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Variability of some agronomic parameters of first generation of maize (zea mays l.) obtained by irradiating seeds to different doses of gamma radiation

Author: 
Edwige-Salomé Sopie YAPO, Chigata Lohona SORO, Martine Manéhonon BEUGRE, Dognimeton SORO, Koutoua AYOLIE, N’guessan Olivier KONAN and Justin Yatty KOUADIO
Subject Area: 
Life Sciences
Abstract: 

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cereal that has grown in all agricultural regions of the world. It is a cereal grown in a wide variety of growing conditions ranging from tropical to temperate climates. However, climate change, which is causing more intense drought followed by severe soil degradation, will lead to a reduction in the development and production of maize plants in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to develop high-performance cultivars adapted to environmental conditions within a short period of time; Gamma radiation-induced mutation techniques were initiated. Three different gamma radiation doses (100; 200; 300 Grays) were applied to maize seeds of the variety EV8728. These seeds had grown and the technique of controlled self-fertilization was carried out as soon as the first flowers appeared. Data collected were analyzed with Statistic software. The impact of gamma irradiation at different doses on the growth and yield of first generation maize mutants was evaluated. Analyses of variance showed that the different irradiation doses had a very highly significant effect (p < 0.001) on all parameters studied. Stem heights showed a reduction of 7.41 % in stem height for 100 and 200 Grays dose followed by a reduction of 25.6 % for 300 Grays dose compared to the control. The weight of spikes with and without the spathes decreases with increasing radiation dose. The highest values were given by plants from controls (120, 26± 8,93a) and the lowest values were obtained from plants that seeds were irradiated at the 300 Grays dose (66,29 ± 16,51c). All, the results obtained indicate a significant reduction in the morphological and production parameters studied, except for sensitivity or resistance to lodging which is not related to the different doses. This reduction is accentuated at 300 Grays compared to the other radiation doses and the control. This effect is more or less important depending on the dose applied and is reflected in the biomasses or dimensions of the organs. For example, the use of gamma radiation has led to a morphological and physiological change in maize plants grown with new capabilities. These data have shown that gamma radiation can, at any dose, create drought resistant crop mutant to improve maize production in areas affected by severe soil degradation.

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