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Critical Review On Secondary Education Development In Ethiopia: Achievements And Challenges

Author: 
Endale Berhanu Demissie
Subject Area: 
Social Sciences and Humanities
Abstract: 

Expanded access and improved quality of secondary education in sub-Saharan Africa is one of key components for economic growth in the region. The review is timely because it discusses best practices and solutions for developing and implementing sustainable and high quality secondary education systems in African countries. The review’s objectives are to facilitate the dialogue between African countries and its development partners and to provide a “roadmap” to practical solutions facing Africa’s secondary education systems in the 21st century. Throughout much of the twentieth century, Ethiopia was one of the most educationally disadvantaged countries in the world (MOE, 2005b). The majority of its current population has had little access to schooling, a legacy that continues to affect the country’s human resources (MOE, 2004a). Only 36 percent of the adult population (aged 15 years and over) is literate (MOE, 2002). Great strides have been made in education since 1994(TGE, 1994). Access has surged, especially at the primary level, with 85 percent of children of primary-school age now in school (MOE, 2003). Enrollment growth has also been impressive at the secondary level, especially in the first cycle (grades 9–10), for which the gross enrollment rate has more than doubled since 2000. Yet key challenges remain for secondary education, including: (1) a low primary education completion rate that constrains enrollment at the secondary level; (2) inequitable access, with rural populations and girls at a particular disadvantage; and (3) student learning achievement that is disappointingly low(World Bank,2005). In contrast to remarkable achievements in access, progress to date in raising the quality of education in Ethiopia has been limited. Efficiency and quality input indicators, achievement tests, and classroom observations suggest that it has been difficult to maintain the quality of education during a period of very rapid enrollment expansion. Learning achievement (School performance and student achievement) in the education system remains unacceptably low. This has become a source of concern for government officials, educators, parents, and other stakeholders. School performance is critically dependent on the leadership skills of school principals. The starting point here must be a sustained effort to enhance school leader effectiveness. It is so clear that the quality of school leadership is the most important factor influencing school performance. Skills of effective school leaders include instructional leadership, financial and human resources management, effective working relationships with the staff of line educational agencies, and winning the confidence of parents and School Management Committees.

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