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Origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, and crop improvement of carrot (daucus carota var. sativus)

Author: 
Swamy, K.R.M.
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Although cultivated for over 2000 years, and originally used only as a medicinal plant, the domestic carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus) re¬mains an important world crop with production expanding rapidly in Asia. The term carrot also applies to the long, edible, usually tapering taproot of the domesticated form. These taproots commonly are orange in color, but may be a variety of colors depending on the cultivar, including white, pink, yellow, purple and black. During its journey across centuries and continents, countless botanists managed to improve the composition, look, flavor and size of ancient carrots and produce the modern orange-colored carrot that appeared first in 17th century Netherlands. The cultivated carrots are mainly classified into eastern carrots and western carrots based on pigmentation in the carrot roots. Eastern carrots are thought to originate from Afghanistan, while the origin of western carrots is still uncertain. Carrots are versatile in several dishes and cultural cuisines. Carrots are believed to possess various health benefits due to their nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity, including the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Carrot has many medicinal properties. It increases quantity of urine and helps in elimination of uric acid. It has cooling effect and is beneficial for people suffering from gall stones, constipation and heat troubles. In this review, origin, distribution, taxonomy, botanical description, crop improvement, uses, nutritional value and health benefits of carrot are briefly provided.

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