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Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria from farm wastes: findings in chicken excreta, food and water from four poultries versus trend in a non-exposed community of west Cameroon

Author: 
Yawat Djogang Anselme Michel, Fotsing Kwetché Pierre René, Simo Louokdom Josué, Gamwo Dongmo Sandrine, Nankam Nguekap William lelorel, Serge Honoré Tchoukoua, Kouamouo Jonas, Omer Njajou, Kuiaté Jules Roger, Jean Michel Tekam
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

The present survey addressed the trend of bacterial resistance to antibacterial agents in poultry and community connects. It was initiated to gather necessary information on bacterial communities in farm waste, animal food and water; as well as the types of antimicrobial agents used with susceptibility/resistance profile to common antibiotics. Chicken excreta, food and water collected from four farms in Bafoussam and Bandjoun (neighbourhoods in the Western Region of Cameroon) underwent microbiological analyses according to standard protocols. The overall picture indicated that all items submitted to laboratory screening were contaminated. Most common bacteria isolates belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family, genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus. Members of these groups are known to be engines for resistance traits selection and dissemination and might become dreadful aetiologies of zoonotic infections. A closer look revealed that in 72% of cases, a variety of fluoroquinolones were used in the farms, contrasting with Tetracycline and Nitrofurans that were less common (14%, each). Tolerance was common with some antibacterial agents that belonged to the large groups of quinolones (Nalidixic acid), beta-lactams (Aztreonam, Amoxicillin, Oxacillin), Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Further insight through data from farms and the community highlighted subtle difference amongst bacterial populations and resistance rates to fluoroquinolones (P <0.001), just as site-specific tendency (P <0.05). Interestingly, the farmers acknowledged the threat that resistance might pose to their activity. Both the isolation and resistance rates could help anticipate the heavy economic burden that farm-related infections might generate. Biological alternatives to antimicrobials in farms were therefore thought to be primordial and feasible with the farmers as the primary human resources for the task.

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