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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

April 2014

It was found that the world wide annual expenditures for cosmetics is estimated at U.S.$18 billion, and many players in the field are competing aggressively to capture more market share. Hence, companies are interested to know about consumer’s preferences towards cosmetics so as to devise strategies to win over competition. The main purpose of this research paper is to investigate the influence of preferences on cosmetics buying behavior especially men's deodorants like the factors those influence the consumer choice and to identifies the most popular deodorant brand.

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) would represent the ideal situation to evaluate the potential injury induced by oxidative stress during ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. This study aims to compare markers of protein oxidation and antioxidants in serum of low risk and high risk patients, before and after undergoing OPCABG.

Background: Patients with chronic abdominal pain can undergo numerous diagnostic tests with little change in their pain. This study was under taken to assess the efficacy of performing diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy in patients with chronic abdominal pain for longer than 3 months Methods: All patients undergoing laparoscopy for chronic abdominal pain were included in the study from Nov. 2008 to Oct. 2009. The patient’s demographic data, duration of pain, diagnostic studies, intraoperative findings, interventions and follow-up were determined.

Ex situ conservation, the protection of organism outside of their native habitats is an important strategy towards reaching the goal of biodiversity conservation. Amongst the various approaches of ex situ conservation botanical gardens hold an important position. With an inherent objectivity of conservation they are important ingredient of research and education. Since the mid-1970s public gardens world- wide has been active in the development of plant conservation programs often involving the cultivation and long-term maintenance of plants or populations of threatened species.

Dengue fever has become a global concern and can lead to a severe life threatening illness. The development of dengue vaccines is complicated by the antibody dependent enhancement effect. Thus the development of a plant based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. The present study investigated the antiviral effects of standardized lyophilized aqueous, aqueous-ethanolic and ethanolic extracts of Azhadirachta indica and Quercus lusitanica on Dengue 1 & 3 strains in Vero cell line and compared with known antiviral drug Ribavirin.

The present paper documents the wealth of medicinal plant species used by the Halam tribes of Karimganj district for various hepato-protective and other related disorders. A field study carried out by interviewing the traditional herbalists and several other elderly man and women. In the earlier days ethnic communities do not approaches of hepato-protective disorders. So they use some medicinal plants for the purpose of hepato-protective disorders are enumerated with their botanical name, family, vernacular name, parts used and their application has been provided in this paper.

The isopod parasite, Nerocila phaeopleura (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), collected from the caudal region of the host Rastrelliger kanagurta (Teleostei, Perciformes, Scombridae), has been recorded for the first time from the Bay of Bengal, Odisha coast.

With the objective of selecting suitable parental breeds for silkworm breeding program, a total of twenty (10 oval and 10 dumb-bell) bivoltine silkworm genetic stocks maintained at CSR&TI, Mysore and CSGRC, Hosur were evaluated in three replications during three seasons of the year.

The study was carryout to evaluate the incidence and multidrug resistant of Staphylococcus aureus in different milk samples. Staphylococcus aureus is a major problem of public health which causes a number of human and animal diseases. The main source of infection is contaminated milk. Totally 50 raw and pasteurized milk samples were collected from three different sources such as Goat milk (15), Buffollow milk (25), and pasteurized milk (10). In order to isolate and identify the Staphylococcus aureus from these samples.

Objective: to assess knowledge and attitude of women regarding toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in slums area and provide women the health measures to prevent toxoplasmosis before and during pregnancy. Design and Methods: The study was carried out at two health centers: The fourth healthy center at Tanta first sector, which served "Tal-Elhadadine neighborhood and Gambiat Al-Qurashi slums" and the sixth healthy center which served "Seger's slums at Tanta second sector" The subjects of the study consisted of 302 women attending the health care centers.

Production of erythropoietin (EPO) is an important function of kidney. As severity of renal disease progresses, EPO level decreases and consequently anaemia progresses. In 20 healthy controls with normal renal function the serum EPO level was 13.75±1.51mIU/ml. In another 20 patients of anaemia with normal renal function serum EPO level was very high- 436.75± 224.87mIU/ml. The EPO level was highest in patients of aplastic anaemia with normal renal function-: 791.7±53.37. In CKD stage V patients with severe degree of anaemia the serum EPO level was 16.97± 2.06mIU/ml.

Background & Objectives: To study variations of the Anterior cerebral artery –anterior Communicating complex (ACA- ACoA complex). Anomalies of the ACA- ACoA like fenestrations and median trunk – Azygous ACA and Bihemispheric ACA are exceedingly very rare anomalies. Any variation in the vessels of anterior part of Circle of Willis influences the change in the hemodynamics of blood supply of frontal lobe.

Background: This research was aimed at determining the relationship between the oral hygiene practices and the oral hygiene status of students of the Bayelsa State College of Health Technology, Otuogidi, Ogbia – Town. Method: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among students of the Bayelsa State College of Health Technology. Data were collected through oral examination and closed-ended questionnaires assessing the oral hygiene practices of students. Results: Students presented mostly with a fair oral hygiene status, with mean Oral Hygiene Status (OHIs) of 1.98+1.20 S.D.

Background: Maxillofacial fractures are often associated with considerable long-standing functional, aesthetic and mental complications. Mandible is one of the most common facial fracture. As the numbers of cases are rising in recent years, the present study was aimed to describe Incidence, aetiology and pattern of mandibular fractures in Sonepat. Materials and methods: A prospective Medical institute based study of maxillofacial injury patients was carried out from September 2011 to February 2013 at newly started B.P.S Government Medical College for women, Khanpur kalan, Sonepat.

The effect of supplementing a regular diet with ascorbic acid on haematological indices was studied in teenage pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of three government hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria. Informed consent was obtained from 45 subjects and this formed the sample for the study. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group consisting of 30 subjects and control which consisted of 15 subjects.

We retrospectively reviewed records of women attending our breast clinic to assess the association of benign breast disorders with education level and employment status. Overall, 229 cases consisting of those with breast pain, fibrocystic changes, or non-pathologic nipple discharge were compared with 217 controls. Benign breast disorders were non-significantly more frequent in employed than unemployed women but significantly more frequent in women with higher education.

Background: Blood groups play an important role in transfusion medicine. A blood group has many subtypes, but A1 and A2 are the main subtypes. The percentage of these subtypes was fluctuating in an approximate average of 80% for A1 and 20% for A2. This study conducted to measure the frequency of the subgroups A1 and A2 among Sudanese donors attending the Military hospital blood bank. Materials and methods: A total of 100 venous blood samples collected randomly from blood group A donors attending military hospital blood bank between September –October 2013.

Statistical Modelling is used in child mortality research since a long time in order to develop predictive models as well as to know the factors which affect the child mortality. There have been various socio-economic and biological variables identified from previous research which significantly effect child mortality, the role of these factors vary in case of child mortality in different ages of death of the child, so to find out such differences we classify the women according child mortality experience in four categories or levels i.e.

Breast cancer is the most frequent carcinoma in females and the second most common cause of cancer related mortality in women. Early detection of breast cancer is widely reported to be one of the most effective ways leading to better prognosis and lower death rate. For marker discovery, the analysis of mRNA expression signatures in peripheral human blood has been widely used showing to be a promising technique. Cytokeratin-19 (CK 19) is a novel gene that was diagnosed as a highly specific marker for primary breast cancer.

Objectives: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most widespread cancers distressing men and women and thus has a philosophical impact on health care. An extensive variability in the occurrence of BC reflects its multifactorial with polygenic etiology. Antioxidants play an essential role in protection of the cells from oxidative damage. Antioxidant defense can be affected in cancer.

A study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal action of hexane extracts of three locally available plants namely: Anisomeles malabarica, Vitex negundo and Murraya koenigii against the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais) Motsch with response to the insect mortality. Results revealed that all test materials exhibited mortality action against bean weevil and maize weevil. Anisomeles malabarica extracts had greater mortality action against both the beans weevil (100%) and maize weevil (96.2%) after 24 h of treatment.

Mitoxantrone, a synthetic anthraquinone, is highly effective in the treatment of different cancers. But, the recorded correlation between its use and the development of secondary leukemia necessitated the study on its post-treated cytogenetic consequences. In the present study, all the three tested doses of mitoxantrone-induced chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were significantly increased in mouse bone marrow cells, but the drug was not mitotoxic. It also enhanced the induction of lipid peroxide radicals.

This investigation was carried out to isolate and identify the predominant microbial flora in milk product samples collected from different parts of the Tamil Nadu. A total of 30 samples were collected from Thanjavur, Trichy and Madurai, in sterile bottles and transported in a cool box at 4ºC for analysis. The samples were subjected to microbiological examination (total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds). The results showed the occurrence of coliform bacteria, S.

This paper introduces a Dashboard Builder for easily build and customize Business Intelligence information dashboards. Dashboard Builder provide very intuitive environment for dynamically creating, rearranging, searching and exploring multiple visual data representation. In industry there is very less time to analyze and make decisions of the company. In highly mechanized world one has very little time to care about filling all the details and keeping a constant check on its dynamic changes.

Six imidazolium-based room temperature protic ionic liquids (PILs) have been synthesized by the process of proton transfer from hydroxy acids (Bronsted acids) to substituted imidazole (Bronsted base). The PILs were characterized by UV, Infrared and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and GC-MS spectroscopes. Their anti-microbial activities were determined using the well-diffusion method. All six PILs were toxic to Ecoli streptomyces bacillus, while 2-methyl imidazolium lactate showed high anti-microbial activity against a wide range of human pathogens

Air pollution is perhaps the commonest form of environmental degradation in urban and rural area of both developed and developing countries. In the environment there are many pollutants which have been observed during different studies regarding air pollution. Among all the pollutants, gaseous and particulate pollutants are more important.

There has been a tremendous change in the Banking industry in India during last few years particularly due to the introduction of globalization, deregulation, and rapid technological advancements. India has initiated liberalization which has opened the banking sector to provide better coverage to the Indian citizens and augment the flow of long term financial resources as the new strategy of banking business for some years; the scheduled commercial banks have adopted innovative banking practices.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose) is an herbaceous perennial. The crop is heavily suffered due to rhizome rot in the light soil of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh where ginger is grown as cash crop. Highest germination and minimum rhizome rot incidence and maximum yield of Ginger was recorded in Copper hydroxide which is at par with Trichoderma viride. Seed treatment followed by soil drenching by Mancozeb and Soil application Trichoderma viride with FYM suppressing the rhizome rot of Ginger at farmer’s field with higher yield in comparison to farmers practice.

In every progressive economy there has been a steady shift of employment and investment from the essential primary activities…… to secondary activities to all kinds and to a still greater extent into tertiary production. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the structure of economy and sectoral transformation of occupational structure during last three decades in Jangipara C.D block of Hugli district of West Bengal.

Community health workers (CHWs) are widely used to provide care for a broad range of health issues. The study is aimed to assess knowledge about health programs among community health workers. A sample of 240 health workers was randomly selected from health center at Ruhango district. Questionnaire method was used for data collection and analysis was done through frequency and percent.

Higher educational institutions worldwide are committed to considering Total Quality Management (TQM) doctrine as a philosophy, management attitude, and work approach. As these universities recognize the direction of this concept and its scientific, educational, and economic benefits and returns, they compete in this field in the same way as economic institutions compete. Thus, TQM means exceptional and distinguished in having vision and confidence, and accomplishing high quality performance and results.

The objectives were to optimize the EC process parameters using Taguchi methodology, evaluating the efficiency percentage removal of COD and phosphorus removal. The whey was analyzed in initial and final values de pH, COD and phosphate ions. We used a electrochemical reactor de 2 L, batch type and performed the experimental design optimization, fractional factorial random parameters, the type of L9(3)4, ie four variable at three levels.

The electrical characteristics of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films doped with different concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt %) of CoCl2 salt powder were studied. The volumetric electrical conductivity σv for (PVA-CoCl2) films as a function of the concentration of CoCl2 salt at room temperature and the relationship of volumetric electrical conductivity σv for (PVA-CoCl2) films of different concentrations of CoCl2 salt with the temperature are calculated.

Rogue devices are an increasingly dangerous reality in the insider threat problem domain. Industry, government, and academia need to be aware of this problem and promote state-of-the-art detection methods. Rogue access points, if undetected, can be an open door to sensitive information on the network. Many data raiders have taken advantage of the undetected rogue access points in enterprises to not only get free Internet access, but also to view confidential information.

Medical textiles constitute one of the most dynamic research fields characteristic of technical textiles and its range of applications. They represent structures designed and accomplished for a medical application (intrabody / extrabody, implantable/ non implantable), textiles used in biological systems to estimate, treat, increase or regenerate a tissue, organ or function of the body. Non implantable materials are used for external applications and may or may not contact with the skin. This includes wound care, bandages, plaster, pressure garments, orthopaedic belts etc.

An Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) was used to assess the status of the fish assemblage of Huwazah marsh, Iraq from October 2005 to September 2006. IBI scores were calculated from 14 separate assemblage metrics based on the species richness, species composition and trophic guilds. After more than two years of restoration activities and improved water quality, the state of the fish community in Huwazah marsh was fair (IBI= 53.2%), and better than the other marshes after four years of restoration.

Many plants accumulate organic osmolytes in response to the imposition of environmental stresses that cause cellular dehydration. Even though an adaptive involvement of these compounds in regulating osmotic adjustment and preventing subcellular structure from adverse conditions has vital role in stress physiology, the proof in favour of this proposition is largely correlative. Transgenic plants engineered to accumulate proline, mannitol, fructans, trehalose, glycine betaine or ononitol exhibit marginal enhancement in salt and/or drought tolerance.

A survey conducted by IMRB International for Colgate Palmolive India found that only 2.5% Indians visit a dentist at least once a year compared with 48% which is the global average. 67% of Indians have never gone for a dental check-up. Out of those that do finally seek treatment for their dental problems, 1 in 3 have to get tooth extractions as generally it is too late. Tooth decay (dental caries) is a disease of multifactorial etiology.

Cooperative learning has been proclaimed as an effective instructional approach in promoting language development in learners. However, its use in Kenyan schools is relatively uncommon. This seemingly is because many teachers are not prepared to implement cooperative learning principles in the classroom. This article reports the views of a group of teachers and students regarding the effectiveness of using of cooperative learning as a strategy to improve pupils’ ability to understand and interpret high school poetry.

A considerable effort has been recently devoted to the development of database management systems (DBMS) which guarantee high assurance security and privacy. Organizations spend a significant amount of resources securing their servers and network perimeters. An important component of any strong security solution is represented by intrusion detection systems, able to detect anomalous behavior by applications and users. To date, however, there have been very few intrusion detection mechanisms specifically tailored to database systems.

Barium ferrite nano particles was prepared by co-precipitation route using (ethanol/water) solutions of iron chloride FeCl3.6H2O and barium chloride BaCl2.2H2O with a Fe/Ba molar ratio of 15. the produced powder was dried at 80 ºC for 12 h and then calcined at various temperatures for 2 h. Nano particles of barium ferrite with particle size of about 30 and 70 nm were observed from SEM micrographs of the samples synthesized and calcined at 800˚C and 1000 ºC for 2 h, respectively.

The organization stores encrypted data on cloud and issues decryption keys to authorized users. Data owner issues decryption keys to authorized users. When user leaves organization, then he/she becomes unauthorized user for data access. When a user is left the organization, then data owner will issue re-encryption commands to the cloud to re-encrypt the data. So we prevent the left user from decrypting the data by using the old decryption key. And to generate new decryption keys to valid users only. So only authorized users can continue to access the data.

India’s nuclear policy has evolved gradually rather than dramatically, India became a nuclear weapon state after testing five nuclear device in 1998. The self-imposed restraint for 24 years, after having demonstrated nuclear capability in 1974, is unique in the world. Various factors influenced India’s pursuit of a nuclear development programme. Ultimately it was concern of national security that played the critical role in turning it to a military oriented project. In particular, security dilemma involving itself, China, and Pakistan.

Background: Meningiomas predominantly benign tumors that may result from an adverse effect of cranial irradiation and trauma. They account for 20% of all primary intracranial neoplasm. The incidence is likely to be much higher, since many benign meningiomas do not produce symptoms. The p53 tumor suppressor is a key regulator of cell cycle progression, such that its inactivation promotes increased cell growth and tumor genesis.

Ultrasonography is an imaging modality which uses ultrasounds generated by a probe placed on the skin or in a natural cavity. The objective of this work is to assess the prevalence of microbial contamination of ultrasonography devices in Saint-Louis. The ultrasonography facilities of public health structures have been sampled. Thus for the gel, the probes and their storage, some scovels have been used then soaked in a broth of culture and incubated at 37°C.

Hygrophila schulli, a tropical herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, is an important medicinal plant, primarily used as diuretic, haematinic and liver tonic. Present work deals with the strategies for the in vitro propagation of the species. Well developed compact calli were obtained when cotyledonary leaf and cotyledonary node explants were cultured in MS medium with 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D together with 0.2 mg/l BA.

Various species of Pteridophytes and Bryophytes abound in the Nigerian Neogene as revealed by palynomorph records. One of the commonest is Sphagnum species with spores which are normally with smooth exine (Stereisporites spp.), which are of three types. These appear to have evolved close to the Early Late Miocene much before those with varied sculptures hereby ascribed to Trilites which are concentrated in the Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. Their stratigraphic ranges revealed that these latter species evolved close to the Early Pliocene and may have possibly continued to the present time.

A field experiment was carried out to investigate germination and early development of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as inhibited by selected common tree species (Azardiracta indica, Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa) over a period of 10 weeks. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) replicates. Two seeds of studied arable crops were planted on beds 3m by 3m dimension at 90cm by 30cm under each tree species while the open space was used as control.

The valley of Kashmir abounds in large number of fresh water bodies including lakes, rivers and springs which are contaminated with different kinds of pollutants resulting from increasing population, urbanization and also due to various other factors. The present study was done at 4 stations in the Dal Lake viz., Telbal Nallah, Hazratbal basin, Gagribal basin and Nigeen basin. The water samples collected during the study period from May, 2010 to April, 2011 showed that water temperature was almost same at all the stations. Transparency values were higher in winter.

Swaziland’s high unemployment rate challenges its development and one coping strategy has been identified as the production of small and medium enterprises. With one third of Swaziland’s labour force unemployed in 2008, amongst them were the University of Swaziland (UNISWA) graduates from the Faculty of Agriculture (FOA). The problem of graduates’ unemployment led to the FOA’s introduction of entrepreneurship education so as to impart entrepreneurial personality, knowledge and skills in training its graduates.

The Kolaghat Thermal Power Plant (K.T.P.P) is situated on the right bank of the river Rupnarayan in Purba Medinipur district, West Bengal, India. It is well connected with south-eastern Railway, NH- 6 and NH-41. This power plant was established during the sixth Five Years Plan period (1980-85). WBPDCL (West Bengal Power Development Corporation Limited) took the charge of this power plant since 1985. Presently its total power generating capacity is 1260MW, with six units, 210 MW each. K.T.P.P.

CA 15.3 is a tumour marker useful in monitoring therapy and disease progression in metastatic breast cancer patients. Literature has shown that CA 15.3 levels are affected by liver diseases. This study was a case control study conducted to evaluate CA 15.3 levels in 30 cases of liver cirrhosis in Victoria Hospital attached to Bangalore Medical College and Research institute. There was a statistically significant increase in CA 15.3 levels in cirrhotic patients when compared to age and sex matched healthy controls.

Burn injuries are of major concern with respect to morbidity and mortality.It isthe leading cause of death among children worldwide. Burn damages cell membrane, causes loss of cell integrity and membrane permeability which brings major changes in serum electrolytes. Liver, kidney and pancreas are among the most vulnerable organs in burn trauma, markers of which help to assess the pattern and severity of injury. Hepatic changes are constantly reported in burns. This includes plasma proteins, acute phase reactants, various enzymes and coagulation factors.

Aim: Zinc deficiency is prevalent in children in developing countries and diarrhea is prevalent in worldwide. Supplemental zinc provides therapeutic benefits in diarrhea and prophylactic zinc supplementation reduces the diarrheal episodes and duration. Method: In this prospective study, we enrolled infants aged 6 to 11 months from urban slum areas. Total 28 slum areas were selected and we enrolled total 946 infants, these were randomly assigned as cases and control. Cases (473) received 20 mg of zinc orally every day for 2 weeks and rest 473 infants were assigned as controls.

Cigarette smoking is one of the major health hazards, and it contributes significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on fibrinogen level among Sudanese population. 150 adult men aged 19-54 years old were enrolled (50 cigarette smokers, 50 Ex-smokers and 50 non-smokers). Citrated blood samples were collected, plasma were separated and stored at -80 °C, and fibrinogen levels were measured by Clauss method.

Introduction: Neonatal sepsis currently causes 1.6 million deaths annually in developing countries and it is also the main reason for hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Early onset sepsis still remains the significant risk factor for mortality and morbidity in neonatal period. Objectives: To describe the outcome of neonates treated with empiric antibiotic for suspected early onset sepsis (EOS).

Background: Metabolic syndrome is a common health problem in the Saudi population and is a known cardiovascular risk. Most of the studies that were conducted to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Saudi population included subjects with a wide age range. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in a group of apparently healthy and relatively young group of women.

This investigation was designed to determine the effect of garlic juice on some kidney function parameters in layer chicken. Blood samples were collected via jugular vein from 20 animals before treatment with garlic juice for check urea, creatinine, uric acid, calcium ion, albumin and amylase in serum. The animals received garlic juice orally in dose (0.02ml/day) for 15 day and blood samples were collected for check the kidney function parameters which mentioned above.

Background: Malaria is one of the important public health problems in India by considering its prevalence, virulence and drug resistance. Aim: This study was undertaken to analyze and introspect the presentation of this disease in a tertiary referral centre. Methodology: This record-based descriptive retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care level hospital -P.D.U. Government Hospital, Rajkot city, Gujarat, India from January 2011 to December 2013. The data were collected from the medical records department of the hospital and analyzed by using Microsoft excel.

Cerebral ischemia initiates a cascade of detrimental events including glutamate associated excitotoxicity, membrane lipid degradation, DNA damage, formation of reactive oxygen species and acute inflammation, which lead to the disruption of cellular homeostasis and structural damage of ischemic brain tissue. Inflammation is increasingly recognized to be the key element in pathological progression of ischemic stroke. Therefore, reducing oxidative stress and down regulating the inflammatory response are options that merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke.

Background: Manifestations of the occipital vertebrae in the region of anterior rim of foramen magnum, either in the midline and/or laterally are due to failure of segmentation of the proatlas. The proatlas is derived from the fourth occipital sclerotome. There is a broad spectrum of occipital vertebrae variations which includes: third occipital condyle (condylus tertius), basilar process, paracondylar process and prebasioccipital arch (hypocondylar arch). These manifestations, if present can cause brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerves palsy during first and second decades of life.

We conducted an investigative study to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella contamination of poultry farms in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. A standardized questionnaire was used to collate data on farm management practices, demographic characteristics, farm-handlers personal hygiene and clinical information from August, 2012 to April, 2013. Odds ratios were computed using bivariate analysis. Results revealed 10.9% prevalence of Salmonella species from the study using standard bacteriological methods.

Serological characterization of chicken salmonellae isolated from four thousand, six hundred and sixteen (N= 4,616) samples from 1,319 chickens was done between 2006 and 2011 with the live bird market in Jos, Plateau state as the study site. Sample breakdown consisted of crop tissues (n=1,319), poultry droppings (n=1,319), gizzard tissue (n=1,319) and oviducts (n=659). Standard methods for bacterial cultivation and phenotypic identification were adopted prior to serological typing of the isolates. 28 (0.006%) of the total samples yielded Salmonella serotypes.

In this paper, we examine the use of racial stereotypes by one ethnic group against another in Nigeria and the data used were drawn from participant observation, recordings of spontaneous utterances and interviews with some travellers who returned from crisis-ridden places in Nigeria.

The study was aimed at managing the vast amounts of wastes of the redfish Lutjanus sebea to isolate an industrially useful enzyme-protease. The visceral organ wastes of fish were collected, homogenized with Tris-HCl buffer and precipitated with varying concentrations of ammonium sulphate, acetone and ethanol and was then purified by dialysis and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The purification profile (the protein content, protease activity, specific activity, purification fold, and recovery %) were studied in the crude and partially purified samples.

This paper aimed at evaluating the haematological responses of fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus fed experimental diets containing Gomphrena celosiodesleaf meal as plant protein source. Gomphrena celosiodes leaf meal was incorporated in diets at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of experimental diets. All diets were iso-nitrogenous (41-42% Crude Protein). Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus with initial mean weight of 10.15±1.54g were fed ad lib on allotted diets twice per day at 08.00 hrs and 18.00hrs for 60 days. The experiment was a complete randomized design (CRD).

A new approach to tracking human subjects in video sequences. A parametric ellipsoid model in both detection and visual tracking is introduced. For detection, this is projected at static grid positions to find intersections between potential subject positions and foreground image data, as determined by mixture of Gaussian segmentation. For tracking, the ellipsoid is parameterized by position, velocity and height as part of the state vectors of a particle filter. As the subject moves, a 3-D appearance description using texture and color is learned progressively.

The title compound LAM prepared by using AR-grade L-asparagine and NaCl. It is dissolved in de-ionized water to get NaOH and HCl and these two are used as solvents. Solubility of LAM can be determined by gravimetric method. Using slow evaporation technique (SET), the grown crystal can be obtained in 20 days. The crystallanity of the crystal can be confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The crystals, by X-ray (EDAX) confirm the composition of elements in the crystal. The structure can be determined from Single X-ray diffraction.

A neuron is a cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. Dispensed with the neurotransmitter in chemical synapses, few synapses connect both the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells directly. Compared to chemical synapses, nerve impulse conduction by electrical synapses is faster. Nervous messages are mostly associated with an electrical change known as the action potential. An all active Fohlmeister – Coleman – Miller (FCM) model with five nonlinear ion channels was modeled for the neuron cell.

Vision is the complex information processing which relies on the neural processing of the retina. Light incident on the tissue layer of retina which is sensible to light, produces a series of electrical and chemical synapses which creates the nerve impulses. The light passing the pupil gets focused by the lens presents an inverted image to the photoreceptors called the rods and cones. Neural signals from the rods and cones are processed in the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) whose axons form the optic nerve.

Value chain components are known to be important factors that determine the extent of commercialization and productivity in the agricultural sector. This study sought to assess the level of commercialization and variables influencing milk production in Butula and Butere districts of Western Kenya. 400 smallholder dairy farms were surveyed using proportional stratified random sampling, while qualitative data was collected through six focus group discussions, five informal interviews with Ministry of livestock staff and Kenya dairy Board.

Health is a basic Human right; hence one of the most important determinants of quality health service delivery is availability of essential drugs in public health facilities. Yet expenditure on health in general and that of drugs in particular in Africa are often lamented as being inadequate, inefficient, inequitable and unsustainable. This study examined deep across subject under the supply of Drugs and Medical Utensils in Public Hospitals. Drug Supply in Ethiopian Health sector conveyed as a very low rates.

The study tried to identify factors that affect the quality of garments’ marketing controllable variables and its possible impact on traders’ satisfaction. In order to address those issues, the researcher distributed questionnaires to marketing middlemen who were selling the company’s garment products and referred secondary data sources. The collected data and information were compiled and analyzed for possible indications of problem areas.

The study attempts to analyze the impact of advertising on consumer buying behaviour. Market provides a key to gain actual success only to those brands which match best to the current environment i.e." imperative" which can be delivered what are the people needs and they are ready to buy at the right time without any delay. The study, based on an analytical approach on a survey of 100 randomly selected consumers in Shimla city, examined the role played by advertising and media in influencing consumers buying behaviour for four selected washing products i.e Nirma, Tide, surf exel, and Rin.

In this paper we introduce difference sets in algebra. We study their properties and prove some interesting results. We define a maximal difference set and show that a proper left difference set of an algebra with identity can be embedded in a maximal difference set. Then we prove difference set under homomorphism of one algebra to another. We also develop a difference set in context of a Banach algebra.

In Kenya, over 24 million plastic bags are used monthly, half of which end up in the solid waste mainstream. Plastic bags now constitute the biggest challenge to solid waste management in Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya. Nairobi is home to three million, three hundred people. They are ingested by livestock endangering their health and even causing death; they choke soils and are slow bio-degraders.

In recent years, the role of metal nanoparticles in medicine and biology has rapidly increased, due to ease of synthesis, surface functionalization and biocompatible unique properties. In this paper, extracellular biosynthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNaPs) using methanol extract of Cauliflower leaves (Brassica oleracea L.) has been attempted and achieved rapid formation of AgNaPs in a short duration.

The widespread use of methicillin against bacterial infections, mainly in hospitals, led to the emergence of a resistance mechanism related to the presence and expression of the mecA gene, which encodes the protein PBP2a, resistant to penicillin/methicillin. Forty-two Staphylococcus aureus, previously isolated from Ricotta cheese sold in Brazil, were tested to antibiotic susceptibility and analyzed for the presence of mecA gene. Four isolates were resistant to oxacillin/methicillin, and to other antibiotics, including penicillin.

The morphology of spider Argiope anasuja (Thorell 1887) has been described by many authors. Its distribution is from India, Pakistan to Maldives. In the present study the sexual dimorphism, morphometry, structure of female epigynum and male pedipalp has been described. The morphometric analysis revealed that females are four times larger than males. This sexual size dimorphism has evolved due to differences in adult life style and also selection, which focuses on early maturity, as explained and quoted by many researchers.

The study was conducted during 2013 in Vasudevanallur block of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu state to assess the profile characteristics of farmers growing SRI paddy. The study was conducted in Vasudevanallur block of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu. A total of 120 respondents were selected, and interviewed using a well structured, pretested interview schedule. In addition to percentage analysis, cumulative frequency, correlation co-efficient and multiple regressions were the statistical tools employed.

The study of reproductive parameters of little egret Egretta garzetta was carried out during breeding season of 2012 in Hokersar wetland, North- Kashmir and Kashmir arts emporium park Srinagar. Breeding parameters namely nest site, egg laying date, clutch and brood size, egg biometry and breeding success were examined. Breeding was initiated with selection of nesting sites. Nests were bowl shaped of dried willow twigs. Mean egg dimensions were 45.05±1.12mm×34.78 ±1.11mm. Mean egg weight was 27.44±0.93g and clutch size averaged 3.85 ± 0.59.

The study was carried out in Lake Wular between 2007-2009 and in this paper an attempt is made to draw a relationship between the nesting success and average reed height and density at nest in Indian great reed warbler. A positive correlation was found between nesting success and reed height (r = 0.94) and nesting success and reed density (r =0.98). Earlier nests were more susceptible to predation than the later because early nests were located in relatively shorter and less dense vegetation than the later nests.

CD4 counts are one of the factors used to measure disease progression in HIV-positive individuals. CD4 counts vary in individuals and across populations due to a variety of demographic, environmental, immunological and genetic factors that probably persist throughout the course of HIV infection. The purpose of this study is to examine factors affecting immunological recovery of a patient under ART treatment. A sample of 710 patients has been taken from a hospital record at Bahir-Dar Felege-Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia from June 2006 to August 2013.

The modeling of the real time system with Static VAR Compensator (SVC) using ETAP software is presented in this paper. The system is analyzed under severe disturbance to study the transient behavior by simulating three phase to ground fault at particular bus. To enhance the transient stability of the system, SVC is inserted and tested to show the effect of the same on the transient stability under severe disturbance.

Used lubricating oil (ULO) is one of the anthropogenic pollutants, contains toxic substances, therefore its handling is very difficult. This hazardous oil needs proper abatement technologies extensively depend not only on the suitability of the technology but from the environment point of view. In this work, base on the life cycle, six management options were evaluated for ULO for their environmental impact point of view. Two of them based on the recycling treatment of ULO, i.e. acid clay and solvent extraction processes for the recovery of main product, the recycled used oil.

The notion of VUCA was introduced by the U.S. Army War College to describe the more volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous, multilateral world which resulted from the end of the Cold War (Kinsinger and Walch, 2012). We are moving from a world of problems, which demands speed, analysis and uncertainty to solve, to a world of dilemmas, which demands patience, sense making and an engagement with uncertainty. ’VUCA’ is Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous are the characteristics of modern strategic dilemmas which requires a different orientation and a set of skills.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Fredrick OJIJA
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