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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













June 2014

  1. Silviu Mateesescu

    There is a lot of investment in research to help ascertain how creativity plays in enhancing business development. Personal-driven factors, as well as contextual factors, affect creativity which happens in organizational contexts. The theories of creativity identified as relevant for our article are: entrepreneurial creativity, systems model theory of creativity and humanistic theory of creativity. Computations are done using SPSS software and the main conclusion is that the theory of creativity applied by a company has a significant impact on the number of successful and innovative projects generated over a certain period of time by that company.

  2. Vanamadevi. N. and Santhi, S.

    This paper proposes simple hardware architecture for realizing a Radial basis function (RBF) network for transformer impulse fault classification. Fault conditions are applied on the lumped parameter model derived for the DUT and the model is simulated using PSPICE orcad software. The winding currents thus computed are analyzed using db5 wavelet and the statistical features namely mean and Variance are extracted from the third level approximation. The RBF network has a number of advantages compared with other type of ANN including simpler network structure and faster learning speed. The key point of RBFNN is to decide a proper number of hidden nodes. Here the possibilistic FCM algorithm is used to cluster the derived statistical features into 21 different clusters representing the defined fault types and the RBF network is constructed with 21 hidden nodes representing the clusters. The hardware implementation is carried out using Xilinx system generator for DSP on Spartan 6 FPGA. The overall classification accuracy of this scheme is 97%.

  3. Gyanendra Singh and Gaurav Kumar

    A lariat ether derivative N,N-bis[(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 has been synthesized and used as neutral carrier for the selective determination of strontium. The electrode works in a linear concentration range of 1.8 x 10-7 M – 1.0 x 10-1 M of Sr(II) ion with a slope of 30.57 mV/decay of activity. The electrode works successfully in a pH range of 3.0 – 10 and has fast response time (8s). The electrode was also used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of Sr(II) with EDTA solution.

  4. Kamini Jaswal, Jyoti and Kuldeep Vats

    The worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is one of the newest technologies developed for broadband wireless network which offers high data rates, long coverage area and several types of quality of services to the users. In this paper, a basic simulation and performance analysis of WiMAX network in three different scenarios, using different quality of services like BLER, throughput and load, is carried out using OPNET modeler (version 14.5) which is a powerful tool used for simulation of wireless networks.

  5. Stephen Dinagar, D. and Latha, K.

    Type-2 fuzzy sets are fuzzy sets whose membership values are fuzzy sets on the interval (0, 1). This concept was proposed by Zadeh, as an extension of fuzzy sets. Type-2 fuzzy sets possess a great expressive power and are conceptually quite appealing. Also fuzzy matrices play an important role in scientific developments. In this paper, adjoint of type-2 triangular fuzzy matrices (T2TFM) is proposed. Some more special properties of adjoint of T2TFM which are useful for finding inverse of T2TFM are presented. Numerical example is also included.

  6. Abu Teir, M. M., Abu Awwad, I., Darwish S. M. and Abu-Hadid, M. M.

    The interaction of hydrophobic vitamins (vitamin E and vitamin D) with human serum albumin(HSA) at physiological (pH 6.9- 7.4) has been studied using UV-VIS spectrometer, and an FT-IR spectroscopy. The interaction of hydrophobic vitamins (vitamin E and vitamin D) with HSA has been investigated by using UV-absorption, and Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The binding constants of vitamin E and vitamin D have been determined by UV-absorption. The values of the binding constants are calculated at room temperature: (1.21×102M-1) and (6.8×101M-1) for vitamin E- HSA and vitamin D- HSA mixtures, respectively. FT-IR spectroscopy with Fourier self- deconvolution technique and second derivative resolution enhancement procedures were applied in the analysis of the amide I, amid II, and amid III regions to determine the protein secondary structure and hydrophobic vitamins binding mechanisms. All peaks positions in the three amide regions (amid I, amide II and amide III) have been assigned and any changes due to concentration changes have been investigated. The FTIR spectra measurements indicate a change in the intensity of absorption bands due to change in the concentrations in drugs. In addition a larger intensity decrease in the absorption band of α-helix relative to that of β-sheets has been observed. This variation in intensity is related indirectly to the formation of H-bonding in the complex molecules, which accounts for the different intrinsic propensities of α-helix and β-sheets.

  7. Mishra, T. K., Moharana, J. K., Nanda, P. M., Garnaik, B. K.

    The world’s thirst for water is likely to become one of the most pressing issues of the 21st century. Rapid pace of industrialization, concurrent growth of urbanization, need and change of life style of ever expanding population have the potential to damage the environment and degrade the available surface and ground water sources. Since there has been growing concern about pollution in Angul-Talcher area due to industrial, mining and other anthropogenic activities, Central Pollution Control Board and Ministry of Environment & Forests have identified this zone as one of the hot spots in respect of pollution hazards. The present study is an attempt to provide a qualitative and quantitative status indicating the suitability of water sources for drinking purpose. The study on seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics along with its water quality of Brahmani river fluctuated from one season to other. Though most of the parameters varied within the recommended limit for drinking water yet BOD, COD, TDS, were recorded as some of the limiting parameters for making the source unfit for human consumption. Water Quality Index (WQI) values for river water in different seasons have been calculated to classify the sources according to pollution level and suitability for drinking water purpose.

  8. Renuga, V.

    Single crystals of alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal sulphates doped alanine nonlinear optical materials have been grown from solution by slow evaporation method. The isoelectric point of the alanine is 6. So, the growth of crystals has been carried out at pH 6. The various functional groups present in the pure and doped crystals are elucidated from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study. UV–Visible transmittance is recorded to study the optical transmittance range for the grown crystals. The grown crystals have been subjected to powder X-ray diffraction studies to identify the crystalline nature. Surface morphology and defects due to dopant were studied by optical microscope. The antimicrobial studies of the grown crystals were studied using two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria.

  9. Stephen Dinagar, D. and Thiripurasundari, K.

    In this paper ‘A new method is proposed for finding a fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy transportation problem. In this work intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (ITFN’s) are employed to represent the transportation cost. Numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the proposed algorithm. It can be seen that the proposed algorithm gives a better fuzzy optimal solution to the given transportation Problem.

  10. Sushovan Chatterjee and Bidyot Doley

    Crack propagation study is a viable and futuristic criterion to design better and more adaptive engineering structures; hence it becomes imperative to indulge in a concrete study of crack propagation. In this paper, CATIA V5 software is used as a tool for modeling and stress analysis, in order to estimate Critical crack length and the critical load. Further comparative study is done based on critical length between various engineering structures which are rectangular beam, I-beam, hollow shaft and solid shaft from which hollow shaft is been found better over the other structures for engineering design.

  11. Gayathri, E., Bharathi, B. and Dr. Natarajan, S.

    Hydrocarbons such as diesel fuel, crude oil and petroleum distillates are some of the world’s most widely used primary energy and fuel resources (Watanabe, 2001). Biodegradation of hydrocarbons by natural populations of microorganisms allows for the conversion of hazardous substances into forms that are less or non-toxic and represents one of the primary mechanisms by which petroleum and diesel products are removed from the environment. The present study was designed to identify the diesel degrading microorganism from the diesel polluted soil and study their degradation capacity. The different isolates were identified from the contaminated soil belongs to Bacillus species, Klebsiella species, Citrobacter and Pseudomonas species. The isolates identified were analysed for biodegradation potential of diesel in Minimal salt medium by turbidometry method OD values measured at 595nm. The result showed that DC7 has highly diesel degrading organism in compared to other isolates, the organism was identified as Bacillus sp.

  12. Bharathi, B., Gayathri, E. and Dr. Natarajan, S.

    Hydrocarbon pollutants in contaminated soils can potentially be degraded by microbial activity. The potentiality of microbes as agents of degradation of several compounds thus indicates biological treatment as the major promising alternative to attenuate environmental impact caused by pollutants. The present study was designed to identify microorganism present in the agricultural contaminated kerosene and crude oil treated soil sample and study their degradation. Serial dilution of 1gm of treated soil samples showed distinct colonies at 10-4, 10-5 and 10-6 dilution and found to identified 5colonies. Colonies subjected to biochemical test revealed that they were Acinetobacter baumamii, Azotobacter tropicalis, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium variabilis, Flavobacterium lutescens. The pH of the kerosene and crude oil also increased as the degradation percentage increased. The isolated organism were analysed for hydrocarbon degradation with 4ml kerosene and 4ml of crude oil in minimal salt medium. The degrada tion of the kerosene and crude oil was increased from 0th day of 0.78% to 20.22% in 16th day and for crude oil degradation increased from 0th day of 0.43% to 13.48% in 16th day.

  13. Balakrishnan, K. and Ronald Ross, P.

    The discharge of industrial effluents having heavy metals throw enormous deleterious impacts on aquatic organisms especially in fish. This potential accumulation of heavy metals in the fish tissues are subsequently transferred to human beings through the food chain. Thus, heavy metal pollution in fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish, but also due to the health risks associated with fish consumption. In this context, to investigate the extent of damage to fish tissues, FT-IR Spectroscopy can provide adequate information on the molecular composition of the fish tissues by detecting and analyzing light that is elastically scattered from the tissues following its excitation by monochromatic laser light. The present study aims to analyze the impact of industrial pollutants on the muscle tissues of Lates calcarifer inhabiting in Uppanar estuary, Cuddalore, at three different stations with respect to summer season. FT-IR spectra reveal significant differences in absorbance intensities between muscle tissues collected from three stations, reflecting the alterations in the biochemical constituents especially proteins and lipids. The spectral analysis showed variations in composition of bio molecules of the muscle tissue at a wave number region of 3423 to 701 cm-1. The results suggest that FT-IR spectroscopy could be used as a potent tool for the detection of biochemical changes that occur as a result of metal intoxication.

  14. Florida Tilton, Akshaya Puthanpurayil and Lakshmi Priya, K.

    Biofilm is acollection of microbes with a distinct architecture. Biofilms are generally responsible for clogging and corroding pipes, reservoirs, storage area, etc. The quality of household drinking water is also affected by biofilm formation. Biofilms not only cause industrial disasters but are also responsible for causing medical conditions by growing on the surfaces of catheters, heart valve replacements, contact lenses, pacemakers, artificial joints and other surgical implants. Biofilms affect millions of people in the world each year and as a consequence, many deaths occur. Standard antibiotic therapy is often inadequate and the only option may be to remove the contaminated implant. This study was mainly focused on finding novel lead molecules for drug discovery against biofilm associated gene rfaD. The structure of the protein rfaD was modeled using MODELLER. 53 amino acids were chosen in the active site of the protein rfaD using CASTp. Computer aided screening was performed against 54 active compounds from 9 medicinal plants using GOLD. This study provides an organized approach to screen active compounds for the identification of lead molecules for combating biofilm formation in bacteria.

  15. Ganapathy P., Rajadurai M., Ashokumar N.

    This study aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of β-sitosterol on lipid peroxides, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological findings in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for 2 days to male Wistar rats showed a significant increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxide, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and non-enzymatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, vitamin E & C were significantly decreased. Oral pretreatment with β-sitosterol (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) to isoproterenol-induced rats daily for a period of 21 days showed a significant reduction in the levels of lipid peroxidative products and improved the antioxidant status. This could be due to free radical scavenging and antioxidant property of β-sitosterol. Thus, our finding demonstrates that β-sitosterol prevents the alterations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Histopathological alterations due to isoproterenol administration markedly reduced by β-sitosterol treatment. Thus, our study shows that β-sitosterol possess cardioprotective effect in experimentally induced myocardial infarction.

  16. Balasubramanian, K.

    Pure TriGlycine Sulphate (TGS) crystals were grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The solubility of TGS increases with increasing temperature. The single - crystal XRD data of the grown TGS crystal were obtained using a single crystal X-ray diffract o meter. The presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal is identified from FTIR analysis. The UV- visible spectrum analysis shows a strong absorption is observed at 228nm for all grown crystals. The forbidden energy gap is 5.438 eV. Micro hardness studies were carried out using vicker’s microhardness tester. The dielectric constant of the grown TGS crystals was determined at various temperatures.

  17. Gurudath K. P., and Dr. Mallikarjunayya C. Math

    This work involves the study of semi blunt 9mm bullet when it comes to external ballistics and fluid flow over the bullet by considering speed at different Mach numbers such as subsonic, sonic, supersonic and hypersonic. This work also involves the study of strong shock waves generated on the bullet which results in flow separation and forms the low pressure drag, high temperature, reduction in velocity at the boundaries of the bullet and co-efficient of drag. Bullet surface is created by using CATIA vR20 modeling software. Meshing of the pressure far field is done by using HYPERMESH v10 software, and various aerodynamic constrains are simulated using CFD technique as FLUENT v6.3.2.6 software with needed tools. Thus, boundary layer is simulated numerically using pressure, temperature and velocity contours. The study reveals that at subsonic speed bow shock waves are appeared at the nose of the bullet which is curved in nature. It also indicated that with the increase in Mach number, magnitude of shock waves increases and results in flow separation. It is observed that flow separation occurs at sonic speed. At hypersonic speed, strong entropy layer is formed and is highly curved in nature.

  18. Recep Uysal

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between life satisfaction and self-compassion. Participants were 381 (193 female and 188 male) university students, between age range of 17–26, who completed a questionnaire package that includes the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Self-compassion Scale. The relationships between life satisfaction and self-compassion were examined using correlation analysis and the hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling. In correlation analysis, self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness were found positively and self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification factors of self-compassion were found negatively related to life satisfaction. The model demonstrated fit (χ2=34.39, df=9, χ2/df= 3.82, p=.00008, AGFI=.92, GFI=.97, CFI=.97, NFI=.96, NNFI=. 93, IFI=.97, RFI=.91, SRMR=.072, and RMSEA=.090). According to path analysis results, self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness were predicted positively by life satisfaction. Moreover life satisfaction predicted self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification in a negative way.

  19. Saminah Khan and Dr. Sarat. Kr. Rout

    As was noted by Lachman (1997), most textbook definitions of learning refer to learning as a change in behaviour that is due to experience. This is essentially a very basic functional definition of learning in that learning is seen as a function that maps experience onto behaviour. In other words, learning is defined as an effect of experience on behaviour .In the present study; the researcher does an in-depth study of a private English medium school in Kolkata, West Bengal. The Elementary section of the school is selected for the study. To study what facilitates learning among the elementary school learners, the researcher utilises various Observation techniques, interview schedules, focus group discussions, field notes and various forms of formative and summative evaluation techniques. The main purpose of the study was to identify the different teaching practices present in the school. The factors facilitating and obstructing learning. The investigator concludes that there is no fixed practice that facilitates learning. Though experiential learning was found to be the most effective of all ,various other factors other than the teaching practices also affect learning in a child.

  20. Doreshor Khwairakpam, Shankar, R. and Dr. Mahua Mukherjee

    Background: The Jawaharlal Nehru National Renewal Mission (JnNURM) scheme launched on 3rd December, 2005 by Government of India. It is the first time in the history with such a huge scale of budget over seven years to cope up the urban infrastructure improvement in 65 cities in India. This scheme has two sub-mission-Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) and Basic services for Urban Poor (BSUP) under Ministry of Urban Development and Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. This paper is presenting the projects evaluation in the sectors of water supply, sewerage, drainages and solid waste management (SWM) only under UIG sub-mission, JnNURM in the case study of Surat city, Gujarat. Objectives: To study the progress status both physical and financial at national and case study city (Surat). To study the urban planning strategy by Surat Municipal Corporation with respect to UIG projects is in Surat city. The last objective is to study the feedback from the beneficiaries through evaluation techniques Focus Group Discussion and door to door household survey for water supply status in comparison between pre and post projects. Methodology: The research methodology is based on the secondary data from lines agencies and interview with ULBs staffs. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is used as tool for evaluation of the UIG projects in the case study city. Finding: The Surat is one of best city among JnNURM cities and implementing the variety of projects. The UIG projects had executed mostly in south and west zones where there is maximum number of populations and this project has improved the following indicators - water supply connection, duration of water supply, pressure, water quality and quantity in the comparison the pre and post projects situation. Conclusion: The Surat Municipal Corporation has sense of responsibility to delivery city services. The administrative structure is well set up and functional effectively and efficiently for the JnNURM projects planning, implementation and operation and maintenance. The reforms under JnNURM had been achieved fully in order to ensure the self governing efficiently.

  21. Dr. P. Sekar

    Education develops the individual like a flower which spreads its fragrance all over the environment. It is not the communication and information by the teacher or the acquisition of knowledge by the child. But it is the total development of the personality. Teachers play a vital role in the development of future citizens. Teaching is an interactive process, involving four aspects teacher, student, learning process and learning situation. A competent teacher possesses all the necessary qualities to interact with the school and community. This study conducted in tribal schools in Thiruvannamalai District. The population of the study was government and government aided tribal schools in the same district. The main objectives are to find out the level of academic achievement of high school students and the role of teacher effectiveness on students’ academic achievement. The findings reveal that the academic achievement among the tribal students is moderate level and the teacher effectiveness perceived by them also low in nature. Moreover, there is a statistical significance attributed to type of management of school in academic achievement and teacher effectiveness.

  22. Ms. Aparna Choudhary

    Feature Selection (FS) is a strategy that aims at making text document classifiers more efficient and accurate. However, when dealing with a new task, it is still difficult to quickly select a suitable one from various FS methods provided by many previous studies. Feature selection, as a preprocessing step to machine learning, has been very effective in reducing dimensionality, removing irrelevant data, and noise from data to improving result comprehensibility. Researchers have introduced many feature selection algorithms with different selection criteria. However, it has been discovered that no single criterion is best for all applications. We proposed a hybrid approach for feature selection called based on genetic algorithms (GAs) that employs a target learning algorithm to evaluate features, a wrapper method. The advantages of this approach include the ability to accommodate multiple feature selection criteria and find small subsets of features that perform well for the target algorithm. In this way, heterogeneous documents are summarized and presented in a uniform manner.

  23. Patrick Kipkorir Kiptoo

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of organizational leadership on performance in academics in secondary schools of Baringo Central Sub County of Baringo County, Kenya. The hypotheses were: the effect of leadership styles on performance in secondary schools is statistically significant at least at 5% level; the effect of leadership skills on performance in schools is statistically significant at least at 5% level; the effect of leadership ethics on performance is statistically significant at least at 5% level. The study made use of a survey study research design. The study sampled 26 of the 28 schools, 26 of the 28 school leaders and 91 of teachers to form a total sample size of 117 respondents. Questionnaires were used as the main data collection tools. Stratified random sampling was used select twenty six schools from the targeted 28 schools to ensure schools to participate in the study, convenience sampling was used so as to have the school heads as respondents for this study based on who was readily available and finally simple random sampling was done to select teachers from the identified schools. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Multiple linear regressions were used to establish the predictive power of the study model. The study findings indicated that there was no significant relationship between leadership styles and the academic performance (Accept, (p = 0.507), there was no significant relationship between leadership skills and the academic performance (Accept, p = 0.448) and that there was a significant relationship between ethical leadership practices and the school’s performance. (Reject, p = 0.006). The findings of this study provided policy recommendations that were useful in managing and improving academic performance in secondary schools in the study area.

  24. Dr. Gurmej Singh Dhaliwal Dr. Baljinder Singh Bal, Davinder Singh, Dr. Pritam Singh, and Manharleen Kaur

    This study examined the superstitious behavior and decision making among individual, dual and team sport groups. To obtain required data, the investigators had selected Ninety (N=90) female intercollege level athletes of 19 to 25 years of age to act as subjects. They were divided into three groups; Thirty (n1=30) Individual Sports, Thirty (n2=30) Dual Sports and Thirty (n3=30) Team Sports athletes of various games and sports. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the subjects. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this study. To measure the level of superstitions behaviors of the subjects, the superstitions beliefs and behaviour scale constructed by Buhramann et al. (2004) was administered and to measure the level of decision making by applying decision making questionnaire prepared by French et al. (1993). One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare the different among Individual Dual and Team Sport Groups. Where ‘F’ values were found significant, LSD (Least Significant Difference) Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. For testing the hypotheses, the level of significance was set at 0.05. The results revealed significant intra-group differences among individual, dual and team sports on the variable superstitious behavior and decision making. It is concluded that the individual sport group has low superstitious belief and better decision making level as compared to their counterpart dual and team sport.

  25. Prakash Rao, B. and Joseph Camron Culas

    Construction delays can be defined as the late completion of work compared to the planned schedule or contract schedule. Construction delays can be minimized only when their causes are identified. The objective of this study was to identify the major causes of construction delays, the effects of delays, and methods of minimizing construction delays. This study was carried out based on literature review and a questionnaire survey. A total of eight groups were contributed to the cause of construction delays, six factors that effects delays and fifteen methods of minimizing construction delays were identified based on literature review. The questionnaire survey was distributed to the target respondent in Silppi Realtors and Contractors construction site. The objectives of the study were successfully achieved. The top three most important factors that contributed to the causes of delays were late in revising and approving design documents, delays in sub-contractors work, and poor communication and coordination change orders by owner during construction. Contractor-related delays was ranked the most significant groups that cause delays, followed by client-related delays, and consultant-related delays. Time and cost overrun were the common effects of delays in construction projects. To minimize delays in construction projects it has been identified that the top three effective methods of minimizing construction delays includes: site management and supervision, effective strategic planning, and clear information and communication channel

  26. Praveen Rizal and R. Asokan

    Tourism has been often treated as a macro-level approach in several subject viz., economics, management, sociology and ecology, and it has different characteristics. Under different principle characteristics of tourism, the emphasis in the present study has been placed primarily on the seasonal characteristics of tourism and its impact on Sikkim’s economy. This study is a pioneer attempt to find out the factors responsible for tourism seasonality through micro level observation, logical reasoning, and empirical study and to suggest some effective measures to mitigate the problem. Further, the study is based on the secondary data collected over a period of seven years from 2005 to 2011. Seasonal Index Method has been employed in the present study. Though tourism is one of the important industries, seasonality of tourism is a major setback in Sikkim state. Numerous factors that cause seasonality variation have been found in Sikkim. In extreme seasons, tourists are affected by bad weather, heavy rainfall, landslides etc. Findings highlight the entire natural and institutional reasons for tourism seasonality in Sikkim state. This will enable policy makers and tourism stakeholders to find out various alternatives to solve seasonality impediments and promote tourism in the state.

  27. Francis Omwoyo ONDIEKI and John Aluko ORODHO

    Purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of secondary school principals in discharging their administrative duties in secondary schools in Masaba Division, Kisii Central District, Kenya. The study focused on the management of curriculum and instruction, human and financial resources and school-community relationships. The study was premised on Max Weber Scientific management theory which refers to red tape rigid application of organizational policies while ignoring the workers needs. A descriptive survry research design was used in Masaba Division in Central Kisii District. The study employed purposive sampling to select 8 principals, 8 deputy principals, 40 heads of departments and 40 teachers to yield a sample size of 96 subjects. The main research instruments were different sets of questionnaires to generate quantitative data. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The major findings were that principals had a fairly good mastery of requisite knowledge and skills for curriculum supervision although they did not adequately put them into practice. The principals had good record and financial management techniques although the experienced problems related to excessive fee balances form students. There was a fairly good and cordial school-community relationship, although they lacked teamwork with the principals hardly delegating administrative responsibilities to their deputies and heads of departments. It is recommended that principals should embrace team-work and delegate some responsibilities to their assistants, as well as instituting regular inspection of curriculum and instruction. [231 words]

  28. Abdul Rouaf Shah and Shameem Ahmad shameem

    The paper aims at pointing out pattern of crops within the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. Physiographic and varying climatic habitats determine the classification of land use and accordingly cropping pattern can be mapped out. The paper shall be analyzing at length output growth of crops and that way yield per hectare can figure out.

  29. Teygong Loice Jebiwot

    The most important influence on pupils’ learning is the quality of teaching, which is a challenge because most schools have not attained it. The study sought to find out the influence of evaluation techniques used by teachers on pupils’ academic performance in Kenya. The study was conducted in Elgeyo Marakwet County, specifically Chepkorio Division using a descriptive survey research design. The target population comprised primary schools, teachers and head teachers from the area. The study used stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques. A sample size of 180 teachers and 18 head teachers were selected. Collection of data involved the use of questionnaires, interview guides and observation schedules. The collected data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics, like frequencies, percentages and means, were used. Inferential statistics involved the use of Chi-square tests in order to establish relationships between the variables. Qualitative data was thematically analyzed for discussions in the study. From the findings, the respondents agreed that the teachers mostly use written exams, continuous assessment tests and assignments to evaluate the performance of their pupils. This enables the teacher to know the achievement of a pupil after a period of instruction so as to decide whether the learner has attained the desired behavioural change or not and thus find ways of assisting those who are lagging behind in academic performance and in so doing they will improve the performance of their pupils a great deal. Other respondents did not agree on the reliance of scores on written tests to competence and consequently a benchmark; they argued that there are gifted children who may not do poorly in exams but are good in practical subjects and extracurricular activities. They therefore did not agree with the notion that the most important manifestation of quality education has to do with literacy, cognitive abilities, performance and progression to higher levels of learning. It is thus recommended that schools’ administrators and teachers should use a variety of evaluation techniques such as tests, exercises, interviews or exams: other alternative assessments like homework, class work and project are also highly advisable. This paper provides educational planners and administrators with insight into teachers’ pedagogical competence and the cause of poor academic performance in some Kenyan primary schools.

  30. Julius O. Jwan, John O. Oluoch, Charles O. Ong’ondo and Sella T. Kisaka

    In this paper we discuss the essential ethical issues that have often been ignored in social science research involving human participants in Kenya. In most researches conducted in the universities, the ethical committees, if any, normally pay more attention to ethics when handling researches that deal with human medicine, health, biotechnology and related issues. Not much attention is paid to ethical requirements predominantly because of cultural orientations that do not conform with these research requirements. Nevertheless, we argue that the same scrutiny done in medical researches should be extended to social science research. We base our argument on observations and readings from several postgraduate theses across disciplines in the universities in Kenya. We note that there are hardly any subsections within the theses on ethical considerations even though the researches are laden with matters of ethical concerns ranging from anonymity to use of vulnerable groups such as pupils in schools. We argue that in the process of creating knowledge for sustainable development through research, and in order to be part of the fast expanding world of academic community, social science researchers in Kenya dealing with human participants should give due regards to international as well as local ethical demands. We, therefore, propose that there is need for ethics committees in the universities that are mandated to scrutinise all research proposals beyond the focus on health sciences.

  31. Naganathan, N. and Sankar, K.

    Groundwater pollution has been reported in many aquifers because of high concentration of nitrate which is the result of excessive use of fertilizers to cropland. Systematic sampling was done, with a view to understand the source of nitrate concentration . 100 sample sites were selected and the samples were taken for a baseline study to understand the geochemistry of the study area and to assess its physicochemical charactertics. The water quality parameters were investigated for pre-monsoon (January 2011) and were compared with the standard values given by ICMR / WHO. The hydrochemical data of 100 samples indicates that the concentration of almost all parameters fall within the permissible limits expert nitrate. Linear Trend Analysis on seasonal basis clearly depicted that nitrate pollution in the study area is increasing significantly. None of the samples during the samples during pre-monsoon season were showing a high concentration of nitrate, exceeding permissible limits of WHO (50 mg /l), which is due to the use of nitrogenous fertilizer in the study area. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality and its management in the affected areas have been suggested.

  32. Roma Rani, Khaling Mikawlrawng and Sapna Saini

    The in vitro studies with Dalbergia sissoo showed that the callus raised from cotyledonary explants had only the potential for shoot regeneration rather than the callus raised from nodal explants in provided medium. Best callus induction was observed on MS supplemented with 4.0 mg/l BAP, 0.1 mg/l NAA and 3% sucrose through nodal explants, but callus induction in cotyledonary explants was showed on 2.0 mg/l 2, 4-D, 2.0 mg/l 2, 4-D and 0.05 mg/l Kn. Callus of both explants were subcultured 3-4 time on 4.0 mg/l BAP and 0.1 NAA for multiplication and to increase the compactness of callus. Further callus of both the explants were transferred on different combination of BAP and Kn with and without adenine sulphate and casein hydrolysate for shoot emergence. Shoot regeneration was observed on MS with 2% sucrose supplemented with 4.0 mg/l Kn, 2.0 mg/l BAP, 10.0 mg/l Adenine sulphate with casein hydrolysate only in case of the callus of cotyledonary explants. For rooting 3-4 cm long shoots were inoculated on ½ MS medium augmented with IBA (0.5, 1.0 and 2mg/l). All rooted plantlets were hardened and successfully transferred to the soil.

  33. Junaid Ahmed and Sanjay Sharma

    The phytosociology is one of the important aspect for analyzing the structure and composition of vegetation and its dynamics. In the present study, we analyzed spatial pattern, diversity and phytosociology of woody plants species in Ponda Watershed, Rajouri, Jammu and Kashmir. Quantitative analysis on species distribution and diversity in addition to phytosociological attributes were done in two landuse classes i.e. agricultural and forest area. In all, 40 sampled plots each of 20 m × 20 m size for trees and 5m × 5m size for shrubs in forest area and 50m × 50m size plots for trees and 10m × 10m size for shrubs in agriculture fields were laid. A total of 72 woody plant species were identified from the study area comprising of 46 trees and 26 shrubs. The dominant tree species in forest was Pinus roxburghii with IVI of 150.65, whereas, agriculture field showed Ziziphus mauritiana as dominant tree species with IVI of 44.98. Among shrubs, Carissa opaca was dominant in both landuse classes with IVI of 140.46 in forest and 65.27 in agriculture field. Contagious distribution of plants (trees and shrubs) was common in study area. The phytosociological studies reveal that Importance value index, density and basal area were high in forest area, where as species richness and diversity was high in agriculture area with Shannon-Wiener’s, Margalef’s and Menhinick‘s index value of 3.25, 7.13 and 2.16 for trees followed by 2.53, 3.13 and 0.86 for shrubs, respectively. Simpson’s index of dominance was also high in forest.

  34. Mansukhlal M. Talapada and Bachubhai A. Monpara

    Five F2 populations and their selected F3 progenies of chickpea formed by crossing seven parents were studied in consecutive years. Ten F2 plants from each population were selected for high as well as for low expression of pods per plant, seeds per plant, harvest index and seed yield per plant. A total of 226 selected F3 progenies were evaluated in randomized block design with three replications in succeeding year. Selection for high level had maintained their higher expression for pods per plant, seeds per plant and seed yield. Effectiveness may be considered as moderately successful because of 40% of high yielding F3 progenies were derived from F2 plants selected for high pod number. Response of selection through pods per plant found effective for improvement of seed yield in all the crosses. No definite selection pattern was found for identification of superior yielding lines. However, some superior yielding F3 lines were found to derive by high order selection for all the traits. Selecting for high pod number in early generation, a foremost consideration needs to be the influence of environment on the effectiveness of selection.

  35. Dr. Aruna Nautiyal, Dr. Vikas Kumar and Dr. Sheela Kumar Gujjari

    Objective: Clinical studies on dentifrices formulated with different ingredients typically examine the effects of their use on clinical parameters .However the systemic absorption & its implications on health usually go unexplored. Hence this present randomised controlled double blinded cross-over design clinical study compared the changes in sodium and chloride ions & blood pressure brought about by using a dentifrice containing salt in Pre hypertensive patients. Material and Methods: A total of 30 adults completed a 2 -week wash-out phase prior to providing baseline saliva samples. Subjects were then randomly assigned a test/control dentifrice to be brushed with twice daily for the next 28 days. On the 29th day, they arrived at the dental college prior to oral hygiene and provided saliva samples similar to that collected at baseline. An additional 2-week washout –out phase was assigned to subjects prior to completing the study with the alternate control dentifrice. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and 4 week periods. Results: Saliva sample analysis in ion selective electrode auto-analyser indicated statistically significant increase(p<0.05) in salivary sodium ions post 4 week usage of salt containing dentifrice as compared to no significant increase in both sodium and chloride ions post usage of control dentifrice. However chloride ions and the blood pressure in both groups showed no significant change from baseline in both groups. Conclusions: There is a significant increase in salivary sodium ions post 4-week usage of a dentifrice containing salt.

  36. Prof. Youssreya Ibrahim, Prof. Hanan Said Ali, Dr. Esraa EsamEldin Mohamed andHuson Amin Ghalya MSN.

    Background: Hand hygiene is the single most important preventive measure for reducing nosocomial infections, however, nurses frequently do not wash their hands in emergency departments. Aim: This study was carried out to assess hand hygiene practice among nurses in the emergency department. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted including a convenience sample of 60 staff nurses in the emergency department at selected hospital in Makkah Al-Mukaramah. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire to assess hand hygiene practice among nurses in the emergency department. Results: The results of the present study revealed that there is statistically significant relationship between the nursing shifting and after touching contaminated surfaces. Also, there is statistically significant relationship between nursing shifting and the uses of alchol-chlornexidine hand rub (ACHR)/ soap in the morning, afternoon, and in the night. Conclusion and Recommendations: The nurses’ practice towards hand hygiene in the emergency department (ED) needs to be improved by the educational program approach. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommend providing written guidelines about hand hygiene for all healthcare providers and introducing and demonstrating hand hygiene protocols to all caregivers.

  37. Dr. Prathap Kumar, J., Dr. Roopa Kulkarni and Dr. Kulkarni, R. N.

    Objectives: To study the variations in adult human sterna. Knowledge of sternal anomalies helps in understanding its importance in cardiac surgery, Radiology, genetics, Acupuncture and Medico legal fields. It helps in understanding and analyzing the level of involvement of enthesial regions in autoimmune or degenerative disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 dry sterna, collected from the Medical students, in the departments of anatomy, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bengaluru, IMS, MSU, Bengaluru campus, during the last seven years. The sterna were examined for the presence of anomalies like sternal foramina and synostosis. Results: Of the 75 sterna studied, 5 bones presented with sternal foramina, which were more near the lower half of the body of the sternum, 7 Manubriosternal fusions, 6 xiphisternal fusions, six bones with chondrosternal synostosis, two with sternocostal synostosis. The xiphoid process presented variations like bifid, single and pointed, quadrilateral. More than one anomaly were seen in one sternum. Conclusion: The causes of sternal foramina have been mentioned as nonfusion or incomplete fusion of the developing sternum from two cartilaginous bars. If there is complete nonfusion, there will be a midline fissure with two separate halves of sternal bone. The fusion of sternum with bones and cartilages articulating with it are probably due to degenerative disorders like DISH (Degenerative Idiopathetic Skeletal Hyperostosis), The chondrocalcinosis also has been attributed to some genetic factors like ‘ank’ gene, variant of ‘ank’ gene called ‘ANKH’ gene present in 5p and 8q chromosomes. Another gene called ENPP1 responsible for soft tissue calcification has been identified.

  38. Mr. Pawan K. Sharma and Rajneet Kaur

    Background: The present day nursing students are important members of health care profession. A better understanding of student’s attitude including emotional aspects might be useful to teachers in their efforts to provide support to students in every phase of the education. It is critical for nursing faculty to deal constructively with angry students. Aim: The aim of study is to assess prevalence of aggression and its contributory factors among hostellers and day-scholars. Materials & Methods: A comparative study was conducted in Institute of Nursing Education, Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib (C) Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab on hostellers and day-scholars studying in B.Sc Nursing and Post Basic B.Sc Nursing .All the 286 students were taken as sample using total enumerative sampling technique. Out of 286 students, 176 were Hostellers and 110 were Day-scholars. Data was collected by using Buss-Parry Aggression Questionnaire to assess aggression and self- structured questionnaire to assess contributory factors of aggression. Results: Findings revealed that Prevalence of aggression among hostellers was higher than day-scholars as measured by Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire at p<0.05 level. It was found that 96.59% hostellers and 90.00% day-scholars were aggressive. Among aggressive hostellers 53.53% subjects had below average aggression and 46.47% subjects had above average aggression while among aggressive day- scholars, 71.72 % subjects had below average aggression and 28.28% subjects had above average aggression. In majority of subjects contributory factors causing aggression were stress, watching violent T.V programmes, high environmental temperature, dishonesty of people, unsupportiveness by people, pre-menstrual syndrome and family history of aggression. In socio demographic variables, class among hostellers & dietary habits among day-scholars was found to be associated with mean aggression score. None of the other variables were found significantly related with aggression. Conclusion: The study concluded that prevalence of aggression among hostellers was higher than day-scholars. The major cause of aggression was stress among hostellers while dishonesty by people among day-scholars.

  39. Mr. Pawan Sharma and Ms Perminder Kaur

    Background of Study: Adolescence is the most important period in one’s life. It is the period of stress and strain, of day dreams, of intense affection and excitement. Sleep is a primary aspect of adolescent’s development. The way adolescents sleep critically influence their ability to think, behave and feel during day time hours. Objective: To assess the abnormal sleep pattern among adolescents. To assess the effect of abnormal sleep pattern on health of adolescents. To find out the relationship of abnormal sleep pattern among adolescents with selected demographic variables-Age, Gender, Class, Birth order, Type of family, Family income, Use of internet and Time spent on watching television. Design and Methods: A Quantitative approach and Descriptive research design was used to assess abnormal sleep pattern and its effect on health among adolescents. The target population of study was adolescents studying in 9th to 12th standard in BCM Senior Secondary School, Ludhiana, Punjab. Sample of 500 adolescents were chosen by stratified random sampling technique. Data was collected by Pittsburgh sleep quality index to assess abnormal sleep pattern and PGI health questionnaire to assess effect of abnormal sleep pattern on health. Data collection was done in February, 2014. Results: Results of the study revealed that 33% of adolescents had abnormal sleep pattern, out of those maximum (36.97%) adolescents had very adversely affected health, followed by (35.15%) normal health and least (27.88%) had adversely affected health. A positive correlation (0.348) was found between abnormal sleep pattern and adversely affected health at p<0.01. The findings showed that demographic variables such as Gender (3.47, p < 0.01), Standard of study (2.97,p< 0.05), Family income (3.37, p<0.05), Use of internet (4.38,p< 0.01) and Time spend on watching television (2.70, p<0.05) had significant impact on abnormal sleep pattern among adolescents. The investigator prepared and distributed the pamphlets regarding good sleep pattern to promote healthy sleep pattern among adolescents.

  40. Pradip Kumar, El-Safey Mohamed El-Safey and Choudhary, R. K.

    The present study was conducted to isolation of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing in gram`s negative bacteria specially in Eschericia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia in different clinical samples received at the department of Laboratory medicine, Alchemist hospital, Gurgaon, india. Aerobic culture was performed in automated analyzer vitek-2 and isolate from blood agar and mackonky agar media. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method and ESBL production was detected on Mueller Hinton agar by double-disk synergy technique and vitek 2. A total of 180 isolates were collected from 493 samples. From these 180 samples two types of organisms were isolated: Escherichia coli and klebsiella sp. In some samples these two organisms become resistant to many ß lactam antibiotics like cefazoline, ceftriaxone, Aztreonam, Ceftazidime, Ampicillin etc. drug sensitivity test done by disc diffusion method as well as automated vitek-2. Percentage of ESBL positive E.coli was 70.5 % and Klebsiella sp. was 86.1 % and percentage of ESBL negative E.coli was 29.5 % and ESBL negative Klebsiella sp. was 14.1 %. However, theses finding shows prevalence of ESBL positive is more in Klebsiella species and negative is more in Escherichia coli on our hospital.

  41. Sahar Mansour Lamadah and Luma Ghazi Al Zamil

    Background: Dysmenorrhea refers to the symptom of painful menstruation. It can be divided into 2 broad categories: primary (occurring in the absence of pelvic pathology) and secondary (resulting from identifiable organic diseases). About 88% of adolescents with dysmenorrhea experience their first painful menstruation within the first 2 years after menarche. The consequences of untreated primary dysmenorrhea range from school absenteeism to disruption of relationships with family and friends. The aim of this study was to assess self care practices among adolescent females during dysmenorrhea at Umm Al Qura University. Subjects and Methods: A descriptive design was used. The present study was conducted at 2 faculties at Umm Al-Qura University (Faculty of Nursing and faculty of applied medical sciences).A convenient sample of 150-second year students enrolled in the above mentioned settings in the range of age 17-21 years was recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was developed by the researchers. Results: most of adolescent females suffered from dysmenorrhea (88.6%). A large proportion of adolescent females either performed incomplete or wrong practices during menstrual pain (34.0%, 24.7%) respectively. In addition, father and mother's education of 56.2% and 53.0% respectively of females who have correct practices is university or above. Moreover, correct practices increased with small family size, 81.5% of females with small family size (3-5) had correct practices. Conclusion and Recommendations: It can be concluded that a considerable proportion of adolescent females either performed incomplete or wrong practices during the pain. It is recommended to develop continuous health education programs regarding menstruation in the school that give students age- appropriate information about menstruation and its problems.

  42. Swabir S. F., Ansuya and Malathi G. Nayak

    Background: Disasters in modern times have transcended borders of nation, class and have devastating impact in terms of human and material losses. Global initiatives for disaster preparedness and reduction should therefore be given highest priority by the international community. Various types of disasters, natural as well as manmade are faced by human beings since beginning of human evolution. As disasters cannot be prevented, contingency planning for disaster management involving preparedness is essential Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge on disaster preparedness among adults, determine the effectiveness of a video in terms of improvement in knowledge and compliance on families’ disaster preparedness kit, find relationship between knowledge and compliance on disaster preparedness kit. Materials and Methods: One group pretest posttest experimental design with video as intervention was used to get the data from 60 adults using structured questionnaire and observation checklist. Frequency, percentage, median, Paired ‘t’ test, Karl-Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing data. Results: Median posttest score was (12.5) higher than median pretest score (10) with a posttest of standard deviation of 2.375and pretest standard deviation of 2.167, Karl Pearson correlation coefficient (r=0.78) between knowledge and compliance on disaster preparedness and kit preparation. Conclusion: Video awareness programme was effective in terms preparation regarding families’ disaster preparedness kit and improving knowledge on disaster preparedness.

  43. Emad Abdallah, Samya El-Shishtawy and Osama Mosbah

    Background and aim of study: Morbidity and mortality in hem dialysis patients are closely related to dialysis adequacy. Recently, ionic dialysance is becoming more popular as a method to assess the delivered Kt/V of dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between Kt/V measured by ionic dialysance (Kt/Vocm) and Kt/V calculated with Daugirdas formula (Kt/V D) taking into account different estimates of urea distribution volume(V) and to assess the variability of treatment dose delivered to individual patients.  Methods: Our prospective study was conducted for 4 weeks period on 40 patients(22 males,18 females) with ESRD on regular hemodialysis. Hemodialysis treatments for the studied patients were performed using a Fresenius 5008 machine equipped with online clearance monitor (ocm). Ionic dialysance was measured by conductivity monitoring for the studied patients per session. The second generation Daugirdas formula was used to calculate the Kt/V (Kt/V D) per week. Values of V to allow comparison between Kt/Vocm and blood-based Kt/V were determined using Watson formula (Vw) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (Vimp). Results: There was a significant correlation between Kt/V measured by ionic dialysance with using Watson formula to determine urea volume distribution (Kt/Vw.ocm) and Kt/V calculated by Daugirdas formula (Kt/V.D) in both single and double pool. However, Kt/Vw.ocm underestimated Kt/V.Dsp by 9.0% (−0.139 ± 0.2673 and the Kt/VD. eq by 6.7%(−0.1080 ± 0.2082) The correlation between Kt/Vocm when V values estimated using Vimp and Kt/V.Dsp or Kt/V.Deq became stronger. Kt/Vocm varied greatly within individual patients, but there was no statistically significant difference between the coefficient of variations (CVs), from either method. Conclusion: Kt/V measured by ionic dialysance appears to be of good clinical interest and adequacy. Accurate estimation of V is required for Kt/V calculated from ocm to be consistent with the blood-based methods. Bioimpedance spectroscopy(Vimp) used for estimating V ensure better correlation between ocm and blood-based Kt/V.Substantial variation in Kt/V implies repeated measures are necessary to gain a true picture of the mean treatment dose being delivered to patients.

  44. Mrs. Rimple Sharma and Ms. Charanjit Kaur

    Background: Immunization is an important part of health promotion and disease prevention strategy for all children and it is essential in the provision of primary care to infants, but pain experienced by infants during immunization makes it a distressing experience for the infant, parents and practitioners. Aim: The aim of study is to assess the effect of distraction techniques (light and sound) on pain during immunization among infants coming for immunization. Materials and Methods: A Quantitative research approach and Randomized Control Trial design was used to assess the effect of distraction techniques on pain during immunization among infants (0-1 year) coming for immunization in Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib (C) Hospital, Ludhiana. 90 infants were selected by simple random sampling technique and randomized in three groups- control, experimental group I and II. During immunization, standard care was given to control group, light producing toy was shown as distraction to Experimental group I and sound producing toy to Experimental group II. Pain was assessed using Neonatal Infant Pain Scale. Results were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The findings of the present study revealed that the mean pain score of Control group was higher (6.87) as compared to that of Experimental group I (3.27) and Experimental group II ( 2.50). The difference between mean pain score of infants in Control, Experimental group I and Experimental group II was found to be statistically significant at p<0.01 level. The difference in mean pain score between Control and Experimental group I and also between Control and Experimental Group II was statistically significant at p< 0.01 level and the difference in mean pain score between Experimental group I and Experimental group II was statistically significant at p< 0.05 level. Conclusion: During immunization, in Control group, maximum infants experienced severe pain, in Experimental group I (who were given light producing toy) mild pain and in Experimental group II (who were given sound producing toy) maximum infants had no pain during immunization. Distraction was found to be effective in reducing adverse behavioural response to pain and Sound was found to be better distractor from pain than light.

  45. Shravan Pachauri, Vivekin Pachau-ri, Singh, A. K. and Amita Dubey

    Complete feed not only provides the required nutrients in proper proportion at a time, but, it also improves the feeding values. Keeping in view the above, a study was conducted on 18 cross bred heifers; these were distributed to form three treatment groups having six heifers in each. Treatment group I was the control and was offered wheat straw adlib and 1.5 kg concentrate mixture, treatment group II was offered complete feed ‘sani’ based on wheat straw and concentrate mixture adlib; and treatment group III was also offered complete feed ‘sani’ but in this group urea treated wheat straw was used. The intake of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and metabolizable energy (ME) was significantly lower (P< 0.05) when conventional feeding system was used. The intake of above was improved when the feed was offered as complete feed "sani" and the intake of nutrients was further improved when wheat straw was treated with urea and used as complete feed "sani". Lowest body weight gain was observed in the conventional feeding system and highest in complete feed "sani" using urea treated straw but differences were at par between group I & II and group II & III.

  46. Hanan A., Ebrahim, Lulah A., Hassan and Samia E., Khaton

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is a significant public health problem. Nevertheless, only few studies have been conducted in Egypt in this area. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, believes and practice regarding antibiotic use and misuse among rural mothers in Gharbia governorate. Material and Method: a cross-sectional design was used. The study was conducted at twenty rural health units in Gharbia governorate. An interview questionnaire was held with 1000 convenient subjects exploring their knowledge, believes, and practices regarding antibiotic use and misuse in a twenty weeks-period. Results: It was found that the majority of mothers had poor knowledge and bad believes about antibiotics. Nearly about two thirds of them used antibiotic inappropriately. More than half of the studied mothers believed that antibiotics will relive influenza manifestation and may change the doctor if not prescribe antibiotic for them. There was a significant statistical relationship found between mothers’ level of education and their score of knowledge, believes, and practice. Conclusion and Recommendation: Mothers use and misuse of antibiotics was positively correlated with their knowledge and believes. Therefore, addressing this problem will require a combined approach including improved access, legislation, education, and culturally relevant client provider interactions.

  47. Sunil Franklin, A., Dr. Muthuswamy P. R., Anitha, P. and Dr. Jayakumar, T.

    A service firm delivers to customer a service package, which consists of some physical aspects and some intangibles. Technical dimension describes what the customers get and when they get it, while functional quality describes how they get it. It is more difficult for consumers to evaluate the quality of services than the quality of products. This is true because of certain distinctive characteristics of services – they are intangible, they are variable, they are perishable and they are simultaneously produced and consumed. Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge in healthcare industry. The service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) has been widely used in research to measure quality of service in a hospital service environment. Service firms like hospital organizations are realizing the significance of patient-centered philosophies and are turning to quality management approaches to help managing their businesses. SERVQUAL as an effective approach has been studied and its role in the analysis of the difference between patient expectations and perceptions has been highlighted through a study conducted at corporate hospitals in India.

  48. Amanpreet Kaur Dhaliwal, Jaspreet Kaur Sodhi, Kapil Sharma and Mamta Choudhary

    Safe, effective and ethical medication practice is an important component of client care, an evaluative study was conducted to assess the performance of staff nurses regarding administration of IV medication in Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib (C) Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab. Sixty nurses were observed while administering medications by using a checklist based on Donabedian’s -structure, process, outcome framework. Results showed that overall performances were lower than the expected standard and therefore needed improvement to reach upto expected standards. There were deficits in performance of nurses related to criteria of structure standard i.e. availability of articles, process standard i.e. interventions, after care of articles, evaluation and outcome standard i.e there is no extravasation, there is no phlebitis and patient is comfortable.

  49. Dr. Awdhesh Kumar

    Introduction: A train accident is defined as a collision, derailment, or any other event involving the operation of on-track equipments. Railway injuries are mostly accidental. Objective of the Study: Aims to understanding the incidence and impact of railway fatalities in Varanasi, India as well as identifying preventive strategies to reduce their number and impact. Material & method: The present retrospective study has been conducted for the period of 5 consecutive years i.e. 2009 to 2013 based on autopsy record of the unnatural death cases resulting from death on railway track. During study period total number of unnatural death cases was 10185 and death on railway track were 687. Result: Railway fatalities reported 6.7% of all unnatural death. Most of the deaths in 21 to 30 years of age group total (26 %). In our study find that female death on railway track dominated over male in the ratio of male to female 1:1.3. In our study shows that most of the death on railway track is accidental in manner (88%), suicidal (10%), and unknown (1 %). Percentages of total death on railway track are average 20% per year. Death on railway track is more common in rural areas (97%) than urban areas (2%). Hindu death on railway track is most common i.e. 63%. Conclusion: Analysis of data for retrospective study suggests that age, sex, habitat, marital status, religion and manner of death significantly affect community.

  50. Amatya, M.

    Background: Medical students, especially females, face more stress than non-medical students. This could alter their lifestyle and body fat composition. Whether Nepalese female medical students differ significantly from their non-medical counterparts regarding body fat composition is explored. Methods: Body mass index (BMI) of female medical and non-medical students from four private colleges of Nepal were calculated from measured height and weight. Participants were in first, second, and third years of medical, business sciences, and fashion designing courses. Groups were compared by Chi square test. Results: Of the total 278 students (174 medical, 104 non-medical), mean age in completed years of medical students was significantly less than non-medical (19.49±1.04 vs 20.36±1.51, p=0.000) but differences in height, weight, and BMI were not statistically significant. Differences in BMI were not significant also within groups in the students of different years of study. Almost one-fourth students (23.4%) were underweight and 5% were overweight but none were obese. Conclusion: Prevalence of overweight and obesity is low among female Nepalese college students. Level of stress may be more in medical students, but this was not evident in BMI of the students.

  51. Ghosal, J. and Dr. Sikdar, M.

    Women in fishing communities play multidimensional roles that include livelihood, household, reproductive and community ones. Their involvement in fisheries value chains are often considered as invisible by poor social acceptance due to gender biasness, poor environmental condition due to unfavorable climate, Diseases due to Lactococcus garvieae, HIV and AIDS are responsible for their poor health issue, poor economic issue due to deprivation from a fair price of work, poor technological issues due to use of heavy instruments causes improper handling for women .But agencies like DRWA, FAO, ICSF, ICAR are highlighting issues of women in fisheries, supporting the role of women in fisheries and enhancing their participation in decision-making processes through programs and policies like WIF and NAIP for development of these women.

  52. Prathibha, G. and Vijay Yadav, T.

    Now-a-days colored pigments of plant origin gained ample worldwide importance. These are essential role players in exposing different colors and are formed from different phyto chemicals commonly found in food matrix. Lycopene is a tetra-terpenic C40 carotenoid having protective effects against prostate cancer, skin cancer and other types of cancers, cardiovascular diseases and reduction of oxidative stress. Its bioavailability is majorly focused on tomato products, while other sources include watermelon, guava, pink grapefruit, apricots, persimmons and red-fleshed papaya. Because of its high number of conjugated dienes it is most potent singlet oxygen quencher among other carotenoids and possess ability to scavenge nitrogen dioxide (NO2*), thiyl (RS*) and sulphonyl (RSO2*) radicals. As research on lycopene is becoming intensive and extracting logical conclusions in various aspects, there is a immediate need to undertake application based research endeavours to make this gold nugget of neutraceutical nature reach out to the masses for enhancing health and ameliorate disease.

  53. Vinod Kumar, Devendra K. Payasi and Saiprasad, S. V.

    Genetic divergence study on duram wheat Triticum durum L. Desf. consisted 150 genotypes of diverse sources. The experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Regional Wheat Research Station, Indore in Rabi 2006-07 in Randomized Complete Block design replicated twice. Standard package and practices was given to raise healthy crop. Results of analysis revealed their association into sixteen clusters. Approximate configurations of the clusters based on the D2 values. According to Mahalanobis' D2 statistic it can be concluded that grain yield per plant, days to maturity, plant height, day to flowering hectolitre weight and 1000-grain weight contributed the most towards genetic diversity. Genotypes ID-1124 and GW-1 can be used as donors for more number of grains per spike while, few genotypes from cluster VIII and X can be utilized to improve the grain yield as a whole. The clustering pattern-indicated no parallelism between the geographical distribution and genetic diversity. Genotypes selected from the two major divergent groups i.e. MACS 3125, HI-8591, HI-8651, HI-8620, WHD937, IWP-5004-1,HI-8381,GW-1139,GW-1225,HI-8639 (from group-I) and IWP -5013,D-061,D-062,IWP-5007,P-6046 (from group –II), may be used as parents for hybridization after determining their combining abilities so as to obtained considerably batter and promising segregats and recombinants.

  54. Usha Adiga and Sachidananda Adiga

    Background: Assessment methods drive students’ learning significantly. Quality of learning depends mainly on the evaluation method. If evaluation method assesses only the surface learning, students tend to concentrate their learning at that level. If examination is focused on higher order thinking skills, it motivates students’ as well as teachers for higher order learning. We aim to assess our evaluation system for the selection of postgraduates to know their influence on our teaching learning process in the field of medicine. The objective is to evaluate the extent to which Indian Medical Postgraduate entrance examinations assess the different levels of cognitive domain in Biochemistry. Methodology: Biochemistry MCQs appeared in AIPGMEE, DNB, AIIMS, JIPMER entrance examinations for the selection of postgraduates in medical course over the last decade were analyzed and categorized based on the level of cognitive domain they were evaluating. Percentage of MCQs assessing knowledge (L1), comprehension (L2), application (L3), analysis (L4), synthesis (L5) and evaluation (L6) in each year in every entrance examination and the trend of biochemistry question setting in each entrance exam was studied. Results: It has been found that evaluation is mainly focused on lowest (most fundamental) level of learning in all the entrance examinations. Number of L1 questions was significantly higher in all exams. But MCQs assessing L2, L3 and L4 appeared in AIIMS and AIPGMEE in statistically insignificant number. Conclusion: As the main focus of postgraduate entrance exams is recall type of learning, it demotivates students from deep and strategic learning. Creative thinking, reasoning powers are not encouraged in the post-graduation aspirants. Modification of the evaluation method, by asking more number of application and analytical questions can motivate post-graduation aspirants as well as undergraduates to practice higher order learning skills.

  55. AmaleshBera, Manojit Bhattacharya, Bidhan CH. Patra and Utpal Kumar Sar

    Phytoplankton play an important role as primary producer in aquatic ecosystem and a number of factors have been attributed to influence the density of it. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between the physico – chemical parameters and phytoplankton density of Kangsabati Reservoir. A monthly sampling was carried out from March, 2010 – February, 2011 at three different stations. The eight classes of phytoplankton comprises 64 species among which Chlorophyceae 21 species, Bacillariophyceae 14 species, Cyanophyceae 12 species, Charophyceae 8 species, Tribophyceae 2 species, Dinophyceae 4 genera, Ulvophyceae 1 species and Xanthophyceae 2 species,. The phytoplankton population density showed significant correlation with the parameters like temperature, D.O., phosphate, total inorganic nitrogen etc. This population was high in winter months and low in the month of rainy season.

  56. Pawar, K. B. and Rawal, A. V.

    Delonix regia (Boj Ex Hook) is a common tree growing along the roadside as well as farmside. There is frequent shedding of petals during flowering season. So an attempt was made to study the influence of petal leachate of D. regia on seed germination and seedling growth of important leguminous crop Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). In petridish bioassay seed germination and seedling growth with respect to root length, shoot length and fresh weight was inhibited due to petal leachate. In soil bioassay seed germination and seedling growth was inhibited due to petal leachate. In seedlings of Chickpea contents of total sugar, reducing sugar and soluble protein were also reduced due to petal leachate treatment. Petal leachates were analyzed for the presence of nitrate, nitrite, polyphenols and for the detection of phytochemicals. Petal leachate was found to contain appreciable amount of polyphenols and phytochemicals which may affect further growth performance of the crop.

  57. Roopa, V. M. and Suvarna, V. C.

    Maximum post harvest loss in onions is attributed to microbial spoilage. So, LAB and antagonistic organisms were screened for their antimicrobial activities against isolated spoilage organisms. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Botrytis sp., Erwinia sp., Bacillus sp., and Staphylococcus sp., were isolated from Bangalore rose and Bellary red onion varieties. The antimicrobial activity of Lactic acid bacteria and antagonistic organisms were tested by agar cup method. Out of six Lactic acid bacterial strains NR-1 was found to be effective. Maximum areas of zone of inhibition were recorded in Erwinia sp.,( fallowed by Staphylococcus sp.( and also inhibit Aspergillus sp., ( Among Pseudomonas cultures, Pseudomonas putida was found to be more inhibitory than P.fluorescens. Pseudomonas putida inhibited Staphylococcus sp.,( Aspergillus sp.,(56.5sq. mm). Among yeast cultures, Saccharomyces cervisiae inhibits Staphylococcus sp.,(308 Erwinia sp. (188.5 Aspergillus sp., (94.2sq. mm). None of lactic acid bacteria and other antagonistic organisms are not much active against fungal isolates. Sacharomyces boulardi could not inhibit any of the bacterial and fungal cultures. The present investigation showed that LAB and other organisms showed potent antimicrobial activity to reduce the post harvest bacterial spoilages of vegetables. These results suggest that this potent isolates could be used as a natural bio preservatives in perishable vegetables.

  58. Ajith Kumar, K. G., Sunil Kesavadeth, G., Suresh Kumar, K. A.

    Seed recalcitrance is a major problem with tropical tree species limiting their natural regeneration and a constraint for their long term storage. The seeds are sensitive to desiccation and lose their viability very quickly. They do not have any molecular mechanism to tolerate dehydration such as metabolic ‘switch off’ and intracellular differentiation as orthodox seeds do (Berjak and Pammenter, 2013). Myristica malabarica is an indigenous arborescent species occurring in Western Ghats and has been red listed by IUCN. The major threats to this species are over exploitation of seeds for medicinal uses, conversion of its native swamp forests to agricultural land and the recalcitrance nature of seeds. The seeds are extremely sensitive to dehydration and lose viability in one month. In the present study, we report for the first time that the exogenous application of IBA for a period 24hrs. to the Myristica malabarica seeds desiccated for one month showed a reversal of their lost viability and cent percent germination could be achieved after eighteenth day of sowing. The results indicate that ABA/GA hormonal balance plays an important role in the germination of recalcitrant seeds and the exogenous application of IBA may disrupt this hormonal balance and regain the lost viability (Pieruzzi et al., 2011).

  59. Jadhav, P. B., Saravaiya, S. N., Patel, D. J., Harad, N. B., Patil, N. B., Dekhane, S. S. and Tekale, G. S.

    A field experiment was conducted at ASPEE, ARDF, Tansa Farm during rabi season of 2013-14 for evaluating the effect of different levels of vermicompost application on growth and yield of fenugreek cv. Local. Five treatments comprising of various levels of vermicompost viz., T0 -Control (100 % RDF), T1- (T0 + 2 tonnes vermicompost), T2- (T0 + 3 tonnes vermicompost), T3- (T0 + 4 tonnes vermicompost) and T4- (T0 + 5 tonnes vermicompost) were evaluated on fenugreek cv. Local. The highest values for all the parameters like plant height (46.62 cm), root length (17.52 cm), number of branches (7.20), no. of pods plant-1 (54.40), seed yield (0.42 kg; 14000 kg) and straw yield (0.97 kg; 3234.66 kg) plot-1 and ha-1, respectively, were recorded in T4 treatment (T0 + 5 tonnes vermicompost) which had significantly recorded superior out of all treatments. From the economic point of view, this treatment had maximum net realization of Rs. 42,687 and cost benefit ratio 1:1.90 ha-1. It can be concluded that vermicompost proves be an effective fertilizer.

  60. Kumarimanimuthu Veeral, D.

    Field experiments were conducted at Annamalai University Experimental Farm, Annamalainagar to evaluate the effects of lignite flyash, press mud and farmyard manure in maize based intercropping system during summer and kharif, 2012. The experiments were laid out in split plot design replicated thrice with four main and five sub treatments viz., M1 - FYM + RDF, M2 – FYM + LFA + RDF, M3 – PM + LFA + RDF, M4 - PM+RDF, S1-sole Maize, S2- Maize + Sesamum, S3- Maize + Black gram, S4- Maize + Sunflower S5- Maize + Cow pea and four additional treatments viz., I1-sole blackgram, I2- Sole cowpea, I3-sole sesame and I4-sole sunflower were included separately for comparison. With regard to utilization of industrial wastes, press mud @ 12.5 t ha-1 + LFA @ 5 t ha-1 + RDF recorded the highest growth and yield components. It was followed by FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1 + LFA @ 5 t ha-1 + RDF. Addition of LFA @ 5 t ha-1 with press mud / farm yard manure @ 12.5 t ha-1 proved to be superior, rather than sole application. Among the cropping systems, maize + cowpea intercropping system favourably influenced the growth and yield components of maize such as plant height, LAI, DMP, cob length, cob diameter, number of grains cob-1 and grain yield. The lowest values of all growth and yield components were recorded under maize + sunflower/sesamum intercropping systems. The maize + cowpea (S5) intercropping system with the addition of press mud @ 12.5 t ha-1 + LFA @ 5 t ha-1 + RDF (M3) recorded the highest grain yield 5831 kg ha-1 in summer and 6141 kg ha-1 in Kharif, 2012. The uptake of nutrients was found to be significantly higher in industrial wastes application with maize + cowpea intercropping system. The post harvest soil available N, P2O5 and K2O were lower under the same treatment ( Press mud @ 12.5 t ha-1 + LFA @ 5 t ha-1 + RDF (M3 S5). The same combination registered the highest return rupee-1 invested and BCR of 3.17 and 3.34 in summer and kharif season2012, respectively. Hence, from the results, it is concluded that when maize is grown with the addition of press mud @ 12.5 t ha-1+ LFA @ 5 t ha-1 + RDF, and intercropped with cowpea is an economically feasible eco friendly approach to realize better returns for maize growers.

  61. Olanrewaju, C. A. and Ahmed, F.

    An ethnobotanical survey of five medicinal plants commonly used by the Gwaris of FCT was carried out in October, 2012. The plants include Detarium microcarpum, Prosopis africana, Piliostigma thonnigii, Flueggea virosa and Entada Africana. These plants are used by this group of people to cure different ailments such as malaria fever, jaundice, diarrhea, earache, dysentery, stomach ache etc. Phytochemical test and proximate analysis were carried out on the medicinal plants. The qualitative phytochemical analysis shows the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, phenols and resins. N-hexane tends to extract more metabolites than the other solvents (methanol and water). Aqueous extracts contain lesser metabolites. Entada africana extracts contain more metabolites than any of the other plants. From the proximate analysis, Flueggea virosa had the highest moisture content and crude proteins while Detarium microcarpum had the lowest. Entada africanus had the highest ash content; D. microcarpum had highest crude lipids while F. virosa had the lowest. Piliostigma thonnigii had the highest crude fibre while Detarium and Prosopis had the highest carbohydrate content. The statistical analysis of the proximate composition of these plants showed that there is a significant difference in the nutritive constituents of the leaves of the five plants (p-value at 0.05 sig. level). The results of both analyses showed that these plants are of high medicinal value and nutritionally, they compare favourably with most popularly consumed vegetables based on their moisture content, ash content, crude lipid, crude fibre, crude protein and carbohydrate.

  62. Kowser Alam Laskar, S. A., Ajit Kumar Das and Biman Kumar Dutta

    This article deals with the status of wild edible plants and their traditional utilization by Halam tribe of Southern Assam, India inhabitant villages of Halam population. A total of 35 nos. of plant species were recorded. Finally the investigated plant species have been enumerated according to the formulation prescribed by the medicine men, along with botanical names, families, local or tribal names, parts used.

  63. Kachare, S. V.

    Information about ethnomedicinal uses of Achyranthus aspera L (Amranthaceae) ‘Apamrga’ and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) recorded from tribals of maharastra has been dealt with in this communication. It has been observed that the uses recorded for the treatment of fever, skin diseases, diabetes Asthema, Indigestion, Migraine etc. so that this herb used in large scale.

  64. Manyacka Ma Nyemb, P., Ndoye, J. M., Gaye, M., Ndiaye Aï, Ndiaye, A. and Dia, A.

    While in developed countries the body donation is an old tradition in medical schools, in Africa it is a real socio-cultural problem. Our work proposes to do the assessment of this practice that remains controversial in sub-Saharan region. Historically, dissection and prosection are preferred for teaching gross anatomy and for research. Although the advent of new technologies has created innovative opportunities to explore the anatomy of the human body, the body donation remains essential in our context. However, in Senegal this practice is disturbed by legal, constitutional, cultural, religious, sociological and economic obstacles. The most relevant contribution is the establishment of a clear and precise legislative framework with the help of medical institutions, and the help of experts in law. Moreover, even if the use of unclaimed bodies is a temporary solution, it is important to raise awareness of the interests of the voluntary donation of human body.

  65. Oday A. Mahdy and Ismail A. Abdul-Hassan

    Proposed causes of male infertility include sperm motility disturbances, Y chromosome microdeletions, chromosomal abnormalities, single gene mutations, and sperm mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements. To investigate the etiology of decreased sperm fertility and motility of sperm and to develop an appropriate therapeutic strategy, the molecular basis of these defects must be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the relationships between the genetic factors including sperm mtDNA mutations as candidate factors for male infertility. 56 Iraqi men with a history of asthenozoospermia and 10 fertile men were recruited to the study. Mitochondrial ATPase6 gene was amplified by PCR and then analyzed by direct sequencing. Two novel nucleotide substitutions were identified in the examined mitochondrial gene (ATPase 6) in both subjects as well as in progressive and non-progressive sperms, all of which are statistically significant. Two silent novel substitutions 8899 C>T and 8907C>T in ATPase6 gene that occur without change in the amino acids of protein. These heteroplasmic silent mutations( 8899C>T and 8907C>T) were observed with a high frequency in 0-5% group of sperm motility (according to WHO criteria) which were 15%(10)and 15%(10), respectively, while these frequencies were less in the rest sperm motility groups covered in this study, also, the lowest frequencies were in the normozoospermic subjects. The highest frequencies of these mutations were in the non-progressive motile sperms cells fractions that were isolated from 40% gradient in 0-5% group of sperm motilitywhich were13.5%(9)and 12%(8) for 8899C>T and 8907C>T mutations, respectively, rather than in progressive motile sperms cells that were isolated from 80% gradient fraction. The present study clearly demonstrated that mutation of mtDNA does play important roles in the diminution of fertility and decline of various motility parameters that are important determinants of male fertility as well as it approved that the mtDNA novel mutation occurrence is possible with high frequency.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
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