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March 2013

Goa an important beach resort on the west coast of India has a 101 km long coast line and receives around 23 million tourists every year. The beach shacks are regulated by the tourism department and in absence of proper guidelines, the beaches are overcrowded due to the deck beds. Under the guise of renovation or repairs of existing structures new hotels, shops and resorts have come into being. In spite of the stipulations of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Act 1991 the local as well as people in power acquire lands and houses with sea view and violate CRZ rules with impunity.

In this paper, the concept of k-tripotentof power symmetric matrices is introduced. Conditions for power symmetric matrices to be k-tripotent are discussed.

The molecular interactions in the liquids provide valuable information about the liquids and solutions. The nature of interactions between molecules in liquids and solutions can be elucidated by using the thermodynamic and acoustical parameters. The study of propagation of ultrasonic waves in liquid systems is established as a simple and significant tool in determining the nature of interactions between molecules in solution. The ultrasonic velocity, viscosity and density of salicylic acid solution in ethanol were measured at 303.15 K at different frequencies.

Multilayer ultrathin films of Cr/Ni80Fe20/Cr/Ni80Fe20/Cr were grown on p-type Si substrate by magnetron sputtering deposition. Thickness dependencies of multilayer thin films were analyzed with impedance spectroscopy. The samples were characterized in a frequency range of 100k – 40M Hz under different DC bias voltages varying from 0 to 1 V. The dependence of relaxation time on the dielectric relaxation frequency was determined from the Cole-Cole plots for different thicknesses two ultrathin permalloy /Cr/ permalloy thin films.

An understanding of the soil moisture variability is indispensable to characterize the relation between a region’s hydrology, ecology and hydropedology. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to understand spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture content under different land covers in the humid tropical Brahmaputra basin and (b) to characterize the differences in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content and surface and subsurface runoff generation patterns influenced by different classes of landuse and land cover by application of the SWAP agrohydrological model.

India has developing economy where the economic progress is directly proportional to the industrial growth, which in turn is dependent mainly upon the relation between the employer and the employee. Industrialisation poses a challenge for an entrepreneur in the form of management of the resources. The management and effective and efficient deployment of the resources of the organisation is the factor which decides the profitability, sustainability and viability of any organization.

The Orange red and red emitting borate host phosphor YCaBO4: Eu3+ and YBO3: Eu3+ has been prepared by a novel solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate).The Heat evolved in reaction is utilized for auto combustion. The photoluminescence properties of the powder samples of YCaBO4: Eu3+ and YBO3: Eu3+ has been investigated under UV and VUV excitation. The phosphor shows strong absorption in UV and VUV region and exhibits intense red emission upon excited by 254 nm UV and 173 nm VUV radiation.

Laminar free and forced convective fully developed flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two infinitely long vertical plates heated asymmetrically embedded in porous medium has been studied. It is observed that the fluid velocity decreases near the channel walls whereas a it increases at the middle region of the channel with an increase in porosity of the medium. The expressions for wall shear stresses, critical Grashof number and the bulk temperature are also derived. It is observed that the bulk temperature increases with increase in either Grashof number or porosity parameter.

Crevice corrosion [3] is a well-known damage mechanism in Oil and Gas facilities and is caused by a concentration of corrosive substances within a confined space. The crevice between two adjoining flanges is the ideal environment for initiation of crevice corrosion. Because of the concentration of these corrosive substances in a localized area, rate of corrosion gets accelerated. When flanges are used in very corrosive environments such as sea water, acid service and H2S concentrated drain piping the flange face is particularly susceptible.

This study was necessitated by the need for manufacturing firms to determine the relationship and extent between the cost of distribution of the goods manufactured and the quantity of the goods/ weight of the goods in question which will inturn create a need for a further research to determine the actual ways to optimize the distribution flow so as to reduce wastage and increase revenue. Data was collected by the administration of questionnaire to a total of 107 respondents of two major plants of Unilever Nigeria Plc in the South East zone of Nigeria.

Undoped and sodium chloride-doped sodium chlorate crystals were grown by solution method with slow evaporation technique. The doped crystal was found to be well faceted with high transparency compared to the undoped one. The grown crystals were characterized by structural, FTIR, optical, microhardness, atomic absorption and SHG studies. The results are presented and discussed.

Robotics is one of the fastest growing engineering fields of today. Millions of dollars are spent every year on the developments of robots to be used in all sorts of field. The use of robots is more common today than ever before and it is no longer exclusively used by the heavy production industries. Robots are designed to remove the human factor from labor intensive and/or dangerous work. In modern farming applications, so many different types of automation techniques are used for easy and staff less operations that includes the important functions like seeding and spraying fertilizers.

Background: Although the majority of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients are extubated within 6 to 8 hours following surgery, 20% to 40% of patients remain intubated 12 hours after surgery due to dysfunctional ventilator weaning response (DVWR). DVWR associated with increased morbidity and mortality (30% to 43%) following CABG surgery. There is little known about the prediction of DVWR.

About 20% to 40% of patients who have undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CBAG) remain intubated 12 hours after surgery due to dysfunctional ventilator weaning response (DVWR). DVWR is associated with increased morbidity and mortality (30% to 43%) following CABG surgery. Literature review revealed that there is an association between gender and preoperative co- morbidities and post-operative hemodynamic alterations. Finding significant antecedence to predict DVWR could help to identify and prevent the complications from DVWR after CABG surgery.

CaSO4: Eu3+ phosphors prepared by co-precipitation method have been studied for its photoluminescence characteristics. The CaSO4 phosphors are prepared by doping different concentration of Europium (1,3,5 mole %). The sample shows maximum peak intensity for 5 % doping of Europium .The excitation at 254 nm and emission at 615 nm of photoluminescence was investigated.

Interpretation techniques employed in magnetic data enable in quantifying the subsurface geological bodies for various purposes. Of the various types of them the performance evaluation of methods based on the characteristics positions and inversion techniques were studied in the present paper. The theoretical magnetic data was generated over simple geological bodies of sheet, dike and vertical fault models. The data thus generated has been used for performance study.

The use of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (NPE) for solid state device is the basis of storage application in Lithium ion batteries. In spite of many advantages particularly in ionic conductivity enhancement, the utilization of filler with LiNO3 in the NPE matrix is almost non-existent. In this paper, the influence on ionic conductivity of TiO2 nano-filler with PMMA-LiNO3 NPE films are investigated. Structural, optical and thermal properties for without and with filler added PMMA-LiNO3 NPE are characterized. FTIR studies confirmed the complex formation between PMMA and LiNO3.

In the endeavour to pursue justice in the post-conflict period, the International Criminal Court’s (ICC) operations in Africa have met with significant challenges. While it has been acknowledged in some quarters that the ICC can excel in curbing the problems of violence stemming from a culture of impunity, the court has attracted immense and tremendous controversy, especially because of its propensity for prolonging conflict and undermining peace deals and reconciliation processes that have proved imperative in a society emerging from a period of gross human rights violations.

In the post-reforms era, with increasing market orientation in the Indian financial sector both existing and new companies are opting for finance from the capital market, money market, foreign exchange markets. The competition among firms for a slice of the savings cake has increased. The market is flooded with a variety of new instruments and complex financial products, such as asset-backed securities and credit derivatives to attract ordinary investors for subscription of their issues.

Foraminifers a single shelled protozoan are broadly classified as planktonic and benthic. These foraminifers having high level taxonomical studies are based on shell mineralogy can be categorized into four groups as taxa with organic shell, agglutinated taxa, calcareous perforate taxa and calcareous imperforate and habituating in marine and mangrove environments. For the present study benthic foraminifer fauna has been collected in the Van veen grab sampler in the, North Bay, Sistrosis Bay, Carbyns Cove, Burmanalla, Chidyatapu, and Wandoor of Port Blair India.

How the perennially evolving combinations of words in the textual space communicates with the reader and what role the author has in the entire project remains an intriguing aspect of the deep-seated anxiety regarding the efficacy of the verbal modules in negotiating the frontiers of communication. The centrality of interpretation evolves as a significant constituent of the referential and communicative function of the Logos and its multifaceted extensions in critical discourse today.

The importance of innovation clusters has been studied frequently in recent literature. It is considered that the clusters are important for the economic development of the regions. However, its creation and subsequent sustainability does not happen automatically. It requires a series of policies and initiatives to encourage its creation. These policies, which can be classified into six categories, vary according to the life cycle stage in which the cluster is, to have the greatest impact.

The Pokot community inhabiting the eastern part of Baringo County in Kenya has for a long time experienced enduring periods of food insecurity. This experience has at times culminated in severe hunger and malnutrition. As a coping mechanism, women have, on several occasions, resorted to boiling poisonous fruits from wild trees to feed children and the aged people.

The stochastic Frontier cost model was used to analyze the cost efficiency of Sugarcane farm households of Odisha. The primary data were collected from the 200 sugarcane farm households. The joint estimation of parameters of cost function and inefficiency model through one step maximum likelihood method showed that the 97% of the inefficiency were explained due to cost inefficiency and cost efficiency could be increased by 36% through better use of available farm resources.

Socio-economic status of a slum area is mostly depended on education, income and occupation. And all this trio always influence on the nutritional health of slum dwellers. Not only health but also lifestyle and livelihood status also been tracked by SES. Here all SES is depicted over a marginalized semi urban slum PatharGhata under Midnapur Municipality. Here in the area total 1100 respondant has been taken for survey which is precisely 10% of the total population of specific word.

The Belagavi district of Karnataka state is one of the most prosperous regions in the field of religion and culture. All religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity enjoyed a great liberality. Among these, the Jainism enjoyed a royal patronage from the earliest days. As a result the Jainism prospered the region. It played an important role in the fields of education, literature, art, architecture and culture. Belagavi, Halasi, Hooli, Saudatti, Ammanagi etc., are the most important centers of Jainism and its culture.

The basis of the development in educational technology is the possibility of improving the efficiency or quality of learning in a given situation. Appropriate application of educational technology contributes tremendously to the improvement and enhancing of effective teaching and learning. It would therefore be in order to note that there is much in education and training which could be improved by thinking more carefully about various aspects of educational technology in teacher education.

The distribution and diversity of foraminifera a single celled protozoan was studied in the sediments closely adjacent to reef of South Andaman Island. A total of 18 species belong to 8 genera were recorded in our investigation. Calcarinidae made larger contribution to the total abundance followed by Hauerinidae, Elphididae, Peneroplidae, Spiroloculinidae and Amphisteginidae. Calcarina spengleri were found to be the most dominant species at all stations.

The self–concept of a person plays very significant role in his personality development. Self- concept is what we think about ourselves and how we evaluate our abilities and potential. The purpose of this study was to examine the self–concept rural and urban higher secondary school students of Kashmir division. The sample for the study consisted of 100 higher secondary school students (50 Rural, 50 Urban). The data was collected by using Sagar and Sharma Self concept Inventory Scale.

The present paper deals with the analysis of Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time of Neural network research output at international level using time series data from 1969 to 2007. The research output at the international level in 1969 is 2 and it is reached to 123552 in 2007 and the increasing trend is observed year by year. The relative growth rate registers a declining trend at international level. The study period, 1969-2007 records the mean relative growth rate of 0.29 at the world level.

Today we have an emerging concept called ECRM – Electronic Customer Relationship Management, a means for the companies to conduct interactive and personalized communications with customer. This can be possible using both electronic and traditional channels. Companies whether manufacturing or service industries, need to adopt right customer relationship strategies in order to survive in the competitive world. This is very much true for service industry like banks. Due to LPG era banks in India, are facing severe competition.

A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=680) with a culture- proven diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) seen at the Institute of Chest and Respiratory diseases / Baghdad – Iraq from (April / 2010 – August / 2011). A total of 643 (31.2%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 37 (4.6%) extra- pulmonary TB (EPTB). The age distribution of the TB patient had a bimodal distribution. Males to females' ratio 2.06 with highly significant level for males than females (P values of < 0.001). The most common site with (EPTB) was pleural TB (37.8%).

The main purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the entrepreneurial ability of the informal waste management and disposal enterprises in Kisii municipality, the study research sought to; to establish the entrepreneurial ability embraced by Informal Waste management and disposal enterprises. The main assumption of the research was that the environmental Sustainability is a function of efficient entrepreneurial ability of the informal waste Management and disposal enterprises.

Circular-arc graphs are rich in combinatorial structures and have found applications in several disciplines such as Biology, Ecology, Genetics, Computer Science and particularly useful in cyclic scheduling. Dominating sets play predominant role in the theory of graphs. In this paper we consider the bondage number for a Circular-arc family and is a Circular-arc graph corresponding to arcs which is defined as the minimum number of edges whose removal results in a new graph with larger domination number.

India is considered as the diabetes capital of the world with 41 million Indians having diabetes. Socioeconomic environment influences occupation, lifestyle, and nutrition of social classes which in turn would influence the prevalence and profile of glucose intolerance and diabetic complications. Even today, about 80 per cent of the population in developing countries depends on traditional medicine, Bitter Melon is one of the traditional medicine which is a good source of phenolic compounds.

The insecticidal properties of H.spicigera leaf extracts (hexane, ethylacetate and methanol) tested against Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea was carried out using Azadirachtin as a standard. Ethylacetate extract and standard azadirachtin showed the highest percentage mortality of 98% each at 72hr, while methanol, hexane and control gave percentage mortality of 75%,87% and 21% respectively. Percentage emergence of Azadirachtin standard and ethylacetate extract showed 6% and 8% while methanol, hexane and control gave percentages emergence of 18%,13% and 87% at 72hr respectively.

Regression analysis is an important tool in the computer based drug design practitioner’s toolbox for a number of reasons. First, this method saves lot of time and by using this model, lot of compound can be screened for their therapeutic properties. Secondly, varieties of regression analysis methods are available depending on the nature of the problem being studied. In current project, a regression model “Regression Analysis Software Package (RASTP)” is developed as a measure for Study of Therapeutic Properties of Chemical Compounds.

The preparation of activated carbons derived from oil palm shells, chemically activated by potassium hydroxide and physically activated by steam was investigated in this paper. The Methodology of Experimental Design (MED) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of two preparation variables: the activation temperature ranging from 601 to 799°C and the impregnation ratio ranging from 0.6 to 3.4 were studied on the activated carbon yield (R/AC-KOH), the iodine adsorption capacities (I2/AC-KOH) and methylene blue adsorption capacities (MB/AC-KOH) results.

An experiment was carried out with Limonia acidissima L. seedlings to find out the effective biofertilizer in single or in combination for better growth and productivity. Seedlings were grown in the polybags inoculated with Rhizobium, Azospirillum, VAM, Phosphobacterium and mixture. The seedling growth parameters were noted in every 15 days up to 150 days. Phosphobacterium-inoculated seedlings exhibited highest shoot growth. The combined application of all the four biofertilizers increased the leaf production and root length.

The most distressing symptoms that follow anaesthesia and surgery are pain and vomiting. The aim of this study is to compare the antiemetic efficacy of granisetron against that of ondansetron by comparing the incidence of PONV using each drug. The surgical technique is highly standardized, therefore the choice of anaesthetic technique is the main variable available to influence PONV.

Monitoring vegetation coverage changes using multi-temporal remotely-sensed data offers an efficient and exact evaluation of anthropogenic intervention on the natural environment. Study was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover using the potential multi-temporal satellite data captured in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2009 in Kangswati (Cossi) river and Dwarakeswar river interfluves area, West Bengal. Temporal changes were determined using image differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in that time series.

Levetiracetam, a pyrolidine derivative, is a newer antiepileptic drug whose efficacy and tolerability are already well known in adults. Few studies are available in children. Most studies suggest that levetiracetam is effective against partial and generalized epilepsy. The drug has also proven effective against photosensitivity, epileptic syndromes and epileptic and nonepileptic myoclonus.

Neem (Azadirachta indica), an indigenous plant is reported to have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and several other medicinal properties. More than 135 active principles have been isolated from different parts of Neem tree and several reviews have been published regarding their beneficial effect. In this experiment, anti arrhythmic action was observed within two minutes of NLE administration and this was persistent in nature.

Andrographis paniculata Nees. (AP) leaves, empirically used as an alternative medicine for various diseases including diabetes mellitus, but the scientific evident for treatment in humans were still limited published reports. This study analyzed the effects of hypoglycemic AP capsules (APC) as an additional therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The design of this study was double-blind randomized controlled trial, cross-over design in 34 subjects who were divided into two groups.

Aims: To investigate some protective effects of ginger on CCl4 (Carbon tetrachloride) induced toxicity in the adrenal cortex of adult wistar rats. Study design: Histological and Biochemical study. Place and Duration of study: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, LAUTECH, Nigeria between September 2012 and December 2012. Methodology: Twenty-four adult healthy wistar rats of both sexes of average weight 210±4.22g were randomly assigned into 4 groups four groups (N=6) such that T1, T2 and T3 served as treatment groups, while C served as the control group.

A total of 1500 blood samples from animals including 725 of cattle, 393 of buffaloes, 180 of goats, 202 of dogs and 100 from veterinarians of Rohilkhand region, U.P., India were screened for seroprevalence of brucellosis. Of the two tests employed, STAT detected comparatively higher percentage of seropositive animals (10.2%) as compared to RBPT (9.5%) and 6 veterinarians by RBPT (6%)and 18 by STAT(18%). Highest seroprevalence was found in cattle (11.6%) followed by buffaloes (10.9%), goats(5.0%) and dogs(2.5%).

The course of the coronary vasculature and their communication branches plays an important role in clinical cardiac angiography. A small vessel running through the atrial septum which links the anterior coronary arteries to the posterior ventricular coronary tree is termed as Kugel’s artery. The present study we observed an anomalous branch originating from the left circumflex artery and communicating with right coronary artery, which intend termed as Kugel’s artery.

Syringocystadenomapapilliferum (SP) is a rare adnexal neoplasm seen in the head and neck region. Occurrence of the lesion in other sites is uncommon. A 60yr old woman presented with a solitary swelling in the breast. The histopathological diagnosis of syringocystadenomapappilliferum with cylindromatous and sebaceous differentiation was made. We report a case of sp in unusual location with multiple adnexal differentiation for the first time to the best of our knowledge.

Calcification and the formation of crystals is a common phenomenon in many plant groups under normal conditions. In Angiosperms, calcium oxalate is predominantly deposited as calcium salt and the most commonly encountered shapes include the raphides, druses, styloids, prismatic and crystal sands. They are varies from species to species or with in species, mainly occurs sporadically in all organs.

Antibiotics are chemicals that are produced by living organisms inhibit the growth or kill another organism. Most are not useful medically because of undesirable toxicity or side effects. Natural products of higher plants may be a new source of antimicrobial agents possibly with novel mechanisms of action. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.) has been well documented for its therapeutic potentials. Pudina (Mentha arvensis L.) is used as a carminative, anti-spasmodic, anti peptic ulcer agent, and has been given to treat indigestion, skin diseases, coughs and colds in folk medicine.

The disturbance of aquatic ecosystems due to metal pollution from various sources such as industrial and domestic, cause loss of biodiversity as well as increases the bioaccumulation and magnification of toxicants in the food chain. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of chromium on several physiological activities of Anabaena ambigua, Anabaena subcylindrica, Nostoc commune, Nostoc muscorum, Spirogyra sp. and Spirulina sp. To carry out this research work, the algal strains were obtained from various sources.

Rate of oyster spat fall was recorded in Mulky estuary(a tropical estuary), south west coast of India from October 2009 to May 2010. The average rate of spat fall ranged from 24.96 to 1058.43 No/m². The spat fall rate was found to be higher on concave surface than convex surface of the oyster shells set for studying spat fall rate. The most suitable period for oyster spat collection in Mulky estuary is from December to January and April to May of the year. January and April appeared to be the months of peak settling.

Several bird species have been identified as “problem species” on culture based fisheries in aqua field. Many species of birds prey on cultivable fishes causing significant losses, predators can kill or wound fish (primary infection), then secondary infection like bacterial, viral and fungal infection starts then cause stress to the fish that results in reductions in appetite that in turn causes poor growth and reduced resistance to disease. This in turn causes poor production and profitability.

The biosorption mechanisms of Uranium to active chemical groups on the cell wall matrix of the nonliving fungi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on FTIR study, the biomass was subjected to chemical modification of its amino and carbonyl groups, to examine their roles in the U (VI) removal from the aqueous phase. After investigating biosorption potential of acid and base treated biomass, base treatment was found to enhance the metal removal ability of untreated biomass.

Aquatic insect diversity of Rajaji National Park has been monitored for a period of twelve months. Some of the hydrological attributes were measured in continuity of one month interval. Aquatic insects were sampled from four sampling sites (S1, S2, S3 and S4) of Song and Suswa river of Rajaji National Park. The study revealed that some of the physico-chemical parameters in addition to nature and size of substrate have their significant impact on aquatic insect diversity.

Albino mice weighing approximately 60±0.5 gm were taken as experimental and control animals. Both the control and experimental mice were injected intraperitonally with atropine to reduce peripheral activity. Pilocarpine was dosed along with phosphate buffer against the muscarinic and glutamate receptors to the experimental mice to induce seizures in the mice. Seventeen days after the injection, the experimental and control mice were sacrificed. The brain parts and other body parts were dissected. The muscle of the experimental and control mice were taken for the experiment.

The evaluation of quality and purity of crude drugs by means of various parameters is the most important aspects of pharmacognosy. The present study deals with different pharmacognostic parameters of Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch, an ethnomedicinally important plant of the family Vitaceae. The common name of the plant is ‘Jungli angur’. Juice of tender leaves used in dental problems and as a detergent for indolent ulcers. The plant bears hypostomatic leaves and stomata are mainly anomocytic with few anisocytic types. Palisade ratio is 4 and stomatal index is 9.

Micropropagation and organogenesis successfully achieved in Spilanthes acmella M. is belongs to family Asteraceae and commonly known as Akarkara. Multiple shoots induced from nodal explants on Murashinge and Skoog (MS) medium supplement with various growth regulators BA and Kin alone. The highest shoot regeneration frequency was recorded on MS medium supplement with 5 μM BA (97.3 ± 1.2%), with highest number of multiple shoots (12.2 ± 0.9).

Saffron plant is one of the most important specie. It is the most precious and most expensive spice in the world derived from the stigma of the flower of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plant. Saffron contains many plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have several biological activities including antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-cancer activities and antiproliferative. Saffron acts as an important antioxidant that protects body from oxidant-induced stress, infections and acts as immune modulator.

Manipur, a North-eastern state of India has got a wide range of natural resources pertaining to its flora which are being used for ethnomedicinal purposes. A survey was carried out in Manipur and indigenous knowledge of local traditional uses was collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The information was obtained from the traditional medicine practitioners and other experienced persons having knowledge on many useful plants.

In the present study, three plants viz. Rosa indica (petals), Azadirachta indica (leaves) and Moringa oleifera (leaves) were screened for potential antibacterial and antioxidant activity. To evaluate these activities two organic solvents i.e. acetone and ethanol were used to extract the antibacterial and antioxidant compounds from plant sample. Antibacterial activity was tested against two gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilis and two gram negative i.e. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli bacterial strains by agar well diffusion method.

Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. Antibacterial properties of various extracts of Anisomeles malabarica (L) were investigated against both clinical and laboratory isolates of bacteria using the disc diffusion method.

Generally Channa punctatus females are relatively smaller in size and have bulging abdomen while males possess, pin head like black dots on the ventral region of the body. The six different maturity stages have been recorded. The immature and maturing specimens were encountered from October-February, while developing, mature and gravid fish were recorded in February-March and spent fishes were recorded in between April and September.

In present study, Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Lycopersici were isolated from infected tomato plants in Fadama lands of Sokoto metropolis and identified based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The in vitro efficacy of Jatropha curcas L. aqueous and ethanol of seed and leaf extracts at concentrations, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 160 mg/ml were tested against F. oxysporum using poison food techniques. The result showed growth impairment in all extracts. Highest inhibition were recorded in ethanol extracts of seed and leaf 92.2 and 90.2% followed by water extracts 71.7 and 58.3% at 160 mg/ml.

The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of stunting among rural adolescents in Bankura district of West Bengal. Total 2,130 students aged 10-16 years were included in the present study. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were measured by standard procedures. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ) of <-2 standard deviation (SD) of the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference. Severe stunting was defined as HAZ of <-3 SD. The results showed that overall prevalence of stunting was 44.03%.

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