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Risk factors and treatment of breast cancer

Author: 
Dr. Yussif Mijirah Dokurugu, PH., MPH., MA. and Chika A. Elechi-Onicha, MPH.
Subject Area: 
Health Sciences
Abstract: 

Breast cancer is the second commonest cancer worldwide in 2008 (1.4 million new cases: 11% of all global cancers and 360,000 deaths) and the commonest potentially fatal cancer of women (Stuckey 2011). Breast cancer incidence has been increasing worldwide for decades, and there is currently a greater than 4-fold variation in age-standardized incidence rates between countries with the lowest (East and Southern Africa) and highest (Western Europe, North America and Australia/New Zealand) incidence (Stuckey 2011). Less than 10% of breast cancers can be attributed to an inherited genetic mutation (Stuckey 2011). Breast cancer is more commonly associated with environmental, reproductive, and lifestyle factors, some of which are potentially modifiable. There are several ways to treat breast cancer, depending on its type and stage. Some treatments are local, meaning they treat the tumor without affecting the rest of the body (Maughan, Lutterbie, and Ham 2010). Types of local therapy used for breast cancer include Surgery and Radiation therapy. Systemic treatments: Drugs used to treat breast cancer are considered systemic therapies because they can reach cancer cells almost anywhere in the body. Breast cancer, is one of the most common cancers in the world and although its incidence is more in some developed countries, death is higher in countries with low level of development. Therefore, better plans for screening and early detection programs in these countries are suggested. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors have been identified that increase a woman’s risk of breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer, both in the United States and worldwide, is increasing. However, with the advent of regular screening, more women are being diagnosed with early-stage disease.

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