC, 110oC, and 120oC respectively, until constant weight. The study revealed that increased temperature resulted in reduced garification time. It was observed that garification time was longest at 80oC and shortest at 120oC.

The effects of drying condition on the drying behaviour of pepper (C. annum) and the applicability of three thin-layer drying models namely; Page, logarithmic and Flick’s law, to predict the drying behaviour of pepper were studied. The experiments were conducted in a constant temperature hot air drying oven. Three temperatures (50, 60, and 700 C) were studied. Drying air temperature was found to be the main factor affecting the drying kinetics of pepper; raising the drying temperature from 500C to 700 dramatically reduced the drying times.

This paper deals with application of fuzzy set theory in turning of hard-faced components as various parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut are not defined precisely. Decision maker may use the weighted compensatory operator to model the hardfacing problem and a better solution may be obtained.

Component-based software engineering approach to software development employs the techniques of selecting reliable and reusable software components and assembling them within appropriate software architecture to form a robust software system. This approach is unique because it brings about designs that make a clear separation between the stable parts of the system from the specification of their composition. The rising need of software in 21st century is indeed of a great concern.

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) faces the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) problem that is a main disadvantage in multicarrier transmission system. Here in this paper an attempt is made to improve the spectrum efficiency (SE), and energy efficiency (EE) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, Simulation results show that the OFDM system with PAPR reduction could achieve higher SE and EE than that of the system without PAPR reduction with CCDF.

Nickel cobalt oxide nanofilms were grown by electrodepositing method using heptahydrated nickel tetraoxosulphate (VI) salt as source of nickel ion, Citric acid as oxidizing agent, hexahydrated cobalt chloride salt as source of cobalt ion, and Sodium hydroxide as pH adjuster. The deposition voltage was varied from 8.5V to 14.5V in intervals of 1.5V. Results of the study show that the films exhibit low absorbance and low reflectance in all the regions of electromagnetic spectrum; and high transmittance in the regions.

By turbocharging the SI-engine, one is able to reduce the specific fuel consumption as well as the emission of certain pollutants without power losses (Vianna et al., 1989). In order to determine the causes for these reductions, measurements of pressure, temperature and velocity inside the combustion chamber of an 1.3l petrol engine have been carried out. A piezoelectric pressure transducer, a constant current and a constant temperature anemometers have been employed respectively.

In the present work, the study of length of solar cycle 22-24 has been presented in relation to the solar activity, cosmic ray intensity, interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic activity. We have studied the solar activity trends of sunspot number (SSN), geomagnetic activity amplitude planetary A-index (Ap), cosmic ray intensity (CRI) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during solar cycles 22, 23 and 24 (till Dec.2014).

Communication congestion is one of the major issues of networks. Congestion degrades the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). To make run the network smoothly and efficiently several points should be kept in mind and the very important characteristic on which network performance is based is Congestion control techniques which play very important role. To control congestion and improve the performance of TCP, several methods are devised and some more needed.

Modeling and simulation techniques are able to throw new insights in the science and mechanics of materials. Predictability of fracture and failure are becoming more certain and these are now compared with experimental observation. In this work, the authors have investigated the fracture behavior of a single crystal alpha-iron having a mode-I edge crack.

Acid catalysed rection of 3,3 dimercapto-1-(1-methyl-1-H- pyrrol-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (2) with malononitrile was achieved to produce diamino thiapyrane thione derivative (8). Reactions of (2) with some amines e.g. hydroxylamine HCl in different molar ratios and different reaction conditions were explored, and with guanidine sulphate, in basic mediums, e.g. morpholine and sodium methoxide to produce 2-amino-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-4-morpholin-4-yl-4,5-dihydropyrimidine-4-thiol (11) and ethoxy pyrimidine derivative (12).

Internet is a Global system of interconnected servers and computers that uses standard protocols to link millions of devices worldwide using different technologies. Mainly, Servers are computers that stores large amount of information whose purpose is to serve the information needed by connected computers. The devices in internet are linked through broad array of electronics, wireless and optical fiber networking technologies.

In the healthcare industry, a medical doctor has to play a significantly key professional role. The entire focus is on saving the life of patients with the help of his professional acumen, experience, and educational proficiency. Doctors are committed ‘lifetime 24x7’ to their profession as well as to their attached hospital and patients. The present study focuses on organizational commitment with reference to the marital status of the doctors/physicians/surgeons. The data have been collected from eight cities, comprising of four zones of India.

Natural resource management and documentation of indigenous knowledge as a means to ensure sustainable development is becoming both national and global agenda. The main purpose of the study is to examine the mediating role of indigenous Oromo Gada system in commons management of natural resources. In this study, this particular information gap is interrogated by systematically reviewing various literatures on the critical role of Gada system in institutionalization of natural resource management from a wealthy available literature. It is a meticulous conceptual analysis.

More and more Indians are eating out. This creates a massive opportunity for the 100 billion dollar food-services industry. Also, working women find it easier to eat out. The study observes that cuisine, ambience, location and cost are major criteria’s for deciding a restaurant. Also, families have started getting more health conscious and so a large number of them choose to eat healthy. Mumbaikars are also getting experimentative with food due to the growing international exposure.

Background: Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and cost effective strategy to reduce both morbidity and mortality in children. World health organization estimated that if global immunization coverage rises to 90%, vaccines would prevent an additional two million deaths a year among children under five years. Nevertheless, global immunization coverage is still low, leading to two million deaths annually from vaccine preventable diseases.

Human society is familiar with the phenomenon of human trafficking and exploitation in various forms throughout the ages. When it comes to trafficking are often used to define as "modern slavery". Therefore, in a historical perspective on the analysis must take this phenomenon since ancient Greek society, to move to the Romans in the Middle Ages and to proceed further, to date, times in which people are subjected to forms various physical and sexual slavery. Each stage represents the human trafficking phenomenon in conformity with its time and needs.

Background: Satisfaction is one of the meaningful indicators of patient experience of health care Services. Asking patients what they think about the care and treatment they have received is an important step towards improving the quality of care, and to ensuring that local health services are meeting patients’ needs. Methods: Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted from September to October 2013 in Mettu Rural district, Ilubabor Zone, Oromia region, Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 390 subjects were involved in the study.

The government of Cross River State acquired about 280 hectares of land between 1973 and 1983. The land was surveyed and laid into a total of 274 plots distributed to applicants for residential, commercial, industrial users. Other uses include office and warehouse development. These allocations were analyzed using rental values, premium charges and development charges as prescribed by the CRS of Nigeria Gazette No. 6, Vol. 36 of 8th March, 2003.

Background: Fitness may be divided in three areas physical, mental and social fitness .In physical fitness flexibility is one of the very important component. Ground flexibility may increase the level of performance and low level of flexibility may produce injury proneness. The aim of the study was to compare three major joints flexibility of cricket, basket and football players. Method: 30 male university level players 10 from each sports (cricket, basketball and football) were selected conveniently for this study.

Estimating the outstanding claims and funding appropriate reserves are among the most important obligations of insurance companies in order to compensate any possible damages. Outstanding claim reserves are calculated with potential estimations based on the historical data obtained from an insurance company. The estimation of outstanding claim payments is significant with regards to maintaining the financial balance of insurance companies. Literature covers several reserve methods and Chain Ladder method is the most commonly used and recognized method among them.

Introduction: Early childhood education aims at total child development, in a learning environment that is joyful, child centered, playful and activity based. It is expected to provide necessary maturational and experimental readiness to the child for meeting the demands of primary school curriculum. He needs an understanding adult in the form of his teacher to help him to help himself to explore manually and verbally, and to learn the lesson of life from both people and objects. Objectives: To assess the method of administration of teaching learning material for young children.

The palynological study of the northern section of the Anambra basin at Odagbo, southern part of the Benue River was carried out. The coal, silty shale and shaly siltstones were analyzed using standard palynological procedure to enrich the palynological data, date and determine the environment of deposition of the deposits. The heterolithic shales and siltstones yielded some well preserved palynomorphs consisting of 81 angiospermous pollen and 64 pteridophytic spores.

This study was, in a broader sense, intended to identify the many political, social and economic changes that the continent of Africa has undergone since independence. Among the significant changes witnessed are those of its political leaders. This study analyzed the various traits and actions of Africa’s contemporary political leaders as portrayed by Kiswahili poets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes that the contemporary African politician has undergone since the attainment of multiparty democracy according to Swahili poets.

Educational literature, theory, and reform trends have long promoted putting teachers in a central role in curricular design. The longevity of the discourse for meaningful and sustained teacher involvement in curriculum development reflects the failure of such involvement to become common practice in secondary schools in Kenya. This article attempt to investigate teachers’ participation in selection and organization of curriculum content and its impact on curriculum implementation in Kenya. The study was conducted in Meru and Nairobi Counties, Kenya.

The objective of this study was to examine the behaviour of volatility in the Indian commodity market after the introduction of derivative trading in the national level commodity exchanges. Researchers around the world revealed the behaviour of volatility in different commodity markets, but none of them studied the Indian commodity market extensively in this aspect. From 2004 to 2012, this 9 year period was chosen as the period of study.

The Vishnugad - Pipalkoti hydel scheme, a run-off-the-river scheme envisages the construction of a 65m high concrete gravity dam across the river Alakananda, about 1km downstream of Vishnugad near the Helong village to divert water through a 8m diameter horse shoe shaped Head Race Tunnel over a length of 13.4 km to an underground power house for generating 444MW of power near the Hat village. The project is located in Lesser Himalayan terrain, which is characterized by complicated geological setting.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 14-week training and tennis programme on physical and physiological profiles of boys aged 8 to 12 years. Method: The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy boys. The average age, body mass index (BMI), height and weight are 9,9±1,2 years, 17,9±3,5 kg/m2, 138,7±8,1cm and 34,4±10,3 kg respectively. Exercise sessions were carried out for 2 hours per week (Saturday and Sunday) over a 14-week period.

The current paper examines the legislations and policies with respect to persons with disabilities. It traces the recognition of component of sexuality and reproductive and sexual rights of persons with disabilities in various legislations and policies pertaining to them.

Jhum cultivation, which is also known as shifting cultivation, is the primitive form of soil utilization. The main characteristics are rotation of fields rather than crops, clearing by means of fire, absence of manure, use of human labour only and employment of dibble sticks or hoe. After two or three years the fields are abandoned, the cultivators shift to another clearing, leaving the old one for natural recuperation. This explains the use of the term ‘shifting cultivation’. The intervening period for which a Jhum land is abandoned is known as the Jhum-cycle.

Higher Education has become the backbone of economic success in our rapidly developing countries. The higher Education is firmly entrenched in the wider social network and is reciprocally to other social institutions and has influence on all other elements, shaping the quality of society. There has been enormous expansion in the number of colleges and universities.

The present study was conducted to assess the relationship of specific satisfaction in biogerontology and social gerontological and medical gerontology .The study is based upon sample of 120 elderly (60 nuclear family and 60 joint family) and the age rang 60-80 year. and used the social support scale measuring over life satisfaction and support the family members. The study revealed that majority of elderly had low social support and those which nuclear family elderly reported for low joint family having higher social support the finding financial, health, social and personal domain.

Electronic-culture is new. It is emerging as a transnational and global phenomenon; not confined to geographical boundaries. E-culture is both technological and a social development. E-culture is increasingly perceived as a new digital media culture or digitalization of culture. The present study focuses on impact of e-culture on loneliness among elderly. The study was carried out in lucknow. Multistage sampling technique was fallowed in the present study. The sample for this study comprised of 120 elderly individuals (60 females and 60 males respectively) from urban and semi-urban areas.

In developed as in developing countries, the study of the impact of the development of the agricultural insurance on the agricultural performance is of a big utility as far as this study allows to pull measures of economic policies which allow to promote the agricultural insurance and the strategies allowing the country to pull the profits of the development of the agricultural insurance.

This article tries to show the existence of the causality between the agricultural performance and the development of the agricultural insurance and this by resorting to an econometric approach using Granger Causality Test. This econometric analysis is made over the period 2000-2012 for one of the European country to know, France. We found interesting results in this connection which reflect the state of the agricultural insurance and the implications of its use to allow the preservation of the agricultural performance.

In developed as in developing countries, the study of the impact of the development of the agricultural insurance on the agricultural performance is of a big utility as far as this study allows to pull measures of economic policies which allow to promote the agricultural insurance and the strategies allowing the country to pull the profits of the development of the agricultural insurance.

This article tries to show the existence of the causality between the agricultural productivity and the development of the agricultural insurance and this by resorting to an econometric approach using Granger Causality Test. This econometric analysis is made over the period 2000-2012 for one of the American country to know the United States. We found interesting results in this connection which reflect the state of the agricultural insurance and the implications of its use to allow the preservation of the agricultural performance.

“You can tell the condition of the nation by looking at the status of women.” Jawaharlal Nehru. Atrocities and discrimination are the two major problems, which the Indian women face in the present day society. The emancipation of women is not a simple matter. It requires the attitudinal change of the husband, other family members and society as a whole to the women. The first and foremost priority should be given to the education of the women. The struggle for gender justice will be slow, strenuous and protracted.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

Advantages of IJCR

  • Rapid Publishing
  • Professional publishing practices
  • Indexing in leading database
  • High level of citation
  • High Qualitiy reader base
  • High level author suport


Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari