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Buddhist antiquities in Balasore, Odisha

Author: 
Dr. Umesh Chandra Nayak
Subject Area: 
Social Sciences and Humanities
Abstract: 

Balasore district was part of the ancient Kalinga which later became a territory of Toshala or Utkal, till the death of Mukunda Dev. It was annexed by Moghuls in 1568 and remained as a part of their suzerainty up to the middle of eighteenth century, to be précised up to 1750-51.Then the Marahattas occupied this part of Odisha and it became a part of the dominion of the Marahatta Rajas of Nagpur. The East India Company ceded this part through a treaty called treaty of Deogaon in 1803 and it became a part of Bengal Presidency up to 1912.But the first English Settlement came into existence in Balasore region in 1634 while Sahajahan was the emperor at Delhi. The first of English factories was established in this region in 1640.During this period Dutch and Danish settlements were also founded in this region. Balasore as a separate district was created in October, 1828 while it was in the Bengal Presidency. With the creation of Bihar province, Odisha was diverted along with Balasore district from Bengal to Bihar But with the creation of Odisha as a separate State on 1st April, 1936Balasore became an integral part of Odisha State. The national movement of independence surged ahead with the visit of Mahatma Gandhi in 1921. Similarly PrajaAndolan was initiated against the ruler of Nilagiri State. The state of Nilagiri merged with state of Odisha in January, 1948 and became a part of Balasore district. In 3rd April, 1993Bhadrak Sub-division became a separate district and from this day Balasore remains a district of Odisha with two Sub-divisions namely Balasore and Nilagiri having 7 Tahasils namely Balasore, Soro, Simulia, Nilagiri, Jaleswar, Basta&Baliapal and 12 Blocks namely Bhograi, Jaleswar, Baliapal, Basta, Balasore, Remuna, Nilagiri, Oupada, Khaira, Soro & Bahanaga. The name of the district is being derived from the name of the town, which is old and important. The name Balasore is recognised from the Persian word BALA-E-SHORE which means “TOWN IN THE SEA”. The historical legend ascribes that the district has been named as per the LORD BANESHWAR (LORD SHIVA) of the town, which subsequently changed to Balasore during Mughal Rules. The History of Balasore District is the amalgamation of several cultures and civilizations colonized the region for a couple of years. The history of Balasore witnessed a quick succession of several dynasties in its bosom. As far as the history of Balasore District is concerned; there was a constant strife among the different rulers over the entire tract of the District. When the power of the indigenous Hindu kings falls short to retain their kingdom with a strong foundation, the Mughals and the realm of Balasore District was passed in the hands of Marhatta Rajas of Nagpur. Finally during the British expedition in India, the absolute political power came in the hands of the British Raj. The East India Company ceded Balasore District in 1803, through a treaty called as The Treaty of Deogaon and then it became a part of Bengal Presidency up to the year 1912. However, the first English settlement came into existence in Balasore region in 1634, while Sahajahan was the emperor at Delhi and the first of the English factories was established in this region in 1640. During this period, Dutch and Danish settlements were also founded in this region. Balasore, as a separate District was created in October 1828, while it was under Bengal Presidency. With the creation of Odisha as a separate state on 1st April 1936, Balasore became an integral part of Odisha State. The state of Nilagiri merged with the state of Odisha in January 1948 and then it became a part of Balasore District. On 3 April 1993, Bhadrak sub-division became a separate District and from this day onwards, Balasore remains a district of Odisha with two sub-divisions namely Balasore and Nilagiri. There are many historical monuments in the Balasore District. Some of the major monuments in Balasore District include the rich sculptural remains found in Ayodhya. The ruin of the old Buddhist monastery and temple is there in Kupali in Balasore District. Some of the ruined forts at the Jayachandi forests in Raibania are also there in the District. The major religious monument found in the District is the Lord Chandaneswar Shrine.

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