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September 2013

In the contemporary world citizen demands on quality, quantity, economy and timely service delivery from public institutions has become a norm. Citizens are no longer passive and inactive subjects in the society and cannot be under estimated. Noting this assumption, this paper makes an attempt to assess the methods and techniques for building public awareness on existence and value of Client Service Charter as a tool of managing performance and service delivery in Tanzania. Documentary review on reforms in Tanzania was done to build the case.

Aim: To compare the long term (6 months) effect of once daily dose of Timolol in Gel Forming Solution (GFS) with twice daily dose of Timolol in aqueous solution, in control of Intra Ocular pressure (IOP), in cases of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). Material and methods: In a Prospective, Randomized Clinical trial, POAG or Ocular Hypertension patients diagnosed between April 2008 and September 2012 were studied. 750 eyes of 600 patients with age group 46-79 yrs. were selected. Diurnal variation of Tension (DVT) was done along with other investigations.

Dilatation and curettage (D&C) is one of the most frequently performed procedures for first trimester surgical abortion. The mortality and morbidity of D&C are very low, and perforation of uterus is rare. But curettage of a large, soft postpartum uterus can be a formidable undertaking because the risk of perforation is high and the procedure commonly results in increased rather than decreased bleeding. Although many perforations are innocuous, others lead to infection, hemorrhage, and trauma to abdominal contents.

Urinary tract infection is one of the most common cause of bacterial infections and Escherichia coli is the predominant urinary pathogen isolated from community based and hospitalized patients.1,2 Uropathogenic strains of E.coli are consistently associated with UTI exhibiting various virulence factors like serum resistance, cell surface hydrophobicity and hemolysin.2 The treatment has been posing as a challenge due to the emergence of multidrug resistant E .coli especially in nosocomial infections. The present study is undertaken to evaluate association of virulence factors of E.

There are two types of vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR) that cause rickets in children. Both occurs due to metabolic defects in vitamin D metabolism,Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1 (VDDR-I) is caused by defect in renal conversion of calcidiol (25OHD) to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) by the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 2 (VDDR-II) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We report a case affected by VDDR-I, in developing country like INDIA where vitamin D deficiency rickets is still prevalent.

Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the causes of significant splenic infarction at King Fahd university hospital, Saudi Arabia over a-13 year period. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who were diagnosed with significant splenic infarction during a 13-year period at king Fahd university hospital, Saudi Arabia was conducted. Only computerized tomography proven diagnoses of splenic infarction were included. The clinical presentation and initial investigations were recorded. Results: We found 14 cases of acute significant splenic infarction.

Background: Sitting balance is a valid predictor of functional recovery after stroke. Function in Sitting Test (FIST) is a performance based balance measure that aimed at comprehensive, specific, efficient and functional assessment of sitting balance, which has variety of steady state, proactive, and reactive postural control conditions which may describe and quantify sitting balance abilities to move and perform functional tasks in a seated position. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for FIST in acute stroke subjects.

Urinary tract infection is one of the most common cause of bacterial infections and Escherichia coli is the predominant urinary pathogen isolated from community based and hospitalized patients.1,2 The treatment has been posing as a challenge due to the emergence of multidrug resistant E .coli especially in nosocomial infections, Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) bearing the major brunt of the problem limiting the therapeutic options.3 The present study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and to detect ESBL production in E.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of modulated frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on relieving pain after abdominal surgery. Methodology: The study population was those who underwent abdominal surgery. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (treated with frequency modulated TENS and placebo TENS). Both the groups were treated with the usual analgesic routine. The subjects received the treatments for 30 minutes at every time and each subject will be assessed 5 consecutive days.

Background and objectives: This study investigated the effects of an 8 – week supervised circuit training program with moderate intensity on the fasting blood glucose level of NIDDM patients of sedentary lifestyle over conventional oral therapy medications. Method: 40 NIDDM patients aged 35-55 years volunteered for the study. Subjects were randomly assigned into exercise and diet group (n = 20) and conventional oral therapy group (n = 20). The exercise and diet group received 60 minutes of supervised circuit training thrice a week for 8 weeks along with a prescribed diet control.

The role of anthropometric measurements in the prediction of hamstring autograft size remains unclear. We evaluated 41 patients (34 males, 7 females) prospectively with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency scheduled for reconstruction using hamstring autograft at our institution between June 2011 and June 2013. Preoperatively we recorded age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, and activity level. Intraoperative measurements of semitendinosus tendon like absolute length before fashioning the graft and final diameter of the tripled graft using sizing tubes calibrated to 1 mm.

Background: Cognitive impairment in the form of decreased working memory and executive functions has been recognized as a key deficit in schizophrenia. Neurotropic viruses such as Herpes virus and human cytomegalovirus have been associated with focal gray matter deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Aim: The study was carried out to detect the prevalence and relationship of herpes simplex virus (HSV 1/2) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) among Sudanese schizophrenia patients.

Hyperlipidemia is a powerful and extremely common risk factor of cardiovascular disease and mainly affecting the younger population. The present study was conducted in a private hospital at Hyderabad city. Two hundred and fifity male hyperlipidemic subjects were selected and data was collected on socio-economic status like age, education, occupation, activity pattern, income level and type of family. Dietary habits like type of diet, meal pattern and types of fats and oils used for cooking by the male hyperlipidemics through questionnaire.

The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that serve billions of users worldwide. Aim: The study aimed to explore the perception of adolescents’ female using the internet as source of reproductive health information. Design: Descriptive design was conducted for this study. Setting: The study was conducted in three female secondary schools at Sheben El kom, El-Menoufiya governorate. Sample: This is a purposive sample, simple random sample of 350 female students from the mentioned above setting.

The frequency-dependent dielectric properties (dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss factor and a.c. electrical conductivity) of blends of poly(vinyl alcohol)/hydroxypropyl cellulose (PVA/HPC) prepared by the solution-cast technique is investigated in the frequency ranges from 1 to 100 kHz to examine a wide range of molecular mobility of the amorphous phase of the blend systems. The dielectric properties on certain chosen blends before and after irradiation with different fast neutron fluencies in the range from 105 to 108 n/cm2 are also studied.

This paper has discussed the programming problems for optimal management of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) based on stochastic modeling of MS by Tirupathi Rao et al. [9].The proposed problems deal with the objectives of minimizing the expected size of MS, maximizing the expected size of oligodendrocytes and minimizing the variance of oligodendrocytes. The constraints are formulated with the minimum limit on expected size of oligodendrocytes, maximum limit on expected size of MS causing cells and maximum limit on variance of oligodendrocytes.

Kinetics of oxidation of certain substituted indole such as 2,3-Dialkyl indoles by Peroxomonosulphate (PMS) had been already reported. The present work is investigated the kinetic studies of oxidation of 3-methylindole (3-MI) by PMS using ethanol medium. Present work is investigating the order of the reaction follows a total second order, first order each with respect to [3-MI] and [PMS], effect of ionic strength, effect of [H+] and solvent effect. Absence of any polymerization indicated a nonradical pathway. Activation and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated from kinetic values.

The continuous explosion in human population growth is putting pressure on agriculture land. Though use of pesticides covers wide range of plants, the main concern to human health is fruits and vegetables which are eaten raw. Many of the pesticides have genocidal effect too. Many of the natural bio-control agents disappeared due to changes in the ecosystem. Situation will worsen in future due to damage to the ecosystem. In the present exploratory study, while improving the production and productivity of vegetables and fruit crops, rural poultry was evaluated as bio-control agents.

Ascites a common manifestation of chronic hepatobiliary disorder is difficult to treat and several therapeutic modalities were available. In this study concentrated autogenous ascitic fluid reinfusion was tried for the management of dogs with severe ascites. Ascites was ameliorated in all treated dogs as comparable as and better than the standard therapy. It can be concluded that auto reinfusion of ascitic fluid is a safe, better and cost effective treatment modality in the effective management of ascites in dogs.

HIV/AIDS epidemic has been accompanied by stigma from its very beginning. To measure the existence of internal and external stigma 300 PLHIVs (People Living with HIV) were selected. Focus group discussions were conducted with 50 PLHIVs (25 males and 25 females). Analyzing the effects of HIV related stigma on the quality of PLHIV’s life it was found that the level of stigma on the quality of PLHIV’s life was high. The results related to existence of internal stigma among PLHIV’s indicate that 100% of the respondents were anxious and depressed about their HIV positive status.

Gypsum which provides readily available source of Ca2+ ions to replace Na+ ions from the cation exchange complex of soil has been used as a common chemical amendment in the reclamation of sodic soil. As a non-renewable resource in nature, its dwindling scenario has now become imperative to find either an alternate sources of gypsum or to increase the efficacy of gypsum to reduce its dose in the reclamation of such sodic soils.

This study was conducted on households among the poor in the slums of Mathare, in Nairobi, Kenya to determine the effect of age, education, income and household size on savings. Savings in the country is low and this true especially among the poor as noted in development framework, the Kenya Vision 2030 a. The study employed survey design and SPSS for analysis of data. The findings indicated that gender, age and income influence saving, but education and household size influence is insignificant.

The profitability of commercial crop production system in the current agricultural scenario of developing countries is being commonly encountered with problems of increasing input cost, diminishing marginal returns and negative drift of ecological balance due to indiscriminate use of plant protection chemicals. To overcome these problems a cost effective bio-growth enhancer CSR BIO was developed under National Agricultural Innovation Project and was intervened in the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh which is one of the disadvantaged district designated by planning commission of India.

Geography is one of subjects that can be studied as a physical or social science at high schools level in Kenya. In secondary education it is currently an optional subject at upper secondary education. There have been concerns over declining performance in geography at national examination, especially areas that test students’ knowledge of field work, map work and physical geography. Coincidentally these are the areas where non-projected media resources are most used.

An attempt is made to study the mapping of geomorphologic features, using remote sensing and GIS techniques in the coastal Valinokkam to Thoothukudi. The geology and geomorphological characteristic's world coastline are significant for safe guarding natural disaster management and to improve of our economic conditions. Those observations on coastal research have been motivated over the past hundred years. Geology and Geomorphology are an essential part of our coast, and for every coastal person in this country.

Agriculture, economy and social development are the driving forces of rural development are the acting as propellants for the inclusive development in rural areas. Youth are the energizing this development passively. Ministry of Rural development has vision of Sustainable and inclusive growth of rural India and this vision is attainable when the rural youth are involved in it and they are the major human resource for development, key agents for social change.

The purpose of this study is to find out whether effective leadership styles and motivation has brought about any significant impact on the level of employee performance of Research Institute as a whole. The result of this study is expected to help the management of the Institute and all stakeholders, farmers, pubic and, private institutions, NGOs, and the government at large. Leaders have always existed and the act of leading is as old as humanity. The literature on leadership is vast and a great deal has been written on this subject in the last twenty five years.

This study examines the modified interest rate liberalization theory and economic growth in Nigeria. The objective of the study is to determine the impact of the modified interest rate liberalization on savings, investment and economic growth in Nigeria. The period of study covers between 1987 and 2011. Interest rate used is the commercial bank deposit and lending rate. The technique of analysis is the Ordinary Least Square Method using the E-view statistical software.

This paper is an endeavor to outline the Federal Reserve System’s theoretical perspective of the financial market during the last three decades. It is a glimpse into the policies of regulatory authorities at the Fed whose designed path of financial growth led the US economy to its worst crisis in 2008 since the Great Depression.The Reagan era marked the beginning of the end of the post Great Depression financial regulations. This paper is also to briefly appreciate the Fed’s realization of the importance of financial regulation and supervisionto the US economic recovery.

Work brings dignity to human beings. Vocational rehabilitation gives them independence in social and emotional life. The present research has focused on the impact of computer training in the competencies of mild mentally challenged adults. The sample of this study consisted of 6 mild mentally challenged adults from Ernakulam district, Kerala. Intervention has been given for the duration of one year. The tools employed for the assessment include Behavioral Assessment Scales for Adult Living – Mental Retardation (BASAL –MR) and personal data sheet.

Digital soil maps offer solutions to several environmental issues, for example; gully erosion hazard, and flooding. The availability and production of such maps have been fundamental to recent advances in GIS and other related technologies. This paper describes the production of a digital soil map for Anambra, south eastern Nigeria, using GIS technology. Sheets 7 and 8 of hardcopy soil map of Nigeria each at a scale of 1: 650,000 were scanned and spatially referenced to WGS 1984 coordinate system. In a GIS, these images were subset, mosaicked and vectorized on-screen.

Different combinations were examined for rabbit’s anesthesia. To the best of our knowledge, the combination of ketamine-midazolam-fentanyl has never been used in rabbits. We assumed this will provide several advantages compared with the previously used combinations.

Background: College students form a large, healthy, and active population of potential blood donors; their recruitment and retention would immensely help meet the demand of safe blood. The knowledge and practice of blood donation among students are reportedly diverse. In Nepal, medical students donate more and are more knowledgeable than non-medical, students but there could be differences between medical students of different colleges.

In cancer therapy, Mitomycin C (MMC) is a commonly used drug to fight several human malignancies; it is a powerful anti-bacterial and anti-tumor fungal antibiotic. However, during clinical use several side effects may occur. The current study was designed to investigate the potential effect of pre- and post- addition of Spirulina platensis (Sp) to the diet on mitomycin C (MMC) induced genotoxic and molecular alterations.

The entire wound healing process is a complex series of events that begins at the moment of injury and can continue for months to years. The stages of wound healing are inflammatory phase, proliferation phase, fibroblastic phase and maturation phase. Several Investigators has been found that, most of the tribal people are using Ficus carica for wound healing, activity apart from in other conditions. So in the present study emphasis will be laid on the pharmacological screening of the plant with special reference to the wound healing activities.

Self-esteem develops and evolves throughout our lives as we build an image of ourselves through our experiences with different people and activities. Experiences during our childhood play a particularly large role in shaping our basic Self-esteem. Many of the circumstances that affect a child’s Self-esteem arise in connection with his life at school. The degree of child’s self-esteem which will be influenced by his success or failure in the school situation will also be determined by the extent to which the child feels about his personal worth and about his achievement.

In the face of growing competition, the policy changes and the operational environment in respect of the Indian banking system, there has been an increased focus on profitability despite other social objectives being important. Moreover, the setting up of a new competitive environment has resulted in new challenges for the public sector banks to retain their shares.

A direct technique developed for measuring yarn torque is explored for the case of bamboo, polyester and cotton ring spun yarns with its respective blends. The technique balances the torque in a yarn hank against a wire of known torsional rigidity. It is shown that this technique gives a reliable measure of the torque per strand independent of the size of the hank. The difference between the dry torque and wet torque is visualized and it can be found that as the sample becomes wet, the torque value decreases.

Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in children. Dietary intervention using finger millet can aid in preventing anemia among children. The study aimed at supplementing developed recipes from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) or ragi Vermicelli on the anthropometric and hematological parameters of school children age 6 – 12 years. Pre-test Post –test design with test group (n=12) on supplementation and control group (n=12) in study period was designed. The supplementation was given for five days a week for a period of 45 days.

Adolescents who are obese are at higher risk for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes as compared to normal weight peers. Especially college students are exposed to unhealthy eating habits leading to body weight gain. Whole grain food is important part of human nutrition providing a wide range of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytosterols and other phytochemicals and could help in weight management among college students. The study is also aimed to find the relationship between whole grain intake and body composition of college students.

This paper describes the measurement of friction based on inclined plane method. The main principle of this instrument is that the yarn for which the coefficient of friction has to be estimated forms the inclined plane itself. The angle of inclination of the yarn can be easily varied by using suitable weights. It can be concluded from the study that more weights used in experiment reduces the frictional values of the yarn.

The hexanolic extracted and purification flavonoides from celery plant by using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Also studied the effect to block the development of cancer in human beinge, Is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Celery flavonoid have been assessed for chemopreventive activity.

Ten cowpea varieties were preliminarily evaluated for their reaction to M. incognita under screen house condition in a Randomised Complete Block design with three replications. Three week old seedlings were inoculated with 350 and 700 second stage juveniles and set on concrete benches. Based on the reproduction factor and root gall index, Asontem and Asetenapa were considered to be resistant. Tona, Nhyira, Padituya, Hewale, Asomdwe and IT89KD-347-57 were considered susceptible whilst Adom and Videza were found to be tolerant.

Wastes are produced virtually by all types of industries. The drift in the world today is to convert waste into useful products through application of microorganisms. The current study aimed at the production of FPase and β- glucosidase enzyme by the filamentous fungi, Trichoderma harzianum CKP 01 in different carbon and nitrogen sources. A number of indigenously isolated fungi were screened for cellulolytic potential and Trichoderma harzianum CKP 01 was selected since, it showed maximum hydrolytic zone.

Carbofuran is a systemic insecticide/nematicide used extensively in modern agriculture to combat various major insect pests and vectors. Selection experiments for analyzing carbofuran resistance development were carried out for ten generations at Mysore with Culex quinquefasciatus, a widely dispersed domestic mosquito and the vector of lymphatic filariasis. The mosquito populations were continuously exposed to different carbofuran concentrations following the WHO method.

Introduction: Sodium disturbances leading to hyponatremia is a common problem in adult patients admitted to hospital and are associated with high mortality rate. Dilutional hyponatremia is considered to be the consequence of higher rate of renal retention of water in relation to sodium, due to decrease in free water clearance. An activation of the renin – angiotensin aldosterone system and sympathetic nervous system and a nonosmotic release of vasopressin frequently develop in patients with cirrhosis.

Twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups named A, B, C and D of five rats each. Group A was given the basal diet and served as control, group B was given basal diet and 1% cholesterol added to the basal diet, group C was given basal diet and 1% cholesterol and 4% TSP added to the basal diet and group D was given basal diet and 1% cholesterol and 8% TSP added to the basal diet for four weeks. Blood samples were collected from all groups after four weeks. The level of total cholesterol and LDL-c was significantly (P› 0.05) decreased in group C and D compared to group B.

Colors are one of the things that play a part in our daily lives. Studies have documented that exposure to plants had positive effects on human health. This study investigated how foliage color stimuli that included green and green-red and green-white influenced selected psychological and physiological responses in 28 college students in their twenties. Each plant was presented for 1 min, during the exposure time, eye movements were recorded by eye mark recorder.

Owing to the importance of macrophytes in the generation of biomass and production of biogas, present attempt has been made in Antiya Lake, Jhansi, whereby Typha latifolia has been found to gather maximum biomass followed by Ludwigia sps. and Iopomea aquatica. Moreover the biogas emission of Iopomea aquatic is greater followed by Ludwigia sps. and Typha latifolia. The present communication deliberates in detail on the said matter of interest.

A molecular approach using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to distinguish four avian meat species in addition to pig. The partial 12S rRNA gene was amplified with universal primers. The amplified fragments (456 bp for all species studied) were digested with Acil restriction enzyme.The results showed that each of chicken, turkey, quail, duck and pig species exhibited a unique specific RFLP pattern that allowed its identification and discrimination from others.

Many rural communities face seasonal food shortages during the dry season and just before harvest. Food supplies are scarce resulting in diets which often lack variety of nutrients. The nutrient content of the meals can be improved by the use of nutritious soup thickeners. The objective of this study is to develop a pumpkin seeds and cowpeas (PSC) soup thickener and to analyse its proximate composition as well as sensory attributes. The PSC soup thickener was subjected to sensory analysis for taste, flavour, colour and acceptability by randomly selected taste panels.

This study examined the application of three ICT resources (i.e. computer hardware, network and internet infrastructure and web resources) in university business processes. The study was undertaken at Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST). Primary data was collected by observation and interviews and from questionnaires to a stratified population sample while secondary data was obtained from reviewed university policy documents, surveys and reports and other relevant sources.

Cytoplasmic male sterility-fertility restoration (CMS/Rf) system based three line hybrid rice breeding is popular in rice production worldwide. The conventional method of restore line identification among rice germplasm pool is time consuming and labor intensive. Molecular mapping of fertility restorer genes (Rfs) for various CMS sources in rice have yielded several closely linked DNA markers that can be used in identifying restorer lines.

A total of Ninety two clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various infections were tested for extended spectrum β- lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production by double disc synergy and disc potentiating tests. The prevalence of ESBLs was 35.2% and 25% of A.baumannii and P.aeruginosa respectively, and 41.1% of A. baumannii and 20% of P.aeruginosa isolates were produced MBLs.

Field experiment was conducted on six-year oil palm plantation in Central Bengkulu Regency in 2012 to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of three herbicides mixed with metsulfuron-methyl in controlling weeds on mineral and peat soil. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Blocks Design (RCBD) with three replications. Seven herbicide treatments consisted of control (check), paraquat at 600 g active ingredient (a.i) ha-1, glyphosate at 600 a.i. ha-1, oxyfluorfen at 600 g a.i. ha-1, paraquat at 600 g a.i. + metsulfuron-methyl at 75 g a.i.

Hybrid composites possess unique features that can be used to meet differentdesign requirements with respect to strength, stiffness and flexuralbehavior. Akey parameter in hybrid composite structures is the arrangement offibers within the hybrid. It was reported that the hybrid design strongly affects avariety of properties such as flexural strength, modulus, fatigue behavior, andimpact performance of hybrid composites based on high performance fibers.

The slow evaporation technique of an aqueous solution was used to grow single crystal of β-LiNH4SO4 at 309 K. Then, the FullProf program was used to evaluate the structural parameters for this crystal at room temperature (phase II) by two methods (Le Bail and Rietveld). The structural parameters of β-LiNH4SO4 crystal (phase II) obtained by the two methods were compared with each other and with those obtained in some earlier studies, then the agreements and differences were discussed.

Current techniques for creating clouds in games and other real time applications produce static, homogenous clouds. These clouds, while viable for real time applications, do not exhibit an organic feel that clouds in nature exhibit. These clouds, when viewed over a time period, were able to deform their initial shape and move in a more organic and dynamic way. With cloud shape technology we should be able in the future to extend to create even more cloud shapes in real time with more forces.

Bread staling mechanism has been investigated for a long time but, since the mechanism of bread staling is a rather complex phenomenon, it is not entirely understood. The economic losses caused by bread staling are incredibly important for the world economy. It is generally accepted that starch reorganization is major cause of bread staling. Starch crystallization in bread increases with time during staling. The crystallites formation due to retrogradation of starch (mainly amylopectin) has been studied by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Adsorption of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) from aqueous solutions by using spent black tea leaves (SBTL) and pomegranate peel (PP) wastes as low cost and available adsorbents are studied in this paper. Batch adsorption experiments were Investigated to study the sorption behaviour of (SBTL) and (PP) towards TCH as a function of initial concentration, reaction time, dosage of (SBTL) and (PP) wastes, pH and temperature. Time dependent experiments showed that adsorption reached equilibrium at 180 and 30 min for both (SBTL) and (PP) respectively.

In current scenario, cooling process of turbo charger is done by Charge Air Cooler. The CAC is placed in front of the radiator and can obstruct the passage of air through its finsit decreases the work efficiency of the radiator. Furthermore, if there is any problem in the radiator the CAC must be disconnected before getting to the radiator.By providing direct cooling into the turbo charger inlet part itself, all the unwanted joints existing of CAC can be eliminated. There is more free space and this would allow for development of further components.

This paper gives an idea about introducing renewable energy for ship propulsion. The present scenario is that fuel prices are increasing day by day and IMO tier-II regulations should be met for all new ships. As per tier II regulations, 20 % of reduction in NOX in the ECA areas should be met. Regulations on energy efficiency for ships is to be made mandatory and all new ships are to satisfy the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) should be followed for all existing ships.

This study investigates the effect of hydrocarbon on soil qualities and its impact on the environment. Six soil samples collected from the study area where analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, PH meter, conductivity meter and standard chemical methods.

Cadmium are important environmental pollutants and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary, nutritional, and environmental reasons. So, if high concentration of heavy metals is accumulated in the plants that adversely affect the absorption and transport of essential elements, disturb the metabolism and have an impact on growth and reproduction of the plant. Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal, recently which has attracted the more attention in plant nutrition due to its relative mobility in the soil plant system.

Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems and plays an important role in environmental stabilization and species conservation. It comprises only six per cent of the Earth's land surface. This habitat response to climate change and suggestion for restoration will be realized differently on a regional scale. The major objectives of this study are to monitor and assess the spatial and temporal changes in land use / land cover during the period of 1988,1999 and 2010 by using Geographical Information System (GIS) and to conclude the main environmental factors disturbing these changes.

Nano-structured NiCuZn ferrite with composition NixCu0.1Zn0.9-x (where x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6) was prepared by self propagating technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all samples exhibited the spinel structure. Further, the XRD data have been applied to calculate the lattice parameter and grain size. The structural probes and nanometric sizes of the samples was examined by using scanning electron microscopic techniques. Dielectric constant varied from 30 to 80,000 with frequency, rise in Ni concentration and temperature.

Ricinus cummunis has been propagated as a unique plant which has potential for developing alternative source for renewable and clean energy which can replace fossil fuel use due to its high oil content. It is considered as a sole candidate in the benefits of ecology and environment because of its several merits. Ricinus cummunis has been advised for plantation on degraded and marginal land which otherwise a wasteland so that we can use our resources more productively.

Under the present investigation efficiency of the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes was tested for the removal of selected heavy metals (Zn, Cd, and Pb) in laboratory conditions. The work also aims to characterize the associated micro flora of the rhizosphere system of the Eichhornia crassipes and wetland system where it grows naturally. Heavy metal content in water and water hyacinth from wetland system were also studied.

The diversity and distribution patterns of freshwater bivalves have been studied from January 2006 to December 2006 in the Western Ghats Rivers of Karnataka, India. The study was carried out in different sampling sites of 20 rivers. A total of 19 species of freshwater bivalves belonging to 3 families were recorded during the study period. Of these, a total of 15, 3 and 1 species of bivalves belong to families Unionidae, Corbiculidae and Etheriidae, respectively.

Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose plant, contains high amount of oil in its seeds and can grow on marginal and wasteland. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils like J. curcas and efficient processing technology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of delivering a competitive biodiesel. J. curcas is the highly promoted oilseed crop at present in the world.

Studies carried out on the genetic divergence in 43 unique indigenous mango accessions using 19 quantitative traits exhibited high phenotypic and genotypic variance for fruit weight (12909.38, 12661.92) followed by vitamin ‘C’ (1231.71 and 1221.023).

Problem statement: Filter mud has significant fertilizer value but due to prohibitive cost of sludge disposal, it is dumped in open where it adversely affects the ambient environment .Conversion of industrial wastes in to beneficial vermicompost not only solves solid waste accumulation but also yield highly nutritive organic manure. Approach: The management and nutrient recovery from filtermud has been attempted by vermicomposting after mixing it with organic nutrient in appropriate quantities. The final products were nutrient rich, odour free, more mature and stabilized.

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
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India
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Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran