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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













September 2011

In the enzymology, the palmitoyl – co a hydrolase is said to the enzyme that hydrolase the fatty acid. For this enzyme polmitoyl – coa and water are considered. According to available reports this enzymes are effective in regulating of intracellular concentration of acyl coa, fatty acid and co enzyme. Beside the design and construction of effective inhibitors for disabling of enzyme, the study of interaction of enzyme on the inhibitor by using of computational methods in presenting the acceptance model for performance.

This study investigates the Higher Secondary school students’ achievement in chemistry in relation to their study Habits at various schools in Cuddalore District. 565 higher secondary school students were selected to measure the study habit by using Dr. Gopal Rao study habit scale and their final exam marks were considered for achievement score. Independent samples T-test for differences were performed across three distinct groups, that is, Gender, Locality and Type of school.

There is a wide gap in the utilization of reproductive health services among the states in India. Certain states like Kerela, Tamilnadu and Maharashtra are well performing states in the utilization of reproductive health care services. But the so called BIMARU states (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajastan and Utter Pradesh) are poor in the utilization of reproductive health care services. In view of the above, this paper analyses the utilization pattern of the above states.

This paper is a follow up of an earlier study carried out on the relationship between attitude towards Music education and achievement among pupils in Kenya (Wanjala, 2011) which established that there is a positive correlation between pupil’s attitude towards music education and their achievement. In the major findings of the study, it was observed that attitudes were fundamental to the dynamics of behaviour and they greatly determine how learning took place in situations of music instruction.

This paper is based on a study to establish the effect of competitive strategies on shareholder value among listed companies on the Nairobi Stock Exchange. The specific objectives were: to establish the effects of cost leadership strategy; differentiation strategy and focus strategy on shareholder value. The study depicted each of the three competitive strategies as independent variables and shareholder value as the dependent variable. The study utilized explanatory research and multiphase sampling designs targeting companies and employees.

This study attempted to investigate the possible factors that would affect parent’s decision on choosing the school for their children. Two hundred and two (N=202) parents from central Taiwan were selected and invited to participate in this study. Factor Analysis and the Response Surface Model (RSM) were utilized to examine the seven propose research hypotheses on the basis of a self-developed questionnaire. Cronbach αand Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to examine the reliability and validity of the questionnaire and it was proved to be a reliable and valid instrument.

When the NCCK Secretary General described the President as being ‘moribund’ and the Prime Minister ‘ineffective’ in the Kenyan coalition government, it meant that in the eyes of the NCCK there is something wrong in the Kenyan politics. Indeed, a political setup that is ‘moribund and ineffective’ cannot deliver services to the ‘polis’ as it ought to. The bane of the Kenyan politics can be viewed from many perspectives. One such perspective is from a religio-ethical point of view. Specifically, Kenyan politics is imbued with Machiavellism.

The youth in Kenya (15-35) are the cornerstone of society and must be nurtured to take up active leadership roles in the country. However, since independence, their role has been largely peripheral leading to their current marginalization manifested in form of unemployment, crime, drug abuse and passive involvement in constructive nation building. Part of the problem has been poverty which has denied them access to appropriate training and productive resources. As such, they only undergo rigid exam-based training with minimal practical application in the job market.

This paper is derived from a study conducted at the University of East Africa, Baraton (UEAB). The study sought to: identify the counselling services that were being offered; establish the counselling services that students needed and determine whether students utilised the services that were being offered. The study involved 627 students and 10 administrators. Data from students and administrators were obtained using questionnaires and interview schedules respectively and analysed using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) computer package.

The study of Human resource (HR) competency models/frameworks has gained a great deal of interest over the years. Most of the notable HR competency frameworks/models are developed in the USA and Europe. The aim of the study was to develop a statistically validated Human resource (HR) practitioner competency model. The competency domains in the generic/behavioural competency category, business competency category and the technical HR competency category were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM).

Noni fruits are edible but they don’t have nice taste and flavor. In order to enhance its organoleptic properties, in the present investigation attempts have been made to prepare and standardize Noni-RTS beverages. The Noni RTS were prepared by using Orange juice at the rate of 3, 4 and 5 per cent concentration, with keeping Noni juice concentration to 10%. The sensory evaluation of the sample was carried out and the Noni RTS prepared using 5% orange juice with Noni juice rated significantly. This blended sample has been found organoleptically superior than the other sample.

The 21st century is often heralded as the ‘urban century’. For the first time in history the majority of the world’s population now live in cities, a figure forecast to rise to over 60% by 2030. Increasing urbanization raises crucial questions for security.

This study investigates the effects of the transition from national accounting rules to globalized international standards on the financial results of Hungarian listed firms on the Budapest Stock Exchange. The goal of this paper is to describe and summarize how the accounting standards can promote business decisions and influence economic environment.. The author analyzed and valued the effects of international standards on the business economic environments. The study showed that both businesses earnings and stock returns effect on the management turnover.

The present study aims to find out the land use and land cover in Thanjavur district. The total extention of the area of 3397 The district is located in the Eastern coast of Tamil Nadu. The study has been mainly used of satellite imagery for identifying the land use and land cover of the study area. ERDAS and GIS soft were has been used in the study area. Here the researcher followed to the supervise classification and followed the block wise land use and land cover classification in the Thanjavur district.

This research considers educating and researching without books and for an example, it is the result is demonstrated at Islamic Azad University of Shushtar city in Iran. The role of this type of knowledge finding (without books) will be studied with a typical example using questions, interview and scientific observations. The main result of this research expresses that not used resource, limitations in space and less equipment influence on study, education and research processes negatively.

There are some educational methods to use for changing educational trend better. These ways include book and without book. Libraries are centers containing many books in various subjects and fields. In fact they involve books for different needs for students, scientists, teachers and even ordinary people to obtain knowledge. The most important purpose to covering finding needs of people is information; of course we are living in information and connections ages. But we should use information and data resources in correct form. In this paper, we analyze using information resources.

This paper analyzes the suitability of using the Western Fugal Techniques in arranging traditional Luhya folk songs. The study, which forms the basis of this paper, involved carrying out interviews with composers to establish their background in music and their approach to arrangement of Luhya tunes. The findings indicated that the use of Western techniques, in the case of this study, a figure, on arrangement of African tunes distorted them.

This paper examines whether, in the context of a fast emerging economy like Malaysia, demographic variables namely age, gender, education, income and region influence the consumer animosity, consumer ethnocentrism and patriotism among Malaysian Muslim consumers. The data was collected by using survey questionnaire and the analyses were conducted on 663 respondents in Malaysia. The findings suggest that gender, age and region have an influence on consumer animosity.

Do men and women drivers differ in their behaviour on road? This study was undertaken to understand and analyse the driving anger of male and female drivers. The study was undertaken on young male and female drivers in the age group of 18 to 25 years, holding valid driving license and living primarily in the tricity area of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula (India). For the purpose of this study the respondents were selected randomly who were administered the structured questionnaire to obtain their demographic data as well as measure their driving anger using Deffenbacher’s scale.

This study investigated the nature of student participation in secondary schools in Kenya. The study was prompted by the recurrent student unrest in Kenya; often blamed in media and research to unequal decision making opportunities in schools. The traditional hierarchical authoritarian culture prevailing in the Kenyan society often influences decision making processes in schools hence the locking out of students in decision making. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire distributed among 150 secondary school learners and sixty teachers.

The learning and teaching study outlines the general principles under planning the approach to teaching and learning within the college. The precise methods of learning and teaching will vary from academic school to school, in keeping with specific traditions and appropriateness to the subject in addition to the learning and teaching involve a variety of methods and approaches. Learning and teaching approaches meet the aim of producing motivated, critically reflective and independent graduates through a graduated approach.

In January 2003 the Kenyan government declared Free Primary Education (FPE) in all public schools in the country as a fulfillment of the Education for All (EFA) global commitment and strategy to give children universal primary education. The study established that FPE was hastily implemented hence there was no time to prepare the school management as well as sensitize stakeholders on the requirements and expectations of FPE. Most of the head teachers have difficulties in planning and managing the schools funds among other managerial challenges.

In this study the impact of road construction dust were tested on some of the physicochemical parameters of plantain fluid. Samples of plantain fluid (juice) were taken to examine the characteristics of fluid content upon the influence of road construction dust on the plantain vegetation. These samples were collected on monthly basis over a 12-month period. Sampling of the data was conducted using the acceptable standard.

Horizontal displacement, uh1 of foundation on clay in the offshore Niger Delta has been attempted based on wave load simulation. Horizontal forces were evaluated from the impact of varying wave heights on circular piles of 1.0 to 2.0m diameter using available wave height records. Predictive lateral displacement under induced horizontal forces were analysed for varying Poisson ratio,µ foundation breadth, B and the ratio of horizontal force to breadth ratio(F/B).

Model based on Bernoullis equation and coefficient of discharge as a function of the Reynolds number was applied at different levels in different fluid system in Industrial operation of orifice plate. The model was based on the principle of constant area, variable pressure drop. The experimental results obtained from the research work were used in monitoring and predicting the usefulness of pneumatic proportional integral (reset) control on flow characteristics of different fluid flowing through an orifice plate.

Carbapenemases are β- lactamases that confer resistance to the carbapenems (e.g., imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, and doripenem). Most often these enzymes confer resistance to the other b-lactam agents as well, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The enzymes are usually found in bacterial isolates that are already resistant to nearly all other antimicrobial agents, and treatment options for infections caused by them are significantly limited.

Tea continues to be one of the main foreign exchange earners in the Kenyan economy and the industry employ 75% of the rural population. It is composed of the large scale sub sector owned by the multinationals and the smallholder sub sector mainly owned by the local farmers. Tea production in the smallholder sub sector is still very low compared to the large scale/estate subsector.

One of the key material properties in Mechanistic design of flexible pavement design is the dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete. In order to improve the performance of asphalt pavement, various techniques of modifications of the physical properties of bitumen have evolved over the years using different materials like natural rubber (rubber latex). Research has also proved that dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete is influenced by loading frequency.

A total of 217 fish samples (83 male, 124 female) from Gambusia affinis, a common fish of the ponds, were analyzed for the concentrations of heavy metals. Fork length, weight, and sex were recorded for each fish. Weight from male and fame fish was found in the range of 68–6625mg and 73-6634mg respectively. Further, fork length from male and fame fish was found in the range of 15-92mm and 16-78 mm.

Biomass burning has a significant impact on global atmospheric chemistry since it provides large sources of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, primarily in the tropics. Rural areas of developing countries depend primarily on biomass for fuel. Biofuels include the wood fuels, and agricultural waste, such as crop residues and dung. The recent thrust in bioconversion of agricultural and industrial wastes to chemical feedstock has led to extensive studies on the pretreatment methods.

The physiological effect of a widely used herbicide Paraquat (N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) was studied at different concentrations on two filamentous N2-fixing Cyanobacteria Anabaena oryzae and Nostoc ellipsosporum in laboratory conditions for 10 days. The results demonstrated that the increasing concentration of the applied pesticide proved to be toxic for the organism in terms of growth kinetics and heterocyst formation.

Salinity is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production, but development of tolerant cultivars is hampered by the lack of effective selection criteria. The objective of this study was to produce screening techniques for selecting salt-tolerant progeny in barley breeding program. Fourteen barley cultivars differing in yield performance were grown in separate experiments under salt stress and non-salt stress conditions in 2008–2009.

Crude ethanolic extract of Xylopia aethiopica traditionally used as condiment in food and against bacterial infections, cough and inflammations was evaluated invitro for its antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus aurum, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and a fungus pathogen Candida albicans, so as to justify its medicinal activities and validate its traditional use scientifically. The agar diffusion technique was used to determine the zone of inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) respectively.

This study is aimed at investigating the effects of the agricultural practices of the rural people bordering the Old Oyo National Park on the distribution of Western Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) within the park. The study area was carried out in Marguba, Sepeteri and Yemoso ranges out of the five ranges of the park. Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods and structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the issues about their agricultural activities within and around the park.

Sugarcane bagasses are rich in cellulose and lignin content whose degradation is the main problem for industries utilizing them for various purposes. The present investigation is based on application of fungi in degradation of lignin and cellulose from sugarcane bagasse. Degradation was estimated after 3 weeks of solid state fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by Aspergillus niger. Fermentation process was divided into two parts i.e., culture media fortified with different concentrations of nutrient supplements and not fortified with any kind of supplements.

Water samples obtained seasonally from April 2010 to March 2011 at eight different sites of Dal Lake, Kashmir were serially diluted five folds followed by spread plate technique for the isolation of Penicillium and Aspergillus species, spreading 0.1ml inoculum from the serial dilution tubes on the Petri dishes containing Rose-Bengal Streptomycin Agar medium. Out of a total 213 fungal colonies isolated six (6) species of Penicillium viz, P. caseicolum, P. commune, P. chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, P. lilacinum, Penicillium spp. and six (6) species of Aspergillus viz, A. flavus, A.

Lippia nodiflora (L.) (Verbenaceae) is an important medicinal plant with scanty roots. It has a number of medicinal properties used in treatment of diseases such as chronic indolent ulcers, gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments and diabetes, etc. Nodes and shoot tips were used as the explants for the initiation of multiple shoots and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with cytokinin namely Benzyladenine (BA) and Kinetin (KIN).The maximum number of shoots were produced in BA 3.0 mg/l. An average of 14.66 ±1.30 shoots was produced from each explant.

The effect of alkaline treatment in combination with air bubbling in banana fiber mat on the water absorption property of the fiber composite has been experimentally studied. Hot water immersion test is done on the samples. Water uptake was quantified for the composite disc under different processing conditions. The studies have revealed that the fibre surface modification rate is enhanced by the combination of air bubbling with the general process of alkaline treatment.

The present study is aimed to investigate the population and richness of egrets and herons in five areas of Pichavaram mangroves during the study period. Totally 10 species are identified in which 4 species are egrets and 6 species are herons. The diversity, breeding and behavior of egrets and herons are noticed in the present study. The herons species are moiré than the egrets in Pichavaram mangroves.

Fungal strains were isolated from oil cakes and were screened for protease production on casein agar plate. Organisms capable of casein hydrolysis were selected and enzyme assay was carried out. Organisms with maximum enzyme activity were selected for further studies. Aspergillus niger and Mucor mucedo were used for the present investigation. Optimization of parameters such as pH and substrate concentration was carried out for production of protease. A pH of 5 was found optimal for maximal enzyme production. Casein at 10% concentration showed significant increase in protease activity.

Twelve different essential oils (camphor, chaulmoogra, cinnamon, eucalyptus, juniper, khus, lavender, lemon, motia rosha, orange, peppermint and rosemary) were tested against the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus. This strain produced aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). After screening the antifungal activity, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of essential oils were evaluated by food poison technique. An array of intensities of activity against the growth of A. parasiticus was determined in time dependent manner.

Indian is no exception to these general trends, with a few special features. During last two decades India’s agricultural exports as a part of total merchandise exports have continued to decline from the preponderant position they occupied in the pre-independence. But with the achievement of self-sufficiency in food grains and some other major agricultural commodities, which used to account for large portion of import bill, overall imports of agricultural commodities have sharply declined.

In this report peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were used to study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on leaf senescence in detached pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) leaves. The activities of POD and PPO were observed to be greater in H2O2-stressed pigeonpea leaves than in water treated control leaves. However, after longer incubations activities of these enzymes were markedly reduced. The observed changes revealed that exogenous H2O2 may induce oxidative stress tolerance by enhancing the activities of POD and PPOs.

Rose is an economically important plant for Turkey and the world floral industry. A survey was conducted during 2010-2011 to identify viruses infecting rose plants in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey. Samples (210) from seven rose-growing regions (Terme, Çarşamba, Ilkadım, Atakum, Canik, Ondokuz Mayıs and Bafra) were collected. All samples were tested for Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA).

A study of soil bacteria along with some physical parameters like temperature and pH was carried out during the month of November and December 2010, in Yusmarg area of Kashmir valley at four sites differing from each other markedly in terms of biotic and abiotic factors, to assess the density and diversity of bacterial flora. During the study the bacterial flora showed variation in relation to the physical parameters.

An unconventional Seeds of Ceiba pentandra (Kapok) were analyzed for enzymatic antioxidants, biochemical complexes and protein functionality to assess its potential usage as an alternative source of protein. Buffer extract of seeds had scrutinized for enzymatic antioxidants like Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, peroxidase as well as Glutathione Peroxidase and found to be ample.

To determine the effect of ‘flare’ spreader size on the fracture resistance of mandibular premolar roots prepared using variable taper rotary files. Crowns of 50 mandibular first premolars having no carious lesions, devoid of any aberrant anatomy were resected 2mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. Root canals were prepared in different groups: 1. No canal preparation. 2. Preparation using crown down technique to a size F2 MAF with no obturation performed. 3.

A study was conducted on 200 parents of which 159 were male parents and 41 were female parents from Chidambaram Taluk to find out the level of the factors responsible for human conflict, the significant difference between the male parents and female parents in respect of the factors responsible for human conflict and the significant relationship between the value pattern and the factors responsible for human conflict among parents.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari