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The association between lifestyle and social factors with onset of depression, anxiety and stress

Author: 
Gurveer Pandal, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Ball
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Background: Optimum treatment and prevention of mental illness appears a neglected area within healthcare, with continuous rise in diagnosed cases. Aim: The aim was to investigate whether social and lifestyle factors can be associated with the onset of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms amongst people 18 years and over. Methods: A self-completed questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, social factors and participants perceptions of experiencing depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. The demographics, lifestyle and social factors were then used to explore their association with reported depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Results: Depression symptoms had a greater association with the level of alcohol consumption (100%, 88% and 55% in high, medium-and low-level drinkers). Smoking was more prevalent in participants reporting depressive symptoms (80%) when compared to non-smokers (68%). Low income was found to be associated with a high prevalence of depressive and stress symptoms (73% and 91%) and high income was found to associated with stress symptoms only (75%). Lack of companionship was reported by 89% of participants who experienced symptoms of depression. Conclusion: A positive correlation was found between alcohol consumption and depression and anxiety. In this study sample, smoking was associated with depression alone and not with anxiety or stress. Low income and depressive or stress symptoms association was significant, no strong association was found with anxiety. Stress was reported by high-income participants. Lack of companionship was reported by those who reported depressive symptoms more so than those reported anxiety and stress.

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