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September 2013

  1. Hussein Lufunyo

    In the contemporary world citizen demands on quality, quantity, economy and timely service delivery from public institutions has become a norm. Citizens are no longer passive and inactive subjects in the society and cannot be under estimated. Noting this assumption, this paper makes an attempt to assess the methods and techniques for building public awareness on existence and value of Client Service Charter as a tool of managing performance and service delivery in Tanzania. Documentary review on reforms in Tanzania was done to build the case. The study gathered information using existing reform documents, research papers, journal articles and complimented with interviews to few purposively selected individuals. The study has observed that client service charter in Tanzania is not a reality rather a Mythy. The methods and techniques for building public awareness has not yielded much of the expectations in terms of improving governance process and service delivery to the citizenry. The study concludes that there is a need for the government to take more initiatives in terms of publicity for awareness building, resourcing, more involvement of stake holders, redefining the approach on donor dependency and having a proper enforcement framework to restore hope and legitimacy from the citizens.

  2. Dr. Murali Mohan Gurram

    Aim: To compare the long term (6 months) effect of once daily dose of Timolol in Gel Forming Solution (GFS) with twice daily dose of Timolol in aqueous solution, in control of Intra Ocular pressure (IOP), in cases of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). Material and methods: In a Prospective, Randomized Clinical trial, POAG or Ocular Hypertension patients diagnosed between April 2008 and September 2012 were studied. 750 eyes of 600 patients with age group 46-79 yrs. were selected. Diurnal variation of Tension (DVT) was done along with other investigations. Patients were divided into two groups A and B randomly. Group A was started on Timolol twice daily and group B on once daily Timolol GFS. 400 eyes of 310 patients were started on Timolol solution eye drops twice a day.120 eyes of 100 patients were lost to follow-up or unresponsive to timolol (8 eyes of 5 patients). 350 eyes of 290 patients were started on Timolol GFS once daily, of which 70 eyes of 50 patients were lost to follow up or unresponsive to timolol (7 eyes of 5 patients).So finally, after 6 months treatment, in Group A, 280 eyes of 210 patients and in Group B 280 eyes of 240 patients were analyzed. Analysis was done under following headings. Amount of reduction of IOP at various timings of the day by Timolol and Timolol GFS, Amount of reduction of mean IOP by Timolol and Timolol GFS, Amount of reduction of peak IOP by Timolol and Timolol GFS, Change in systemic parameters after 6 months of treatment. Comparison was done between the two groups with respect to amount of IOP reduction at each time of the day, reduction in 'mean' IOP, and reduction in 'peak' IOP. 't' test was used for analysis. Observations: In group A, the mean IOP before the treatment, at 8 am, 10 am, 12 noon, 2 pm, 4 pm, 6 pm, 8 pm, 10 pm, 12 am, 2 am, 4 am and 6 am decreased by 8.5±2.40, 8.85±2.68, 10.17±2.18, 10.32±2.05, 10.03±2.28, 9.28±3.04, 8.71±3.00, 8.36±2.31, 9.18±2.22, 9.39±1.96, 9.07±2.18 and 9.18±2.39 respectively with P value at each time of 0.00, showing that Timolol twice daily is effective in bringing down IOP. In group B, the mean IOP for the corresponding times came down by 7.95±2.40, 8.75±2.33, 9.49±1.64, 9.52±2.06, 8.93±2.50, 8.27±3.24, 7.59±3.04, 8.35±2.03, 8.36±2.36, 8.63±1.96, 8.45±1.98 and 7.30±2.86 respectively with P value at 0.00 showing that the Timolol GFS with OD dose significantly brings down the IOP. When the reduction in Mean IOP at the above timings were compared between group 1 and 2, the P values obtained were 0.402, 0.878, 0.192, 0.156, 0.092, 0.236, 0.171, 0.995, 0.188, 0.156, 0.275, 0.114 which shows that there is no statistical difference between two groups. Mean reduction in Pulse, systolic BP and diastolic BP were 3.07 ± 1.39 , 2.64 ± 2.04 and 2.21±1.66 with P values of <0.001 for all three, in group A and 0.39 ± 1.23 0.57 ± 2.43 and 0.50 ± 2.01 respectively with P values of 0.10,0.22 and 0.20 in group B. The p value in intergroup comparison was <0.001 for all three parameters, showing that the Timolol GFS has less significant effect on systemic parameters. The mean percentage of missed doses in group A was 13.53±4.27 and in group B was 8.67± 6.33. P value was 0.002 suggesting that the patient, missing the medicine dosage is significantly high in group A. Conclusions: Once daily dosage of Timolol in Gel Forming Solution is equally efficacious as twice daily timolol with less systemic effects and more compliance.

  3. Dr. Prasad Sasnur, Dr. Ravindra Nidoni, Dr. Vikram Sindgikar and Dr. SupreetBallur

    Dilatation and curettage (D&C) is one of the most frequently performed procedures for first trimester surgical abortion. The mortality and morbidity of D&C are very low, and perforation of uterus is rare. But curettage of a large, soft postpartum uterus can be a formidable undertaking because the risk of perforation is high and the procedure commonly results in increased rather than decreased bleeding. Although many perforations are innocuous, others lead to infection, hemorrhage, and trauma to abdominal contents. Bowel perforation is a rare complication, it persists as an important cause of peritonitis and sepsis. Stripping of the mucosa through the perforation is very rare complication and Hence we report a case who suffered intestinal perforation with stripping of 40 – 50 cm mucosa during D&C.

  4. Rohini, P., Ambica, R. and Nagarathnamma, T.

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common cause of bacterial infections and Escherichia coli is the predominant urinary pathogen isolated from community based and hospitalized patients.1,2 Uropathogenic strains of E.coli are consistently associated with UTI exhibiting various virulence factors like serum resistance, cell surface hydrophobicity and hemolysin.2 The treatment has been posing as a challenge due to the emergence of multidrug resistant E .coli especially in nosocomial infections. The present study is undertaken to evaluate association of virulence factors of E. coli in comparison to antimicrobial resistance. Total of 100 E.coli isolates from clinically suspected UTI cases from patients attending Victoria hospital & Vani Vilas hospital attached to BMC & RI, Bangalore were studied from October 2010 to September 2012. Mid stream urine samples were collected after taking informed consent from all patients and were processed. All samples were cultured by semi quantitative method. The identification of E.coli was done using standard biochemical tests. E.coli thus identified were screened for Virulence factors like Serum resistance, Cell surface hydrophobicity and α hemolysin production and studied for the drug resistance patterns. Out of the 100 E.coli isolated from UTI cases 45 isolates were from male and 55 from female. Amongst these isolates 48.3% showed Serum resistance, 39.3% showed Haemolysin production and 24.7% showed cell surface hydrophobicity. The antibiotic sensitivity testing showed maximum sensitivity to Amikacin and least to Ampicillin with 87% and 10% respectively.71% of the isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime. Considering high morbidity in UTI the occurrence of virulence markers in Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) strains strengthens the association with pathogenecity. Hence the screening of above mentioned virulence factors can be routinely done in clinical laboratory.

  5. Dr. Shital Bhattad, Dr. Suresh Bhattad, Dr.Meenakshi Girish and Dr. Bhupendra Asudani.

    There are two types of vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR) that cause rickets in children. Both occurs due to metabolic defects in vitamin D metabolism,Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1 (VDDR-I) is caused by defect in renal conversion of calcidiol (25OHD) to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) by the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 2 (VDDR-II) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We report a case affected by VDDR-I, in developing country like INDIA where vitamin D deficiency rickets is still prevalent. Although it is difficult to differentiate between vitamin D dependant rickets & Vitamin D deficiency rickets, its important As VDDR causes more morbidity and mortality.

  6. Waleed albaker, Suleiman heji, Huda sowliah and Yasmeen Abu Saud

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the causes of significant splenic infarction at King Fahd university hospital, Saudi Arabia over a-13 year period. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who were diagnosed with significant splenic infarction during a 13-year period at king Fahd university hospital, Saudi Arabia was conducted. Only computerized tomography proven diagnoses of splenic infarction were included. The clinical presentation and initial investigations were recorded. Results: We found 14 cases of acute significant splenic infarction. Sickle cell disease was the most common cause (seven cases, 50%). Two cases secondary to atrial fibrillation (14%), one case secondary to Wagner granulomososis (7%), one case secondary to acute pancreatitis (7%), one case secondary to liver cirrhosis and hypesplenisim (7%), one case secondary to aortic dissection (7%) and one case secondary to thalassemia major (7%). All of the reported cases of significant splenic infarction presented with left abdominal pain. 43 % of the cases had leukocytosis and 71 % had elevated Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).29% of cases were managed surgically and 71 % were managed medically. Conclusion: the percentage of significant splenic infarction in our institution is very low. This is could be attributed to low doctors awareness and high threshold of computerized tomography imaging of such serious medical problem. This might result in missing a lot of cases. Sickle cell disease remain the most common cause due to epidemiological reasons. We recommend maintaining high clinical suspicion of splenic infarction in high risk group who came with left upper quadrant pain.

  7. Yogita RanganathanIyengar, Keswani Karishma Huku, Vijaya kumar, K., Abraham Joshua, Misri, Z. K. and Suresh, B. V.

    Background: Sitting balance is a valid predictor of functional recovery after stroke. Function in Sitting Test (FIST) is a performance based balance measure that aimed at comprehensive, specific, efficient and functional assessment of sitting balance, which has variety of steady state, proactive, and reactive postural control conditions which may describe and quantify sitting balance abilities to move and perform functional tasks in a seated position. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for FIST in acute stroke subjects. Subjects: Twenty-six subjects with post-stroke duration of <3 weeks (15 male and 11 female with a mean age of 57.8 years) were recruited for the study. 2 testers (R1 and R2) rated subjects’ live performances of FIST. Rater 1 physical therapist with an average of 8 years of clinical experience in Neuro-rehabilitation and Rater 2 was a post graduate physical therapy student. Methods: All subjects carried out the FIST twice within 24 hour interval. Each subject was rated by 2 physical therapists in the first attempt for inter-rater comparison (Test 1) and by the R1 for intra-rater in the second attempt (Test 2). The reliability was calculated using the Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, 2.1) using SPSS.16. Conclusion: Excellent ICC values (> 0.85) were found for FIST inTest 1 and Test 2. The Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intra-rater reliability was found be excellent (ICC =0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.96) for inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.92).This results suggest that the FIST Test was found to have highinter-rater and intra-raterreliability for examination of individuals with post-acute stroke by physical therapists and physical therapy students.

  8. Rohini, P., Ambica, R. and Nagarathnamma, T.

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common cause of bacterial infections and Escherichia coli is the predominant urinary pathogen isolated from community based and hospitalized patients.1,2 The treatment has been posing as a challenge due to the emergence of multidrug resistant E .coli especially in nosocomial infections, Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) bearing the major brunt of the problem limiting the therapeutic options.3 The present study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and to detect ESBL production in E. coli causing Urinary tract infections. Total of 100 E.coli isolates from clinically suspected UTI cases from patients attending Victoria hospital & Vani Vilas hospital attached to BMC & RI, Bangalore were studied from October 2010 to September 2012. Mid stream urine samples were collected after taking informed consent from all patients and were processed. All samples were cultured by semi quantitative method. The identification of E.coli was done using standard biochemical tests. E.coli thus identified were studied for the drug resistance patterns. The isolates were further screened for ESBL production by disc diffusion method and confirmed by phenotypic confirmatory method. Considering high morbidity and poor clinical response to serious infections in UTI the occurrence of drug resistance and ESBL production in Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) strains strengthens the association with pathogenecity. Hence the screening using above mentioned simple methods can be routinely done in clinical laboratory.

  9. Ajay Thakur, Preetham Rai and Dhanesh, K. U.

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of modulated frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on relieving pain after abdominal surgery. Methodology: The study population was those who underwent abdominal surgery. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (treated with frequency modulated TENS and placebo TENS). Both the groups were treated with the usual analgesic routine. The subjects received the treatments for 30 minutes at every time and each subject will be assessed 5 consecutive days. Per day the subject received treatment twice daily after 4 and 8 hours of post surgery. Pain was evaluated using a standard 11-point visual analog scale (VAS) before the application of TENS and after application of TENS (24, 48, 72, 96, and 120) post operative hours. Results: The study population comprised of 60 subjects aged between 25 to 50 years. To evaluate the effectiveness of modulated frequency VAS was measured five times and compared between the experimental and control group. There was a difference in median pain score over a period of time (P < 0.001) between the groups expect at base line (P = 0.854). Conclusion: This study revealed that there was a relief in pain between the subjects over a short span of time. Hence the TENS after abdominal surgery is beneficial for the subjects with abdominal surgery incision. Since, the treatment has no observable side effects, and the pain-reducing effect persisted for 5 days, it is advisable for the subjects.

  10. Ajay Thakur and Dhanesh kumar, K. U.

    Background and objectives: This study investigated the effects of an 8 – week supervised circuit training program with moderate intensity on the fasting blood glucose level of NIDDM patients of sedentary lifestyle over conventional oral therapy medications. Method: 40 NIDDM patients aged 35-55 years volunteered for the study. Subjects were randomly assigned into exercise and diet group (n = 20) and conventional oral therapy group (n = 20). The exercise and diet group received 60 minutes of supervised circuit training thrice a week for 8 weeks along with a prescribed diet control. Subjects in the other group were only on conventional oral therapy medications. Measurements were taken on 1st, 30th, and 60th day which include fasting blood glucose level. Results: The results showed a very highly significant (p = 0.001) decrease in fasting blood glucose level. When both groups were compared the exercise and diet group was found to be more beneficial and effective than the conventional oral therapy medication group. Interpretation and conclusion: Both conventional oral therapy medication and exercise and diet groups can be used in management of NIDDM. However in this present study it is seen that exercise and diet is more beneficial and effective as compared with conventional oral therapy medication in reduction of glucose levels and thus, reducing the need of oral medications.

  11. Supradeeptha Challa, Sudhir Mahadeo Shandilya and satyaprasad J

    The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size remains unclear. We evaluated 41 patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm. Correlation coefficients and step-wise multiple linear regression analysis were used. Majority of patients were between 20-24 years. Most of the patients were between 65-75 Kgs. There is no correlation between graft diameter, age, sex, body mass index, and weight of patients. Physical activity, height of patients correlated to graft diameter in both men and women (P = 0.01).

  12. Rania M. Abdelgfour, Mustafa E. M. Yassin, Nazar A. Wadidy and Nafi, M.

    Background: Cognitive impairment in the form of decreased working memory and executive functions has been recognized as a key deficit in schizophrenia. Neurotropic viruses such as Herpes virus and human cytomegalovirus have been associated with focal gray matter deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Aim: The study was carried out to detect the prevalence and relationship of herpes simplex virus (HSV 1/2) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among Sudanese schizophrenia patients. Methods: A total number of 60 plasma samples were collected randomly from schizophrenia patients at Kubar hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. On the other hand, 30 samples were collected from healthy individuals were served as controls. The detection of HSV1/2 and HCMV IgG antibodies were performed by using an Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results: HSV1/2 IgG antibodies were detected in 95% schizophrenic patients and 93.3% control (0.75 P value), while IgG antibodies to HCMV were detected in 96.7% schizophrenic patients and (90.0%) control (P value 0.19).

  13. Prasanthi. P. and Amirthaveni. M.

    Hyperlipidemia is a powerful and extremely common risk factor of cardiovascular disease and mainly affecting the younger population. The present study was conducted in a private hospital at Hyderabad city. Two hundred and fifity male hyperlipidemic subjects were selected and data was collected on socio-economic status like age, education, occupation, activity pattern, income level and type of family. Dietary habits like type of diet, meal pattern and types of fats and oils used for cooking by the male hyperlipidemics through questionnaire. The findings revealed that they are in the age group of 40-60 years and had a high educational qualification, holding higher positions, some agriculturists and others retired personnel. They were involved in sedentary activity and are in nuclear families of high income group. They were mostly non vegetarians and the consumed different foods. The dietary habits and consumption of fats and oils used for cooking were changed after the onset of the disease. Modification in the dietary pattern will alter the dietary intake. Thus there is burning need to emphasize on the modification in the dietary intake to improve the health status.

  14. Samia A., Elnagar and Hanan, T., Elbahnasawy

    The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that serve billions of users worldwide. Aim: The study aimed to explore the perception of adolescents’ female using the internet as source of reproductive health information. Design: Descriptive design was conducted for this study. Setting: The study was conducted in three female secondary schools at Sheben El kom, El-Menoufiya governorate. Sample: This is a purposive sample, simple random sample of 350 female students from the mentioned above setting. Tools: For data collection an interview questionnaire was used to assess socio demographic data, sources of reproductive health information, duration of daily internet use by them and perception and knowledge of students regarding to reproductive health information. Findings: The results of the study showed the internet access for acquiring information was the main source for girls knowledge related to reproductive health. Also there was positive relation who between adolescents using internet and their parents level of education .Recommendations: According to this study it is recommended that parents and family should be encouraged to discuss or give guidance and approval about reproductive health education, regular workshops and seminars about use of reproductive health information should be organized for parents and teachers also health awareness programs should reach out to adolescents in their own environment.

  15. Mimouna M. Abutalib and Osiris W. Guirguis

    The frequency-dependent dielectric properties (dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss factor and a.c. electrical conductivity) of blends of poly(vinyl alcohol)/hydroxypropyl cellulose (PVA/HPC) prepared by the solution-cast technique is investigated in the frequency ranges from 1 to 100 kHz to examine a wide range of molecular mobility of the amorphous phase of the blend systems. The dielectric properties on certain chosen blends before and after irradiation with different fast neutron fluencies in the range from 105 to 108 n/cm2 are also studied. The obtained results noticed that, measureable changes in the behavior and values of the dielectric properties under investigation are detected. These changes may be attributed to degradation and/or cross-linking process either by the presence of HPC with different concentrations or by the irradiation with different fast neutron fluencies or both of them, which suggests that the observed dispersion depends on composition and irradiation of blend matrix.

  16. Tirupathi Rao Padi, Kalpana Polisetty and Kiran Kumar Paidipati

    This paper has discussed the programming problems for optimal management of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) based on stochastic modeling of MS by Tirupathi Rao et al. [9].The proposed problems deal with the objectives of minimizing the expected size of MS, maximizing the expected size of oligodendrocytes and minimizing the variance of oligodendrocytes. The constraints are formulated with the minimum limit on expected size of oligodendrocytes, maximum limit on expected size of MS causing cells and maximum limit on variance of oligodendrocytes. The decision variables like growth and loss rates of MS causing cells; growth and loss rates of oligodendrocytes are obtained from the study. The patterns of the objective functions and decision variables are observed and arrived to the conclusions. This study will useful for provide the indicators of MS so as monitoring of the disease control can be planned.

  17. Stephen, J., Subramani, K., Muniyappan, K. and Chandramohan, G.

    Kinetics of oxidation of certain substituted indole such as 2,3-Dialkyl indoles by Peroxomonosulphate (PMS) had been already reported. The present work is investigated the kinetic studies of oxidation of 3-methylindole (3-MI) by PMS using ethanol medium. Present work is investigating the order of the reaction follows a total second order, first order each with respect to [3-MI] and [PMS], effect of ionic strength, effect of [H+] and solvent effect. Absence of any polymerization indicated a nonradical pathway. Activation and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from kinetic values. A suitable mechanism scheme based on these observations is proposed.

  18. Ram Bahal Rai, Kuldeep Dhama, Sandip Chakraborty, Thukkaram Damodaran, Balvir Singh, Hamid Ali, Sweta Rai, Mohd. Yaqoob Wani and Ram Awadh Ram

    The continuous explosion in human population growth is putting pressure on agriculture land. Though use of pesticides covers wide range of plants, the main concern to human health is fruits and vegetables which are eaten raw. Many of the pesticides have genocidal effect too. Many of the natural bio-control agents disappeared due to changes in the ecosystem. Situation will worsen in future due to damage to the ecosystem. In the present exploratory study, while improving the production and productivity of vegetables and fruit crops, rural poultry was evaluated as bio-control agents. The present study has been conducted in 65 villages of Barabanki and Raebareli districts of Uttar Pradesh, India under the World Bank funded NAIP of ICAR during 2009-2012. The aim of the project was to create sustainable livelihood security through novel low input-highly profitable technological interventions in an integrated manner. Guava seedlings were transplanted at 3x3m spacing and integrated with rural poultry. Integration of banana plantation with rural poultry was made on the same line. The chicks were integrated with brinjal, ladies finger, capsicum and tomato on the same line. No pesticides were used in any of the integration. The banana plantation field developed thick canopy by 7th-8th month beyond which rearing of birds was problematic. The guava plantations allowed the rearing of birds throughout the year and during 4 years of the observations. The minimum plantation area assessed for each grower bird was 5-6 sq.m which allowed all the cultural operations in the plantations. There was not a single plant affected with any insect/ pest. Leaves were green and normal. In contrast the non-integrated plantations had perforated leaves, attacks of pest and diseases (mild degree) and growth was slower. Erected vegetables integration showed contrast results. In integrated fields, the seedling mortality was less than 4% compared to 12-16% in non-integrated fields. Termite problem in integrated field could not be observed but was seen in the non-integrated fields. Integration of rural poultry with plantations and vegetables was done keeping in view 3 facts viz. providing biomass in form of microbe rich feces, utilization of interspaces increasing productivity per unit area and exploring the chances of reduction of pest population. Because of the exploratory nature the study however requires further investigations.

  19. Haridas Vijayakumar, Mondal, D. B., Mani Saravanan and Amol Gurav

    Ascites a common manifestation of chronic hepatobiliary disorder is difficult to treat and several therapeutic modalities were available. In this study concentrated autogenous ascitic fluid reinfusion was tried for the management of dogs with severe ascites. Ascites was ameliorated in all treated dogs as comparable as and better than the standard therapy. It can be concluded that auto reinfusion of ascitic fluid is a safe, better and cost effective treatment modality in the effective management of ascites in dogs.

  20. Dr. Asha Menon and Dr. Reeta Sonawat

    HIV/AIDS epidemic has been accompanied by stigma from its very beginning. To measure the existence of internal and external stigma 300 PLHIVs (People Living with HIV) were selected. Focus group discussions were conducted with 50 PLHIVs (25 males and 25 females). Analyzing the effects of HIV related stigma on the quality of PLHIV’s life it was found that the level of stigma on the quality of PLHIV’s life was high. The results related to existence of internal stigma among PLHIV’s indicate that 100% of the respondents were anxious and depressed about their HIV positive status. 97% feared to disclose their status and 94% felt they would lose everything. A high percentage (88%) had suicidal tendencies. The qualitative data obtained in this study substantiate the stigmatizing and discriminatory experiences such as denial of house for rent, denial of admission for the children in schools, denial of property and marital conflicts in the life of PLHIV’s and therefore the individual and their families need support from community to deal with stigma and discrimination. There is a need to chalk out anti-stigma activities with PLHIV’s, their families and communities.

  21. Jha, S. K., Damodaran, T., Mishra, V. K., Sharma, D. K., Rai, R. B., Dhama, K. and Kannan, R.

    Gypsum which provides readily available source of Ca2+ ions to replace Na+ ions from the cation exchange complex of soil has been used as a common chemical amendment in the reclamation of sodic soil. As a non-renewable resource in nature, its dwindling scenario has now become imperative to find either an alternate sources of gypsum or to increase the efficacy of gypsum to reduce its dose in the reclamation of such sodic soils. The present study was undertaken with the aim to enhance the solubility of gypsum using different chemical formulations both in laboratory and pot culture experiment. It was observed that the addition of KNO3, NH4NO3 and NaCl to gypsum, increased the Ca2+ ion to 39.73 %, 60.59 % and 68.05 %, respectively. The maximum increase in the Ca2+ content was noticed in gypsum saturated solution containing NH4NO3 + citric acid and NaCl + citric acid combination which was 94.53 % and 91.22 %, respectively. The increase of Ca2+ ion due to the increased dissolution of gypsum resulted in saving of 75% and 50% of its doses in the reclamation of sodic soil when compared with the quantity required under normal existing reclamation process (50 GR).

  22. Kahangi, W. N. and Muturi, W.

    This study was conducted on households among the poor in the slums of Mathare, in Nairobi, Kenya to determine the effect of age, education, income and household size on savings. Savings in the country is low and this true especially among the poor as noted in development framework, the Kenya Vision 2030 a. The study employed survey design and SPSS for analysis of data. The findings indicated that gender, age and income influence saving, but education and household size influence is insignificant. The study recommends that saving policies be aimed at promoting saving among the poor, women, and the young.

  23. Damodaran, T., Rai, R. B., Jha, S. K., Dhama, K., Mishra, V.K., Sharma, D. K., Singh, A. K. and Himanshu Dixit

    The profitability of commercial crop production system in the current agricultural scenario of developing countries is being commonly encountered with problems of increasing input cost, diminishing marginal returns and negative drift of ecological balance due to indiscriminate use of plant protection chemicals. To overcome these problems a cost effective bio-growth enhancer CSR BIO was developed under National Agricultural Innovation Project and was intervened in the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh which is one of the disadvantaged district designated by planning commission of India. The current study looked into the profitability of the formulation in commercial crops like tomato and banana with its impact on reducing use of chemical protection chemicals toxic to the environment. This investigation was carried out by descriptive survey from 2010 to 2013. Results showed an overall increase in yield up to 22.43 and 15.62 % in the adopters of tomato and banana which simultaneously increased the gross profitability to 20.11 and 17.39 % in banana and tomato, respectively. The study also showed the change in expenditure incurred in production and also in the use of plant protection chemicals which was 47.33 and 33.36 % lower than the non-adopters who didn’t practiced the technology. The results of this study furthermore indicates that assessing the impact of the eco-friendly cost effective technologies like CSR BIO would be a critical component of agricultural research as it helps to define priorities of research and guide researchers and those involved in technology transfer to have a better understanding of the way new technologies are assimilated and diffused into farming communities.

  24. Charles Kibet Kiptum and Sheila Jeruto Kandie

    Geography is one of subjects that can be studied as a physical or social science at high schools level in Kenya. In secondary education it is currently an optional subject at upper secondary education. There have been concerns over declining performance in geography at national examination, especially areas that test students’ knowledge of field work, map work and physical geography. Coincidentally these are the areas where non-projected media resources are most used. This study sought to determine the availability of non-projected media resources in teaching of geography in public secondary schools in Koibatek District. A sample of 70 geography teachers, 35 head teachers and 314 students were sampled using purposive and stratified random sampling. Data collection was done by use of questionnaires, observation and content analysis. The findings of the study established that most schools had non-projected resources, though a limited supply and were rarely used. However, some schools lacked some important resources such as geography rooms, facilities for field work, weather station and library services. The study has recommended for an urgent review of curriculum and increased supervision to ensure that curriculum is fully implemented, and refresher courses be given to teachers on the use of these resources.

  25. Muthukumarasamy, R., Mukesh, M.V., Tamilsevi, M. and Chandrasekarn, A

    An attempt is made to study the mapping of geomorphologic features, using remote sensing and GIS techniques in the coastal Valinokkam to Thoothukudi. The geology and geomorphological characteristic's world coastline are significant for safe guarding natural disaster management and to improve of our economic conditions. Those observations on coastal research have been motivated over the past hundred years. Geology and Geomorphology are an essential part of our coast, and for every coastal person in this country. An effort is made to study the geologic and geomorphologic characteristic features from Valinokkam to Thoothukudi in the east coast of India. The geologic characteristic's features are carried out from GSI map (1:50000 Scale) maps prepared under six different types of rocks as laterite formation (Czl), marine sediments (Qm), fluvio marine (Qfm), fluvial (Qf), sand stone with clay (N1cs), and Hornblende biotite gneiss (Amh). Naturally geomorphology of the study area is self-possessed by Gondwana formation, which is exposed at Thoothukudi and Ramanathapuram districts. The satellite image's IRS P6, LISS III utilized to trace out the different geomorphological features like saltpan, backwater, sand dune complex, beach ridge, tank, settlement, harbour, swale, back water, pedi plain, alluvial fan.

  26. Dr. S. K. Sathyaprabha

    Agriculture, economy and social development are the driving forces of rural development are the acting as propellants for the inclusive development in rural areas. Youth are the energizing this development passively. Ministry of Rural development has vision of Sustainable and inclusive growth of rural India and this vision is attainable when the rural youth are involved in it and they are the major human resource for development, key agents for social change. India stands to gain from the ‘youth bulge’ which is not available even for the developed countries.Young people can contribute a great deal through their perspectives and experiences. The wide network of youth, National Service Scheme (NSS) and the Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS) could serve for the amelioration of the rural India.The vibrant youth capital as a strongest resource of the country should be utilized as valuable partners in the process of national planning and development.

  27. Frederick Binfor, Sampson Kwadwo Boateng, Edith Anokor Abbey Samuel Adu Osei, Felix K. M. Swanzy and Theophilus Francis Gyepi-Garbrah

    The purpose of this study is to find out whether effective leadership styles and motivation has brought about any significant impact on the level of employee performance of Research Institute as a whole. The result of this study is expected to help the management of the Institute and all stakeholders, farmers, pubic and, private institutions, NGOs, and the government at large. Leaders have always existed and the act of leading is as old as humanity. The literature on leadership is vast and a great deal has been written on this subject in the last twenty five years. Many definitions, explanations, and proposals on styles and models, have been presented by academicians, authors, and institutions. The necessity of leaders and the concept of leadership are receiving special emphasis in this business world. “Leadership is a reciprocal relationship between those who choose to lead and those who decide to follow”. “Leadership is not something you do to people. It’s something you do with people”. In view of the benefits derived from effective leadership and motivation in every organization, literatures have also been reviewed about its importance in every organization of which CSIR – Oil Palm Research Institute is no exception. Leadership and motivation has become very important in every organization and the quest of management to achieve the very best of investments, there is the need to pay attention to how effective leadership can be practiced in their organizations.

  28. Philips O. O. Nto and Okore Amah Okore

    This study examines the modified interest rate liberalization theory and economic growth in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of the modified interest rate liberalization on savings, investment and economic growth in Nigeria. The period of study covers between 1987 and 2011. Interest rate used is the commercial bank deposit and lending rate. The technique of analysis is the Ordinary Least Square Method using the E-view statistical software. The study reveals that an increase in interest rate following proper liberalization has the tendency of enhancing economic growth. Therefore, the study recommends a shift of emphasis from why and what to liberalize to how to liberalize, in other to achieve the full benefit of liberalization.

  29. Zeina Al-Ahmad and Behrouz Tabrizi

    This paper is an endeavor to outline the Federal Reserve System’s theoretical perspective of the financial market during the last three decades. It is a glimpse into the policies of regulatory authorities at the Fed whose designed path of financial growth led the US economy to its worst crisis in 2008 since the Great Depression.The Reagan era marked the beginning of the end of the post Great Depression financial regulations. This paper is also to briefly appreciate the Fed’s realization of the importance of financial regulation and supervisionto the US economic recovery.

  30. Fr. Shony Mathew P. J. and Dr. Vidhya Ravindranadan

    Work brings dignity to human beings. Vocational rehabilitation gives them independence in social and emotional life. The present research has focused on the impact of computer training in the competencies of mild mentally challenged adults. The sample of this study consisted of 6 mild mentally challenged adults from Ernakulam district, Kerala. Intervention has been given for the duration of one year. The tools employed for the assessment include Behavioral Assessment Scales for Adult Living – Mental Retardation (BASAL –MR) and personal data sheet. One pre test (base line) score and three follow up scores were noted. The results in BASAL MR part A indicate that the training helps to enhance the competencies of the participants and is sensitive even within the period of three months, both over all as well as within each domain.

  31. Nkwunonwo Ugonna Chimnonyerem

    Digital soil maps offer solutions to several environmental issues, for example; gully erosion hazard, and flooding. The availability and production of such maps have been fundamental to recent advances in GIS and other related technologies. This paper describes the production of a digital soil map for Anambra, south eastern Nigeria, using GIS technology. Sheets 7 and 8 of hardcopy soil map of Nigeria each at a scale of 1: 650,000 were scanned and spatially referenced to WGS 1984 coordinate system. In a GIS, these images were subset, mosaicked and vectorized on-screen. A non-spatial database was created, by means of soil properties, for example; geology, slope, topography, and soil pH values, and linked to the vectorized data. Queries were built into the database, to simplify extraction of soil information to users of the digital soil map. Other soil thematic maps were produced. The results of the study tend to show that the soil distribution of the study area, is consisted of seven different soil mapping units (2a, 2c, 5c, 5d, 6a, 9a and 17a), occupying about 37.38%, 14.60%, 1.05%, 8.84%, 3.99%, 27.81% and 4.35% of the area respectively. Mapping units 2a and 9a appear to be dominant in the area and their characteristics seem to substantially contribute to the phenomenal gully erosion in the area.

  32. Eman M. Nour, Khaled I. Khalil, Ahmed A. Shokeir, Golinar E. Hammouda, Gamal I. A. Karrouf and Adel El. I. Zaghloul

    Different combinations were examined for rabbit’s anesthesia. To the best of our knowledge, the combination of ketamine-midazolam-fentanyl has never been used in rabbits. We assumed this will provide several advantages compared with the previously used combinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different anaesthetic combinations (Ketamine/ Midazolam/ Fentanyl, Ketamine/ Xylazine/ Midazolam and Ketamine/ Xylazine) on nociceptive reflexes, circulatory and respiratory functions, and stress markers, in a New Zealand White rabbit; a commonly used model in experimental urological procedures. The rabbits were randomly assigned into 3 groups (n=24 rabbits): Ketamine/ Midazolam/ Fentanyl (K-M-F) group by (35, 1, 0.02 mg/kg respectively), Ketamine/ Xylazine/ Midazolam (K- X- M) group by (35, 5, 1mg/kg respectively) and ketamine/ Xylazine (K- X) group by (50, 10 mg/kg respectively). Sleep time was significantly earlier and longer in K-M-F but surgical anesthesia was poorest. Bradycardia produced by K-M-F was insignificant in contrast to the other two groups. The effect on stress markers was insignificant. In coclusion, although the addition of fentanyl to ketamine-midazolam combination did not improve the anesthetic quality, but, may be advantageous in anesthesia of circulatory compromised cases, otherwise, other anesthetic combinations should be considered.

  33. Amatya, M., Gorkhali, B., Mahotra, N., Prajapati, R., Yadav, S. R.

    Background: College students form a large, healthy, and active population of potential blood donors; their recruitment and retention would immensely help meet the demand of safe blood. The knowledge and practice of blood donation among students are reportedly diverse. In Nepal, medical students donate more and are more knowledgeable than non-medical, students but there could be differences between medical students of different colleges. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study and using self-administered questionnaire was conducted in the students of two randomly chosen private medical colleges of Nepal – Nepal Medical College (NMC) of Kathmandu and Chitwan Medical College (CMC) of Chitwan. Results: Total 279 students, 106 in CMC and 173 in NMC, participated. Students of CMC were older (mean age 21.16±1.353 vs 19.32±1.094 of NMC), more knowledgeable (average knowledge score 55.2% vs 52.6% of NMC), donated more (50.9% donated vs 25.4% of NMC), participated more in organizing blood camps (37.7% vs 19.1% of NMC), and also donated more often. More boys donated; CMC consisted of 60% boys, the sex ratio reversed in NMC. Donation practice had significant correlations with gender (male propensity) and older age but not with knowledge. Conclusion: Significant differences exist in the knowledge and practice of blood donation among students of different medical colleges. Organizing blood donation camps routinely in colleges would encourage more students; especially younger, girls, and those having difficulty with time and information.

  34. Magdy F. Abou-El Fotoh, Samah Khalil, Nabela I. El-Sharkawy and Mona M. Ahmed

    In cancer therapy, Mitomycin C (MMC) is a commonly used drug to fight several human malignancies; it is a powerful anti-bacterial and anti-tumor fungal antibiotic. However, during clinical use several side effects may occur. The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of pre- and post- addition of Spirulina platensis (Sp) to the diet on mitomycin C (MMC) induced genotoxic and molecular alterations. Sixty Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EAC) bearing female albino mice (i.p injection of 2.5x106 EAC cell/ mouse) were classified into six groups which received different treatment of SP powder 1% in diet and MMC (i.p. 1mg/kg BW). After 7 days from MMC injection, specimens were collected for evaluation of DNA damage using comet assay and transcriptional estimation of mutant apoptotic P53 and glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression level by semiquantitative (RT-PCR). Results showed that MMC induced a genotoxic effect in mice bone-marrow and liver cells, SP significantly reduced the level of DNA damage and augmentation of expression levels of studied genes mRNA. In conclusion, our results confirm the antigenotoxic potential of SP and provide strong evidence to support administration of SP during MMC-therapy.

  35. Fahmeeda Begum, Shivakrishna, P., Savya, B., Lalitha, U., Ashok kumar, K., Hazeera, and Sunil, R.

    The entire wound healing process is a complex series of events that begins at the moment of injury and can continue for months to years. The stages of wound healing are inflammatory phase, proliferation phase, fibroblastic phase and maturation phase. Several Investigators has been found that, most of the tribal people are using Ficus carica for wound healing, activity apart from in other conditions. So in the present study emphasis will be laid on the pharmacological screening of the plant with special reference to the wound healing activities. Methanolic leaf extract of a Ficus carica having significant wound healing activity in albino rats in excision wound model.

  36. Prof. Dr. K. Govindarajan

    Self-esteem develops and evolves throughout our lives as we build an image of ourselves through our experiences with different people and activities. Experiences during our childhood play a particularly large role in shaping our basic Self-esteem. Many of the circumstances that affect a child’s Self-esteem arise in connection with his life at school. The degree of child’s self-esteem which will be influenced by his success or failure in the school situation will also be determined by the extent to which the child feels about his personal worth and about his achievement. The attempt made by the present study is to probe the relationship of self-esteem and achievement of secondary school students and to fill a gap in the existing literature on the subject. A sample of 300 students were selected from management and Government school high schools using purposive sampling technique. The tools used are Self Esteem Inventory developed by S. Karunanidhi (1996) and Achievement score obtained from schools by students. It is found that there is a medium level of Self esteem and Academic Achievement among high school students. There is a significant relationship between self esteem and academic achievement in mathematics. There is no significant difference between boys and girls, management and Govt. school students and rural and urban school students with respect to self esteem and academic achievement.

  37. Chandrasekaran, R. (Retd.) and Madhanagopal, R.

    In the face of growing competition, the policy changes and the operational environment in respect of the Indian banking system, there has been an increased focus on profitability despite other social objectives being important. Moreover, the setting up of a new competitive environment has resulted in new challenges for the public sector banks to retain their shares. Keeping this in mind, the present study was undertaken to examine the classification pattern of financial ratios of all public sector banks in India, and a comparative analysis of the banks with their corporate offices in three different regions of the country. The present study is diagnostic and exploratory in nature and makes use of secondary data. The relevant secondary data have been collected from Capita online database for a period of 10 years from 2000-2001 to 2009-2010. Out of many possible financial ratios, the fifteen consistent profitability ratios are considered for the study. Based on the head office, all the 27 public sector banks in India are categorized into location of three different regions viz., Southern region (SR), Western region (WR) and North-eastern region (NER). The northern and eastern region banks are jointly presented for the analysis, since it is observed that the bank with their head offices in northern and eastern regions are few in number and only when they are clubbed, a balanced study among the regions can be conveniently attempted. The underlying objective is to examine the classification pattern of financial ratios that contribute to the overall performance of the public sector banks in India. For this purpose, Factor analysis (FA), Discriminant analysis (DA) and perceptual maps have been used. Factor Analysis on 19 variables (Financial ratios) resulted in four underlying categories (factors). Each factor is named in an appropriate manner considering the factor loadings and constituent variables (ratios). Representative ratios are identified for each such factor. To validate the result of factor analysis and to reach final conclusion regarding the representative ratios, Cluster analysis is performed. Multivariate Discriminant Analysis is performed for the original variables and using Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients Perceptual mapping was drawn.

  38. Sowmya Ramani and Dr. N. Vasugi Raaja

    A direct technique developed for measuring yarn torque is explored for the case of bamboo, polyester and cotton ring spun yarns with its respective blends. The technique balances the torque in a yarn hank against a wire of known torsional rigidity. It is shown that this technique gives a reliable measure of the torque per strand independent of the size of the hank. The difference between the dry torque and wet torque is visualized and it can be found that as the sample becomes wet, the torque value decreases.

  39. Kathy, M. Sheila John, D. Estherlydia

    Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in children. Dietary intervention using finger millet can aid in preventing anemia among children. The study aimed at supplementing developed recipes from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) or ragi Vermicelli on the anthropometric and hematological parameters of school children age 6 – 12 years. Pre-test Post –test design with test group (n=12) on supplementation and control group (n=12) in study period was designed. The supplementation was given for five days a week for a period of 45 days. Supplementation of Ragi vermicelli showed a significant 3.31 percent increase in the body weight (21.17 ± 3.28 to 21.83 ± 3.24 kg), as well as a 2.65 percent significant increase in the BMI (14.75 ± 1.89 to 15.15 ± 2.01 kg/m2) at the end of the supplementation period (p<0.05). No significant change in hemoglobin was observed on the 46th day. The results showed a non-significant increase in the hematological parameters. Nutrition education programme increased the knowledge and awareness of dietary iron intake among the children (p<0.001). Ragi which is rich in iron is an extremely low cost nutritious cereal and is very beneficial for maintaining a good health.

  40. Hephzibah Sherley Johanna C., Dr. Sheila John and Dr. D. Estherlydia

    Adolescents who are obese are at higher risk for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes as compared to normal weight peers. Especially college students are exposed to unhealthy eating habits leading to body weight gain. Whole grain food is important part of human nutrition providing a wide range of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytosterols and other phytochemicals and could help in weight management among college students. The study is also aimed to find the relationship between whole grain intake and body composition of college students. One thousand adolescent girls were selected as random for the study and an ex post facto design was used to collect information on demographic profile and dietary habits. A subsample of 100 normal students and 100 overweight and obese students were selected to assess the relationship between whole wheat intake and body weight status. Results indicate that there was a significant association between BMI and consumption of maize (p<0.05) and whole wheat bread (p<0.001). Normal weight students had better knowledge and positive attitude towards whole grain intake compared to overweight students. Nutrition education had a positive impact on the knowledge and awareness of college students on whole wheat intake. Greater whole-grain consumption also inversely related to CVD risk factors including body weight

  41. Sowmya Ramani and Dr. N. Vasugi Raaja

    This paper describes the measurement of friction based on inclined plane method. The main principle of this instrument is that the yarn for which the coefficient of friction has to be estimated forms the inclined plane itself. The angle of inclination of the yarn can be easily varied by using suitable weights. It can be concluded from the study that more weights used in experiment reduces the frictional values of the yarn.

  42. Aseel Shakir Mahmood

    The hexanolic extracted and purification flavonoides from celery plant by using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Also studied the effect to block the development of cancer in human beinge, Is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Celery flavonoid have been assessed for chemopreventive activity. The anti proliferative effect of the hexanolic extract of celery was evaluated in vitro on two human cell lines (HepG2 hepatic cancer ,MCF-7 breast cancer), The HepG2 and MCF-7 cells were seeded 69-well culture plates of different concentration of celery flavonoid to determine their anticancer effects in using MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethyl thiazol-2-yle) 2,5-diphenyltetraloiumbromide) assay, Anticancer screening by 24 and 48 hrs cytotoxicity study showed that the extracts exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of growth .This study confirms that hexanolic flavonoid extract of celery possess potential candidate in the field of anticancer drug discovery .There are considerable effects to identify naturally occurring substances as new drugs in cancer therapy.

  43. Adomako, J., Addy, S.N.T., Danso, Y., Adu-Dapaah, H. and Sackey-Asante, J.

    Ten cowpea varieties were preliminarily evaluated for their reaction to M. incognita under screen house condition in a Randomised Complete Block design with three replications. Three week old seedlings were inoculated with 350 and 700 second stage juveniles and set on concrete benches. Based on the reproduction factor and root gall index, Asontem and Asetenapa were considered to be resistant. Tona, Nhyira, Padituya, Hewale, Asomdwe and IT89KD-347-57 were considered susceptible whilst Adom and Videza were found to be tolerant. At the highest inocula level of 700J2/pot, Videza recorded an average yield of 6.4g which was significantly different from 2.3g as recorded for Hewale. The highest pod number of 8.0 was significantly different from 3.7 recorded for Videza and Asontem, considered to be tolerant and resistant at the highest inocula level respectively. Adom and Asetenapa recorded the highest and lowest plant height of 74.7cm and 19.3cm respectively at 700J2/pot. With the exception of Hewale, all the susceptible varieties recorded low yields at higher level of inoculation compared to the lower level. Based on the results of the study, Asontem and Asetenapa were identified as resistant to M. incognita.

  44. Jessy Paulose and Padmaja C. K.

    Wastes are produced virtually by all types of industries. The drift in the world today is to convert waste into useful products through application of microorganisms. The current study aimed at the production of FPase and β- glucosidase enzyme by the filamentous fungi, Trichoderma harzianum CKP 01 in different carbon and nitrogen sources. A number of indigenously isolated fungi were screened for cellulolytic potential and Trichoderma harzianum CKP 01 was selected since, it showed maximum hydrolytic zone. Identifiation of the fungal isolate was done based on biochemical and molecular characterization by sequencing the 18S rRNA coding gene. Of the two enzymes FPase and β- glucosidase showed maximum activity and was in 2% dextrose (9.18 and 7.13 I Umg-1) at intracellular level and 2% sucrose (9.76 and 6.45 Umg-1) at extracellular level. Among different nitrogen sources, the highest activity was recorded in FPase (9.84 Umg-1) followed by β-glucosidase (7.72Umg-1) in 3.0% potassium nitrate when compared to control (0.71 I Umg-1) at an intracellular level. Potassium nitrate and peptone were the best nitrogen sources for the production of cellulase enzyme with FPase activity of 9.49Umg-1 and β-glucosidase of 6.62Umg-1 at an extracellular level by Trichoderma harzianum CKP 01 on 9th day of incubation.

  45. Aneesh, E. M. and Vijayan, V. A.

    Carbofuran is a systemic insecticide/nematicide used extensively in modern agriculture to combat various major insect pests and vectors. Selection experiments for analyzing carbofuran resistance development were carried out for ten generations at Mysore with Culex quinquefasciatus, a widely dispersed domestic mosquito and the vector of lymphatic filariasis. The mosquito populations were continuously exposed to different carbofuran concentrations following the WHO method. Simultaneously detoxifying enzymes such as alpha esterase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) have been assayed qualitatively and quantitatively to relate the biochemical mechanisms involved in tolerance development. The selection experiments and enzyme assay have revealed a steady increase in tolerance build up and the target enzyme level. The results of larval selection test up to F10 revealed a significant increase in tolerance development in every generation compared to the susceptible F1. The results revealed up to 16.22 times tolerance after 10 generations.

  46. Priyank Udagani, Vibha, C. and Vishwanath, H. L.

    Introduction: Sodium disturbances leading to hyponatremia is a common problem in adult patients admitted to hospital and are associated with high mortality rate. Dilutional hyponatremia is considered to be the consequence of higher rate of renal retention of water in relation to sodium, due to decrease in free water clearance. An activation of the renin – angiotensin aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system and a nonosmotic release of vasopressin frequently develop in patients with cirrhosis. Aim: To evaluate the association between the serum sodium levels and severity of complications in liver cirrhosis. Method: Data of inpatients with cirrhotic complications were collected retrospectively. The serum sodium levels and severity of complications in 50 patients were analysed. Results: The prevelance of dilutional hyponatremia classified as serum sodium concentration of ≤ 130 mmol/L , 131 - 135 mmol /L , > 135 mmol/L. The serum sodium levels was strongly associated with severity of liver function impairement as assessed by Child – Pugh and MELD scores. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that low serum sodium levels are a common feature in patients with cirrhosis. The existence of sodium concentration of ≤ 135 mmol/L is associated with poor control of ascites and greater frequency of developing hepatic encephalopathy compared with patients with serum sodium concentration within normal limits.

  47. Mohammed. I. Nader, Maareb. N. Rasheed and Hayder. T. ALMusawi

    Twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups named A, B, C and D of five rats each. Group A was given the basal diet and served as control, group B was given basal diet and 1% cholesterol added to the basal diet, group C was given basal diet and 1% cholesterol and 4% TSP added to the basal diet and group D was given basal diet and 1% cholesterol and 8% TSP added to the basal diet for four weeks. Blood samples were collected from all groups after four weeks. The level of total cholesterol and LDL-c was significantly (P› 0.05) decreased in group C and D compared to group B. while the level not significantly different in group C, and D compared to group B. the level of HDL-c were significantly (P› 0.05) decreased in group C and D compared to B. there was non- significant difference in the levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides in group C and D compared to the control group.

  48. Mohamed EL Sadek, Minkai Sun, Eijiro Fujii, Eid Koriesh, Eman Moghazy, and Yehia Abd El Fatah

    Colors are one of the things that play a part in our daily lives. Studies have documented that exposure to plants had positive effects on human health. This study investigated how foliage color stimuli that included green and green-red and green-white influenced selected psychological and physiological responses in 28 college students in their twenties. Each plant was presented for 1 min, during the exposure time, eye movements were recorded by eye mark recorder. While, near-infrared spectroscopy was used in order to monitor the brain activity in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The results revealed that different plantscape colors stimulated different psycho-physiological reactions. People prefer green to green-red and green-white plants. Furthermore, green plants were more effective in relaxing the body compared with the other colors evidenced by sedation of cerebral blood flow in the feeling area.

  49. Sheeraz Ahmed, Javid Ahmad Dar, Khoiyangbam, R. S., and Jan M. R.,

    Owing to the importance of macrophytes in the generation of biomass and production of biogas, present attempt has been made in Antiya Lake, Jhansi, whereby Typha latifolia has been found to gather maximum biomass followed by Ludwigia sps. and Iopomea aquatica. Moreover the biogas emission of Iopomea aquatic is greater followed by Ludwigia sps. and Typha latifolia. The present communication deliberates in detail on the said matter of interest.

  50. Ismail A. Abdul-Hassan and Ghufran J. Al-Aqeeli

    A molecular approach using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to distinguish four avian meat species in addition to pig. The partial 12S rRNA gene was amplified with universal primers. The amplified fragments (456 bp for all species studied) were digested with Acil restriction enzyme.The results showed that each of chicken, turkey, quail, duck and pig species exhibited a unique specific RFLP pattern that allowed its identification and discrimination from others. Meat products studied were confirmed through PCR-RFLP of 12S r RNA gene and showed conformity with the declared label.PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial 12S r RNA gene was found to be an accurate and authentic method for meat species identification.

  51. Usai, T., Mandidewa, P. and Nyamunda, B. C.

    Many rural communities face seasonal food shortages during the dry season and just before harvest. Food supplies are scarce resulting in diets which often lack variety of nutrients. The nutrient content of the meals can be improved by the use of nutritious soup thickeners. The objective of this study is to develop a pumpkin seeds and cowpeas (PSC) soup thickener and to analyse its proximate composition as well as sensory attributes. The PSC soup thickener was subjected to sensory analysis for taste, flavour, colour and acceptability by randomly selected taste panels. The soup thickener was analysed for its moisture, energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates and fibre content. Nutritional analysis of the soup thickener demonstrated that there was a significant difference in protein content in comparison with the conventional soup thickeners. The sensory analysis revealed that the flavour, taste and overall acceptability were good. The research revealed that the pumpkin seeds and the cowpeas can be used to make cheap soup thickeners that will help provide the vital nutrients to the body.

  52. Odawa, J., Wabwoba, F. and Otuya, W.

    This study examined the application of three ICT resources (i.e. computer hardware, network and internet infrastructure and web resources) in university business processes. The study was undertaken at Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST). Primary data was collected by observation and interviews and from questionnaires to a stratified population sample while secondary data was obtained from reviewed university policy documents, surveys and reports and other relevant sources. The results of this study indicated that ICT resources, though available, were not applied in university’s business processes and that no efforts were made to integrate the resources in university business processes hence the very low automation levels. The findings will contribute to knowledge on the effects of ICT resource deployment strategies on automation of business processes and service delivery in public universities.

  53. Nirmala, R., Gnanesh, A. U., Kamalnath Reddy, K. R., and Shashidhar, H. E.

    Cytoplasmic male sterility-fertility restoration (CMS/Rf) system based three line hybrid rice breeding is popular in rice production worldwide. The conventional method of restore line identification among rice germplasm pool is time consuming and labor intensive. Molecular mapping of fertility restorer genes (Rfs) for various CMS sources in rice have yielded several closely linked DNA markers that can be used in identifying restorer lines. In order to utilize this available information effectively in marker assisted restorer line identification, validation of reported Rf gene linked DNA markers was carried out in this study. A total of eleven DNA markers spread across 5 chromosomes (Chr. 1, 4, 7, 10 and 12) reported to be closely linked with five Rf genes of wild abortive CMS source (WA-cms) were chosen. These markers were screened among thirty rice genotypes involving seventeen WA-cms (A-line) and thirteen restorer lines (R-line). The genotypic data set was generated based on the specific PCR product size. The restoration ability of the rice lines used in this study was estimated by test cross procedure involving two cms lines IR58025A & IR68888A; and their F1s were studied for the percentage pollen and spikelet fertility. The marker-trait association analysis was carried out using Crop Stat and “TASSEL” (Trait Analysis by aSSociation, Evolutions and Linkage) software programs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results indicated seven markers were significant. Amongst, four markers namely RM490/Rf3, RM6100/Rf4, RM311/Rf5 and RM258/Rf6 had higher phenotypic variance (R2 value) compared to the rests and therefore these marker/gene combinations can be utilized in marker assisted identification of restorer lines of WA-cms. The beneficial alleles for each of the significant markers such as 95bp &105bp alleles of RM490/Rf3, 164bp allele of RM6100/Rf4, 179bp allele of RM311-Rf5, 187bp allele of RM258-Rf6 were identified for the gain in trait.

  54. Mohammed F. AL-Marjani, Mahdi. H. M. Al-Ammar and Emad Q. Kadhem

    A total of Ninety two clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various infections were tested for extended spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production by double disc synergy and disc potentiating tests. The prevalence of ESBLs was 35.2% and 25% of A.baumannii and P.aeruginosa respectively, and 41.1% of A. baumannii and 20% of P.aeruginosa isolates were produced MBLs. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was evaluated by disk diffusion method and MICs of cefixime, imipenem, cefotaxime and ceftazidime were determined. PCR was performed for detection of bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M , bla OXA-1 , bla IMP-1 and bla VIM-2 beta-lactamase genes .The isolates were highly beta- lactam-resistant (MIC ranges of cefixime, imipenem, cefotaxime and ceftazidime were 2 - 512 μg/ml , 4- 512 μg/ml, 32 - >512 μg/ml and 16 - >512 μg/ml respectively) and multidrug-resistant. The results of ESBLs genes detection clarify, that all of ESBLs and MBLs producer isolates of A.baumannii and P.aeruginosa carried bla CTX-M gene, 16.6 % of ESBLs producers and 42.8% of MBLs producers of A.baumannii have carried bla TEM gene, in contrast, neither ESBLs nor MBLs producers of P.aruginosa were carried bla TEM gene. bla IMP-1 type was detected in 42.8 % of A.baumannii. bla VIM-2 didn’t appear in any isolate of ESBLs or MBLs producers.

  55. Wahyu Wibawa and Dedi Sugandi

    Field experiment was conducted on six-year oil palm plantation in Central Bengkulu Regency in 2012 to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of three herbicides mixed with metsulfuron-methyl in controlling weeds on mineral and peat soil. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) with three replications. Seven herbicide treatments consisted of control (check), paraquat at 600 g active ingredient (a.i) ha-1, glyphosate at 600 a.i. ha-1, oxyfluorfen at 600 g a.i. ha-1, paraquat at 600 g a.i. + metsulfuron-methyl at 75 g a.i. ha-1, glyphosate at 600 g a.i + metsulfuron-methyl at 75 g a.i. ha-1, and oxyfluorfen at 600 g a.i. + metsulfuron-methyl at 75 g a.i ha-1. The results showed that: (1). Composition and weed species on peat soil were more complex and various than on mineral soil. (2). Paraquat and oxyfluorfen on single application were not effective to control weed on peat soil, meanwhile glyphosate was effective to control weeds on both mineral and peat soil. (3). The duration of effective weed control on mineral soil (9 -12 weeks) was longer than on peat soil (6-8 weeks) on various herbicide treatments. (4). Glyphosate on single application had the most cost effectiveness in controling weeds on both mineral and peat soil. (5). Glyphosate is sugested to be used in mature oil palm provided by its efficacy, cost effectiveness and safety for human and environment. Proper choice and use of herbicide has broad impact not only on the growers but also on human health and environmental safety.

  56. Guru Raja, M. N. and Dr. Hari Rao, A. N.

    Hybrid composites possess unique features that can be used to meet differentdesign requirements with respect to strength, stiffness and flexuralbehavior. Akey parameter in hybrid composite structures is the arrangement offibers within the hybrid. It was reported that the hybrid design strongly affects avariety of properties such as flexural strength, modulus, fatigue behavior, andimpact performance of hybrid composites based on high performance fibers. In this paper, the flexural properties of composite materials based on two types of hybrid composites such as Carbon/glass& Kevlar/glass reinforced with epoxy resin are investigated under quasi-static loading conditions. Hybrid laminates based on carbon/glass fiber and Kevlar/glass was then manufactured using a hand lay-up technique and tested. Hybridising the carbon/glass and Kevlar/glass fibre composites in thismanner combines the strength and stiffness of the fibres system with the excellent flexural resistance of the hybrid composite. These specimens were then tested in the three point bend configuration in accordance with ASTM D790-07. The failure modes were examined under fractographs, and the results show that the dominant failure mode is fiber matrix interface cracking. The flexural modulus, flexural strength and strain to failure were recorded. It is seen that flexural modulus decreases with carbon/glass hybrid and increases in Kevlar/glass hybrid composite system.The experimental evidence suggests that hybrid composites based on combinations of Kevlar/ glass fibre reinforced with epoxy resin as matrix offer better flexural properties for use in a number of engineering sectors such as the automotive, aerospace, and marine and other various industries.

  57. A. M. Abdulwahab

    The slow evaporation technique of an aqueous solution was used to grow single crystal of β-LiNH4SO4 at 309 K. Then, the FullProf program was used to evaluate the structural parameters for this crystal at room temperature (phase II) by two methods (Le Bail and Rietveld). The structural parameters of β-LiNH4SO4 crystal (phase II) obtained by the two methods were compared with each other and with those obtained in some earlier studies, then the agreements and differences were discussed. The crystal structure of β-LiNH4SO4 (phase II) was drew by the FullProf program in accordance with atomic positions, and it was compared with that drew and described previously by other programs. The average crystallite size of β-LiNH4SO4 crystal was calculated by using two equations (Debye–Scherrer and Williamson–Hall), and by using the two methods (Le Bail and Rietveld).

  58. Christopher Immanuel, W., Paul Mary Deborrah, S. and Samuel Selvaraj, R.

    Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time applications produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time applications, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces. Clouds are an essential part of any computer model of a landscape or an animation of an outdoor scene. A realistic animation of clouds is also important for creating scenes for flight simulators, movies, games, and other. Our goal was to create a realistic animation of clouds.

  59. Erdem Sağsöz, M., Gürbüz Kotancılar, H., Murat Karaoğlu, M., Emre Gerçekaslan, K. and Salih Z. Erzeneoğlu

    Bread staling mechanism has been investigated for a long time but, since the mechanism of bread staling is a rather complex phenomenon, it is not entirely understood. The economic losses caused by bread staling are incredibly important for the world economy. It is generally accepted that starch reorganization is major cause of bread staling. Starch crystallization in bread increases with time during staling. The crystallites formation due to retrogradation of starch (mainly amylopectin) has been studied by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this study, Ncoh / NComp (R) intensity ratios are measured as functions of storage time with a Si(Li) detector using Am–241 annular source. The texture measurements have also been performed. Our experimental results are presented and discussed in this study.

  60. Hassan, S. A. and Ali, F. J.

    Adsorption of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) from aqueous solutions by using spent black tea leaves (SBTL) and pomegranate peel (PP) wastes as low cost and available adsorbents are studied in this paper. Batch adsorption experiments were Investigated to study the sorption behaviour of (SBTL) and (PP) towards TCH as a function of initial concentration, reaction time, dosage of (SBTL) and (PP) wastes, pH and temperature. Time dependent experiments showed that adsorption reached equilibrium at 180 and 30 min for both (SBTL) and (PP) respectively. The adsorption of TCH is found to be better in acidic pH for both wastes. Equilibrium isotherms were tested by applying Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin–Radushekevich (D-R) models and it was found that the equilibrium data could be well described by Tempkin for the adsorption process on (SBTL) wastes and by (D-R) for the adsorption on (PP) wastes. Four kinetics models including simple - first - order pseudo – first – order, second – order, pseudo – second – order models were employed and the experimental results were found to be follow Pseudo - second-order equation for both wastes with a good correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆Hᵒ, ∆Sᵒ and ∆Gᵒ have been determined and the findings data suggested that the physisorption is predominant. The positive values of ∆Hᵒ and ∆Sᵒ confirm that the adsorption process is endothermic and increased the randomness of the system interface. The negative value of ∆Gᵒ indicates the adsorption process is spontaneous and favourable. In order to support that Physisorption is the predominant the values of activation energy Ea and sticking probability S were calculated, the values of S and Ea indicates the applicability of (SBTL) and (PP) to be used as an effective pharmaceutical adsorbents of TCH from aqueous solutions and of TCH overdose.

  61. Kumaran, P., Pooja Muralidas and Predhil Kumar, K. R.

    In current scenario, cooling process of turbo charger is done by Charge Air Cooler. The CAC is placed in front of the radiator and can obstruct the passage of air through its finsit decreases the work efficiency of the radiator. Furthermore, if there is any problem in the radiator the CAC must be disconnected before getting to the radiator.By providing direct cooling into the turbo charger inlet part itself, all the unwanted joints existing of CAC can be eliminated. There is more free space and this would allow for development of further components.

  62. Commander A. S. Perumal

    This paper gives an idea about introducing renewable energy for ship propulsion. The present scenario is that fuel prices are increasing day by day and IMO tier-II regulations should be met for all new ships. As per tier II regulations, 20 % of reduction in NOX in the ECA areas should be met. Regulations on energy efficiency for ships is to be made mandatory and all new ships are to satisfy the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) should be followed for all existing ships. The aim of this paper is to use natural energy / Renewable energy resources like wind and movement of water to get the desired power to propel the ship. Tunnel pipes with turbines installed at the bottom of the ship produce power for domestic use onboard and by using Parafoil Kites, thrust is produced to pull the vessel in the forward direction without running the main engine in ballast condition. Usage of Kites onboard ships are soon going to be proven technology which can be installed in any existing ships as well as new ships. A technical analysis is carried out to meet the installed power. Nomenclatures: C= chord length of kite (meter) X= horizontal distance along which thickness of sections are taken (meter) Y= thickness at particular X value (meter). Vh =wind speed at required height (meter/sec) VO = wind speed at 10m height (meter/sec) L = lift force (Newtons) Taf = total aerodynamic force (Newtons) Ct = towing cable tension (the value is Equal to value of Taf) (Newtons) ɵ= incidence angle of wind/Angle of attack (degree) w = wind velocity (meter/sec) K c = application of center of forces Cl – lift coefficient Cd – drag coefficient ρ=Density of air (tones/m3) T=Thrust force (Newtons) P=power (Watts) ϴ=Angle of attack (45 degree)

  63. Nte Felix, U., Esi Emmanuel and Michael Chizurumoke, M.

    This study investigates the effect of hydrocarbon on soil qualities and its impact on the environment. Six soil samples collected from the study area where analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, PH meter, conductivity meter and standard chemical methods. From the samples analyzed the average concentration of IMS 1 obtained are: PH (5.37kg/l), conductivity (65.00 kg/l), Alkalinity (120,000 kg/l), organic matter (3.24 kg/l), Nitrogen (0.084 kg/l), Phenol (64.38 kg/l), Chloride (400.00 kg/l), THC (2,400.00 kg/l), TOC (2.76 kg/l), S024 (688.89 kg/l), N02 (44.12 kg/l), P03-4 (12.38 kg/l), etc. On the other hand, the average concentration of IMS 2 obtained are: PH (4.98 kg/l), conductivity (30.00 kg/l), Alkalinity (120.00 kg/l), organic matter (12.40 kg/l), Nitrogen (0.182 kg/l), Phenol (33.22 kg/l) Chloride (400.00 kg/l), THC (18000.00 kg/l), TOC (3.73 kg/l), S024 (516.668 kg/l), N02 (4.412 kg/l), Po3-4 (8.25 kg/l) etc. High concentration of copper, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe was also obtained for both IMS 1 and IMS 2. Sulphide, Hg, Cr and Pb were not detected in the soil samples analyzed. The results obtained reveal the pollution level of the soil due to exploration and exploitation of oil activities in the area.

  64. Poonam Sangwan, Vikram Mor, Sakshi, Rajbala Soni and Rajesh Dhankhar

    Cadmium are important environmental pollutants and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary, nutritional, and environmental reasons. So, if high concentration of heavy metals is accumulated in the plants that adversely affect the absorption and transport of essential elements, disturb the metabolism and have an impact on growth and reproduction of the plant. Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal, recently which has attracted the more attention in plant nutrition due to its relative mobility in the soil plant system. Plant root is the main organ of water and nutrient entry to the plant body. It is also the main organ for uptake of pollutants including heavy metals like cadmium. This review summarizes the toxic effects of cadmium in plants (i.e. growth retardation, alterations of photosynthesis, stomatal movement, enzymatic activities, water relations, interferences with mineral uptake, protein metabolism, membrane functioning etc.) and also includes the mechanisms of cadmium uptake, translocation and deposition.

  65. Sarojini Devi, B., Vijayasekaran, D., Rajiv Das Kangabam, Selvaraj, M. and Govindaraju, M.

    Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems and plays an important role in environmental stabilization and species conservation. It comprises only six per cent of the Earth's land surface. This habitat response to climate change and suggestion for restoration will be realized differently on a regional scale. The major objectives of this study are to monitor and assess the spatial and temporal changes in land use / land cover during the period of 1988,1999 and 2010 by using Geographical Information System (GIS) and to conclude the main environmental factors disturbing these changes. The results from this study identified that the key wetland types are lake/pond (316091 ha), tank/pond (237613 ha), river/stream (136878 ha), and reservoir/barrage (56419 ha). Area under mangrove is about 7315 ha. Coral Reef (3899 ha) exists largely in Ramanathapuram district. In this paper, we used remote sensing data to recover the wetland landscape spatial pattern and its 30 years historical development in Ramanathapuram District. Land Use-Land Cover Changes in the study area has decreased wetland ecosystem.

  66. Vidyadhar Vasant Awati

    Nano-structured NiCuZn ferrite with composition NixCu0.1Zn0.9-x (where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) was prepared by self propagating technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all samples exhibited the spinel structure. Further, the XRD data have been applied to calculate the lattice parameter and grain size. The structural probes and nanometric sizes of the samples was examined by using scanning electron microscopic techniques. Dielectric constant varied from 30 to 80,000 with frequency, rise in Ni concentration and temperature. Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) was employed to study the magnetic properties of nano-ferrite. High saturation magnetization of value 62.3 emu/g was measured for the sample consisting Ni concentration X= 0.6. These nano-ferrites may have application in core materials and in electronic device technology.

  67. Vikram Mor, Poonam Sangwan, Sakshi, Rajbala Soni and Prof. Rajesh Dhankhar

    Ricinus cummunis has been propagated as a unique plant which has potential for developing alternative source for renewable and clean energy which can replace fossil fuel use due to its high oil content. It is considered as a sole candidate in the benefits of ecology and environment because of its several merits. Ricinus cummunis has been advised for plantation on degraded and marginal land which otherwise a wasteland so that we can use our resources more productively. Presently, Ricinus cummunis has received much attention because of its potential for biodiesel production an eco-friendly fuel, biodegradable, renewable and non toxic in nature compared to petro-diesel. However, environmental and ecological benefits of Ricinus cummunis are not properly studied on the multiple roles. In this review several roles of Ricinus cummunis such as management of degraded land, potential phytoremediator, carbon sequester, use as activated carbon and medicinal uses have been discussed. Problems related to castor cultivation like toxin present in seed cake, disease incidence etc. also highlighted in the present review. Our current knowledge on Ricinus cummunis is not sufficient to understand its contribution in social, economic, ecological and environmental benefits. Hence, the given issues are discussed here to improve its future scope to mitigate energy crisis, environmental management and sustainable production.

  68. Raisa Kabeer, Rinoy Varghese, Jaysooryan, K. K., Joshy George, Ambily V. and Sylas V. P.

    Under the present investigation efficiency of the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes was tested for the removal of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cd, and Pb) in laboratory conditions. The work also aims to characterize the associated micro flora of the rhizosphere system of the Eichhornia crassipes and wetland system where it grows naturally. Heavy metal content in water and water hyacinth from wetland system were also studied. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentration of the wetland water ranged from 0.01 to 0.05ppm, from 0 to 0.02ppm and from 0 to 0.05ppm for zinc, cadmium and lead respectively. The order of abundance of heavy metals in the water samples are Zn˃Pb˃Cd. The abundance patterns of heavy metals in leaf, petiole and root were Pb˃Zn˃Cd, Cd˃Zn˃Pb and Cd˃Zn˃Pb respectively. Six bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Alcaligens, Bacillus, Kurthia, Listeria and Chromobacterium) were represented in rhizosphere of Eichhornia crassipes and 4 bacterial genera (Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Listeria and Chromobacterium) were recorded from associated water system. The phytoremediation studies revealed that Eichhornia crassipes removed appreciable amount of selected heavy metals during the experiment period. Hundred percentages of Pb and Cd were removed from the experiment tank during 6th and 12th day of the experiment respectively. 90% of zinc was removed during the end of the experiment. Results of the present study concluded that Eichhornia crassipes is a hyper accumulator of Zn, Cd and Pb from aqueous solution.

  69. Ramesha, M. M., Sophia, S. and Muralidhar, M.

    The diversity and distribution patterns of freshwater bivalves have been studied from January 2006 to December 2006 in the Western Ghats Rivers of Karnataka, India. The study was carried out in different sampling sites of 20 rivers. A total of 19 species of freshwater bivalves belonging to 3 families were recorded during the study period. Of these, a total of 15, 3 and 1 species of bivalves belong to families Unionidae, Corbiculidae and Etheriidae, respectively. All the species represented by five genus viz, Parreysia-9 species Lamellidens-5 species Corbicula-3 species, whereas Arcidopsis and Pseudomulleria represented with one species each. The population density of bivalves was high in river Cauvery and P. corrugata was the most common species found in 17 rivers followed by L. marginalis (15 rivers). In the present study, three species of the bivalves are not assessed (endemic-Arcidopsis footie, Parreysia khadakvaslaensis; non endemic-C. cashmiriensis), Pseudomulleria dalyi is assessed as endangered and endemic, whereas P. cylindrica is listed as Data Deficient and rest of the 14 species are listed in Least Concern category by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

  70. Vikram Mor, Poonam Sangwan, Sakshi, Sarita Sheoran, Rajbala Soni and Prof. Rajesh Dhankhar

    Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose plant, contains high amount of oil in its seeds and can grow on marginal and wasteland. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils like J. curcas and efficient processing technology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of delivering a competitive biodiesel. J. curcas is the highly promoted oilseed crop at present in the world. The fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel are comparable to those of fossil diesel and confirm to the American and European standards. This review highlights the specific features of the Jatropha curcas plant and its potential for the production of biodiesel and value-added products that could enhance the economic viability of Jatropha seed oil-based biodiesel production. This review also gives an update on the technological methods that can be used to produce biodiesel and the use of lipase as biotechnological solution to alkali and acid catalysis of transesterification.

  71. Vasugi, C., Sekar, K., Dinesh, M. R., and Venugopalan, R.

    Studies carried out on the genetic divergence in 43 unique indigenous mango accessions using 19 quantitative traits exhibited high phenotypic and genotypic variance for fruit weight (12909.38, 12661.92) followed by vitamin ‘C’ (1231.71 and 1221.023). The genotypic coefficient of variation was more than 60 per cent for the characters fruit weight, vitamin C and sugars indicating that selection procedure can be applied in the improvement of characteristics, which is confirmed by the findings of heritability in broad sense and was observed to be high (>90 per cent) for all the fruit parameters except for pulp per cent, which recorded a moderate heritability estimate of 76 per cent, indicating the influence of environment on this character. The genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than phenotypic correlation coefficients and the fruit weight was observed to have high positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with pulp per cent, pH, total sugars, non-reducing sugars reducing sugars and stone weight, indicating that selection of medium sized fruits will lead to good pulp recovery.

  72. Vasanthi, K., Senthilkumari, M., Chairman, K. and Ranjit Singh, A. J. A.

    Problem statement: Filter mud has significant fertilizer value but due to prohibitive cost of sludge disposal, it is dumped in open where it adversely affects the ambient environment .Conversion of industrial wastes in to beneficial vermicompost not only solves solid waste accumulation but also yield highly nutritive organic manure. Approach: The management and nutrient recovery from filtermud has been attempted by vermicomposting after mixing it with organic nutrient in appropriate quantities. The final products were nutrient rich, odour free, more mature and stabilized. The results showed that carbon content was decreased during the process and nitrogen content was enhanced. The C: N ratio decreased with time in all the feed mixtures indicating a stabilization of the waste. Results: Bioconversion of filter mud waste using animal wastes like Goat dung, Buffalo dung, Sheep dung and Cow dung lead into nutrients rich manure by using the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. The results suggest that the filter mud supplementary animal wastes promote the activity of earthworm and produce highly nutritive vermicompost. The chemical composition of the compost prepared by different types of composting using filter mud showed that the level of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Calcium and metals like Mg, S, Cu and Zn showed and increasing trend during end of the vermicomposting. Conclusion: The present study recommends filtermud mixed with animal wastes for vermicomposting to enhance the functioning of the earthworm and to increase fertilizer value of vermicompost. In the present study also macronutrient and micronutrient content increased significantly in vermicompost prepared from filtermud waste due to the supplementation of goat dung. This is practical significance if adopted by urban farmers as a result of soil health and in turn the productivity of soil can be maintained for further agriculture.

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