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Biosynthesis and anticoccidial efficacy studies on silver nanopaticles coated with fruit extract of Morinda Citrifolia in broiler chickens (ven cobb 400)

Author: 
Gajanan Dhondbarao Ranvir, Sudhir Raghuttamrao Rajurkar, Tukaram Bhivaji Bhuktar, Nitin Dadarao Jadhav and Balasaheb Marutirao Kondare
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Coccidiosis, inflicting a huge production and economic losses to poultry industries is great concern due to its prevalence by shifting virulence from less to more pathogenic strains or species of coccidia. Control of coccidiosis is difficult due to emergence of drug resistance and several imitations of available anticoccidial vaccine leads to frequent disease outbreaks, strategic control and alternative approaches are being used and practiced in control of coccidiosis. Present study carried out to assess anticoccidial efficacy of SNPsCMcFE (Silver Nanoparticles coated with Morinda citrifolia Extract) against E. tenealla induced coccidiosis in broiler chicks (Ven cob 400). Total 120, one-day-old broiler chicks assigned and divided into six groups, each group comprised of 20 chicks employed in this study. Infection was given orally in groups T2 to T6 by single low dose sporulated oocysts of E. tenella (@ 20x103 per chick) and subsequently given treatments through water for 28 days were served as infected and treated groups. Group T1 was healthy control. Group T2 was infection control. Group T3 standard drug control given amprolium sulfate @ 125 ppm for eight days through water. Group T4 treated with SNPs @ 15 ppm. Group T5 was administered SNPsMcFE @ 15 ppm and Group T6 birds treated with fruit extract of Morinda citrifolia (McFE) @ 300 ppm. General performance, mortality, oocytes counts and lesion scores were perform for all groups. Results showed 100% morbidity and no mortality among birds of infection and treatment groups. Group T2 birds were inactive, depressed reduced body weight, weight gain, feed, water intake, anemic and revealed signs of ruffled feather, semisolid feaces, bloody and blood mixed mucoid diarrhea. Severity of signs and symptoms were greater on day 4th day PI followed by 6th and 7th, there were significant improvement in clinical signs and symptoms, performance, OPG count and lesions score in all infected treated birds compared to control on 9th day PI onwards. In groups treated with SNPsMcFE and others lesions score was graded as +1 against +2 of infected untreated birds in control group T2 suggested mild infection. Fruit extract M. citrdiloia treatment showed 100% efficacy in terms of OPG counts and improved condition after 7th day PI (28 day of age) onwards, SNPsMcFE treatment was more effective than SNPs and less than McFE, where anticoccidial activity found highest with the fruit extract. Efficacy of SNPsMcFE was comparable to amprolium. No caecal lesions or fecal oocytes were found in birds treated with M. citrdiloia extract and healthy uninfected untreated control birds (Group T1). Among all OPG count were in order of treatment SNPs, > SNPsMcFE > amprolium, whereas lesion score were SNPsMcFE > amprolium > SNPs, McFEs as compared to infected untreated control (T2). In conclusion, the anticoccidial activity of SNPsMcFE and SNPs were moderate and for McFE found at par, which could be possible alternative coccidiostat, obviously subtle infection at low doses of E. tenella are needs further rectification with moderate and higher doses on large scale assessment for guaranteed efficacy against coccidiosis in broiler chickens (ven cobb 400).

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