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March 2013

  1. Ramamohana Rao, P. and Suneetha, P.

    Goa an important beach resort on the west coast of India has a 101 km long coast line and receives around 23 million tourists every year. The beach shacks are regulated by the tourism department and in absence of proper guidelines, the beaches are overcrowded due to the deck beds. Under the guise of renovation or repairs of existing structures new hotels, shops and resorts have come into being. In spite of the stipulations of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Act 1991 the local as well as people in power acquire lands and houses with sea view and violate CRZ rules with impunity. Sectoral practices, partisan policies, unbalanced tourism, and absence of political will have all contributed to the breaching of CRZ. Hence the present study is an attempt to map all the dwellings/ structures/buildings in the CRZ-III along the Goa coast. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been effectively applied to achieve the objective. Analysis of spatial data reveasl that a large number of new structures / dwelling units have come up in CRZ –III after 1991. Calangute, Candolim and Anjuna Villages in North Goa and Palolem in South Goa are found to have more number of illegal constructions along the coast. Therefore these four villages have been chosen for the present study. Field survey conducted to obtain attribute information about legal permissions of the buildings substantiates the spatial analysis.

  2. Krishnamoorthy, S. and Meenakshi, P. S.

    In this paper, the concept of k-tripotentof power symmetric matrices is introduced. Conditions for power symmetric matrices to be k-tripotent are discussed.

  3. Sunanda S. Aswale, Shashikant R. Aswale and Pravin J. Ganjare

    The molecular interactions in the liquids provide valuable information about the liquids and solutions. The nature of interactions between molecules in liquids and solutions can be elucidated by using the thermodynamic and acoustical parameters. The study of propagation of ultrasonic waves in liquid systems is established as a simple and significant tool in determining the nature of interactions between molecules in solution. The ultrasonic velocity, viscosity and density of salicylic acid solution in ethanol were measured at 303.15 K at different frequencies. Using the above data, acoustic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, Rao’s Constant, Wada’s Constant, Specific acoustic impendence and intermolecular free length are evaluated and variations of these parameters are analyzed. Apparent molar compressibility and Relaxation time was determined by using above data. The results are interpreted in terms of solute solvent interactions occurring in the solution.

  4. Mustafa Erkovan, Mustafa Okutan, Sait Eren San and Osman Ozturk

    Multilayer ultrathin films of Cr/Ni80Fe20/Cr/Ni80Fe20/Cr were grown on p-type Si substrate by magnetron sputtering deposition. Thickness dependencies of multilayer thin films were analyzed with impedance spectroscopy. The samples were characterized in a frequency range of 100k – 40M Hz under different DC bias voltages varying from 0 to 1 V. The dependence of relaxation time on the dielectric relaxation frequency was determined from the Cole-Cole plots for different thicknesses two ultrathin permalloy /Cr/ permalloy thin films. The values inferred from Cole-Cole plots suggest that this is a Debye-type dielectric relaxation process under DC bias and we propose that this result is due to the dipolar structure of the samples and the capacitive nature of the interfaces between adjacent layers.

  5. Pori Das and Subashisa Dutta

    An understanding of the soil moisture variability is indispensable to characterize the relation between a region’s hydrology, ecology and hydropedology. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to understand spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture content under different land covers in the humid tropical Brahmaputra basin and (b) to characterize the differences in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture content and surface and subsurface runoff generation patterns influenced by different classes of landuse and land cover by application of the SWAP agrohydrological model. An experimental study site located in Amingaon, Kamrup district of Assam, India was selected for monitoring of profile averaged soil moisture. Four plots composed of homogenous land covers of broadleaved deciduous forest, shrubs and bamboo were selected with soil moisture monitoring facility. Hydrometeorological data mainly daily rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind-speed were monitored for two years from January 2011 to December, 2012. The SWAP model was calibrated from profile probe measurements for May 2011 to October 2011. The model simulations revealed that land use and land covers significantly influenced the moisture contents, surface and subsurface runoff .Undisturbed forest soils, having high degree of macroporosity, showed higher preferential flow and low runoff. However, paddy fields exhibited very high surface runoff due to lower infiltration owing to hard pan formation at a shallow depth. The subsurface drainage and soil moisture storage was moderate in paddy. Soils under Jhum cultivation showed significant numbers of active macropore in the upper soil layer, whereas the macropore connectivity was apparently lost in the lower horizons. Therefore surface runoff was very high. The subsurface drainage as well as the soil moisure storage was higher in jhum. In case of grasslands the higher unsaturated hydraulic conductivity favoured more infiltration of water causing higher subsurface flow and soil moisture storage. Less infiltration of rain water was observed in grasslands, where the surface initiated macropores were blocked by eroded fine soil particles causing higher surface runoff. In case of bamboo, the subsurface drainage as well as the soil moisture storage was high indicating higher preferential flow in the lower soil layers. The broadleaved deciduous forest soil thus generated high magnitudes of surface runoff due to its clayey soil. The subsurface drainage was high but the soil moisture storage was moderate. In tea-garden, surface runoff rate from the tea garden was moderately high. The subsurface drainage and soil moisture was also moderately high in forest under Jhum due to lower saturated hydraulic conductivity. In case of bamboo, the subsurface drainage as well as the soil moisture storage was high indicating higher preferential flow in the lower soil layers. The broadleaved deciduous forest soil thus generated high magnitudes of surface runoff. The subsurface drainage was high but the soil moisture storage was moderate. In case of shrubs and alpine shrubs, due to well developed macropore network, more percolation of water resulted in lesser surface runoff. The subsurface drainage and soil moisture was also moderately high. In case of needleleaved evergreen forest, subsurface flow was less and soil moisture storage was moderate. In case of broadleaved evergreen forest subsurface flow was very high but soil moisture storage was less. In case of croplands and plantation, obstructed macropore connectivity resulted in higher runoff. In case, of plantation, the subsurface drainage was high but soil moisture storage was moderate. In case of cropland, subsurface drainage was moderate but soil moisture storage was high.

  6. Arputharaj, M. J. and Gayatri, R.

    India has developing economy where the economic progress is directly proportional to the industrial growth, which in turn is dependent mainly upon the relation between the employer and the employee. Industrialisation poses a challenge for an entrepreneur in the form of management of the resources. The management and effective and efficient deployment of the resources of the organisation is the factor which decides the profitability, sustainability and viability of any organization. Labour is one of the basic resources of factors of production any industry and has an important bearing on the performance and goals of the organisation. This relation is regulated by the labour laws, which mainly constitute protective and beneficial legislation among all the parties concerned. These laws govern the day-to-day practices, procedures, relations, rights and obligations of employers and employees. The first of the Indian labour laws were enacted by the British Colonial Government and are still more or less the same. Some of the provisions which were enacted a hundred years ago have no relevance today. For the effective and efficient management of labour in an industry or an organisation it is necessary to have a complete knowledge of the Laws, bye laws, regulations and ordinances applicable to the industry in general and to the company or organisation specifically. The laws and bye laws applicable to labour issues and interests provides for various compliances in accordance with procedures laid therein. This paper is an attempt to understand the need of change in these laws in order to give way to the progress and development of certain industries, and provides a brief insight into the Laws, bye laws, Regulations, notifications applicable to labour and labour issues. “Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration”, said Abraham Lincoln.

  7. Ingle, J. T., Sonekar, R. P., Nagpure, P. A. and Omanwar, S. K.

    The Orange red and red emitting borate host phosphor YCaBO4: Eu3+ and YBO3: Eu3+ has been prepared by a novel solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (Urea) and Oxidizer (Ammonium nitrate).The Heat evolved in reaction is utilized for auto combustion. The photoluminescence properties of the powder samples of YCaBO4: Eu3+ and YBO3: Eu3+ has been investigated under UV and VUV excitation. The phosphor shows strong absorption in UV and VUV region and exhibits intense red emission upon excited by 254 nm UV and 173 nm VUV radiation. Under UV 254 nm excitation, YCaBO4: Eu3+ and YBO3:Eu3+ exhibits intense red emission around 610 nm. Under VUV excitation of 173 nm, the phosphor emits intense red emission around 610 nm and few weak emissions. These weak emissions could be suppressed by annealing the sample repeatedly at proper temperature and both the borate phosphor YCaBO4: Eu3+ and YBO3:Eu3+could be a good red emitting phosphor for PDP display applications and mercury free lamps.

  8. Sanatan Das, Mrinal Jana and Rabindra Nath Jana

    Laminar free and forced convective fully developed flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two infinitely long vertical plates heated asymmetrically embedded in porous medium has been studied. It is observed that the fluid velocity decreases near the channel walls whereas a it increases at the middle region of the channel with an increase in porosity of the medium. The expressions for wall shear stresses, critical Grashof number and the bulk temperature are also derived. It is observed that the bulk temperature increases with increase in either Grashof number or porosity parameter. Further, the critical Grashof number for which there is no flow reversal near the cold wall increases with an increase in temperature ratio parameter while it decreases with an increase in porosity of the medium.

  9. Gopal Sankar, R.

    Crevice corrosion [3] is a well-known damage mechanism in Oil and Gas facilities and is caused by a concentration of corrosive substances within a confined space. The crevice between two adjoining flanges is the ideal environment for initiation of crevice corrosion. Because of the concentration of these corrosive substances in a localized area, rate of corrosion gets accelerated. When flanges are used in very corrosive environments such as sea water, acid service and H2S concentrated drain piping the flange face is particularly susceptible. Corrosion of the sealing area can cause loss of containment and therefore have the potential to cause a release of product with potentially catastrophic consequence. Phased Array Ultrasonic testing technology [6], was recently introduced by specialized inspection companies, the technology can be used to identify the flange face gasket seating surface condition and extent of corrosion in all types of Carbon Steel flanges (weld neck raised face and ring groove) in the Piping and Pressure vessels while in service and without the need to separate the flange joint. The PAUT technology can be described as a semi-quantitative technique to measure the metal wastage (Crevice corrosion, erosion etc.,) at the flange faces gasket seating area. Defect dimensions are measured in C-Scan image (plan view) and POD [2] (Probability of detection) is up to 90%. The PAUT technology was validated in the current research by two ways one is by break opening few bolted in-service flanges and also by the use of flanges with artificial defects/flaws and compare them with inspection findings. This research paper is discussing the results for the use of PAUT technology in a large scale inspection survey of the process industries. The paper will discuss results, results validation, technology strength point and limitations. The same is seen as valuable information for all oil and gas operators worldwide.

  10. Geraldine N. Okeudo and Chikwendu David Uche

    This study was necessitated by the need for manufacturing firms to determine the relationship and extent between the cost of distribution of the goods manufactured and the quantity of the goods/ weight of the goods in question which will inturn create a need for a further research to determine the actual ways to optimize the distribution flow so as to reduce wastage and increase revenue. Data was collected by the administration of questionnaire to a total of 107 respondents of two major plants of Unilever Nigeria Plc in the South East zone of Nigeria. Analysis was carried out on the data collected using a regression and correlation to establish the statistical relationship between the dependent variable (distribution cost) and the independent variables X1 and X2 (weight of the goods and the quantity of the goods) respectively. A positive correlation coefficient(r) value of 0.983 was discovered, indicating a high positive relationship between the variable was discovered. Obviously, an increase in the quantity or weight of the goods must lead to an increased cost of distribution. This prompted a need for the further study in determining an optimal solution to cost of distributution in comparison to quantity/ weight of goods distributed.

  11. Ajitha Sweetly M., Chithambarathanu T., Ramalingom, S. and Selvarajan, P.

    Undoped and sodium chloride-doped sodium chlorate crystals were grown by solution method with slow evaporation technique. The doped crystal was found to be well faceted with high transparency compared to the undoped one. The grown crystals were characterized by structural, FTIR, optical, microhardness, atomic absorption and SHG studies. The results are presented and discussed.

  12. Divya C. H., Ramakrishna, H. and Praveena Gowda

    Robotics is one of the fastest growing engineering fields of today. Millions of dollars are spent every year on the developments of robots to be used in all sorts of field. The use of robots is more common today than ever before and it is no longer exclusively used by the heavy production industries. Robots are designed to remove the human factor from labor intensive and/or dangerous work. In modern farming applications, so many different types of automation techniques are used for easy and staff less operations that includes the important functions like seeding and spraying fertilizers. The system uses so many automatic methods, which require very less labor. The project intends to develop a prototype of an autonomous agricultural robot that includes an automated guidance system, and has applications in different stages of horticulture. A general concept for a field crops robotic machine is to selectively harvest or easily weed the desired prototype. Future trends must be pursued in order to make robots a viable option for all agricultural operations such as to plough the field, saw the seeds, plant saplings, weed the weeds, water the plants, and spray insecticides and pesticides. Microcontroller P89V51RD2 is used to intelligently monitor the robot. Keil uVision4 software provides an integrated development environment to develop a program to do the same.

  13. Annapoorna Mary, Ph.D., RN., CCRN., CNE.

    Background: Although the majority of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients are extubated within 6 to 8 hours following surgery, 20% to 40% of patients remain intubated 12 hours after surgery due to dysfunctional ventilator weaning response (DVWR). DVWR associated with increased morbidity and mortality (30% to 43%) following CABG surgery. There is little known about the prediction of DVWR. Objective: purposes of this research study were to describe the characteristics of Cardio Pulmonary Indicators (CPI) among patients with normal ventilator weaning response (NVWR) and dysfunctional ventilator weaning response (DVWR) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, to find the differences in characteristics of cardiopulmonary indicators between patients with NVWR and DVWR after CABG surgery, and to build a prediction model for DVWR with significant antecedence. Methods: This study utilized a retrospective case control study with time series design. A purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 300 subjects from a retrospective audit of electronic medical records of patients who underwent CABG surgery between May 2003 and February 2006. Among the 300 subjects, 100 subjects constituted the case group and 200 constituted the control group. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics using SAS programs. Results: Findings revealed that several antecedence including COPD (OR 5.46), CHF ( OR3.93), decrease in 10mm/Hg MAP (OR 1.91) , decrease in 5 points of RR (OR 2.97), decrease in 2 points mean of CO ( OR 1.94), increase in 5mm/Hg of PAD ( OR 3.64), and decrease of 10mm/Hg in PASP ( OR3.05) were significantly associated with DVWR. Conclusions: In this study, COPD, CHF, MAP, RR, CO, PAD, and PASP are found as significant predictors for DVWR after CABG surgery. The implication of these findings includes using these predictors in ventilator weaning protocols after CABG surgery may prevent DVWR. Therefore, this study recommends that ventilator weaning criteria be developed considering the significant predictors for postoperative CBAG patients.

  14. Annapoorna Mary, Ph.D., RN., CCRN., CNE.

    About 20% to 40% of patients who have undergone Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CBAG) remain intubated 12 hours after surgery due to dysfunctional ventilator weaning response (DVWR). DVWR is associated with increased morbidity and mortality (30% to 43%) following CABG surgery. Literature review revealed that there is an association between gender and preoperative co- morbidities and post-operative hemodynamic alterations. Finding significant antecedence to predict DVWR could help to identify and prevent the complications from DVWR after CABG surgery. The purposes of this secondary analysis were to describe the gender and co morbidity distribution among patients those who developed dysfunctional ventilator weaning response and normal ventilator weaning response( NVWR) after CABG surgery and to determine the differences in the distribution of gender and co morbidity among patients with DVWR and NVWR. Findings of the secondary analysis revealed that gender had significant effects on hemodynamic cardiopulmonary indicators (CPI) such as MAP (p = 0.0012), CO (p < 0.0001), and CI (p < 0.0001) post operatively. From these findings, future studies may be conducted using prospective designs in finding the associations and predictive values of gender, co morbidities and cardiopulmonary indicators in Dysfunctional ventilator weaning response, which may have implications in quality care of patients who undergo CABG surgery.

  15. Taide, S.T., Ingle, N. B and Omanwar, S. K.

    CaSO4: Eu3+ phosphors prepared by co-precipitation method have been studied for its photoluminescence characteristics. The CaSO4 phosphors are prepared by doping different concentration of Europium (1,3,5 mole %). The sample shows maximum peak intensity for 5 % doping of Europium .The excitation at 254 nm and emission at 615 nm of photoluminescence was investigated.

  16. Subrahmanyam M., Fekadu Tamiru and Satyanarayana K. V. V.

    Interpretation techniques employed in magnetic data enable in quantifying the subsurface geological bodies for various purposes. Of the various types of them the performance evaluation of methods based on the characteristics positions and inversion techniques were studied in the present paper. The theoretical magnetic data was generated over simple geological bodies of sheet, dike and vertical fault models. The data thus generated has been used for performance study. The anomalies were interpreted with the characteristic positions method for the dike, vertical fault and sheet model where as the inversion method is for the dyke model only. From these interpretation techniques the source parameters were estimated. With the assumed source parameters and estimated, the percent error was determined. The estimated percent errors from the performance evaluations of the techniques showed that the use of characteristics positions method determines the origin with less than ±0.5% error, of all the tabular bodies presented in this paper irrespective of the actual shape of the anomaly and without the knowledge of any prior information. The source parameters estimated for the three simple bodies used in the study are in the acceptable percent errors less than ±10 percent.

  17. Vithya, K., Sundaresan, B., Kumar, E. and Muthuraj, D.

    The use of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (NPE) for solid state device is the basis of storage application in Lithium ion batteries. In spite of many advantages particularly in ionic conductivity enhancement, the utilization of filler with LiNO3 in the NPE matrix is almost non-existent. In this paper, the influence on ionic conductivity of TiO2 nano-filler with PMMA-LiNO3 NPE films are investigated. Structural, optical and thermal properties for without and with filler added PMMA-LiNO3 NPE are characterized. FTIR studies confirmed the complex formation between PMMA and LiNO3. The XRD study revealed that the TiO2 is acted as a solid plasticizer for the polymer electrolyte. A threefold enhancement in the ionic conductivity for PMMA-LiNO3 NPE showed an exciting result at 5 wt% with TiO2 nano-filler. The importance of these results implied that the nanosized TiO2 particles in the PMMA-LiNO3 matrix provide a new path way for the transport of lithium ions and may be suitable for energy applications.

  18. Erastus Kyania Musyimi and Kaberia Isaac Kubai

    In the endeavour to pursue justice in the post-conflict period, the International Criminal Court’s (ICC) operations in Africa have met with significant challenges. While it has been acknowledged in some quarters that the ICC can excel in curbing the problems of violence stemming from a culture of impunity, the court has attracted immense and tremendous controversy, especially because of its propensity for prolonging conflict and undermining peace deals and reconciliation processes that have proved imperative in a society emerging from a period of gross human rights violations. Kenya, in particular, is currently struggling with international criminal cases emanating from the violence that rocked the country following the 2007 general election. This violence followed the announcement of the results of the presidential election in Kenya on 30 December 2007 which sparked severe political violence across the country. The Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) had declared President Mwai Kibaki of the Party of National Unity (PNU) the winner against Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). Two months of civil unrest resulted in the deaths of 1,333 people and over 650,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), making it the deadliest ethno-political unrest since the introduction of multiparty politics in 1991 (Dagne, 2008).

  19. Santoshi, G.

    In the post-reforms era, with increasing market orientation in the Indian financial sector both existing and new companies are opting for finance from the capital market, money market, foreign exchange markets. The competition among firms for a slice of the savings cake has increased. The market is flooded with a variety of new instruments and complex financial products, such as asset-backed securities and credit derivatives to attract ordinary investors for subscription of their issues. These new instruments are embodied with complex features very difficult for an ordinary investor to understand and analyse. Besides this, investors no longer evaluate the creditworthiness of the borrowers by their names or size. Credit rating agencies have come into existence to assist the investors in their investment decisions, by assessing the creditworthiness of the borrowers. It is one of the supporting services and positive tool for the development of capital market in developing countries like India. Basic philosophy of credit rating is to assess the risk associated with and assign the rating to the debt instrument. The main purpose of the study is to know the Credit rating process that are adopted by Credit Rating Agencies in general and also to have a close observation on various ratings given by CRISIL, ICRA and CARE on specified instruments. The study also highlights the regulations and mandatory controls issued by SEBI from time to time in controlloing the operations of Credit Rating Agencies. Objectives 1. To understand the conceptual procedure of rating a credit instrument in Indian financial system. 2. To analyse long term and short term credit rating instruments that CRISIL, ICRA and CARE adopt for credit rating evaluation. 3. To frame out the various regulations propounded by SEBI from time to time in monitoring the Credit Rating Agencies. Research Methodology The study is based on the secondary data. The secondary data was collected from various text books, company websites, other websites, Journals and Articles. Scope of Study 1. The study is limited up to 3 rating agencies namely, CRISIL, ICRA and CARE. The study does not reflect the entire credit rating agencies all over the world. 2. The study is carried on long term and short term instruments rather on specifying them. 3. Credit rating symbols were analysed based on key criteria but not the entire structure.

  20. Mothilal Yuvaraja, P. and Ramanujam, N.

    Foraminifers a single shelled protozoan are broadly classified as planktonic and benthic. These foraminifers having high level taxonomical studies are based on shell mineralogy can be categorized into four groups as taxa with organic shell, agglutinated taxa, calcareous perforate taxa and calcareous imperforate and habituating in marine and mangrove environments. For the present study benthic foraminifer fauna has been collected in the Van veen grab sampler in the, North Bay, Sistrosis Bay, Carbyns Cove, Burmanalla, Chidyatapu, and Wandoor of Port Blair India. To study the Shell abnormal growth in family of Peneroplidae due to intergeneric fusion of species such as Peneroplis planatus, Peneroplis pertusus and Coscinospira hemprichii and stunted foraminifera shells in foraminifera the light microscopic SEM and EDAX studies are carried out. The basic finding of the study reveals that shell abnormalities are common in foraminiferal species.

  21. Piku Chowdhury

    How the perennially evolving combinations of words in the textual space communicates with the reader and what role the author has in the entire project remains an intriguing aspect of the deep-seated anxiety regarding the efficacy of the verbal modules in negotiating the frontiers of communication. The centrality of interpretation evolves as a significant constituent of the referential and communicative function of the Logos and its multifaceted extensions in critical discourse today. The emerging contradictions posit intriguing questions about the limits of interpretation and the relative positions of the creator, interpreter and the text in the process of the emergence of meanings. In the Eliotian discourse, there are express references to the infinite possibility of textual interpretations with a concomitant awareness of the necessity of some sort of margin at the terrible flow of interpretive profusion. The discursive experimentations with expressions and volatile meanings in form of interpretative mazes remain a premise of an intriguing enquiry.

  22. Tonatiuh Najera Ruiz and Angélica Santana Fierro

    The importance of innovation clusters has been studied frequently in recent literature. It is considered that the clusters are important for the economic development of the regions. However, its creation and subsequent sustainability does not happen automatically. It requires a series of policies and initiatives to encourage its creation. These policies, which can be classified into six categories, vary according to the life cycle stage in which the cluster is, to have the greatest impact. This paper analyzes the evolution of the aerospace cluster in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, in which there is a grouping of 26 companies that generate more than 14,500 jobs. It is found that, by its nature, this cluster is in the early stages of development, and some policies that are clearly located in these same stages of their life cycle are identified.

  23. Francis O. Barasa

    The Pokot community inhabiting the eastern part of Baringo County in Kenya has for a long time experienced enduring periods of food insecurity. This experience has at times culminated in severe hunger and malnutrition. As a coping mechanism, women have, on several occasions, resorted to boiling poisonous fruits from wild trees to feed children and the aged people. Furthermore, the community faces harsh environmental conditions and challenges of cross-border conflicts with its neighbouring counties aggravating the already serious food insecurity situation and marginalising it further in terms of food production and accessibility. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the frequency of access to food by household members, to assess the role of the government in food security to establish the level of the agricultural extension services in food production, and to establish the structural impact of food security on the community. Using a survey design, data was obtained by use of an interview schedule from a sample of 100 respondents drawn from a sample frame of desegregated households selected using a proportionate sampling technique. The study hypothesised that there is an association between food insecurity and access to education, that there is a relationship between food insecurity and conflict. Data was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The Chi-Square χ2 was used to test the variables at a significance level of 0.05. This study is significant because a section of the Kenyan population, in a number of marginal districts is faced with challenges related to food security. Furthermore, it is more significant in view of the rising national population without food which calls for increased food production to meet the increased demand. The study will assist the government to redesign its food distribution policy within the framework of national food security policy particularly for marginal communities.

  24. Dr. Rangalal Mohapatra

    The stochastic Frontier cost model was used to analyze the cost efficiency of Sugarcane farm households of Odisha. The primary data were collected from the 200 sugarcane farm households. The joint estimation of parameters of cost function and inefficiency model through one step maximum likelihood method showed that the 97% of the inefficiency were explained due to cost inefficiency and cost efficiency could be increased by 36% through better use of available farm resources. Since college education, average education of the family and experience significantly reduced cost efficiency, this could be achieved through farm specific inputs which include improved education of the effective farm household, better experience, improved education of the family and participation of more educated youth in farming practices. In addition to this, policy should be made for encouraging farm practices in higher education system so that formal education system can link agricultural system of the economy.

  25. Sandip Tripathy

    Socio-economic status of a slum area is mostly depended on education, income and occupation. And all this trio always influence on the nutritional health of slum dwellers. Not only health but also lifestyle and livelihood status also been tracked by SES. Here all SES is depicted over a marginalized semi urban slum PatharGhata under Midnapur Municipality. Here in the area total 1100 respondant has been taken for survey which is precisely 10% of the total population of specific word. In education this slum area in 2001 census scores only 65.11% (19 no.word) but in 2011 census total district scores 79.04%, when in 2013 survey report cleary shows that only 55% population are educated literally not actually. In the case of income more than 88% of people earns 5k to 10k annually. But monthly average income is 1350/person which is far higher than the central Govt. given 840 rupees per month and monthly average expenditure is 1080/person. Then total average savings is 270 rupees/person/month. Most of the people engaged themselves with transportation being rickshaw pullar, cow-cart manager, trolly puller, daily laborers. The population of that area is distinctively unique; clearly shows that not only economic activity but also education and occupation also influences the poverty.

  26. Jagadeesh Kivudanavar and Shivanand Khavatakoppa

    The Belagavi district of Karnataka state is one of the most prosperous regions in the field of religion and culture. All religions like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity enjoyed a great liberality. Among these, the Jainism enjoyed a royal patronage from the earliest days. As a result the Jainism prospered the region. It played an important role in the fields of education, literature, art, architecture and culture. Belagavi, Halasi, Hooli, Saudatti, Ammanagi etc., are the most important centers of Jainism and its culture. With the help of several inscriptions, the present paper deals the prosperity of Jainism and its royal patronage in the district. inscriptions.

  27. Marcella Mwaka and Patrick A. Kafu

    The basis of the development in educational technology is the possibility of improving the efficiency or quality of learning in a given situation. Appropriate application of educational technology contributes tremendously to the improvement and enhancing of effective teaching and learning. It would therefore be in order to note that there is much in education and training which could be improved by thinking more carefully about various aspects of educational technology in teacher education. Technology is becoming an important part of education and teachers are seen as a critical link in developing technology literacy among students (Phelps, 2002). This literacy can only be achieved if the teachers themselves possess it; one cannot give what one does not have. The expansion of information and communication technology presents educators of teachers with new issues and challenges, two of which are educating teachers to use technology in educationally effective ways, including teaching them about the technology, and incorporating technology with the delivery of teacher education. This suggests that preparation of teachers should teach educational technology as content and at the same use it as delivery resource. Consequently, educational institutions need to have a practical vision for effective use of educational technology to facilitate training and preparation for graduates. This paper is a presentation of findings from a study whose purpose was to evaluate educational technology use in teacher education in Kenyan universities. The findings are on lecturers’ attitude towards educational technology, major types of educational technology used in the preparation of teachers at the Kenyan universities, frequency of use of educational technology by lecturers, effectiveness of educational technology in teacher preparation, and use of educational technology in public and private universities. Based on the findings of the study, this paper presents certain conclusions and recommendations which are expected to be useful to Policy makers especially in the Ministry of Education, teacher trainers, educational technologists and all those concerned with teacher preparation at university level; these are guided at improving, innovating, and evaluating their teacher preparation programmes to remain relevant in teacher preparation.

  28. Mothilal Yuvaraj, P., Ramanujam, N. and Siva Sankar, R.

    The distribution and diversity of foraminifera a single celled protozoan was studied in the sediments closely adjacent to reef of South Andaman Island. A total of 18 species belong to 8 genera were recorded in our investigation. Calcarinidae made larger contribution to the total abundance followed by Hauerinidae, Elphididae, Peneroplidae, Spiroloculinidae and Amphisteginidae. Calcarina spengleri were found to be the most dominant species at all stations. The species such as Calcarina spengleri, Calcarina calcar, Spiroloculina henbesti, Quinqueloculina insignis, Peneroplis pertusus, Quinqueloculina intricate, Quinqueloculina pseudoreticulata, Elphidium craticulatam were the most prevalent foraminifera encountered in the samples. The study indicated that the densities of foraminifera found in the sediments were richer.

  29. Aijaz Ahmad Parrey and Irshad Ahmad Kumar

    The self–concept of a person plays very significant role in his personality development. Self- concept is what we think about ourselves and how we evaluate our abilities and potential. The purpose of this study was to examine the self–concept rural and urban higher secondary school students of Kashmir division. The sample for the study consisted of 100 higher secondary school students (50 Rural, 50 Urban). The data was collected by using Sagar and Sharma Self concept Inventory Scale. The collected data was statistically analyzed and interpreted and it was found that urban higher secondary school students have high overall self–concept and high concept of ideal self than rural higher secondary school students. However both the groups of students have similar concept of real-self.

  30. Priya, N. and Ponnuduri, R.

    The present paper deals with the analysis of Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time of Neural network research output at international level using time series data from 1969 to 2007. The research output at the international level in 1969 is 2 and it is reached to 123552 in 2007 and the increasing trend is observed year by year. The relative growth rate registers a declining trend at international level. The study period, 1969-2007 records the mean relative growth rate of 0.29 at the world level. The doubling time of neural network research output at the world level starts with 0.63 year in 1971 and it is 6.93 years in 2007.

  31. Dr. S. Kavitha

    Today we have an emerging concept called ECRM – Electronic Customer Relationship Management, a means for the companies to conduct interactive and personalized communications with customer. This can be possible using both electronic and traditional channels. Companies whether manufacturing or service industries, need to adopt right customer relationship strategies in order to survive in the competitive world. This is very much true for service industry like banks. Due to LPG era banks in India, are facing severe competition. Both public and private banks have to rise up to the level of satisfying entire customer groups to sustain in the competitive environment. Banks are using ECRM tools for creating relationship with their customers. Bank employees are working with these ECRM tools and success of these tools entirely depends on the ways in which it is properly adopted and used by these employees. This study was conducted with an objective to know the employee perception on ECRM tools. Employees from public and private sector banks are selected randomly from different cities of Tamilnadu and questionnaire was used as a data collection tool and data is analyzed using various statistical tools. The study concluded that banks are investing heavily on Information technology but unless they train their Employees and customers it will be very difficult for them to enjoy all the services and privileges provided by the banks. Keywords: Customer Relationship Management, Electronic Customer Relationship Management, Private Sector Banks, Public sector banks.

  32. Ruqaya Mustafa Ali, Amina N. Al- Thwani, Ahmed Asmer Mankhi and Genan Kamel

    A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=680) with a culture- proven diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) seen at the Institute of Chest and Respiratory diseases / Baghdad – Iraq from (April / 2010 – August / 2011). A total of 643 (31.2%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 37 (4.6%) extra- pulmonary TB (EPTB). The age distribution of the TB patient had a bimodal distribution. Males to females' ratio 2.06 with highly significant level for males than females (P values of < 0.001). The most common site with (EPTB) was pleural TB (37.8%). In conclusion, our data suggest that TB infection involve all age groups, mal gender may be independent risk factor for both form of TB.

  33. Erick Nyakundi Onsongo

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the entrepreneurial ability of the informal waste management and disposal enterprises in Kisii municipality, the study research sought to; to establish the entrepreneurial ability embraced by Informal Waste management and disposal enterprises. The main assumption of the research was that the environmental Sustainability is a function of efficient entrepreneurial ability of the informal waste Management and disposal enterprises. The research covered a sample of 15 Informal Waste management and disposal enterprises, 10 employees were selected using purposive sampling and 25 employees stratified into departments. The research adopted a survey research design and the instrument of collecting data was mainly a questionnaire. Analysis of data was done using descriptive and inferential statistics; percentages, means and ANOVAs and Regression analysis were used to show the direction and magnitude also causality of the variables. From the findings of the study conclusions and recommendation were made since the study can be used by academicians, researchers and management consultants as a source of knowledge and reference.

  34. Sudhakaraiah A., Gnana Deepika E. and Rama Latha V.

    Circular-arc graphs are rich in combinatorial structures and have found applications in several disciplines such as Biology, Ecology, Genetics, Computer Science and particularly useful in cyclic scheduling. Dominating sets play predominant role in the theory of graphs. In this paper we consider the bondage number for a Circular-arc family and is a Circular-arc graph corresponding to arcs which is defined as the minimum number of edges whose removal results in a new graph with larger domination number. Among the various applications of the theory of domination the most often discussed is a communication network. This network consists of communication links between a fixed set of sites. By constructing a family of minimum dominating sets, we compute the bondage number . Suppose, communication network fails due to link failure. Then the problem is to find a fewest number of communication links such that the communication with all sites in possible. This leads to the introducing of the concept of bondage number of graph.

  35. Amirthaveni, M., Premakumari, S., Gomathi, K. and Yang, R. Y.

    India is considered as the diabetes capital of the world with 41 million Indians having diabetes. Socioeconomic environment influences occupation, lifestyle, and nutrition of social classes which in turn would influence the prevalence and profile of glucose intolerance and diabetic complications. Even today, about 80 per cent of the population in developing countries depends on traditional medicine, Bitter Melon is one of the traditional medicine which is a good source of phenolic compounds. It is evidenced reported that only 58.7 per cent of the subjects generally believed that bittergourd is good for health, 27.3 per cent reported bittergourd decreases the sugar level and a few (5.3 5) members informed that it reduces the stomach infection.

  36. Ladan Z., Amupitan J. O., Oyewale O. A., Okonkwo E. M., Bamaiyi L.,Habila N., Magaji, B and Ladan E. O.

    The insecticidal properties of H.spicigera leaf extracts (hexane, ethylacetate and methanol) tested against Callosobruchus maculatus on cowpea was carried out using Azadirachtin as a standard. Ethylacetate extract and standard azadirachtin showed the highest percentage mortality of 98% each at 72hr, while methanol, hexane and control gave percentage mortality of 75%,87% and 21% respectively. Percentage emergence of Azadirachtin standard and ethylacetate extract showed 6% and 8% while methanol, hexane and control gave percentages emergence of 18%,13% and 87% at 72hr respectively. Ethylacetate and methanol extracts showed oviposition deterrent at 3.16% and 5.56% while hexane, and control gave 11.11%, and 76.39% respectively. These results showed that ethylacetate and methanol extracts were active in controlling C.maculatus eggs laid relative to azadirachtin (2.78%) used as standard in this study. At 16wk, hexane extract showed the least percentage (2%) seed damaged while ethylacetate, methanol and control gave 5%, 23%,88% relative to standard azadirachtin (10%).The data showed ethylacetate leaf extract of H. spicigera with 3.16% oviposition deterrent,98% mortality and 6% emergences having potentials for use as a bio-control agent in post- harvest storage on grains susceptible to insect attack/infestation than methanol and hexane extracts.

  37. Patle, M. R. and Katre M. G.

    Regression analysis is an important tool in the computer based drug design practitioner’s toolbox for a number of reasons. First, this method saves lot of time and by using this model, lot of compound can be screened for their therapeutic properties. Secondly, varieties of regression analysis methods are available depending on the nature of the problem being studied. In current project, a regression model “Regression Analysis Software Package (RASTP)” is developed as a measure for Study of Therapeutic Properties of Chemical Compounds. This model will compare the unknown molecule with the set of known molecules with respect to their structural properties and select or reject the given molecule or set of molecule on the basis of correlation and Regression Coefficient parameters. In this study, the known set of molecules, which are anticancer compounds with known biological activity, will be retrieved from the databank. These set of molecules will act as training set during the model building and will also used for validation purpose of the model. From the data obtained from model, it is clear that the important regression analysis parameters for the predictor such as coefficient estimate, standard error; mean R squared error; adjusted R square, etc. are in good accord with the respective parameters for the known set. Hence, “Regression Analysis Software Package (RASTP)” model is a good tool for the calculation of biological activity which in turn is used to predict the therapeutic importance of the chemical compound.

  38. Kouotou D., Ngomo Manga H., Baçaoui A., Yaacoubi A. and Ketcha Mbadcam J.

    The preparation of activated carbons derived from oil palm shells, chemically activated by potassium hydroxide and physically activated by steam was investigated in this paper. The Methodology of Experimental Design (MED) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of two preparation variables: the activation temperature ranging from 601 to 799°C and the impregnation ratio ranging from 0.6 to 3.4 were studied on the activated carbon yield (R/AC-KOH), the iodine adsorption capacities (I2/AC-KOH) and methylene blue adsorption capacities (MB/AC-KOH) results. The experimental results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) permits to identified the significant factors on each experimental design response. The optimum conditions for activated carbons physicocshemically activated by KOH and steam (AC-KOH) were activation temperature of 630°C, and impregnation ratio of 1/1 which lead to the activated carbon yield of 38.71%, I2/AC-KOH of 803.72 mg/g and MB/AC-KOH of 457.36 mg/g. The morphologies of the raw material and activated carbon obtained under optimum conditions were visualized using Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  39. Karthiyayini R., Asha Thomas and Ponnammal N. R.

    An experiment was carried out with Limonia acidissima L. seedlings to find out the effective biofertilizer in single or in combination for better growth and productivity. Seedlings were grown in the polybags inoculated with Rhizobium, Azospirillum, VAM, Phosphobacterium and mixture. The seedling growth parameters were noted in every 15 days up to 150 days. Phosphobacterium-inoculated seedlings exhibited highest shoot growth. The combined application of all the four biofertilizers increased the leaf production and root length. The total biomass was higher in plants treated with phosphobacterium compared to other biofertilizers. The seedlings treated with VAM showed least growth and biomass production than control.

  40. Bimal Krushna Panda, Sujata Panda and Soumitra Satpathy

    The most distressing symptoms that follow anaesthesia and surgery are pain and vomiting. The aim of this study is to compare the antiemetic efficacy of granisetron against that of ondansetron by comparing the incidence of PONV using each drug. The surgical technique is highly standardized, therefore the choice of anaesthetic technique is the main variable available to influence PONV. Patients who received Granisetron and Ondansetron had significantly less PONV compared to the group that received normal saline; and with Granisetron the incidence was significantly lower than that with Ondansetron.

  41. Gouri Sankar Bhunia and Pravat Kumar Shit

    Monitoring vegetation coverage changes using multi-temporal remotely-sensed data offers an efficient and exact evaluation of anthropogenic intervention on the natural environment. Study was conducted to explore the spatio-temporal changes in vegetation cover using the potential multi-temporal satellite data captured in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2009 in Kangswati (Cossi) river and Dwarakeswar river interfluves area, West Bengal. Temporal changes were determined using image differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in that time series. The highest maximum NDVI value was found in 2009 (maximum NDVI of 0.99), and lowest value was recorded in 1999 (maximum NDVI of 0.48). By 2002 - 2005, the area of surface waterbody decreased to 0.89% and in 2009, it grew to 1.03%. In 2002 and 2005, highest percent of surface area is coved with the low density vegetation zone. By 1999 – 2005, there was decreased in trend of bare surface area, while in 2005 – 2009, there was an increased in trend. Between 1999 and 2009, the low density vegetation zone portrayed increased in trend. Assessment conducted on the generated thematic images signifies accuracies of 86.0%–92.0% were attained. However, the NDVI results indicated the vegetated area decreased and it may be due to the anthropogenic intervention.

  42. Rachita Sarangi, Trimal Subudhi K., Sanjay Kumar and Sureswar Mohanty

    Levetiracetam, a pyrolidine derivative, is a newer antiepileptic drug whose efficacy and tolerability are already well known in adults. Few studies are available in children. Most studies suggest that levetiracetam is effective against partial and generalized epilepsy. The drug has also proven effective against photosensitivity, epileptic syndromes and epileptic and nonepileptic myoclonus. LEV is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral ingestion, is less than 10% protein-bound demon¬strates linear kinetics and is minimally metabolized through a pathway independent of the cytochrome P450 system. It has no significant drug-to-drug inter¬actions. The most common reported adverse events with LEV were somnolence, irritability, dizziness, nausea, influenza, and nasopharyngitis but these adverse reactions are mild and can be partially avoided with slow titration. Levetiracetam seems to have a broad spectrum of action and is, on the whole, well tolerated. This review, based on the international literature, aims to identify and make known the possible indications for levetiracetam in childhood.

  43. Trupti Rekha Swain, Sarita Otta, Sanjay Kumar, Jyotirmoyee Jena and Shantilata Patnaik

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), an indigenous plant is reported to have antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and several other medicinal properties. More than 135 active principles have been isolated from different parts of Neem tree and several reviews have been published regarding their beneficial effect. In this experiment, anti arrhythmic action was observed within two minutes of NLE administration and this was persistent in nature. Present work demonstrates the various beneficial effects of low dose NLE like lowering of blood pressure and terminating cardiac tachyarrhythmia.Neem seed oil was obtained in pure form from Indian Herbs Research Supply Company Limited, Saharanpur, UP. The Ethical Committee approval was taken from the Institutional Ethics Committee of Veer Surendra Sai Medical College and Hospital, Burla, Odisha.

  44. Yaman Nizmawardini, Hanani Endang, Ruray Djunaidi and Santi Purna Sari

    Andrographis paniculata Nees. (AP) leaves, empirically used as an alternative medicine for various diseases including diabetes mellitus, but the scientific evident for treatment in humans were still limited published reports. This study analyzed the effects of hypoglycemic AP capsules (APC) as an additional therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The design of this study was double-blind randomized controlled trial, cross-over design in 34 subjects who were divided into two groups. The first group received two APC 2 times daily for 14 days, and the second group received 2 placebo capsules (PC) 2 times daily for 14 days. Both groups kept taking metformin as standard therapy, then the evaluation of blood glucose levels on day 14. The result showed that showed that administration of APC for 14 days fasting blood glucose levels (13.47 mg/dL) greater compared to PC (-8 mg/dL) but not significantly. The APC significantly reduced blood glucose 2 hours after meal at 34.91mg/dL and significant (p<0.05).

  45. Fakunle, P. B., Ajibade, A. J., Oyewo E. B. and Olojede S. O.

    Aims: To investigate some protective effects of ginger on CCl4 (Carbon tetrachloride) induced toxicity in the adrenal cortex of adult wistar rats. Study design: Histological and Biochemical study. Place and Duration of study: Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, LAUTECH, Nigeria between September 2012 and December 2012. Methodology: Twenty-four adult healthy wistar rats of both sexes of average weight 210±4.22g were randomly assigned into 4 groups four groups (N=6) such that T1, T2 and T3 served as treatment groups, while C served as the control group. T1 received 2g of ginger and 2mls of CCl4, T¬2 were given 2mls of CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride while T3 received 2g of ginger. The control group C was given distilled water. All the animals were exposed for 7 days. At the end of administration, all the rats were sacrificed cervical dislocation and processed immediately for histological techniques and bioassay of some antioxidant enzymes as well as lipid peroxidation. Results: Oxidative stress enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione reductase and Glutathione peroxidase as well as Glutathione levels were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in T2 compared to the control but relatively increased in T1 and T3 while Lipid peroxidation level was drastically reduced in T3 and to some extent in T1 compared to increased level in T2. The histoarchitecture in the treatment group T3 and control C revealed distinct and normal pyramidal cells and freely anastomosing polyhedral cellular distribution in the cellular zones of adrenal cortex. Treatment group T1 also showed same normal histological presentation with few distortions. However the pictorial representation in treatment group T2 showed pyknotic pyramidal cells characterized with vacoulations specifically in the zonal fasciculata and to lesser extent in the zonal reticulosa. Conclusion: Ginger offers some ameliorative protections to the pyramidal and polyhedral cells of the adrenal cortex following CCl4 induced toxicity in wistar rats and also further affirms its antioxidative potentials

  46. Sachan, N. and Binita Nautiyal

    A total of 1500 blood samples from animals including 725 of cattle, 393 of buffaloes, 180 of goats, 202 of dogs and 100 from veterinarians of Rohilkhand region, U.P., India were screened for seroprevalence of brucellosis. Of the two tests employed, STAT detected comparatively higher percentage of seropositive animals (10.2%) as compared to RBPT (9.5%) and 6 veterinarians by RBPT (6%)and 18 by STAT(18%). Highest seroprevalence was found in cattle (11.6%) followed by buffaloes (10.9%), goats(5.0%) and dogs(2.5%). Demographically, the highest seroprevalence of animal brucellosis was seen in Moradabad district (12.4%) followed by Shahjahanpur (11%), Badaun (10%), Pilibhit (9.4%), Rampur (8.6%) and Bareilly (8%) whereas veterinarians of Pilibhit district showed highest seroprevalence rate (25%). Cattle, buffalo and goats showed highest seroprevalence during rainy season whereas dogs during summer season (3.6%). Seasonal pattern of seroprevalence among veterinarians was same as that of animals. In all the animals, seroprevalence was higher in females in comparison to males. In contrast more number of male veterinarians (18.6%) were found positive than the female veterinarians (11.1%). In cattle, buffaloes and goats seroprevalence was higher in adults in comparison to young animals but it was more in young dogs in comparison to adult dogs.

  47. Vasudeva Reddy, J. and Lokanadham, S.

    The course of the coronary vasculature and their communication branches plays an important role in clinical cardiac angiography. A small vessel running through the atrial septum which links the anterior coronary arteries to the posterior ventricular coronary tree is termed as Kugel’s artery. The present study we observed an anomalous branch originating from the left circumflex artery and communicating with right coronary artery, which intend termed as Kugel’s artery. The incidence of this branch in south Indian population is about 3.75% in our study was observed along with anastomosis between the anterior and posterior descending arteries. Most of the literatures stating that the anastomosis between coronary arteries are having significant role in clinical diagnostics. Our study acknowledges the kugel’s artery and its importance in angiographic studies to help the clinicians and surgeons.

  48. Dr. Kiran, T., Dr. Ganeshan, M., Dr. Krishna Kumar, M. and Dr. Niran Kumar Samuel

    Syringocystadenomapapilliferum (SP) is a rare adnexal neoplasm seen in the head and neck region. Occurrence of the lesion in other sites is uncommon. A 60yr old woman presented with a solitary swelling in the breast. The histopathological diagnosis of syringocystadenomapappilliferum with cylindromatous and sebaceous differentiation was made. We report a case of sp in unusual location with multiple adnexal differentiation for the first time to the best of our knowledge.

  49. Sk Md Abu Imam Saadi and Amal Kumar Mondal

    Calcification and the formation of crystals is a common phenomenon in many plant groups under normal conditions. In Angiosperms, calcium oxalate is predominantly deposited as calcium salt and the most commonly encountered shapes include the raphides, druses, styloids, prismatic and crystal sands. They are varies from species to species or with in species, mainly occurs sporadically in all organs. Raphides (long, slim, pointed crystals) were most common, but druses (crystal aggregates) were also found in most of the plant organ, which also give mechanical support, mineral balance, waste sequestration, and protection against herbivores have all been proposed as crystal functions. Raphides have long been associated with the acridity of the aroids, meaning that when eaten raw they cause swelling of the lips, mouth and throat. Detoxification via cooking, pounding or leaching neutralizes the chemical, hence making the aroids edible, but does not destroy or degrade the raphides The edibility is depend upon the distribution and frequency of calcium oxalate crystals (COCs).

  50. Ankita Sharma, Naresh Kumar, Deep Kumar, Vandna Kumari, Shilpa Sarswati and Kalpana Chandel

    Antibiotics are chemicals that are produced by living organisms inhibit the growth or kill another organism. Most are not useful medically because of undesirable toxicity or side effects. Natural products of higher plants may be a new source of antimicrobial agents possibly with novel mechanisms of action. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.) has been well documented for its therapeutic potentials. Pudina (Mentha arvensis L.) is used as a carminative, anti-spasmodic, anti peptic ulcer agent, and has been given to treat indigestion, skin diseases, coughs and colds in folk medicine.

  51. Pramod Mane, Deepali Kadam and Arjun Bhosle

    The disturbance of aquatic ecosystems due to metal pollution from various sources such as industrial and domestic, cause loss of biodiversity as well as increases the bioaccumulation and magnification of toxicants in the food chain. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of chromium on several physiological activities of Anabaena ambigua, Anabaena subcylindrica, Nostoc commune, Nostoc muscorum, Spirogyra sp. and Spirulina sp. To carry out this research work, the algal strains were obtained from various sources. A standard initial inoculum of the isolated algal species was inoculated to culture flasks. The culture flasks were supplied with various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 mg/L) of chromium. At the end of the incubation period 10 ml of sample was taken and centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 minutes and the pellets were used for measurement of the various experimental parameters. The results show that, the lower doses of chromium had stimulatory effects on total chlorophyll, total protein, total carbohydrate, total starch and total free amino acids of all the tested algal species. All the biochemical parameters of the tested algal strains were gradually decreased in a manner dependent on the metal concentration in the culture medium. The inhibitory and stimulatory effects of either of the used heavy metals depend on concentration. Different organisms, however, have different sensitivities to the same metal.

  52. Ganapathi Naik, M. and Gangadhara Gowda

    Rate of oyster spat fall was recorded in Mulky estuary(a tropical estuary), south west coast of India from October 2009 to May 2010. The average rate of spat fall ranged from 24.96 to 1058.43 No/m². The spat fall rate was found to be higher on concave surface than convex surface of the oyster shells set for studying spat fall rate. The most suitable period for oyster spat collection in Mulky estuary is from December to January and April to May of the year. January and April appeared to be the months of peak settling. Therefore, oyster farmers may set their clutch materials during these periods to collect maximum spats for culture practices. Several environmental factors influence on the settlement of oyster spat. There was a significant positive correlation between oyster spat fall rate and water temperature, salinity, DO and pH.

  53. Gadadhar Dash and Kurva Raghu Ramudu

    Several bird species have been identified as “problem species” on culture based fisheries in aqua field. Many species of birds prey on cultivable fishes causing significant losses, predators can kill or wound fish (primary infection), then secondary infection like bacterial, viral and fungal infection starts then cause stress to the fish that results in reductions in appetite that in turn causes poor growth and reduced resistance to disease. This in turn causes poor production and profitability. Records shown that Peligans are the highest predatory fishes, 15kg/month is consumed by this bird. Cormorants, Terns are the lowest predatory fishes, 1.5kg/month consumed by this fishes. Not only that damage equipment and nets, resulting in escape of fishes through damage. Due to predation on fishes by the predatory birds so much economic loss, so it is significantly need the prevention and control of predatory birds in aqua field.

  54. Anju Hooda, Rajesh Dhankhar and Rachna Bhateria

    The biosorption mechanisms of Uranium to active chemical groups on the cell wall matrix of the nonliving fungi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on FTIR study, the biomass was subjected to chemical modification of its amino and carbonyl groups, to examine their roles in the U (VI) removal from the aqueous phase. After investigating biosorption potential of acid and base treated biomass, base treatment was found to enhance the metal removal ability of untreated biomass. Meanwhile, Biosorption conditions were optimized in batch system. The percentage removal was observed at optimum pH of 5, biosorbent dose of 10g/L, initial metal concentration of 100mg/L, contact time of 75 minutes and particle size of 100µm. Sorption isotherms were interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and BET models. Equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir model and Uptake kinetic followed pseudo-second order model. In conclusion, the maximum biosorption potential of non living S. cerevisiae can be harnessed by using base treated biomass under optimized set of functional conditions.

  55. Nusrat Samweel and Tahir Nazir

    Aquatic insect diversity of Rajaji National Park has been monitored for a period of twelve months. Some of the hydrological attributes were measured in continuity of one month interval. Aquatic insects were sampled from four sampling sites (S1, S2, S3 and S4) of Song and Suswa river of Rajaji National Park. The study revealed that some of the physico-chemical parameters in addition to nature and size of substrate have their significant impact on aquatic insect diversity. The diversity of benthic macro invertebrates have found to be high in winter months comparatively due to low turbidity, high water transparency, moderate water temperature, high dissolved oxygen and low water velocity. The abundance of aquatic insects were also associated with the high primary production during winter season. Some suggestions were also made for the conservation and management of the diversity of aquatic insects dwelling the Song and Suswa rivers of Rajaji National Park.

  56. Maleeka Begum, S. F., Srinivasan, J., Chandrasekar, S., Savitha, C. and Preethy Mani, M.

    Albino mice weighing approximately 60±0.5 gm were taken as experimental and control animals. Both the control and experimental mice were injected intraperitonally with atropine to reduce peripheral activity. Pilocarpine was dosed along with phosphate buffer against the muscarinic and glutamate receptors to the experimental mice to induce seizures in the mice. Seventeen days after the injection, the experimental and control mice were sacrificed. The brain parts and other body parts were dissected. The muscle of the experimental and control mice were taken for the experiment. Acetyl choline esterase (AchE) assay was done in muscle tissue of epileptic mice by spectrophotometric method. The kinetic parameter Vmax, the maximum rate of reaction and Km, Michaelis menten constant of acetyl choline esterase enzyme were studied in the membrane fraction of muscle tissue in epileptic condition. The result shows increase in the Vmax during epileptic condition than that of the control. Michaelis Menten constant was found to be decreased.

  57. Sutapa Choudhury, Chowdhury Habibur, Rahaman and Sudhendu Mandal

    The evaluation of quality and purity of crude drugs by means of various parameters is the most important aspects of pharmacognosy. The present study deals with different pharmacognostic parameters of Ampelocissus latifolia (Roxb.) Planch, an ethnomedicinally important plant of the family Vitaceae. The common name of the plant is ‘Jungli angur’. Juice of tender leaves used in dental problems and as a detergent for indolent ulcers. The plant bears hypostomatic leaves and stomata are mainly anomocytic with few anisocytic types. Palisade ratio is 4 and stomatal index is 9. Needle shaped Ca-oxalate crystals are present on both epidermal surfaces of the leaf. In the methanolic extract of the leaf, the detected phytochemical groups are alkaloids, reducing sugars, gums, tannins and anthraquinones, etc. Ash value and moisture content of the leaf are 31.23% and 77.09 % respectively. The drug powder treated with different chemical reagents gives characteristic colourations when seen under UV light. This plant seems to be very potent against different popular bacteria. This study will throw new data regarding the uses of ethnomedicine to the state as well as national level inventory of ethnomedicine.

  58. Abyari, M., Patil, V. N., Rashidi, M., Jaybhaye, A. and Deokule, S. S.

    Micropropagation and organogenesis successfully achieved in Spilanthes acmella M. is belongs to family Asteraceae and commonly known as Akarkara. Multiple shoots induced from nodal explants on Murashinge and Skoog (MS) medium supplement with various growth regulators BA and Kin alone. The highest shoot regeneration frequency was recorded on MS medium supplement with 5 μM BA (97.3 ± 1.2%), with highest number of multiple shoots (12.2 ± 0.9). In vitro raised shoots were excised and implanted on MS half strength medium supplement with various concentrations of auxins (NAA and IAA, 1.25 – 15 µM) to produce roots. The maximum frequency of roots obtained on MS medium fortified with 5 µM IAA (31.40 ± 3.2). The regenerated plantlets were successfully transferred into the pots containing sterilized soil and sand (3:1) combination.

  59. Syed Sana Mehraj and Henah Mehraj Balkhi

    Saffron plant is one of the most important specie. It is the most precious and most expensive spice in the world derived from the stigma of the flower of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plant. Saffron contains many plant derived chemical compounds that are known to have several biological activities including antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-cancer activities and antiproliferative. Saffron acts as an important antioxidant that protects body from oxidant-induced stress, infections and acts as immune modulator. The active components in saffron have many therapeutic applications in many traditional medicines as antiseptic, antidepressant, anti-oxidant, digestive and anti-convulsant. The present article attempt to generate information on impacts of cement pollution on saffron plant. As this plant, a precious asset is under various threats among them, main threat is cement pollution. As because of cement pollution, process of accumulation of heavy metal levels in soil and plant samples are seen high and as plants are more sensitive to excessive amounts of heavy metals than animals and hence are indicators for alerting against possible dangers for humans and animals. Hence it can be concluded from the study that the most probable effect of cement dust would be a help to adopt new aims, models, techniques and methods which would be cost-effective on soils suffering heavy metal pollution and thus would help to reduce heavy metal induced yield and quality loses in saffron.

  60. Maibam Rasila, Meenakshi Bawari and Satya Bushan Paul

    Manipur, a North-eastern state of India has got a wide range of natural resources pertaining to its flora which are being used for ethnomedicinal purposes. A survey was carried out in Manipur and indigenous knowledge of local traditional uses was collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The information was obtained from the traditional medicine practitioners and other experienced persons having knowledge on many useful plants. A data comprising of 24 plant species having medicinal and toxic properties and other uses representing 16 families was reported.

  61. Amit Alexander Charan and Prerak Gupta

    In the present study, three plants viz. Rosa indica (petals), Azadirachta indica (leaves) and Moringa oleifera (leaves) were screened for potential antibacterial and antioxidant activity. To evaluate these activities two organic solvents i.e. acetone and ethanol were used to extract the antibacterial and antioxidant compounds from plant sample. Antibacterial activity was tested against two gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilis and two gram negative i.e. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli bacterial strains by agar well diffusion method. The ethanolic extracts of red rose petals were found to be most effective against all the pathogens tested. Antioxidant activity of all three plants was screened by measuring total phenolic content, total flavonoids and by free radical scavenging assay using DPPH. Significant differences in DPPH scavenging activity were reported between the species investigated, ranging from 74.72% to 83.40%. The total phenol content of the investigated species ranged from 74 to 96 mg CE/ g extract while flavonoid content ranged between 39 to 52 mg QE/g extract. In addition photosynthetic pigments (Chl A, Chl B, and carotene) were also determined for all three plants under study.

  62. Suresh Subramanian and Suriyavathana Muthukrishnan

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. Antibacterial properties of various extracts of Anisomeles malabarica (L) were investigated against both clinical and laboratory isolates of bacteria using the disc diffusion method. Aqueous extracts (10 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 10µg/mL) demonstrated the highest activity, followed by Ethanolic extract (8 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 20µg/mL) methanolic extract demonstrated the least activity against the test bacteria (4 mm zone diameter of inhibition, MIC 40 µg/mL). Generally the antibacterial activities of Anisomeles malabarica are comparable to that of standard oflaxcin to a certain extent. Finally, these results suggested that Anisomeles malabarica (L) can be used to source antibiotic substances for possible treatment of bacterial infections and for the development of new drugs.

  63. AmulyaKumar Saikia, SantoshKumar Singh Abujam and Biswas S. P.

    Generally Channa punctatus females are relatively smaller in size and have bulging abdomen while males possess, pin head like black dots on the ventral region of the body. The six different maturity stages have been recorded. The immature and maturing specimens were encountered from October-February, while developing, mature and gravid fish were recorded in February-March and spent fishes were recorded in between April and September. The gonadosomatic ratio (GSR) was increased gradually from February onwards reaching its maximum in April (10.81) and decline from June and July and thereafter it again increased in August (3.38) and September (4.57) and reached it minimum during November (1.34) and January (1.17). Size at first maturity (M50) was observed for female and males at length group of 9.0-15.0 cm. The mean ova diameter of maturing was recorded was 0.34 (±0.03) mm; developing was 0.52 (± 0.16) mm; mature ova was 0.79 (±0.18) mm; gravid was 0.92 (±0.25) mm. Absolute fecundity was ranged from 2423 to 6466 and the number of eggs increases as the fishes gain in weight and length. Again, the relative fecundity varied from 104 to 216 and the value is found to be comparatively high in the younger size groups. The relationship of fecundity with total length, total weight and ovary weight has been calculated. C. punctatus are heterochronal breeder having two peak breeding season in April and September and it may be inferred that C. punctatus spawn twice in a year with double spawning peak. Spawning season was over by August and December onwards.

  64. Bashir L. U., Muhammad S., Aliero A. A. and Mohammed, N.

    In present study, Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. Lycopersici were isolated from infected tomato plants in Fadama lands of Sokoto metropolis and identified based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The in vitro efficacy of Jatropha curcas L. aqueous and ethanol of seed and leaf extracts at concentrations, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 160 mg/ml were tested against F. oxysporum using poison food techniques. The result showed growth impairment in all extracts. Highest inhibition were recorded in ethanol extracts of seed and leaf 92.2 and 90.2% followed by water extracts 71.7 and 58.3% at 160 mg/ml. Low inhibition were recorded at 5 and 10 mg/ml aqueous extracts. The in vivo experiment showed that treatment with J. curcas seed extract recorded 13.6% disease incidence compared with control 91.4%. A significant (p<0.05) in extract concentration activities were observed. The findings indicate promising potentials of J. curcas in management of fungal diseases.

  65. Naba Kumar Das and Shyamapada Paul

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of stunting among rural adolescents in Bankura district of West Bengal. Total 2,130 students aged 10-16 years were included in the present study. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were measured by standard procedures. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score (HAZ) of <-2 standard deviation (SD) of the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference. Severe stunting was defined as HAZ of <-3 SD. The results showed that overall prevalence of stunting was 44.03%. Of the stunted children, 143 (6.71%) were severely stunted. The rate of stunting was higher among boys (52.46%) than girls (35.13%). The prevalence of stunting was more in mid adolescents (14-16 years) than early adolescents (10-13 years) stage. According to the WHO classification for assessing severity of malnutrition, the rates of stunting were very high in both sexes.

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