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January 2016

  1. Sumathy, B.

    A descriptive study was undertaken to assess the knowledge on Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever among adults residing in Makkalur village, Salem. Fifty samples were selected by non probability convenient sampling technique and data was collected with structured knowledge questionnaire using interview method. The demographic characteristics revealed that highest 40% of them belonged to the age group of above 31-40 years, 68% were males, 94% were Hindus, 86% were employed whereas 72% of them had previous source of information from media. The overall mean was 8.0±54.2 which was 32 % of the maximum score shows that they had poor knowledge regarding Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever.

  2. Jyoti Srivastava

    Background: Women are integral to all aspects of society. They are worshipped, but when it comes to dealing with them, much still remains. Women bear the burden of responsibility associated with being wives, mothers and carers of others. There is a dearth of case-control studies. Domestic violence in women with psychiatric morbidity has not received sufficient attention. There are certain statistical and psychiatric considerations like:- Unipolar depression, predicted to be the second leading cause of global disability burden by 2020, is twice as common in women, depression is not only the most common women's mental health problem, but may be more persistent in women than men. Psychiatric morbidity as a determinant of domestic violence has received little attention. Indian culture is unique and there is limited work on domestic violence from Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Objective: To study and compare married women with psychotic and non-psychotic and the nature of psychiatric morbidity in married women. Method: 65 women attending psychiatry OPD department of SSL Hospital with 35 psychotic (Group 1) and 30 non-psychotic women (Group 2) were studied for the magnitude of domestic violence by husband. Domestic Violence Questionnaire of Indu et al. Psychiatric diagnosis in women was based on medical records. Results: Significantly more women in Group 1 than Group 2 reported domestic violence (total/ psychological and physical) by husbands in past year (Group 1:80% total/ psychological violence; 65.7% physical violence) and non-psychotic women (Group 2:50% total/ psychological violence; 43.3% physical violence). Total domestic violence with Psychiatric morbidity was observed in 66.2%. Conclusion: Women with psychotic illness have a higher reporting of domestic violence by husbands during the past year. As people with mental disorders are likely to be victims of violence. Mental disorder may increase vulnerability to domestic violence by increasing the likelihood of women being in unsafe relationships and environments and increase their vulnerability to violent victimization.

  3. Sonia Caroline Sorli, Pauline Calvet, 1Philippe Cestac, Jean-Francois Albucher, François Chollet and Charlotte Rouzaud-Laborde

    Two classes of oral anti-coagulant (OAC) are available to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke: vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and direct oral anti-coagulants (DOA). Our goals were to evaluate current prescription practices in a neurovascular care unit (NCU), to inform discharged patients on their drug and to follow them up. A registry of 124 patients with an OAC prescription, was kept by our clinical pharmacist team. Indications were analysed and patients got a pharmaceutical interview whenever possible. Several months later, pharmacists recorded benefice, adverse event and patient observance from the patient follow up consultation with a neurologist. Stroke upon atrial fibrillation mainly occurred (69%) and DOA were mainly prescribed (79%). Most of the patients (73%) were informed on their treatment before leaving. The registry allowed to follow 72% patients and showed an overall compliance (98%) and few thrombotic relapses (3%) or adverse effects (10%). Our registry showed that DOA prescription is significantly chosen over VKA for patients with stroke upon atrial fibrillation. Moreover, accompanying prescription of risky drugs, such as OAC, by clinical pharmacists, with personalised information prior to discharge, is feasible, likely contributing to increase patient adherence and safety of their treatment.

  4. Chitura, M. and Manyanhaire, O. I.

    Most lecturers and other staff members, whose training and experiences are anchored in the conventional system of education, are often employed in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions. The employees are expected to deliver quality goods at all levels. Questions may be raised as to what ODL expertise these practitioners rely on to accomplish their daily activities in an ODL institution, and to what extent the ODL system is credible under such operations? A cross sectional survey was carried out in this study. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding from employees, on how they manage to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in their current jobs as they endeavour to enhance ODL quality and credibility. A purposive sample was drawn from a population of senior employees who have been working in the institution for five years and below. Data was analysed manually and results presented in frequency tables and descriptive statistics.

  5. Tawfeeq Jasim Mohammad, Dr. Mohammad Al-Kurtas, Dr. Haider Hashim Zalzala, Dr. Batool Mutar Mahdi, Dr. Hyam Raouf, Laheeb Ali Abid and Zena Nehad

    Background: Thyroid disease is a common prevalent disease in the women of reproductive age. This disease arises due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. On the other hand, the relations between genes and environment are yet to be identified. The most important susceptibility genes that have been identified is the HLA-DQB1 gene locus on chromosome number six. The major environmental factors include iodine, medications, infection, smoking, and possibly stress. Aim of study: the association between HLA-DQB1 alleles and goitrous thyroid disease in a group of Iraqi Arab Muslims. Patients and methods: A case-control comparative research was carried out in Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital, Baghdad-Iraq. Patients with thyroid diseases attended this hospital in the period September-2013 to June-2014 for thyoidectomy. HLA –DQB1genotyping was done using a group of sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) method by means of HLA-DQB1amplification kit and other hybridization kit (SSO HLA type DQB1 plus and Mastermix for HLA type DQB1 Amp plus kits -Innogenetics- from Belgium) by using AutoLipa – 48Innogenetics-Belgum. Results: There was an increased frequency of HLADQB1*03:01and 0601 in control group compared with patients group (P=0.005, Odds ratio=0.0164, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.0009-0.2926) and (P=0.01, Odd ratio=0.1667, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.0412 to 0.6750) respectively. Other alleles like HLA-DQB1* 0202, 03:02, 0501 and 06:02 were detected in patients group and not in control group. Conclusions: HLA alleles have an effect on development thyroid disease. HLADQB1* 0301 and 0601 is a protective in Iraqi Arab Muslims individuals.

  6. Ntia, H. U., Ekanem, E. E. and Udo, J. J.

    Protein energy malnutrition is highly prevalent in the developing countries among the under-five children. Nigeria accounts for one third of all new HIV infections among children in the 21 priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection in children worsens their nutritional status with its attendant morbidity and mortality. Aim: Thus this study seeks to assess the growing trend of HIV infection among malnourished children. Methodology: A retrospective review of children admitted for acute severe malnutrition in the Children’s ward of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. The study period was from 1st January 2012 to 31stJuly 2014. Result: Eleven (17.2%) among the subjects studied had HIV infection. The males to female ratio among the HIV infected children was almost equal (1:0.8). Mortality was unacceptably high (37.5%). Conclusion: There is urgent need to scale up prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV infectionvia equitable distribution of resources and encouraging ownership.

  7. Dr. Ayesha Nuzhat

    Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality accounting for approximately 21% of infant death rate. Developmental anomalies of the urogenital system is one of them, and of paramount clinical importance. About 100 foetuses of age groups four months to nine months of intrauterine life were collected from local hospitals at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh and preserved in 10%formalin. After making an incision in the anterior abdominal wall. The abdomen was eviscerated. The posterior abdominal wall and the excretory organs were exposed on both the sides. Out of 100 foetuses observed, in one foetus (Male, aged 20 weeks) the left kidney, the left ureter and the left renal artery were absent. The foetus had a normal right kidney, right ureter and right renal artery. In conclusion, Renal agenesis is the consequence of failure of development of the ureteric bud.

  8. Dion-Lainé, M., Trébissou Jonhson Noel, D., Lohoues Essis Esmel, C., Michelle Françoise and Sess E Daniel

    Background: Solar radiation induces a deleterious effect on the skin, expressed by visible clinical changes. One of the consequences of frequent skin exposure to solar radiation is induced skin aging. Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical signs of skin aging, in people of black race living in tropical zone and their possible correlation with lipoperoxidation. Methods: The sampling consisted of 60 people divided into two groups of 30 people each. Group A consisted of 30 fishermen located in the area where sunlight is intense. Group B consisted of 30 farmers located in the area where sunlight is moderate. These populations were subjected to clinical examination to investigate signs of skin aging and determine the index of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase from the blood sample. Results: The results showed a predominance of the major signs of discoloration and wrinkles (46.63%; 70%) and (10%; 60%), for groups A and B respectively. The results for skin aging mid face depigmentation assimilable to solar skin elastosis is greater in group A (60%) than group B (3.3%). A significant increase in Thiobarbituric Acid reactant substances (TBARS) was observed in group A (3.66 µmol/l) against 1.97 µmol/l in group B. Conclusion: Our study has been able to highlight the characteristic of skin aging among in people of black race living in tropical zone. Further studies would be required to contribute to a classification of skin aging suitable for in people of black race living in tropical zone.

  9. Dr. Padmavathi Nagarajan

    Aim: The study was aimed to assess the quality of life (QoL) of patients with psoriasis and the association of QoL scores with the selected socio-demographic variables. Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 200 patients affected with psoriasis. Study subjects were recruited from Dermatology clinic, JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical education & Research), hospital, Puducherry. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by using a structured questionnaire on sociodemographic information, three questionnaires on quality of life such as 12- items General Health Questionnaire, modified Psoriasis Disability Index and modified Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory. Results: Most of the subjects 164(82%) reported that their quality of life was negatively affected with psoriasis. The disability and stress were found to be more in the younger age group (<30 years).

  10. Vetriselvi

    Introduction : Stress is one of the emotional disturbances experienced by the women with infertility. The present study was conducted to assess the level of stress among women with primary infertility. Methodology : A cross – sectional survey was conducted. Infertility related stress was assessed by using the fertility problem inventory. The interview method was used to collect the data. Results: 40 % had average stress, 30.9 % had moderately high stress, 15.1% had low stress and 14 % had very high stress. Conclusion: The above results insisted the health care professionals to spare their time in counseling the women with infertility.

  11. Dr. B. H. Sripathi Rao, Dr. B. Gunachandra Rai and Sandarbh Saumya Sinha

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional surgical knife to that of laser assisted excision of operculum in terms of patient comfort assessment, post-operative pain and healing. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore. Study consisted of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed Pericoronitis who required excision of the Oerculum. They were divided in 2 groups: A and B. Group A comprised of cases were operculum was excised with surgical knife and group B comprised of cases were operculum was excised using picasso diode laser. Clinical parameters such as patient comfort, post-operative pain and healing were assessed and compared between two groups. Results: Group B showed significantly better results than Group A in terms of post-operative pain and wound healing. Conclusion: The use of diode laser in excision of operculum has several advantages over surgical knife such as enhanced haemostasis, less post-operative pain and a better post-operative healing. Therefore, lasers can be considered as a better and acceptable alternative for excision of pericoronal flaps.

  12. Dr. Archana Bhat, K. and Dr. Nagarathnamma, T.

    Background: Resistance to broad spectrum β-lactams mediated by Extended spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC β lactamases is an increasing problem worldwide. The advent of carbapenems heralded a new treatment option for serious bacterial infection. But carbapenemases have emerged and spread, leading to carbapenem resistance .Hence, it is necessary to know their incidence in the clinical isolates of the hospital, so as to formulate a policy of empirical therapy in high risk patients. Materials and methods: A total of 250 isolates of Gram negative bacilli isolated from various clinical samples received in the Department of Microbiology, BMC & RI were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility was done according to Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar and results were interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Carbapenemases were screened and confirmed by CLSI recommended Modified Hodge test(MHT) and Phenyl boronic acid/Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (BA/EDTA) disk potentiation test. Results: The most common organism isolated was Escherichia coli (44%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (29.6%). 3.2%, 12.8% and 3.6% were pure KPC, pure MBL and co-producer of KPC and MBL respectively. The BA/ EDTA disk potentiation test is better than MHT for detection of carbapenemase and MBL. Interpretation and Conclusion: The BA/ EDTA disk potentiation test is better than MHT for detection of carbapenemases and MBL and is a satisfactory and inexpensive method for characterizing the type of carbapenemase when PCR is not readily available. Thus the combined disc potentiation test could be used as a convenient screening method for carbapenemases.

  13. Islam, K., Dutta, T.C., Phukan, A., Sarma, D. K., Das, B. C., Dutta, D. J. and Mili, D. C.

    A study was undertaken to find out certain macro and micro mineral levels (Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) in soil, fodder and serum of dairy cattle owned by College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati-22. The soil and fodder samples were collected and processed following the procedure of Mitchell and Rhue (1979) and Fick, et al. (1979), respectively. The serum samples was analysed as per method of Fick et al. (1979) with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The phosphorus content in soil, fodder and serum was found below the critical level whereas the levels of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu were observed above the critical level. Hence, phosphorylation of soil including supplementation of phosphorus to the livestock may be practised.

  14. Mosaad, M. Hassan Omnia, M. H. M. Kamel and Galal A. Nawwar

    Mosquitoes constitute a major public health problem as a vector of serious human and animal diseases which causes millions of illnesses cases, and deaths. In present study the author evaluate an industrial waste product from natural origin as larvaicide and adulticide agents on mosquito, Culexpipiens. Black liquor showed potency as larvicideand its potency was increased when mixed with the emulsifier in different ratio. The LC50 and LC95 for Black liquor alone, Black liquor with emulsifier 1:1 and 1:2 were 3944.6 and5766.5, 2886.7 and 4426.6 and 2184.1 and 3985.6 respectively. Also, the waste material has adulticidal activity and its potency increased by adding the emulsifier material by ratio 1:1. Larval treatment by Black liquor and Deltamethrin showed highly significant reduction in the percentage of pupation and adultemergence. The treated larvae with Black liquor had no gonotrophic cycle because the female emerged not feeding on blood. Finally the Black liquor which release during processing the paper from Rice straw consider promising larvicidal and adulticidal agents against Culexpipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and can be included in IVM program.

  15. Dr. Chinmay Biswas, Dr. Chinmay Biswas, Dr. Abhradip Mukherjee, Dr. Soumen Roy

    Plasmacytoma is a localized collection of malignant plasma cells. SBPs are found primarily in the axial skeleton, particularly the vertebrae, ribs, and pelvis, but may involve any bone in the body. But plasmocytoma in clavicle is very very rare. We here report a case of 50 yrs old female patient presented with swelling and pain at medial end of left clavicle, diagnosed solitary plasmacytoma of clavicle post-operatively by means of Histopathology and IHC without any bone marrow involvement of monoclonal cells, presence of M-band on serum electrophoresis, negative bone scan or any systemic features of multiple myeloma.Solitary plasmacytoma of bone is not very common. Moreover involvement of medial end of clavicle is a rare entity.

  16. Ochepo, G. O., Ahamefule, F. O., Ayoade, J. A. and Ibeawuchi, J. A.

    Twelve lactating Red Sokoto Goats in their first parity were used to determine the effect of replacing cassava peel meal with discarded Tiger nut meal (DTNM) on milk yield and composition. The experimental design was CRD. Cassava peel meal was replaced at the levels of 0, 30 and 60%. Each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters measured were DM intake and milk yield. The results shows that DM intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher for goats on treatment 2 (30% DTNM). The mean daily milk yield of goats in treatment 1 and 2 were not significantly (P>0.05) different. The butter concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) with the inclusion of DTNM. It was concluded that discarded tiger nut meal may have great potential for the dairy goat industry.

  17. Subhash Meena and Deepak Bhardwaj

    Children differ from adolescents and adults in their interpretation and ability to express their experience. They simply know that something is going wrong and that they are very afraid. Children can only describe the physical symptoms. They have not yet developed the constructs to put these symptoms together and label them as fear. The objective of present study was to understand the prevalence of anxiety related disorders and gender differences among children. The sample size of present research was 200 children. The sample consists of 100 boys and 100 girls between ages 9-11 years. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED) scale by Birmaher et al. (1999) was administered individually on all the participants. Results indicated there is significant difference between boys and girls on different anxiety related disorders.

  18. Dr. Bina Dias, Dr. Parmarth Chandane, Dr. Alka R. Jadhav, Dr. Manveen Bhussar and Sivaraman

    Background/Objective: To compare the levels of antioxidants in malnourished children before and after sesame oil supplementation, to determine the effectiveness of sesame oil on nutritional parameters and to assess the acceptability and palatability of sesame oil. Design: Cross sectional study, Open prospective and international study. Setting: Departments of Pediatrics and Biochemistry of a Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Children between the age group of 1-5 yrs with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). Methods: All children underwent detailed anthropometric measurements, routine blood investigations and antioxidant levels including Vitamin C, GSH and MDA. Outcome measure: Effect of sesame oil on antioxidant capacity of body of all malnourished children. Results: Triceps skin fold thickness and mid upper arm circumference showed a rising trend. Edema disappeared in all 10 children. Antioxidant levels were found to be low in SAM children. Post supplementation, these antioxidants improved in all children. Plasma ascorbic acid improved by 19%(p=0.0003), Glutathione reductase improved by 9%(p=0.005) and Malondialdehyde decreased by 26 % (p=0.000). Conclusion: Sesame oil, a good naturally occurring antioxidant oil, readily available, relatively cheap, well palatable & serves dual purpose of supplying adequate calories as well as antioxidants, should be used to treat all severely malnourished children, as an add on to regular diet.

  19. Yamini Sharma, Nishat Quddus, Dr. Jeyanthi, S. and Sohrab A. Khan

    Background: Changes in the lifestyle of school student are one of the most important factors for the postural problems that are developing in students. This study aims to find the reliabity of postural measurements within trial and across trial measurements. Method: In this study, 97 middle grade school students (10- 11 years) were included. Photographs were taken in sagittal plane in 2 trial and 3 sessions which were assessed quantitatively and reliability was calculated. Results: Postural measurements of upright position in both within trial and across trial were found to be significant reliable. Conclusion: The study reveals significant intra subject reliability of upright postural measurements.

  20. Dr. Jamsed Mollah, Dr. Niladri Sarkar, Dr. Debabrata Ray, Dr. Ranjan Bhattacharyya, Dr. Utpal Roy and Dr. Jayanta Pal

    Introduction: The management of left colonic obstruction is a real clinical challenge for surgeons. The resection with on table lavage and anastomosis is the cornerstone of surgical management of large gut obstruction. Methodology: Among the left colonic obstructions, 40 samples included in this non-randomized, longitudinal study in a prospective case series design which satisfy the criteria. Results: Almost 80% cases of acute large gut obstruction occurred between 51 to 80 years of age. It was observed that 10% patients were from higher class, 32.5% from middle class and 57.5% from lower class. The incidence of complication was 28.6% in resection and anastomosis group (4/16) and 66.7% in staged resection group (6/9). All the cases of volvulus in this study had occurred in sigmoid colon, whereas carcinoma had more or less uniform distribution across the left colon. Discussion: The male female ratio of left colonic obstruction in this study was 3:2. The mechanical bowel preparation offer no significant benefit as a preoperative measure in current practice. In spite of risk of spillage and contamination, colonic decompression offers some better result. Conclusion: The left colonic obstruction is a surgical emergency and volvulus principally affects lower socio economic groups. Despite controversies and lack of unanimity in opinion, planned selection of single stage surgery offers better outcome than staged surgical procedures and surgeons should be careful for selecting and planning for these cases.

  21. Dr. Siddharth Acharya, Dr. Anup, N., Dr. Asif Yousuf, Dr. Shravani, G., Dr. Preeti Vishnani and Dr. Sheiba R. Gomes

    Aim: Assess the oral health status and treatment needs of geriatric and pediatric population in a ward of Jaipur city Objective: Assess the oral health status using the Oral Health Assessment form of subjects of 5 and 65-74 years in a ward of Jaipur city. Assess the periodontal status of subjects of 5 years and 65-74 years using modified CPI index in a ward of Jaipur city Materials and Method: Sample of 630 subjects including 360 children aged 5 years and 270 adults in the age-group of 65-74 years were examined for their oral health status and periodontal status using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form 2013. Subjects were selected from a ward of Jaipur city Results: Of the 270 adults, 69.1% subjects cleaned their teeth once a day, only 60.7% used toothpaste. Nearly 55% subjects had visited a dentist. Over 93% subjects consumed tobacco in some form. Nearly 31% subjects had complete edentulous arches and mean DMFT score was 16.74 of dentate individuals. The score was higher in males than females. Almost 58% subjects had deep pockets and 73.4% had bleeding on probing. Ninety three percent respondents complained of difficulty in chewing food. Among the 360 children, 71% had either decay or missing tooth with mean dmft 1.43. Mean decay score was 1.36 and mean missing score was 0.12. Conclusion: The study concluded that the DMFT score for adults was high and dmft score for children was low. As nearly a third of the adult population had complete edentulous arches, they had less utilization of dental services.

  22. Loay Khaled Mohammad Hassouneh, Amjad Abuirmeileh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh, Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam, Qais Abualassal and Uliana Vladimirovna Karpiuk

    Physiological aging encompasses progressive changes in an organism which results in a decrease in organ function and an increase in the risk of mortality over time. This innate phenomenon engages several cellular components including lipids. Determining the influence of different ages on the amounts of these lipids is a mean to better understanding of their role in physiological aging. Male wistar rats were utilized to investigate the effect of age on these lipids. The results demonstrated an increase in free fatty acids, diaceylglicerol, ceramide and sphingomyline and a decrease in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the liver and/or brain of 24 months old rats when compared to 3 months old. The changes in lipids were possibly due to the consequence of alteration in metabolic pathways where diaceylglicerol increased as a result of this precursor's accumulation and lack of its utilization in the de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Also, the increase in ceramide and sphingomyline levels was plausibly due to an increase in degradation of sphingolipids such as glucosylceramide. The results revealed possible metabolic pathways implicated in diaceylglicerol and ceramide accumulation during different ages, thus the potential involvement of these lipids in some age related pathologies.

  23. Dr. Navita Gupta, Dr. Kalpana Mangal and Dr. Manju Mehra

    Breast carcinoma is one of the leading cause of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology, which is quick and non invasive procedure to assess in vivo tumor grade. Cytological grading in aspiration of breast malignancies is a useful tool for surgical maneuvar and prognosis. The aim of present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Robinson's cytological grading of breast carcinoma assuming the Elston's modification of Bloom Richardson's histological grading as a gold standard and to assess the importance of cytohistological grading in predicting prognosis of breast carcinomas. The fine needle aspiration smears were stained with papanicoloau and H&E stains & graded using the Robinson's cytological grading system and correlated with modified scarff bloom Richardson's histological grading (Assuming as gold standard). The present study showed that the cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading (p<0.01), diagnostic accuracy was 75.71% and higher grade was associated with nodal metastasis. Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology report and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols.

  24. Charles, N., Joseph, S., Moonilal, N., Persad, C., Zulu, F. and Onuoha, P.

    Background: Hand washing has become one of the most recommended methods of infection control in hospitals. Studies indicate that the knowledge, attitude and practices are poor in many countries. There has not been any similar study in Trinidad and Tobago. This study is attempt to document the situation in the twin-Island state. Aim: To document the perceptions of the nurses in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of the selected hospitals in Trinidad with regard to hand washing in accordance with the policies of the Ministry Health, Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using 3 major hospitals with ICUs. 81% of the nurses in the units voluntarily participated. Result was analyzed in simple percentage frequencies and presented in tables. Results: Overall the nurses show favourable perceptions on aspects of the policy. There are however aspects of the perceptions that are suspect. Discussion: The result was discussed noting the implications of their perceptions compared to literature.

  25. Ntia, H. U., Udo, J. J., Ochigbo, S. O. and Nlemadim, A. C.

    Preterm delivery is the leading cause of perinatal mortality accounting for up to 40-60% of perinatal deaths. These have been attributed to a variety of factors, though in some cases the direct cause is not readily apparent. Materials: Information required was obtained from folders of preterm babies admitted into special care baby unit in the study center for a period of five years (2005-2010). Results: In this study, there was a significant association between birth weight, uptake of antenatal care and marital status, (likelihood ratio; 0.03, 0.000 and 0.001) respectively. The poor outcomes (Left against Medical Advice and death) were higher among babies of single mothers. Eight out of 12 lama and 16 out of 25 deaths met with statistical significance, p = 0.001. Conclusion: Compulsory female education and early identification of women at risk of preterm delivery will reduce perinatal deaths. Referral to appropriate health centers as well as the use of cheap and cost-effective care would go a long way to reduce these deaths.

  26. Mohamed Ahmed Safy Eldeen

    Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic ACL reconstructions, subjectively and objectively using the ALL PRESS-FIT fixation technique . This study will evaluate the results of this technique, highlight its limitations and point out to its complications. Subjects and methods: From July 2012 to October 2013, a prospective study was undertaken to assess the results of arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL totally no hardware (press-fit technique) using hamstring tendons on 30patients with torn ACL .The follow up period ranges from 7 months to 1.5 yrs after surgery. All patients were discharged on the 2nd day after surgery and were followed up at 1st, 2nd, 6th week post operative, then at 3 months. Results: Subjectively, all of the patients in our study group reported improvement in the functional ratings of their knees from pre to post operative. None of the patient has rated his knee to be the same or worsened after the operation. Almost 93.4 % of our patients rated their Knees from 0 to 4 preoperatively and their knees were categorized severely abnormal or they were unable to use their knees in the usual daily activities. On the other hand, 96.6 % postoperatively have rated their knees to be normal with excellent fimction or at least nearly normal. Conclusion: All press fit technique can be used safely and successfully in ACL reconstruction surgeries and represent a good alternative among other options for ACL reconstruction.

  27. Deepak Chandrasekaran, Subramanian Jaganathan and Ravindran Chinnaswami

    Aim: The aim is to assess the interplay between anxiety and depression was also assessed by comparing the HAD scales with biochemical serum markers of anxiety and depression, namely cortisol and serotonin during surgical removal of third molar. Materials & Methods: A prospective randomized study was conducted using 30 healthy patients (male-13,female-17) between 18-45 years, requiring surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar were included in the study. Hospital anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) scale is a questionnaire used to assess levels of Anxiety and Depression. Blood samples were collected before and after the surgical procedure. The blood samples was analysed for serum cortisol and serotonin, these results were compared with the HAD questionnaire results. Results: The results were analysed using the Student ‘t’ test and Chi square test. The comparison between the pre and post extraction cortisol (C1 and C2) values suggested that the mean post-operative value was in the higher range of the physiological limits with p <0.05 whereas the pre and post extraction (S1 and S2) was within the normal limits with p value >0.005. Conclusion: The study showed that patients were only anxious but showed no signs of depression after surgical removal of the third molar. Study concludes depression does not co-exist with anxiety in immediate pre and post-operative setting.

  28. Dr. Firdous Ansari

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients needed for healthy growth and development. It is beneficial for a new born as well as a mother as it protects both of them from numerous diseases. In this review we have considered the studies having its concern with benefits of breast feeding for mother and infant. In the last section of the study discussion is made for promotion of breast feeding.

  29. Mohammed Feyisso, Yohannes Addisu, Prabhanjan Kumar Vata and Yetayal Berhanu

    Infant and under five mortality in developing countries has declined in the past two decades while the new born mortality has not significantly changed. Most neonatal death take place at home, this indicate that lack of early recognition on the danger sign and low treatment seeking behavior of mothers (care taker) towards modern health care service. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge of mother on danger signs of neonatal and postnatal illness and health seeking behavior among pregnant and postpartum mother in Gedeo Zone, 2014/15. A community based cross-sectional study design, supplemented with qualitative study is conducted. The study period is done from 1/11/2014-30/11/2014 and the study populations is all sampled pregnant and postpartum mothers who live in Gedeo Zone during study period. Sample size is determined by Level of significance (0.05), Power (0.50), Proportion of Knowledge of newborn danger signs on Mother’s response was 29.3% according to a study result in SNNPR which result in sample size of 318.Considering design effect of 2 and adding 10 % for non-response rate, the final sample size is 700. Focus group discussion and in-depth interview was conducted with pregnant and postpartum mothers and health care provider respectively and triangulated with quantitative findings. The sampling procedure will involve a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 700 respondents were included in the study and giving 100% response rate. The mean ages of the respondent was 25.8 (SD± 8) with a range age of 17 to 40. Marital Status of the respondent showed that 15(2.1%) were single followed by 655 (93.6%) were married & 12 (1.7%) were Widowed. Bivariate analysis showed that significant associations between treatment seeking behaviour of mother’s from health center to new born with residence, educational status of mother & husband, income, family size, perception score towards new born health problem, ethnicity, affordability & accessibility and place of delivery however, the result of the multivariate analysis showed that, Residences, educational status of the respondent, delivery and family size were predictors of treatment seeking behaviour of mother’s from health centre to new born. Residences, educational status of the respondent, delivery and family size were predictors of treatment seeking behaviour of mother’s from health centre to new born thus as a recommendation appropriate health education intervention should be given to the respondent.

  30. Dr. Digvijay Shinde, Dr. Prachi Sankhe, Dr. S. T. Nabar and Dr. Vishal, S.

    Delirium is a neurobehavioral syndrome caused by dysregulation of neuronal activity secondary to systemic disturbances. It occurs in 35 to 80 % of critically ill, hospitalized patients. Recent estimates of in-hospital mortality rates among delirious patients have ranged from 25 to 33%.Based on arousal disturbance and psychomotor behaviour, the following three clinical subtypes of delirium have been described like hyperactive (hyper aroused, hyper alert, or agitated), hypoactive (hypo aroused, hypo alert, or lethargic), and mixed (alternating features of hyperactive and hypoactive types). Antipsychotics have been the medication of choice in the treatment of delirium. We report a case of hyper acute delirium due to parietal lobe lesion without any focal neurological deficit. While other metabolic causes were ruled out. Patient after pharmacological like antipsychotics as well as non pharmacological intervention showed partial improvement in few days. Thus we conclude that delirium is a serious cause and complication of hospitalization in elderly patients and should be considered to be a medical emergency until proven otherwise. For these reasons, prevention, early recognition and effective treatment of delirium are essential. Pathogenesis of delirium is incompletely understood. Right parietal and thalamic lesions have been reported most commonly among neurological causes.

  31. Dr. Shaifali Patil and Dr. Krutika Karkhanis

    Pregnancy is a holistic experience which suggests that every little thing that happens to the mother anyplace in or on her physique has the chance of influencing the infant. Adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, are important events determining neonatal morbidity and mortality. In the present scenario the oral hygiene is the least cared for during pregnancy and owing to the high impact of dental disease on pregnancy outcome research into this area becomes mandatory. Keeping this in mind, this study was conducted to see the significant association of dental disease with adverse pregnancy outcome in MGM Hospital, Kalamboli, Navi Mumbai, so that in future dental examination can be made an integral part of antenatal check-up.

  32. Dr. Neeraj Mahajan and Dr. Arti Khurana

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of the distal tibia offers several advantages compared to classic open reduction and internal fixation. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating osteosynthesis (MIPPO) technique in fractures of distal tibia provides mechanically stable fracture-bridging osteosynthesis thereby preventing damage to bone vascularity, reduce iatrogenic soft tissue injury and preserve the fracture hematoma as compared to classic open reduction and internal plate fixation. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis offers the best possible option as it permits adequate fixation in a biological manner. A series of 25 patients treated for distal tibial fractures using a distal tibial locking plate through the MIPPO technique have been reviewed after surgery. There were 16 males and 9 females of mean age 48.5 years. The commonest cause of injury was road traffic accident. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis is a good and safe technique for treatment of distal tibial fractures injuries when there is no articular comminution and the soft tissue envelope is minimally disturbed.

  33. Kailas D. Datkhile, Rohit D. Vhaval, Madhavi N. Patil, Tejasvi S. Khamkar, Pratik P. Durgavale, Anand Gudur, Nupura Vibhute, Ritwij Patankar, Neville Tata, Chougule, P. G. and Satish V. Kakade

    To identify the risk factors other than tobacco and alcohol for the development of head and neck cancer, functional polymorphisms of DNA repair genes including XRCC1 Arg194Trp in the exon 6, Arg280His in the exon 9, Arg399Gln in the exon 10, XRCC2 Arg188His in the exon 3, XRCC3 Thr241Met in the exon 7, XRCC4 codon 247, XRCC4 G1394T, XRCC4 intron7, XRCC5 2R/1R/0R, XRCC6 61 (C>G) and XRCC7 6721 (G>T) were studied among rural population of Maharashtra. The XRCC genes were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to elucidate the specific changes in the gene region. The result from our study showed that XRCC1 A399G in exon 10 (OR= 3.69; 95%CI= (2.34-5.51); p= <0.0001) XRCC4-2 (G1394T) OR=6.53; 95%CI=(4.71-9.05); p= <0.0001), XRCC5 (0R/0R) OR=1.97; 95%CI=(1.15-3.26); p= <0.0001) and XRCC7 (6721 T/T) OR=11.58; 95%CI=(7.44-18.02); p= <0.0001) genotypes significantly increased the risk of head and neck cancer. This study indicates that variant types of XRCC1, XRCC4, XRCCC5 and XRCC7 genes play a role in modifying genetic susceptibility of individual to head and neck cancer. Thus, the consistent findings from this case-control study suggest that selected DNA repair genes represent genetic determinants in oral carcinogenesis along with other risk factors in the rural Indian population.

  34. Shweta Satish Devare Phadke and 2Rauf Iqbal

    The police are the law enforcement personnel. They deal on a regular basis with avariety of unique situations and stressors. Occupational stress, if untreated, can lead to negative changes in police officers, specifically in their self-schemas and in how they perceive the communities in which they serve. The impact of an unhealthy or mentally impaired police officer has implications not only for the individual officer, but also for the society as a whole. A mentally and physically fit officer will respond more appropriately in a variety of situations that they encounter. Good work place can extend the career and improve the life of the officers. It is the moral obligation of the Government of India to give them ideal work environment. They look after the well- being of the public so their well - being also should be taken care. In this article we recommended workplace design reforms which can improve occupational health of police so that the policing can be referred as less stressful and less complicated service in India.

  35. Dr. Singh, D. P., Dr. Rohit Kumawat, Dr. Nishant Verma and Dr. Pankaj

    High serum CK levels are found in many muscular dystrophies as well as inflammatory, toxic, metabolic, and mitochondrial myopathies. The highest values are seen during attacks of myoglobinuria (“rhabdomyolysis”), a clinical syndrome of diffuse myalgia, myoglobinuria, and, often, renal failure. Idiopathic hyper CKemia indicates persistently elevated CK with no symptoms or minimal symptoms, such as muscle aches at rest or with exercise, muscle cramps, or stiffness. On examination, there should be no weakness, wasting, loss or increase of tendon reflexes, or fasciculations. We here present a case of 31 year old Indian male presented to us with complaints of muscle aches, easy fatiguability numbness in all 4 limbs for last four years. On investigation the patient had an elevated serum creatine kinase level but on evaluation no myopathy, weakness, wasting, loss or increase of tendon reflexes, or fasciculations were present. Patient’s PTH level was low and diagnosis of idiopathic hypoparathyriodism with Hyper CKemia without Myopathy was kept.

  36. Nayla Gumaa, Esam Mohamed Abdul Raheem, Sayed Mohamed Ali, Osman Mohamed Farah and Ehab Omer Abdullah

    Objective: this review aimed to fill the gap about information related to ornamental fishes in the Sudanese Red Sea waters. Methods: data was collected from various sources including publications and observations. Results: the large families found are the Labridae, Pomacanthidae, Gobbidae, Pomacentridae and Chaetodontidae, while the small families are the Torpedinidae, Lenthrindae, Ephipidae, Monodactylidae and Ophichthidae. Conclusion: the study is the first to review and report in details the presence of ornamental fishes in the Sudanese Red Sea waters.

  37. Ozer Birge, Feyza Demir, Ilkan Kayar, Mehmet Adiyeke, Utku Akgor, Seda Yegin, Suzan Tunc and Mustafa Melih Erkan

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to determine the ratio of abnormal cervical cytology among the results of the first cervical screening of women in the Darfur area of Central Africa. Material and Method: The cytology results of women who had Pap smear tests done in a Saharan hospital between 2014-2015 were screened retrospectively. Women with abnormal cervical cytology results in the conventional evaluation were examined further. Women with cervical cytology results of ASC-US, ASC-H, LGSIL, HGSIL, and AGC were included in the study. Findings: Abnormal smear results were detected in 178 (2.83%) of the 6279 women whose cervical cytology was examined. ASC-US was detected in 100 (56.1%), ASC-H in 5 (2.8%), LGSIL in 31 (17.5%), HGSIL in 14 (7.9%), AGC in 27 (15.3%) and cervical cancer in 1 (0.56%) of the cases. Sixty-three of the cases underwent colposcopy-guided biopsy. The biopsy results were reported as chronic cervicitis in 29 (46.3%), CIN1 in 13 (18.7%), CIN2 in 6 (9%) and CIN3 in 13 (20.3%) of the cases. The correlation between the cervical cytology and colposcopy-guided biopsy results was statistically significant (Kappa: 0.541 and p<0.001). Result: Cervical cancer can be diagnosed early by cervical cytology evaluations and can even be prevented. Although the cervical cytology test is a readily available, easy and effective method, histopathological correlation gains importance in the evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology. Performing colposcopy-guided biopsy for histopathological evaluation is considered an appropriate approach for the management of abnormal cervical cytology.

  38. Pratiksha Singh, Divij Pasrija, Sunil Polipalli, Sumaira Khalil and Seema Kapoor

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and biochemical profile and Growth hormone receptor Polymorphism of children presenting with short stature to a tertiary care centre, and also to study the molecular players/polymorphism that might give us an insight into good response to a relatively expensive modality of treatment. This would thus be directing resources to patients with GH deficiency who would respond best to it. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study on short stature children presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of 3 years. Short stature was defined as height or length less than -2 SD of age and sex matched population using reference WHO growth charts and or growth velocity lower than the 25th percentile for age for at least 1 year or lower than the 10th percentile for age for at least 6 months. All children enrolled underwent extensive baseline work up to investigate for causes of short stature like Endocrine causes (Hypothyroidism, Laron’s syndrome), malnutrition, chronic diseases (Thalassemia, chronic kidney disease and renal tubular acidosis), celiac disease, syndromic association, Skeletal dysplasia, Familial short stature, Constitutional short stature and Idiopathic short stature. In children with pathological short stature in whom an identifiable cause of short stature was not found on routine investigations, serum growth hormone (GH), IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were estimated using 2 different pharmacological stimuli.GH value of less than 10 mg/L were considered to be GH deficient. Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) were subjected to analysis of the GHD3 exon deletion status. For the genotyping of GHR exon 3 locus, the frequency of GHR transcript variants with retention (GHRfl) or exclusion (GHRd3) of exon 3 was tested by the multiplex PCR assay. This was performed with primers G1, G2, and G3 with a well defined protocol. Result: A total of 473 children with a median age of 3.65 years (Range 2-18 years) were enrolled. Twenty three percent of the children each were diagnosed as Growth hormone deficient and Idiopathic short stature. Celiac disease also contributed significantly in 18% of cases. The other causes seen were skeletal dysplasia (7%), syndromic (12%) and malnutrition (2%). Amongst children with endocrine disorders, 40% children had hypothyroidism, panhypopituitarism was seen in 10% children and 50% had Laron’s syndrome. In Children with chronic disorders, 72% were diagnosed with Thalassemia, 21% with chronic kidney disease and 1 child had renal tubular acidosis. Constitutional and familial short stature were seen in 6% and 2% children respectively. Amongst patients with GHD, 60.7% had wild type (GHRfl/fl), 19.2% were heterozygous (GHRfl/GHRd3) and 20.1% were homozygous (GHRd3/d3), whereas for idiopathic short stature they were 67.5%, 14.5% and 18% respectively. Conclusion: With high index of suspicion, availability of testing and following an algorithmic approach, diagnosis could be attained in 85% of cases. Our data indicates the changes in profile from those reported earlier in our country. Growth hormone deficiency and celiac disease contribute significantly even though majority are normal variants. Also, genotyping done would help in prediction of response to recombinant GH therapy in a resource constraint resulting in appropriation of finances which could be utilized for a higher priority area.

  39. Palanivel Rajan and Varun Kumar

    Background: Tobacco and alcohol use are serious public health problems in many countries including India because of the associated health hazards. In contrast to urban areas, there are relatively few data on the prevalence of risk factors among rural population in various age-groups from Tamil Nadu. So, a study was conducted to estimate prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in a rural population in Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: A cross sectional was carried out over a period of one year from August 2010 to July 2011 in the field practice area of PSG Rural Health Centre, Neelambur attached to the Department of Community Medicine, PSG Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Coimbatore. Data collection was done by semi-structured, semi-open ended interview-based questionnaire. Results: Out of 1464 study participants, 244 (16.7%) were smokers. Smokeless tobacco usage was found in 168 (11.5%) study participants whereas 191 (13%) were using Beedi and 85 (5.8%) were using Cigarette. Alcohol consumption in the last 12 months was found in 207 (14.1%) study participants. Among those consuming alcohol, most of them were consuming Beer 176 (85%) followed by Rum 54 (26.1%) and Whiskey 40 (19.3%). Conclusions: prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use was high in this rural population proximal to urban area in Tamil Nadu. There is an urgent need for health promotion campaigns to raise awareness regarding risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, overweight and encourage adoption of healthy lifestyles.

  40. Thamer Mouhi Jasiem

    Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds which are used for curing of various human diseases and also play an important role in healing. Phytochemicals have two categories i.e., primary and secondary constituents. Primary constituents have chlorophyll, proteins and amino acids. Secondary constituents contain terpenoids, flavonoid, glycoside and alkaloids. This paper deals with Phytochemical studies of Trifolium pratense, Astragalus corrugates and Hypericum perforatum. Phytochemical tests were carried out to know about the qualitative existence of secondary metabolites in them. For the current article screening of alkaloid, flavonoid, glycoside, saponin, tannin, terpenoid and have been carried out.

  41. Dr. Harman Singh, Dr. Smita Patil and Dr. Manish Pendse

    Atypical pneumonia is atypical in presentation with only moderate amounts of sputum, no consolidation, only small increases in white cell counts and no alveolar exudates; and sometimes, not even presenting with respiratory symptoms. Here we present a case of a 65 years old elderly man who presented with disorientation, hiccups and loss of appetite. He was a known diabetic and hypertensive. On presentation patient had a SpO2 of 96%. Lab reports were suggestive of severe hyponatremia of 92meq/L and clinically he was euvolaemic. Chest X-ray showed right sided consolidation. However he did not have any breathlessness or cough. He was given sodium correction and antibiotics for the consolidation and was treated as a community acquired pneumonia. Patient showed signs of improvement. All other causes for hyponatremia were ruled out. However, the patient again presented with same symptoms after 1 month with hyponatremia of 95meq/L and left sided consolidation. He was again given sodium correction. Patient did not produce sputum so bronchial lavage was done and sent for culture sensitivity which showed chlamydia infection. Antibiotics were given according to the sensitivity. Patient improved clinically. On follow up after 1 month patient had normal x ray and normal sodium levels. Hence repeated episodes of hyponatremia associated with pneumonia were hypothesized to be caused by atypical pneumonia caused by chlamydia- a rare presentation.

  42. Dr. Durga kumari Paidi and Dr. T. Sudha

    Introduction: Menopause is permanent cessation of menstruation secondary to genetically programmed loss of ovarian follicles and cessation of ovarian estrogen secretion. Post menopausal bleeding is an alarming symptom of genital pathologies and requires complete evaluation to exclude malignancy (5% to 15%). Over half of the cases show atrophic endometrium. Endometrial proliferation which may develop into hyperplasia or even carcinoma or estrogen available from other sources. The aim of this study: Evaluation of postmenopausal women with bleeding or other symptoms, correlating endometrial thickness and histopathology. Materials and Methods: 142 menopausal women presenting to KGH (2013- 2014 year) with either pm bleeding or ET>4mm in transvaginal sonography with other symptoms like white discharge or ovarian tumors or fibroid or polyps were subjected to endometrial curettage for histopathology; cervical or other than uterine pathology were exclude. Based on endometrial echogeneity categoried as four structural categories: homogeneous, heterogeneous low or high-echo. Analysis is based on morphological criteria to assess endometrium. Endometrial histology as five categories: normal, residual proliferation, hyperplasia (polyp), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia; and endometrial carcinoma Result: In this study regressive cystic atrophy accounts for 50% and endometrial thickness is 4 or <4mm in all these cases. One case had malignancy and 2 cases showed endometrial hyperplasia. A case with fibroids with polyp had ET>8mm. Conclusion: ET 4 or less exclude endometrial pathology.

  43. Zochampuia, R., Gojen Singh, Kh., Rammuana, R., Bhabatosh, D., Lhuveto, N., Ramesh Singh, L. and Lekhachandra Sharma, K.

    Wound dehiscence is disruption of any or all of the layers in a wound. Dehiscence may occur in up to 3% of abdominal wounds and is very distressing to the patient. Wound dehiscence is an acute wound failure. Acute wound failure has been discussed under various names i.e. wound dehiscence, burst abdomen, wound disruption and evisceration. Despite advances in perioperative care and suture materials, incidence and mortality rates in regard to abdominal wound dehiscence have not significantly changed over the past decades. This may be attributable to increasing incidences of risk factors within patient populations outweighing the benefits of technical achievements. This study was conducted to find out the incidence and identify the risk factors involved in causing abdominal wound dehiscence. 40 patients who developed abdominal wound dehiscence after laparotomy in department of surgery, RIMS Hospital were selected for cross sectional study during the study period of October 2013 to September 2015. Analysis was done with IBM SPSS version 16 and data were described using mean and percentages. Out of 1728 laparotomies during the study period which included 1008 cases of emergency laparotomies and 720 cases of elective laparotomies, 40 developed wound dehiscence, so incidence rate of abdominal wound dehiscence was 2.3% in this study; 1.9% for elective laparotomy and 2.6% for emergency laparotomy. The common risk factors identified were emergency laparotomy, age <30 years and age above 60 years and male sex. Low socio economic status was also a common cause of wound dehiscence. Hypertension and diabetes were present in some cases. Anaemia, hypoalbuminemia and kidney function derangement were also common among wound dehiscence patients. Another important finding was presence of malignancy. Wound infection, sepsis and raised intra abdominal pressure (coughing, vomiting) were also an important cause of abdominal wound dehiscence. Further studies with larger sample size and controlled studies were recommended to support this finding.

  44. Bhabatosh, D., Gojen Singh, Kh, Sambhaji, L., Lekshmipriya, Ramesh Singh, L. and Lekhachandra Sharma, K.

    Acute Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. A delay in performing an appendicectomy in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy increases the risk of appendicular perforation and sepsis, which in turn increases morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic accuracy can be further improved through the use of ultrasonography or computed tomography imaging. However, these modalities are costly and may not be easily available when they are required. This study was conducted to compare the available scoring system like RIPASA Score’s performance and Alvarado Score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The study conducted was a prospective study among 60 suspected patients of appendicitis in the department of Surgery, RIMS during October 2013 to September 2015. Approval from Institutional Ethics Committee and informed consent was taken. Taken were entered in IBM SPSS version 16 and checked for correctness before analysis. Analysis was done using Chi-square test and ANOVA. On histopathological examination appendicitis was confirmed in 86.7% of cases. So this study gives a negativity rate of 13.3%. This gives a sensitivity of 98.1% in RIPASA score and 96.2% in Alvarado score. Specificity was 98.1% and 96.2% by using RIPASA score and Alvarado score respectively. Positive predictive value, negative predictive and accuracy for RIPASA score and Alvarado score were 98.1%, 87.5% and 96.6% and 94%, 71.4% and 91.6% respectively. RIPASA was better in all the parameters compared in this study. So, RIPASA is a better indicator than Alvarado score in diagnosing acute appendicitis.

  45. Hassan A. Atef, Mogda K. Mansour, Essam M. Ibrahim, Naglaa M. Al-Kalamawy, Darwish A. S., Ali M. A. and Flourage M. Rady

    Fungal and aflatoxins contamination in rabbit's environment and evaluation the efficacy of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and probiotic in amelioration the toxic effects of aflatoxins were investigated. One hundred samples, including (25 each of feed, water, litter and wires of rabbit's cages) were collected from private rabbit's farms at El-Giza Governorate. The mycological examination resulted in recovering Aspergillus sp. at the top of fungi isolated from all examined samples(68%), followed by Mucor sp.(35%), Penicillium sp. (31%), Fusarium sp. (23%), Rhizopus sp. (21%),Cladosporium sp. (6%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (4%). Members of genus Aspergillus was predominantly recovered from the present samples. A. flavus was isolated from (59%) of samples, followed by A.niger (21%) and A.ochraceus recovered from (19%) of samples. The isolated A.flavus from litter samples were detected as the most prevalence aflatoxigenic strains (100%)which produced aflatoxin BI and B2 with a mean levels of (27.0±3.22). Although, the higher mean levels of AFs was obtained by A. flavus that recovered from feed samples (50 ± 3.5) with a lower relatively rate of incidence (87.5%). This makes the selection of proper decontamination methods that will effectively decompose aflatoxins. Thirty-five healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into 5 groups, each including 7 rabbits. The rabbits of group 1 were kept as the negative control group. While, rabbits in the groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were orally given AFB1 at a dose of 50ug dissolved in 0.5 ml of olive oil/ animal daily, for 4 weeks. On first day following the administration of AF, NAC was orally administered a dose of250 mg/kg ofb.w. for group 3 (low dose)and a dose of 500mg/kg b.w. for group 4 (high dose). While, the group 5 given probiotic in drinking water (0.5 gram dissolved in 25 liters of water).Aflatoxin induced (ROS), accompanied with significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of lysated RBCs and a significant decrease in CAT, SOD and GPx activities. While, there was an increase in serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine levels. The activity of pancreatic enzymes showed significant increase in serum amylase and lipase activities after the rabbit's exposure to aflatoxin BI .However, aflatoxin BI group had a decrease in concentrations of serum total protein, albumin, alpha globulin, beta globulin and gamma globulin together with A/G ratio. The administration of N-acetylcysteine or probiotic caused a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and an increase in GSH, CAT, SOD and GPx compared to aflatoxicated group. In addition, the levels of ALT, AST, plasma amylase and lipase levels were significantly reduced due to the protective effects given by N-acetylcysteine and probiotic. The histopathological necrotic damage due to the drastic effects of AFBI on some vital organ as liver and kidney included hepatotoxic effects and inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. These changes improved by administration of probiotic and N-acetyl cystein to aflatoxicated animal resulted in reduction of the aflatoxintoxic changes through the immune strengthening effect and protection of lipid and protein from oxidative damage.

  46. Dr. Sreenivas Naik, P., Dr. Santha Bai, K., Dr. Kushbu, D. and Dr. Riyaz, N. M.

    Aim and Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of medical students towards patients suffering with HIV/AIDS. To determine if students felt adequately prepared to deal with medical and psychological aspects of HIVIAIDS. Methodology: the study was conducted in a questionnaire based pattern at Government Medical College, Anantapuramu, including MBBS students of all the semesters. A structured questionnaire was distributed to all the medical students of each year. The questionnaires regarding knowledge were focused on various methods of transmission, high risk behaviours and preventive measures. Attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients, sexual behaviours, condom usage, sex education and resource allocation for HIV/AIDS patients were assessed. Results: A change in the knowledge from 1st to 4th year was seen in the following aspects: knowledge regarding vertical transmission (78% to 93.3%), transmission through Breast feeding (31.9% to 85.3%), tuberculosis as the most common opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS (26.9% to 70%), correct time of initiation of PEP (5% to 46.7%), facility for getting HIV test done confidentially (0.6% to42.7%). An increasing trend in the negative attitude towards HIV patients was seen from 1st to 4th year when it came to right to refuse surgical treatment to HIV patient (40% to 56%) and an increasing trend in the favourable response towards HIV patients were seen from 1st year to 4th year when it came to their opinion whether HIV patients can be kept in general Ward (57.5% to 78%). Conclusions: From the above study we conclude that the knowledge level on HIV/AIDS improved based on year of study. Discriminatory attitude towards HIV patients still persisted among students of all the years.

  47. Sumanadasa, P.D.N.S., Pitawala, H.M.G.T.A., Ranasinghe, J.G.S. and Pethiyagoda, A.U.B.

    Urolithiasis is one of the major health issue in urinary system which causes large health care burden. Although many therapeutic options have been develop for the treatments of renal stones, mechanism of formation of renal stone is still remains as controversial. In order to detect formation of stone in different anatomical locations in renal system, we have examined 76 renal stone samples in different anatomical locations collected from Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya. Surface and cross sectional visual and microscopic analysis were done in all samples. Advanced morphological data and photographs were obtained through polarizing microscope using plane and crossed polarized light. Serial chemical characterization was carried out by using on X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectrometer (Fisher-Scope XAN). From that study we found to have that the nucleation is the most important step for the formation of urinary calculi and it could be the organic matter. Also, the fragments of early formed stones within pelvicalyceal system could also be the nuclei of stones of other anatomical location. Nucleus and periphery have two different lamination patterns in polarized light and morphological and chemical data indicates significant difference between nucleus and periphery of a renal stone. It clearly shows that formation of nucleus and periphery of a stone is governed by two different processes. Based on these data urinary calculi can be differentiated according to their origin and growth. Also it may help to modify the correct treatment of urinary calculi.

  48. Dr. Smriti Pathak Dutta, Dr. Rwitusmita Bharali, Dr. Dibyajyoti Dutta and Dr. Wasima Jahan

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), or increased LV mass, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Echocardiographic LVH is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the left ventricular geometric patterns in normal population may have some prognostic significance. 200 healthy young adults of either sex in the age group of 18-22 were recruited for the study. All subjects were clinically evaluated and an echocardiographic examination was performed. Study showed a increased in left ventricular mass with increase diastolic and systolic pressure. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment to control blood pressure should be taken with all seriousness.

  49. Dr. Mehra Ruhi, Dr. Gupta Seema, Dr. Maheshwari Ujwala and Dr. Jain Atul

    Background: Group A individuals are further subdivided into A1, A2 and other rare types like A3, A intermediate (int.), Ax, Am, Aend, Ay, Ael, etc. Subgroups of A can result in discrepancy in ABO blood typing. The occurrence of weak variants due to heterogeneity of the A and B alleles poses a challenge for immunohaematology practice. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 2.5 years from January 2013 to July 2015 carried out at the Department of Immunohaematology & Blood Transfusion of MGM Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai. Data has been collected from blood bank donor grouping records. All blood samples processed during period of observation were included in the study. Results: Blood group records of 9,539 whole blood donors were analysed. It was found that out of total 9,539 donors 3,986 (41.78%) belonged to A1 subgroup and 68 (0.71%) belonged to A2 subgroup. 672 (7.04%) belonged to A1B subgroup and 72 (0.76%) belonged to A2B subgroup. Conclusion: Identification & recording of subgroups is important. Weak subgroups of A antigen red cells may be mistyped as group O or B which might led to transfusion reactions in a few cases.

  50. Dr. Moncy Thomas, Dr. Suresh Kumar, Dr. S. Stephen Abraham Suresh Kumar, Dr. Chenna Reddy Preetham and Dr. Ranganathan Jyothi

    Thrombosis of the cerebral dural sinuses has been well described in the literature and rarely the dural sinus obstruction can result in unremitting papilledema (raised intracranial hypertension) causing blindness. We report a case of a 21-year-old man, who was diagnosed to have extensive sinus thrombosis involving superior sagittal sinus thrombosis and developed visual deterioration. The patient did not respond to conservative treatment and a thecoperitoneal shunt was performed; following which he developed intracranial hypotension with bilateral SDH needing bilateral burr hole evacuation. Patient is doing well at follow-up with good outcome.

  51. Dr. Moncy Thomas, Dr. Suresh Kumar, Dr. Stephen Abraham Suresh Kumar, S., Dr. Chenna Reddy Preetham, Dr. Ranganathan Jyothi, Dr. Santhanam, R. and Dr. Karthikeyen, N.

    Aims: The overall aim was to evaluate the outcome of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in patients with acute massive cerebrovascular accidents in a tertiary referral center with the primary outcomes being survival, functional ability and psychosocial consequences. Methods: The study was a retrospective study over the last four years. Data derived from case sheets, reports and operative notes. The main outcome measures were noted from Glasgow Scale (GCS), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), and Modified Rankin Scale (MRC).Changes over time during follow-up were obtained by telephonic communication with patient. Analysis was done using a statistical method that is suitable for small data sets. Results: The retrospective data was analyzed for a period of four years, of which 51.11% patients had ischaemic stroke and 48.89% had intracranial hemorrhage respectively. All patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy survived and did well with the surgery 85.07% people improved to MRC scale of 3 and 14.93% patients expired due to secondary causes such as MI aspiration pneumonia etc which occurred duringhospitalization. The therapeutic algorithms, time to tracheotomy time to cranioplasty were also noted. The control group who received only medical management saw only 1.5% survival. Conclusions: The studies show that an effective chain of medical surgical and rehabilitation activities can produce a good outcome/living situation and that life can be satisfactory for patients after massive cerebrovascular accidents in spite of neurological deficits.

  52. Mahla Urmila, Gangwal Mamta, Bairwa Ramavatar and Mehta Seema

    Objective: To assess the normal or abnormal progress of the labour by the use of partograph. Materials and Methods: The Prospective case-controlled study was conducted in obstetrics and gynaecology department of SMS Medical College hospital, Jaipur; Rajasthan. Antenatal cases of term pregnancies with labour pain and cephalic presentation recruited for study. The patients assigned randomly in two groups (1) control group, in which labour was not monitored with partograph and (2) study group, in which labour monitored with partograph.100 cases enrolled in each group. The study group guided with use of Modified WHO partograph. Results observed: Results Mean length of active phase of labour was significantly (P=.003) shortened in study group (4.69 ± 2.50 hours) than in control group (6.15 ±3.92 hours). Use of partograph was associated with statistically significant reduction in number of vaginal examinations (P value = 0.0001). Postpartum complications were reduced. There was significant reduction in neonatal asphyxia from 11% case in control group to 2% cases in study group (P value = 0.010). Other neonatal complications were also reduced. Conclusion: Study has shown that using the partograph is highly effective in reducing fetomaternal complications of labour as it helps in early recognition of slow progress of labour, so early intervention can be taken. Implementations of partogram should be encouraged in all hospitals, at all levels as a part of standard labour management protocol.

  53. Bhawna Sharma, Sangeeta Dey and Udayan Ganguly

    Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is caused by overgrowth of Candida yeast species in the vagina. It is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge, itching, and erythema. It affects 3 out of 4 women in their lifetimes. Pregnancy, use of high estrogen oral contraceptive pills, steroids, antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs and aging favour the growth of Candida species. Womwn are generally reluctant about VVC which leads to emergence of pelvic inflammatory diseases in them. Diagnosis of VVC is done by KOH wet mount, culture, germ tube test, chlamydospore test, and a battery of sugar fermentation and assimilation tests. A review of 15 years (2000-2015) has been done in this article. In conclusion of this review is that patients coming with pre disposing factors (usage of antibiotics, oral contraceptive drugs, hormonal therapy, and pregnancy) and co morbidities like diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis should also be examined for VVC in them.

  54. Dr. Mohammed Abdul Quadar, Dr. Rajkumar, P.N. and Dr. Paramjeet Sangwan,

    The traditional management of breast abscesses involves incision and drainage of pus along with anti staphylococcal antibiotics, but this is associated with prolonged healing time, difficulty with breast feeding, regular dressings and possibility of milk fistula and sometimes scarring with unsatisfactory outcome. Aim of our study was to analyze diagnostic methods, different treatment modalities and outcome of patients with breast abscess treated at our institution, as to determine whether minimally invasive treatment (needle aspiration) is successful.

  55. Paramjeet Sangwan, Rajkumar, P.N., Abdul Quadar, Yaam Kumar, C. and Vivek, K.,

    Penetrating Abdominal trauma is increasing because of the increase of violence in our fellowship. A number of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma have normal vital signs and negative abdominal examination when referred to trauma centres. A great heap of contention exists between authorities about screening these patients for emergency laparotomy. The optimal management of hemodynamically stable asymptomatic patients remains controversial. The goal is to identify and treat injuries in a cost efficient way. Common evaluation strategies are Local Wound Exploration (LWE), Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage (DPL), Serial Clinical Assessments, and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. Reaching a decision to operate on a patient with penetrating injury abdomen is a challenge. The Objective of this study was to analyze the pattern of penetrating abdominal trauma, current management practiced and outcome. Patients and Methods: Eighty (80) patients who were admitted to the Department of General Surgery, Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital between March 2010 and August 2015 with abdominal stab wounds were included in prospective study. Results: A total of 80 patients with penetrating abdominal trauma were assessed with a mean age of 29 yrs. The male to female ratio was 25.7:1. Most of the patients (89.4%) were in the Second to fourth decades of their liveliness. Twenty-Five patients (31.25%) presented with shock. The homicidal Stab wound is the commonest mode of injury seen in our patients. All of our patients were managed by exploratory laparotomy. Hollow viscus injuries were reported in 81.25% and Solid organ injuries was found in 20% of the patients. The rate of negative laparotomy of this study was 7.2%. Complications and mortality were encountered in 31.25% and 2.5% respectively. The mean hospital stay was 9 days. Conclusion: The study shows no difference in the pattern of intra-abdominal injuries regardless of the means of penetrating abdominal injury. The rate of operative treatment is satisfactory, but laparotomies can be avoided in hemodynamically stable patients without peritonitis provided more sensitive investigations are available which can identify early/minor injuries. There is a need to identify new imaging modality/ procedure which helps to determine the management scheme. Till date many investigations / procedures have been proposed, but none have withstood the test of time. The overall outcome was acceptable and comparable to other studies.

  56. Rajkumar P.N., Dinesh M.G., Satish Babu N. and Venu Kumar K.N.

    Salivary gland swelling commonly encountered in routine surgical practice can present with diverse pathology and associated with various etiologies like inflammation, sialolithiasis and tumors. Clinical examination often helps to differentiate between cysts, inflammation and tumor. Wide range of patients with acute bacterial and viral infection of the salivary glands present with varied symptomatology and severity. Successful management of the salivary gland swelling depends on accurate clinical assessment and diagnosis, with appropriate use of fine needle aspiration and CT or MRI imaging. Moreover, knowledge about individual tumour type guides the development of an appropriate treatment plan for individual patient.

  57. Dr. Mayuri Naik, Dr. Ida de Noronha de Ataide, Dr. Marina Fernandes and Dr. Rajan Lambor

    Endodontics encompasses the study and practice of the basic and clinical sciences of the biology of the normal dental pulp and the etiology, diagnosis, prevention treatment of diseases and injuries of the dental pulp along with associated periradicular conditions. Endodontics has evolved tremendously in the past decade and its applications have immensely improved the quality of dental treatment. Hence exploring the different aspects of the principles of endodontics, tackling certain challenges will help to boost its development with the advantage of innovations in research and technology. This paper reviews the various advancements that can change the course of endodontics, as well as the challenges which when tackled can solemnize its future

  58. P. S. Ghalaut, Sudhir Kumar Atri, Manisha Sharma, Naresh Gaur, Arvind Chahal, Isha Pahuja and Varun Yadav

    The present prospective cross sectional study was conducted at Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana on 100 patients of pancytopenia of age group 14-65 years coming to OPD and admitted in hematology and medicine ward during year 2012-2013, over a period of 1 year. The patients were properly evaluated for their complete clinical profile & etiology of pancytopenia. Panctopenia was diagnosed in the presence of hemoglobin <12gm/dl, total leukocyte count (TLC) <4000/microL, platelet count <1,00,000/microL. Thorough relevant investigations were carried out. Most patients belong to young age group with mean age 42.87±15.54 years. Most common etiology of pancytopenia was megaloblastic anemia (39%) followed by aplastic anemia (29%), Aleukemic leukemia (15%) and other causes. Among megaloblastic anemia pure vitamin B12 deficiency was observed in 27 cases. On clinical examination pallor was present in 100% cases. 31% of patients had hepatomegaly, 27% of patients had splenomegaly. We compared the results of our study with other studies & concluded that clinico-hematological spectrum of pancytopenia varies from region to region.

  59. El-Hamaky, A.M., Atef A. Hassan, Heidy Abo El Yazeed and Refai, M. K.

    A total of one hundred feed samples were collected from Cairo and Giza governorates and screened for aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungal isolates. A total of 106 fungal isolates comprising, Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus and A. niger wererecovered from feed samples and tested for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The most predominant isolate was A. flavus, which was recovered at the range of (40-55%), followed by A. niger (30-50 %) and A. ochraceus (15-20%). Thirty three of 47 A. flavus isolates produced aflatoxin B1 and B2 at average levels of (170-750 ppb), while, 22 of 44 tested isolates of A. niger produced OTA with average levels of (100-550 ppb), whereas, 12 of 15 A. ochraceus isolatesproduced OTA at average levels of (300-700 ppb). Molecular identification of 16 toxigenic fungal isolates (5 A. flavus, 6 A. ochraceus and 5 A. niger) was carried out by PCR. The results of PCR of the DNA extracted from these isolates using ITS primer confirmed the identification of A. flavus, A. ochraceous and A. niger. The application of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) system directed against the nor-1 gene of the aflatoxins biosynthetic pathway was applied on the DNA extracted from the 5 selected strains of A. flavus. The amplification plot of the DNA samples indicated the presence of nor-1 gene in all aflatoxins-producing A. flavus isolates and in only one isolate of the negative aflatoxins-producing A. flavus. On the other hand, the use of primer set for amplification of omtB gene responsible for AF production amplified 611 bp fragments bands in all aflatoxigenic A. flavus, while, no band was detected in all negative aflatoxinogenic isolates. All the sequenced A. flavus isolates were confirmed to belong to A. flavus species and were 100% similar to the reference isolates of A. flavus. The application of PCR assays for detection of ochratoxigenic fungi using OCRA1/OCRA2 primers, amplified a single fragment of about 400 bp, when genomic DNA from ochratoxigenic A. ochraceus and non- ochratoxigenic A. ochraceus isolates were tested. No product was observed with genomic DNA from A. niger isolates. When, PCR assayswas applied using a pair of primers (Aopks1/Aopks2) for specific detection of ochratoxigenic fungi by targeting the metabolic pathway genes Polyketide Synthase (pks) specific to ochratoxin, a single fragment of about 549 bp was produced with all positive ochratoxigenic A. ochraceus isolates and 2 ochratoxigenic A. niger isolates. No product was observed with genomic DNA from all negative ochratoxigenic isolates of A. ochraceus and A. niger. Moreover, the combination of biochemical and molecular methods is needed to correctly evaluate the potential toxicological risk in feed caused by these fungi. Conclusion: the application of molecular biology technique was found to be rapid, highly specific, easy to perform and cost effective method to assist creation the programs used for reducing the risk of harmful effects of toxigenic fungi and their toxins to human and other farm animal's health.

  60. Dr. Srikrishna Raghavendra Boddu, Dr. M. Sudhakar Rao, Dr. Padmakumar, R. and Dr. Ashwal, A. J.

    Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare complication of syphilic aortitis and majority of cases have been reported only at autopsy. The prevalence of coronary ostial lesions with aortic regurgitation has been reported to be 14%. In the current era of penicillin where not many cases of syphilis can be seen, symptomatic tertiary syphilis presenting as ostial stenosis and aortic regurgitation is a rarity in itself. Here we report a case of cardiovascular syphilis presenting with isolated aortic regurgitation and syphilitic aortitis.

  61. Messaoudi, Y., Hedfi, M., Lagren, A., Kharrat, K., Chouchene, A. B. and Halima, N.

    Metastatic cardiac tumors are more frequent than primary tumors. Osteosarcomas very rarely metastasizes to the heart and to our knowledge, no cases have been reported to occur in the whole right cavity. We report a case of cardiac metastasis in a 77 year old patient with osteosarcoma of the humerus, presenting after more than one year of surgical treatment of primary lesion with signs of right heart failure and severe respiratory distress. Diagnosis was made on echocardiogram and chest CT scan: The patient had a large tumor within the right ventricle and atrium. It totally occluded the right ventricle outflow. Calcification was observed. No other metastatic site was detected. Intra cardiac metastasis from osteosarcoma rarely gain clinical attention. However patients should be followed up for cardiac involvement for long years.

  62. Dr. Ninad S. Gaikwad, Dr. Nilam U. Sathe, Dr. Rumita Ghosh, Dr. Rumita Ghosh and Dr. Dhanashree Chiplunkar,

    Introduction: Among the many other techniques employed, window shade grafting was first described by Calcaterra in 19722. We present our experience and results using this technique of tympanic membrane grafting in perforations with narrow anterior rim. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from 2004 to 2007. A total of 35 patients of chronic suppurative otitis media (tubotympanic type) with a perforation with narrow anterior rim were included in the study. 15 (42.8%) patients were male and 20 (57.1%) were female. The youngest patient was 9 years old and the oldest was 52 years, the mean age being 25.7 years. Conclusion: Tympanoplasty in a perforation with a narrow anterior rim has a poor result than posterior perforations primarily because of an inadequate scaffolding for the graft. Window shade tympanoplasty, therefore, gives good results in perforations with a narrow anterior rim with respect to graft take up rates as well as hearing results.

  63. Shamima Banoo, Gh. Mohd Bhat, Mohd.Saleem Itoo, ShaheenShahdad, Zahid Bashir, Parveen Akhter, PanditTafiq Johan and Gosia Nissa

    The present study was done in the department of Anatomy at Government Medical College Srinagar to study the variationsin the arrangement of structures at the hilum of kidney and their clinical Significance.30 kidneys (n:2) from 15(n:1) formalin preserved cadavers were taken for this study and anatomical variations of renal arteries and arrangement of structures at the hilum of each kidney was studied. It was observed that in one of the cadavers with supernumerary renal arteries arrangement of structures in the hilum of right kidney was arteries, vein and renal pelvis from anterior to posterior in contrast to the usual arrangement of vein, artery and renal pelvis. In this cadaver we found that renal right renal artery after originating from abdominal aorta at the level of first Lumbar vertebra divided into three branches. The superior branch (S) entered the upper pole of kidney, middle (M) and inferior branch (I) made their entry through the hilum but anterior to renal Vein. The inferior suprarenal artery (ISA) originated from superior the superior branch common renal artery (S). The origin and course and branching pattern of renal vessels on the left side of this cadaver was normal. In this series we do not found any accessory renal artery originating from coeliac trunk, superior mesenteric artery or common iliac artery. Though anomalies of renal artery are very common but usually the arrangement of structures at the hilum remains unchanged. The knowledge of this rare anomaly with change in pattern of structures at the renal hilum is very useful in Interventional Radiology/ Cardiology, planning laparoscopic renal transplants and urological surgeries with better prognosis.

  64. Dr. Seyed Reza Mousavi, Dr. Fares Najari and Dr. Majid Tabaghchi Ezzati

    Background and Objectives: Determining the cause of death is one of the most important diagnosis issued by doctors and lack of enough precision and failure to observe scientific principles can lead to serious legal problems for doctors. Lack of attention to the possibility of apparent death in the diagnosis of death, in addition to causing delay in CPR proceedings, can lead to victims family’s complains from doctors and make them face serious problems. This study can examine the cause of death determined after autopsy in dissection hall of Tehran Legal Medicine with the cause of death determined in treatment centers in 2012. Analysis method: A cross-sectional study was designed where data collection tools consisted of two parts: first part consisted of clinical information available in 4641 death files referred from health centers to the center of Tehran Legal Medicine as well as the cause of death based on the results of statistical program were provided. Findings: The highest percentage of non-identical cause of death is related to internal specialists with 47% and the lowest percentage of non-identical cause of death is related to neurosurgery specialists with 2%. Conclusion: The causes of death were different in many ways, based on the results it is suggest that a process be designed according to statistic of significantly incorrect diagnosis so that doctors can be informed of the results of autopsy and determination of final cause of death of their patients in order to have more accurate clinical diagnosis in case of facing with similar patients.

  65. Hedfi Mohamed, Charfi Mehdi, Messaoudi Ikram, Bouhafa Hela, Bouhawala Habib and Chouchene Adnen

    Splenic hydatidosis has been reported since ancient times. Berlot in 1790 was the first to describe splenic hydatidosis as an autopsy finding. It may be detected incidentally or present with non-specific complaints. It is endemic in cattle-rearing areas of South America, Africa, Middle East, South Europe, India, and Australia. The rarity of splenic hydatid disease poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, particularly in non-endemic areas. As the hydatid cyst can present as a simple cyst without having the classic serological and imaging features, and later can lead to life-threatening complications like anaphylaxis, hydatid disease of spleen should be considered in differential in every patient in endemic areas with cystic lesion of spleen until proved otherwise.

  66. Manoj Patil, Dr. Nilam U. Sathe, and Dhanashree Chiplunkar

    To determine positivity of lymph nodal metastases at level IIb in patients with oral and laryngeal cancers undergoing neck dissection Design: Prospective study Setting: Academic tertiary care referral center Patients: 50 patients undergoing neck dissection for oral and laryngeal cancer between June 2, 2008 and November 30, 2010, were prospectively analyzed. Patients with a history of neck dissection or whose pathology reports did not clearly distinguish the level IIb from other nodal levels were excluded from study. Interventions: Patients underwent neck dissection based on primary tumor site and well established regional lymphatic drainage patterns. Main outcome measure: Presence of histopathologically proven nodal disease at level IIb Results: Fifty patients underwent 61 neck dissections, 11 of which were bilateral. The prevalence of metastases at level IIb was 0% (0/23) in clinically No necks and 15.79% in clinically node positive necks(6/38) with overall incidence of 9.8%(6/61).there was no isolated metastases at level IIb .There was a stastically significant association between level IIa and IIb metastases(p=0.00). No significant association observed between metastases at level IIb and primary tumor site (p=0.398) and clinical N stage (p=0.075) Conclusion: The results of present study suggest that positivity of level IIb nodal metastases is rare in patients of oral and laryngeal cancer who underwent neck dissections.

  67. Bhokare, S. G. and Dongaonkar, C.C., Lahane, S.V., Tadvee, A.A, Joshi, R.P., Sharma, K.R. and Kulkarni, N. S.

    People are using herbal medicines from centuries for safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Plant and plant products have utilized with varying success to cure and prevent diseases throughout history. Due to side effects of synthetic products, herbal products are gaining popularity in the Indian market. Scenario and perceptions of herbal medicine are discussed. According to pharmacopeia of world, at least 119 distinct chemical substance derived from plant are important drugs currently use within 62 therapeutic categories and 91 species are the source of this drugs. The present article deals with the Current scenario of herbal medicine in India.herbal product are as old a human race. As herbal preparation gives various advantages over synthetic ones. Herbal formulations are getting popularity in the Indian market. Traditional pharma sectors as well as modern pharma sectors involved in production of nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and biopesticide. This review gives an account on current scenario of herbal product in Indian market like neutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and biopesticide which are preferred nowadays.

  68. Swati Aggarwal, Karuna Gupta, Arpita Jindal, Sachin Tomar, Ashok Gupta and Ajay Yadav

    Ganglion cell tumors in intersellar region are rare. They occur in combination with a pituitary adenoma. The etiopathogenesis of these collision tumors in the sellar region is not clearly defined. Whether these arise from cells of different histogenesis or they are derived from the same cell is still a matter of debate. We report a case of intersellar gangliocytoma with a pituitary adenoma presenting with acromegaly.

  69. Arti Khurana and Prof. Ghanshyam Dev

    A series of 100 patients presenting with suspected diagnosis of non traumatic acute abdomen have been studied by helical computed tomography with the aim to diagnose the etiology of pain, to suggest the mode of management and also to compare CT findings with clinical, ultrasound and operative findings wherever surgery was done. In the present study, pancreatitis was the most common cause of non traumatic acute abdomen present in 40% of the cases. Abscess was the second most common cause present in 20% cases. Appendicitis and urolithiasis was seen equally in 10% cases followed by cholecystitis and intestinal obstruction in 5% cases each. No abnormality was seen in 10% cases. Helical CT is an effective technique in the evaluation of patients with non traumatic acute abdominal pain, and it should be considered as an initial imaging modality in the emergency department to obtain new diagnostic information for faster and more accurate diagnosis (MacKersie et al., 2005).

  70. Vilas Kamble, Dipali Somkuwar and Sushilkumar Wankhade

    This study was conducted in order to known the occurence of MDR Salmonella typhi in Amravati city. Widal positive blood samples were collected and analysed for typhoid causative agent Salmonella typhi. The Salmonella typhi isolates were obtained and confirmed by various morphological, biochemical, cultural and molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella typhi isolates was carried out using disk diffusion method. Out of 400 blood samples, 230 samples showed the presence of Salmonella typhi. The isolates were obtained from blood specimen includes 93 (40.43%) Salmonella typhi isolates from male and 137 (59.57%) from female patients. The prevalence of Salmonella typhi isolates was found to be 57.5% in Widal positive blood samples with the 1:160 dilution. Out of 230 isolates of Salmonella typhi 124 isolates showed the resistance to more than five antibiotics among the 10 antibiotics tested and the prevalence rate of MDR Salmonella typhi was found to be 53.91%. The widespread resistance patterns were observed with amoxycillin, cefpodoxime, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, tetracycline and trimethoprime. Among all the tested antibiotics ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were found to be the most active antibiotics against (94.35%) Salmonella typhi isolates followed by co-trimoxazole against (83.48%) and nalidixic acid against (69.57%) Salmonella typhi isolates. From the present study it is clear that occurrence of MDR Salmonella typhi strains are high in the Amravati city and suggested to use the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin as a first line treatment for typhoid patients in the city.

  71. Ozer Birge, Deniz Arslan, Ilkan Kayar, Ozgur Coban, Utku Akgor, Seda Yegin, Suzan Tunc and Ferhat Cetin

    Background: Female genital mutilation is a commonly applied tradition in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It has three subtypes. Currently, it has been mostly illegal. But tradition still goes on. Methods: This study included 407 male and 412 female university students who study in Nyala University in the State of South Darfur. Students were questioned for the followings in common: age, faculty of study, reasons for female circumcision, effects of female circumcision on female sexual functions, and their views about the circumcision of the possible future daughter. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical analyses. Results: The rate of circumcision was 79.6 % in the female university students 73 % of the all male students prefer to marry uncircumcised women. Male students reported that female circumcision should be continued to be performed, and their future daughters should be circumcised (64.7%); female students reported that their future daughters should not be circumcised (77.7%). Conclusions: This study shows that even educated individuals in Africa demand female circumcision in spite of knowing its harms. It is therefore concluded that educational studies on this subject must be continued.

  72. Haerani Rasyid, Makbul Aman, Alvin Sengkareng, Dina Nilasari and St. Rabiul Zatalia, R.

    Background: Malnutrition is often found in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inflammation is an important factor in the complications of CKD. However, until now it is unclear whether the inflammatory reaction is a major cause of malnutrition or just merely signs in CKDpatients. Aim: Know the role of inflammation to the incidence of malnutrition in predialysis CKDpatients. Methods: Observational study with cross sectional method on October 2010-March 2011 in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Makassar. The study population was CKD patients men and women (15-70 years) who had never received renal replacement therapy and met the inclusion criteria. Results: This study involved 64 predialysis CKD subjects (29 men (45.3%)), in which 54 subjects (84.4%) with malnutrition. The correlation between inflammation and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) shows GFR is negatively correlated with hsCRP levels (p=0.762) on malnutrition subject, but shows positive correlation in not malnourished subjects (p=0.250). In GFR <15 mL/min/1,73m2 there is a positive correlation between albumin and SGA score with levels of hsCRP levels (p=0.085; p=0.488); BMI and LLA are negatively correlated with hsCRP levels (p=0.426; p=0.345). In GFR 15-29 mL/min/1,73m2 there is a negative correlation between albumin, BMI and LLA with hsCRP levels (p=0.699; p=0.046; p=0.936); SGA scores is positively correlated with hsCRP levels (p=0.581). In GFR 30-59 mL/min/1,73m2 there is a negative correlation between albumin levels and LLA with hsCRP levels (p=0.071; p=0.027); SGA score and BMI is positively correlated with hsCRP levels (p=1.000; p=0.350). In GFR ≥60 mL/min/1,73m2 there is a positive correlation between albumin, SGA score, BMI and LLA with high levels of hsCRP (p=0.800; p=0.400; p=0.000; p=0.262). Conclusion: We found an increased incidence of malnutrition and inflammation in predialisis CKDsubjects, but no correlation between them.

  73. Amandeep Kaur

    Contraceptive methods are used to alter or avoid the body's natural state of fertility, thereby preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse. A comparative study was conducted to assess preference and usage of contraceptive methods among 100 married women of selected rural and urban areas of District Ludhiana, Punjab by using convenience sampling technique, The findings of the present study revealed that, Male condom was 1st preferred contraceptive method both in rural area & urban area. In relation to usage, the most commonly used contraceptive method in rural area was standard day’s method & in urban area, it was female sterilization. While age, education, duration of married life & number of male child, had significant relationship with usage of contraceptives. Hence it is further recommended to do this study on large sample for better generalization. Moreover, an exploratory study can be done to identify the factors associated with usage of contraceptive methods.

  74. Patel Puja Bharat and Bharat Paul

    Introduction: The national Capital region of Delhi is the hub of call centers in India. There are a lot of occupational health problems in call center employees. There are physical, psychological and behavioral deviations among them. This paper aims to study the psychological problems in call handlers employed in international call centers in the national capital region of Delhi, India. Objective: To measure the level of perceived stress, anxiety and depression among call handlers working in call centers in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR), India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 call handlers aged 18-39 years in the months of June and July 2015. The study is being conducted at two reputed call centers located in the national Capital region of Delhi. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale- 42 (DASS-42) is being used to measure stress, anxiety, and depression along with a pretested questionnaire containing socio demographic profile of the participants. The data obtained at the end of the study was analyzed for the presence of stress, anxiety and depression in the call centre handlers. Results: Of the 200 participants, 40% were married, 52 % were unmarried and the rest were either divorced or in a live in relationship. Most of them (60%) worked in night shifts and the rest worked in day shifts or both day and night shift. The prevalence of stress, anxiety, and depression among call handlers was 56.7%, 47.1%, and 52.9% respectively. In our study almost 69% of the study population had some form of sleep problems. The main reasons given for the sleep problems were night shifts (66%) and long working hours (34%). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression in the call handlers employed in international call centers in the national capital region of New Delhi, India. There is also a high prevalence of sleep problems in this group. With the boom in the call center industry in India, the health of these young people is at stake. Public health specialists must also focus on this group of people and their problems must be properly addressed.

  75. Vijender Khokhar, Rashmi Singh and Anuradha Pathak

    In view of the global epidemic of untreated caries in children there is an urgent need to establish a scoring system that both assesses and quantifies various advanced stages of caries. The DMF index despite having limitations has been widely utilized in oral epidemiological surveys. It is recommended by the WHO for measuring and comparing the experience of dental caries in populations. The future new research in caries epidemiology will depend on finding an ideal caries index. There are many promising new caries indices purposed, but still there is a need for further studies to evaluate their validity and reliability before they can replace DMFT index.

  76. Jain Hetal and Patel Hinal

    Background: Although LBP during pregnancy is a common clinical problem, no study was found documenting prevalence of LBP during pregnancy in rural women in India mainly Anand district. Objectives: To find prevalence of LBP during pregnancy in rural women and to identify risk factors associated with LBP during pregnancy in rural women. Methods: 200 pregnant rural women were recruited from villages of Charotar region with help of Anganwadi workers and from nearby Hospitals. After consideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria informed consent was taken. Details regarding demographic data of women and Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain questionnaire (MOS) was taken in women who complained of back pain. Results: Prevalence of LBP during pregnancy was found 32%. Pain onset was frequently reported in second trimester of pregnancy (60.93%) and was reported in low back area. Out of total 64 women with back pain; fifty eight (90.62%) women had only LBP while remaining six women (9.37) had LBP with leg pain. Severity of LBP during pregnancy was described as being mild pain (45.31%), moderate pain (46.87%) and severe pain (7.81%). Conclusion: LBP is common problem during pregnancy in rural women and most important risk factors are LBP during previous pregnancy and menstruation.

  77. Bharat Paul, Patel Puja Bharat and Yashodha, V.

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in both developed and developing country. As per global health estimates,WHO-2013,about 508000 females died of breast cancer in 2011.Though breast cancer is considered a disease of developed countries, in recent years a rising incidence of cases is also being seen in developing countries. India is no exception to this. Breast cancer is on the rise particularly in urban areas. Objective: To find the awareness regarding breast cancer in women in an urban area of Rohtak, Haryana. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in urban area of district Rohtak, Haryana, India. The study was conducted in 300 households in an urban area. Married females in the age group of 18-60 in the selected houses were interviewed using a pre tested schedule to get an insight about their awareness of breast cancer. Only one female per household was selected. Results: Majority of the participants were aware of breast cancer but lacked proper knowledge about the about the risk factors of the disease. Most of the participants were unaware of correct technique of breast self examination. About 70 women admitted of having some disorder in breast (lump, cracks, discharges, pain and tenderness).Only 25 of these sought medical check up from a registered medical practitioner. Others sought help from other females of their locality or quacks. A considerable number of participants admitted they were not comfortable discussing this subject within their homes. Conclusion: In recent years there has been a rapid spurt of cases of Breast cancer in India. The mortality associated with the cases is considerably higher in India compared to the developed countries. This can be attributed to lack of proper knowledge and the taboo associated with the subject. Increasing the knowledge of women in self examination techniques and the screening procedures for early detection and management of breast cancers can reduce the morbidity and mortality of females to great extent

  78. Walaa M. ElBasuone, Ayman El-Dorf and Ehab Elhelw

    Background: diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes is of utmost importance in the field of obstetrics to decrease possible complications and prevent unneeded intervention. However, there is no gold standard marker for diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes. Aim of the work: This prospective case control study was done to compare the reliability of vaginal fluid creatinine and quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin for diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes. Patients and Methods: The study included 150 pregnant women between 25-34 weeks of gestation attending Al-Azhar University Hospitals. They were divided into three groups: Group (I) (confirmed PROM) consisted of 50 patients with positive history of vaginal leakage and positive fluid leakage observed using sterile Cusco speculum. Group (II) (Suspected PROM) consisted of 50 patients with positive history of vaginal leakage and negative fluid leakage observed using sterile Cusco speculum. Group (III) consisted of 50 pregnant women without any complaint or complication. All patients underwent full history, general examination, abdominal examination and sterile Cusco speculum examination. The vagina was washed by injection with a syringe filled with 3ml of saline solution, and 3ml the washing fluid was collected from the posterior vaginal fornix. The collected fluid was sent immediately to the laboratory for measuring of vaginal fluid creatinine & quantitative HCG. Results: The study showed that there was no significant statistical difference between confirmed, suspected and control groups as regard maternal age, parity and gestational age. There was significant statistical difference between confirmed, suspected and control groups as regard amniotic fluid index. The number of patients with AFI≤ 9 cm was 32 patients in confirmed group, 17 patients in suspected group and 4 patients in the control group. On the other hand the patients with the AFI >9 cm was 18 patients in confirmed group, 33 patients in suspected group and 46 patients in the control group. Analysis of results using Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the best cutoff point for vaginal fluid creatinine among the studied groups in our study was 0.7 mg/dl with sensitivity, specificity, +ve predictive value, +ve predictive value and accuracy were all 100%. In addition, analysis of results using ROC curve showed that the best cutoff point for vaginal fluid HCG among the studied groups in our study was 47.0 mIU/mL with sensitivity 94%, specificity 86%, +ve predictive value 93.1%, +ve predictive value 87.8% and accuracy 91.3%. Conclusion: both vaginal fluid creatinine and HCG concentrations are good predictors of PROM but measurement of vaginal fluid creatinine is more reliable and less expensive than measurement of vaginal fluid HCG in diagnosing PROM.

  79. Adhav Rahul, Sonawane Hiralal and Deokule Subhash

    For the past 30 years, the Sanger method has been the dominant approach for DNA sequencing. In the new era of high-throughput sequencing the genomic analysis now referred as next-generation sequencing (NGS). Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened fascinating opportunities for the analysis of sequences. During the last few years, NGS methods have become widely available and cost effective. They can be applied to a wide variety of biological fields. In this review, fundamental principles of commercially available NGS platforms are discussed. Although differences in their working and sequencing qualities, through cycles of polymerase-mediated nucleotide extensions in one approach, through successive oligonucleotide ligations, sequence outputs in the range of hundreds of megabases to gigabases are now obtained routinely..In this review, the impact of NGS on basic research, bioinformatics considerations, and translation of this technology and a view into future technologies, including various sequencing technologies are highlighted.

  80. Nino Lomtatidze, EterMachutadze, Nargiza Alasania and Aleko Kalandia

    Decorative bushes introduced in Batumi Botanical Garden: AbeliaGrandiflora (Andre) Rhed, Forsythia ViridissimaLindl and Pieris Japonica Thunb. D. in the humid subtropical zone of the Black Sea are characterized with high growth rhythm and abundant blossom. Therefore, these plants are widely used in greening and phitodesign of sea coast parks and orchards. The aim of our research was to determine the consistency of the antocianes and phlavanoidic glycosides in the introduced decorative bushes for the medical and cosmetic purposes.

  81. Dr. Parveen Banu, K. and Kirthiga, E.

    Home textile is an important segment of technical textiles, which covers soft and hard sectors depending on the unique characteristic of the product. New design concept and innovation are the areas to be explored to impart functional features, which may sometimes been derived from apparel technology. India is globally recognized and appreciated for its wide variety and exquisite designs in home textiles & furnishing fabrics. The country is on the verge of a big boom in the affordable housing sector and there is good growth in employment opportunities, especially in the services sector and hence high disposable incomes in the hands of young consumers. A combined result of these factors have seen the demand for home textile products growing by a healthy 30-40% per annum This paper highlights the various products like filter fabrics, carpet backing cloth, soft toys, wall coverings, floor coverings, window blinds, furniture fabrics, mosquito nets etc., and their future prospects in the technical textiles sector.

  82. Sreenu Noothi, Sunil Kumar Ausula, Venkateswar Chinna and Maruthiram Ganagaraju

    The present study deals with the effect of dominance of Tilapia on fisheries of minor reservoir. In the present study two reservoirs were selected with almost equal water speared area and analyzed for three years. Julur was selected as experimental reservoir due to the dominance of Tilapia (61.23%), where as Bibinagar (17028’48.6N, 78047’34.7”E) was selected as control reservoir, where Tilapia population was negligible (0.27%). The physico-chemical parameters indicated the mesotrophic nature of water in both the reservoirs. The Ichthyofuna diversity in both reservoirs was almost similar. Five major carp’s fry were stocked with similar quantities in three years in both reservoirs. The production of major carps was significantly (t 22.98, P<0.05) effected in Julur due to the dominance of Tilapia when compared to Bibinagar. Tilapia production was also differed significantly (t 5.73, P<0.05) which was more in Julur. Tilapia was responsible for requirement of more major carp fry for production of 1kg major carps. Tilapia also affected the growth rate of major carps; 1kg of major carps was attained in the early part of the third year in Tilapia dominated reservoir when compared to that of Bibinagar, where major carp attained 1kg in 1year. Tilapia consumed more amount of Zooplankton which effected the significant reduction in the growth and production of major carps. The present study indicated that Tilapia population plays a negative role in the growth and production of desirable fishes.

  83. Majdah Mohamed Ahmed Aburas

    Efficient and safe wastewater treatment methods with low costs with minimum requirements are urgently needed instead of conventional and currently used methods. The aim of the present study was to isolate resistant microbes from wastewater treatment plant and selection of the most active isolate for bioremediation process. Three different waste water samples were collected from Bani Malek, heated and used for actinomycetes isolation on starch nitrate agar with Cu++ and Cd++. All plates were incubated at 45ᵒC for 10 days and the obtained bacterial colonies were purified and preserved. Growth and resistance to different concentration of heavy metals including Cu++, Cd++, Ni++ and Pb++ of the five obtained bacterial isolates were determined in minimum broth medium. The isolate WW1 was the most resistant isolate, thus it was identified as Streptomyces sp WW1 using different methods including morphological, physiological and biochemical methods .The selected and identified Streptomyces sp was used for removal of heavy metals from treated waste water of Bani Malek Plant. The removal percentages (%) were 12%, 22%, 16%, 24%,12% and 11% for Cd++, Cr++, Cu++, Fe++, Ni++ and Zn++. Moreover, it was 79 and 32% for Mn++ and Pb++ respectively. In conclusion, actinomycetes genus Streptomyces can be used safely for heavy metal bioremediation processes.

  84. Shadrack Inoti, Shabani Chamshama, Lulther Lulandala, Wilson Thagana and Rob Dodson

    Jojoba is a dioecious desert shrub which produces high quality oil used in cosmetics and lubrication. An experiment was conducted to identify the most appropriate plant growth regulators and genotypes for Jojoba propagation. A 4x4 factorial arrangement laid down in a randomized complete block design was used with 16 treatments replicated 3 times. Treatments comprised of 4 factors of growth regulators and 4 types of genotypes. The experiment was carried out for 5 months in 2013. The variables sampled included roots, leaves and shoot. ANOVA was carried out using SAS statistical package and means were separated using Duncan,s Multiple Range Test at p ≤ 0.05. Results showed that Anatone growth regulator gave significantly superior rooting of 24.2% for cuttings compared with the control (11.5%). The male genotypes showed significantly higher rooting of 24.2-37.6% compared with the females (2.2-7.6%). Anatone is recommended for propagation of cuttings in a polythene sheet tunnel since it is also cheap and readily available from agri-veterinary shops. Further research is recommended on screening of a wide range of genotypes especially the females and plant growth regulators for future propagation of Jojoba.

  85. Aluri Swapna, Venu, S. and Divya Singh

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the socio-economic condition of the coastal community residing near the mangrove habitats of South Andaman Islands. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the survey data. Essential information e.g. employment, education, hygiene, family size, income and utilization of nearby mangrove regions were taken into consideration. A total of 120 households were surveyed and it was found that middle age group was highest (58.8%) and young group was lowest (2.5%), represented by 87.5% Hindu. Most of the inhabitants were private job holders (57.5%) followed by professional fishermen (37.5), government (3.75%), and government retired (6.25%). Fishermen were of two type part time (62.5%) and professional fishermen (37.5%). Fishing activity was carried out solely by male gender with no involvement of women. Positive correlation was estimated between the source of income and fishermen type (r=0.89) explaining most of the private job holder as part-time fishermen. About 57.5% of respondents monthly income was low (1000-5000/-) while 36.5% and 10% earned medium and high monthly income respectively. Average highest monthly income was generated by fishermen 7200/- and lowest by government employ 5666.7/-. Coastal population were immigrants belonging to various states of mainland India, 55% represented from West Bengal settled before Indian independence (Pre-1942-63.75%). About 16.25% of the population were illiterate, 22.5% acquired primary level, 48.75% secondary level and 12.5% higher secondary level of education. Most of the household were constructed of concrete with asbestos roof (48.75%), supplied with electricity (97.5%) and with proper government drinking water supply (87.5). However it was found that coastal population was utilizing mangrove environments not merely for fishing but also for sanitation (33.5%) and garbage disposal (50%) which was a major constrain. Lack of scientific knowledge about mangrove ecosystem and fishing license, government help for fishing equipments transportation and less number of inhabitants with higher education were the major drawback during the study.

  86. Mahesh, N., Leela Rani, P., Sreenivas, G. and Madhavi, A.

    A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2013 at College farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad with three plant densities 66,666 plants ha-1, 88,888 plants ha-1 and1,11,111 plants ha-1 and four nitrogen levels 120 kg ha-1, 180 kg ha-1, 240 kg ha-1 and 300 kg ha-1. The results revealed that population density of 88,888 plants ha-1 was found to be economical with higher grain yield (7597 kg ha-1), stover yield (9929 Kg ha-1) with high net return (Rs. 65,476 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.9) but it was onpar with 1,11,111 plants ha-1. However population density of 66,666 plants ha-1 recorded more dry matter production per plant. Application of 300 kg N ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain yield (8, 425 Kg ha-1), stover yield (10,638 Kg ha-1), net return (Rs 75,982) and B:C ratio (3.2) over 120 kg N ha-1 and 180 kg N ha-1. However, grain (8349 Kg ha-1) and stover yield (10525 Kg ha-1), net return (Rs 75233) and B:C ratio (3.2) obtained at 240 kg N ha-1 were on par with 300 kg N ha-1.

  87. Maka Muradashvili, Mariam Metreveli, Julieta Jakeli, Galina Meparishvili, Feride Tchaidze and Dali Kamadadze

    The article discusses the results of screening for antibacterial activity of Dendron plant extracts growing in humid subtropical zone of Western Georgia, Ajara. Phythopatogenic bacteria, an important, quarantinable microorganism Ralstonia solanacearum, giving economic loss, was selected as the test-culture. We used the strains collected in 2012-2014, which were isolated from different bacterial recipient plants (potato, tomato, pepper). 7 strong and 12 medium of antibacterial activity out of the studied 60 species have been identified.

  88. Bimal Debnath, Amal Debnath, Chiranjit Paul and Kripamoy Chakraborty

    Allelopathic effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extract of invasive tree para rubber is assayed in the laboratory condition on germination and seedling growth of four commonly cultivated leguminous crops of Tripura. Both the extracts were strongly hinder the seed germination and seedling growth of Cicerarietinum, Lens culinaris and Vignaradiata, applied in very lower concentration (0.62-2.5% aqueous and 0.1mg/ml – 0.5mg/ml methanol extract). With the increase of concentration, germination, radical and plumule growth of these three species were highly reduced and no germinations were recorded in the experimental sets treated with 5% aqueous solution. Our study reveals that one of the test crop V. mungo is resistant to that effect, in which IC50 values for germination was recorded very high (25.89%). Our investigation also showed that, aqueous extract has strong allelopathic potentiality than the methanolic extract. This allelopathic potentiality may be the one of the causes and consequences of rubber plantation that does not support the understory vegetation. The result of this investigation may be utilized in the field experiment and the selection of its coexisting species with rubber plantation for the production of herbage and fodder.

  89. Sunita Jhariya and Dr. Aruna Jain

    An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Vegetative Growth, Flowering and Fruiting of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized bloc design with 8 treatments using chemical fertilizers (NPK), vermicompost and biofertlizers (Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria) in different combinations including one control treatment. The results indicated that maximum growth parameters i.e. plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, number of flowers and fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. was recorded in T7 treatment compared to other treatments. From the analysis of result it can be concluded that integrated use of biofertilizers, chemical fertilizers and vermicompost treatments significantly increased growth parameters of Coriandrum sativum L.

  90. Rolli, N. M., Gadi, S. B., Giraddi, T. P., Paramanna, D. and Giddannavar, H. S.

    The present study was focused to assess the levels of different heavy metals (xenobiotics) like Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe in vegetables irrigated with waste water (sewage). The results indicated a sustainable build up of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with sewage. The maximum accumulation of inc in sewage irrigated vegetable noticed is Radish root (81.4 ± 2.08 µg/g). Similarly copper in radish root (29.9 ± 1.28 µg/g ), Manganese in radish root (181.1± 1.84 µg/g), Nickel in radish root (15.8 ± 1.57 µg/g), Lead in radish root (46.40 ± 0.77 µg/g), Cadmium in radish root (11.41 ± 1.41 µg/g) and Iron in coriander root (661.0 ± 2.03 µg/g). The accumulation of heavy metals in sewage irrigated soil and vegetables has caused increasing concern. The use of sewage is a common practice in majority of urbans and periurbans An investigation made on the impact of sewage for irrigation on the soil and potentiality of vegetables for the accumulation of heavy metals from the soil. The vegetables have a potentiality for the accumulation of heavy metals from the soil and thus, cleans up the environment, however, the consumption of contaminated heavy metals present in the vegetables has positive impact on the health of man. Regular monitoring of levels of these metals from the sewage, in vegetables and in other food materials is essential to present excessive buildup of these xenobiotics in the food chain.

  91. Rituraj Darnal, Mondal, T. K. and Bandyopadhyay, A. K.

    The study has been attempted with a specific objective i.e. To focus on the understanding of the utilization of farm based resources within the rural areas of the North Eastern region to integrate such agrarian ecosystem to the mainstream of the economy by developing it into tourism areas through community participation. The research work is the outcome of the analysis drawn from relevant literatures since the initialization of policies for farm based tourism to get a broader insight of the concept of ecotourism, to build environmental and cultural awareness among people for conserving bio-cultural diversity while generating income using the rural ecosystem. It is expected that the concept will help the policymakers draw strategies to develop the rural agrarian areas into profitable tourism venture to reduce poverty in isolated and underdeveloped and problem areas without damaging the ecosystem.

  92. Ibrahim A. Mashaly, Mohamed Abd El-Aal, Heshmat S. Aldesuquy and Baedaa A. Mahdee

    This study aimed at characterizing the floristic features of plant species associated with four wild medicinal plants in the Egyptian deserts. Two plants were chosen from the inland north part of the Eastern desert (Wadi Hagul and Wadi El-Molak) namely Pulicaria undulata (L.) C. A. Mey. and Hyoscyamus muticus L., and the two other species were selected from the coastal desert along the Deltaic Mediterranean Sea coast namely Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum and Nicotiana glauca R.C. Graham. A total of 125 plant species belonging to 107 genera and 29 families were recorded. Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Brassicaceae were the leading families which represented by 55.2% of the total number of recorded species. Preponderance of perennials, therophytes and Saharo-Sindian/ Mediterranean taxa indicating the semi-arid and arid climateof the study area. Four vegetation groups or community types were yielded after TWINSPAN and named after the first dominant species. Group A: Zygophyllum coccineum, group B: Pulicaria undulata, group C: Calligonum polygonoides and group D: Nicotiana glauca. Z. coccineum community dominated Wadi Hagul bed. P. undulata community occupied Wadi El-Molak bed. C. polygonoides community dominated the roadside and sand formation habitats. Furthermore, N. glauca community inhabited roadside of the coastal desert. In addition, these communities were apparently segregated along DCA-axes.

  93. Ashlesha Jambure and Deepali Vaishnav

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) worldwide and a leading cause of Diabetes Mellitus related morbidity and mortality, which can be assessed by estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate. The early detection of renal dysfunction in subjects with diabetes is of vital importance as appropriate interventions have been shown to retard the progression of ESRD. We compared advantages of serum Cystatin C over Serum Creatinine for determination of early Decline in Glomerular Filtration Rate in Type ll Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Materials and methods: In the present study on 30 Type ll diabetic patients and 30 non-diabetic controls, we compared the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) from serum Cystatin C and the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate from serum Creatinine. Result: Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) from serum Cystatin C was significantly decreased in patients as compared with eGFR from Serum Creatinine. Conclusion: Serum Cystatin C is a better parameter for assessing GFR In type ll Diabetes Mellitus for diagnosing early diabetic nephropathy than serum Creatinine.

  94. Chaudhari, D. D., Prajapati, M. R., Thakar, K. P. and Chaudhary, K. L.

    The present study entitled "Estimate the compound growth rates of area, production and yield of summer bajra in Banaskantha district of Gujarat state" was undertaken to calculate the compound growth rates of area, production and productivity of summer bajra. The study is based on data collected from 126 farmers selected from 6 randomly selected villages and 20 market functionaries in two market areas namely Deesa and Tharad of Banaskantha district of Gujarat state. To calculate the compound growth rates by exponential function was fitted to the indices of area, production and productivity. The compound growth rates for area, production and productivity were positive and statistically highly significant in case of Banaskantha district as well as in Gujarat state.

  95. Tarai, R. K. and Ghosh, S. N.

    A trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of nutrients on growth, yield and qulity of sweet orange cv. Mosambi at regional research station, Jhargram of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. Growth in terms of canopy height, basal girth and canopy volume were significantly improved with application of nutrients and maximum growth was observed in plants received with (N200P75K150g + neem cake 2.0kg)/ plant / year followed by (N200P75K150g + neem cake 2.0kg + VAM)/plant/year. Highest average fruit yield (9.0kg/plant) was obtained with application of 200g nitrogen, 75g phosphorus and 150g potassium in combination with 2.0kg of neem cak as compared with control (3.0kg/plant). The fruit quality in terms of total soluble solids, total sugar, TSS: acid ratio and vitamin C content of fruits were obtained from plants received with (N200P75K150g + neem cake 2.0kg). The highest fruit yield was associated with the foliar N.P.K concentration of 2.30, 0.12 and 1.30 percent respectively.

  96. Nagham Saddon and Zuraini Zakaria

    A field experiment was carried out in clay soil to investigate the effects of gibberellic acid and proline, and their interaction on the vegetative characteristics of Zea mays L. cultivar Fajir-1. The experiments were carried out based on the Randomised Complete Block Design. Gibberellic acid and proline were sprayed twice on the plant leaves at the concentration of 100 and 200 mg/l. The first application was during the stage of 4-6 leaves, and the other application was at the beginning of flowering stage. The results show that the addition of gibberellic acid at the concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/l, and the proline at the concentration of 200 mg/l significantly affected the studied characteristics including: plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area and shoot and root fresh weights. The results also show that the interaction between gibberellic acid and proline did not show any significant effects on the studied characteristics except for the leaf area.

  97. Svilen Raykov and Krasimira Tanova

    In laboratory and greenhouse conditions in Episkop Konstantin Preslavski University of Shumen, during the period 2013-2014 studies were performed of fungal isolates from rhizosphere of “slaughtered” plants of sugar beet. The ability of a variety of sustaining media for the cultivation of the isolates and the influence of factors soil herbicide (Dual) and humidity of the environment for the growth and aggressiveness of the different isolates was studied. It was found that Alternaria ssp. Grows well on organic environment; corn agar can be referred to as a selective medium for Pythium ssp.; more aggressive cause of slaughtering is Pythium ssp., and weaker - Afternaria ssp.; their aggressiveness is maximized in the presence of the entire complex tested isolates; at 70% and 90% от soil humidity the herbicide dal in a dosage of 4500 ml/ha suppresses the aggressiveness of Pythium ssp. and stimulates that of Aiternaria ssp.

  98. Svilen Raykov and Krasimira Tanova

    The studies were conducted in the laboratory of plant protection at Konstantin Preslavski University of Shumen in 2015. Under in vitro conditions the influence of 7 concentrations of aqueous extract of tutsan leaves (Hypericum perforatum L.) on growth and aggressiveness of isolates of fusarium root decay in beet (Fusarium oxysporum) was investigated. The contents of the extract of the tutsan in a concentration 10,15 and 20 ml/l nutrition media increases as the growth of mycelium, as the aggressiveness of the pathogen. The content of the extract of tutsan in a concentration 10 ml/l nutrition media inhibits spore-formation of the agent during the period from 24h to 72h.

  99. Mohd. Shahnawaz, Manisha K. Sangale and Avinash B. Ade

    Due to high durability, cheap cost and ease of manufacture, billion tons of plastic based products are manufactured, which leads to generation of millions tons of plastic waste annually around the globe. Of the total plastic waste, polythene shared 64%. The plastic waste finally enters into the sea through different water bodies and leads to deaths of million sea animals. Among the various methods used to dispose plastic waste, biodegradation is considered as the most accepted, ecofriendly and cost effective method. In the present study, rhizosphere soil of Avicennia marina was collected from Vashi, Maharashtra, India. Total numbers of bacterial isolates recorded from the rhizosphere soil were 22 only. Screening of polythene degradation was carried out based on percent weight loss (% WL) after 4 months of regular shaking at room temperature. After 4 months period maximum % WL (10.63±0.77%) was recorded with VASB10 at pH 7. The characterization of polythene degrading bacteria is under progress.

  100. Kajal Jimmy Sareriya

    Prefilled syringes are a fast growing alternatives to vials for many drug products. Increased interest in prefilled syringes is largely driven by the advantages they offer relative to the vials. Currently, most prefilled syringes are made of glass, but plastic syringes are gaining popularity, particularly in applications for which glass is an unsuitable delivery system. Plastic has been an alternative to glass in prefilled syringes since the early 1990’s. Earliest plastics were, however, made of polypropylene which did not offer the clarity of glass, many of its barrier properties or ease of sterilization. Polypropylene plastics also presented more challenges regards to extractables and leachables than glass due to the lack of historic data. Polymers are considered to get weathered due to the direct or indirect impact of heat and ultraviolet light. The effectiveness of the stabilizers against weathering depends on solubility, ability to stabilize in different polymer matrix, the distribution in matrix, evaporation loss during processing and use. Various stabilizers used as stabilizers for polymers are antioxidants like benzofuranones, and UV absorbers like oxanilides for polyamides, benzophenones for PVC, benzotriazoles for polycarbonate are used. Manufacturers have developed a new polymer such as cyclo olefin copolymer that are able to hold against glass. Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC) is an amorphous polymer made by several polymer manufacturers. COC is a relatively new class of polymers when compared to polypropylene and polyethylene. An analysis done for the comparison of drug stability in glass versus plastic containers is also been covered in this paper.

  101. Saifkhaleel Ibrahim, Dr. Arkan B. Mohammed and Dr. Ahmed T. Taha

    The study was conducted at the animal farm, Department of Animal production, College of Agriculture - University of Tikrit, included field experimentation which conducted during 28/3/2013 to 9/5/2013 The present study was conducted to explore the effect of different levels of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) Seeds powder and aqueous extract on Performance of production of the Broiler Chickens , the study include 525 chicks of broiler from un sexed hybrids (Hubbard), day one-old from Samarra's Salahaldin province, The chicks were divided randomly at the age of 2 week to seven treated groups each group has three replicates and each replicate included 25 chicks were treated as follows : T1. Control without any addition, T2.T3.T4. Supplemented with powdered seeds of the Neem to diet at ratios of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g / kg of diet respectively ,T5.T6.T7. supplemented extract of the seeds Neem to drinking water by 20.30 and 40 ml / liter of water respectively. The results of the study showed that: A significant (p <0.05) for aqueous extract treatments of Neem seed and especially Add 40 ml / liter of drinking water in the rate of body weight (g)compared to the control groupwhilst not recorded any significant differences in theincrease weight rate andfeed conversation rate efficiency.

  102. Justin R. Nayagam

    Rooting ability in IBA induced rooting experiments largely depends on the medium used for rooting this has been established using SVI (sprouting value index), which, is a mathematical approach. Coral bush, Ardesia littoralisis a medicinal and avenue plant species of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Malesia. Field studies were carried out using three rooting medium at a location in Central Kerala, Peninsular India, for three times at four months regular interval. Three IBA (Indole3-butyric acid) concentrations 100 ppm, 200 ppm and 500 ppm IBA, have been used and the data obtained was evaluated with SVI (sprouting value index) method in order to evaluate the suitable medium, which gives maximum results. The control cuttings do not recorded rooting. The results obtained indicate high SVI (sprouting value index), when stem root cuttings planted in root trainers with coir pith compost (RTCP) for all the three concentration of IBA applied. Sprouting percentage was increased and the delay in completion of sprouting/rooting initiation decreased by the use of IBA treatment.

  103. Bhale, U. N.

    The environmental infectivity caused by extreme use of chemical pesticides increased the interests in integrated pest management (IPM), where chemical pesticides are substituted by bio-pesticides to control plant pests and plant diseases. Genus Trichoderma has high ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungus by secreting some enzymes. Trichoderma is an asexually reproducing filamentous fungus and a species aggregate. An effective biological control agent should be genetically stable, effective at low concentrations, easy to mass produce in culture on inexpensive media and be effective against a wide range of pathogens. The mechanisms of Trichoderma include direct competition with the target organism, antibiosis and parasitism of the target organism and induce resistance of the host plant. Therefore various agricultural by products were evaluated for mass production of Trichoderma species worldwide. Trichoderma haarzianum and T. viride was found suitable carrier materials to formulate various agro wastes. Biological control of plant pathogens through antagonists is a potential, ecofriendly and a sustainable approach apart them being a promising alternative to the use of chemicals. The major issue involved in mass production and utilization of biocontrol agents are selection of effective strains, development cost effective methods, for mass multiplication, effective methods for storage, consignment and its formulation. Abiotic factors also have a profound effect on the production and activities of enzymes and antibiotics associated with biocontrol by Trichoderma species.

  104. Ramandeep Kaur and Sonika Sharma

    The goal of this study was to determine the food intake by the faculty of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana. A random selection of 240 university faculty from PAU was made. A questionnaire was designed to assess general characteristics, daily food intakes among university faculty. Dietary survey was carried out by using “24 hour recall method” for three consecutive days and food intake was compared with the suggested dietary intakes (ICMR 2010) and percent adequacies were calculated. The food groups like pulses and legumes, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, fats and oils and sugar were more than suggested intake i.e. 91.49g (152.48%). 286.22g (143.11%),162.55g (162.55%),483.53ml (161.18%), 24.31g (121.55%), 25.25g (126.25%) respectively by females and 83.66g (111.55%). 300.40g (150.20%), 144.27g (144.27%), 505.06 ml (168.35%), 26.62g (106.48%), 23.41g (117.05%) respectively by male respondents. The mean daily intake of various food groups were inadequate like cereals, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables when compared with the suggested intakes i.e. 164.92g (61.08%), 54.62g (54.62%), 90.63g (45.31%) respectively by female respondents and 182.78 g (48.74 %), 82.17g (82.17%), 74.09g (37.04%) respectively in case of male respondents.

  105. Nikolay Tsenov and Georgi Raykov, Todor Gubatov

    The study was conducted to examine whether there are real opportunities for the creation of ultra early-winter wheat, using wheat with spring type of development. To achieve the target 24 hybrid combinations between 6 and 8 early spring winter wheat varieties in two consecutive years are made. With different vernalization requirement of plant populations in an artificial climate in the greenhouse winter and spring type plants habit are separate through consistent double selections. Subsequently all the developed lines are checked in respect of field winter cold tolerance for two winter seasons. Combination of spring and winter wheat provides a real opportunity to obtain ultra early forms with winter wheat type of development. About 16% of the plants from crosses of spring parents have similar time to ear emergence (TEE) as the respective spring parent. Time to ear emergence of the spring form does not directly affect the probability of obtaining the desired early plants. The later time to ear emergence of the winter parent, the smaller is the share of the earliest genotypes in the hybrid combinations. The selection of a very early date of time to ear emergence using spring wheat is completely possible and unexpectedly easy to implement. However, preparation of early breeding lines is not sufficient, because they have different grain yield. To have a high productivity must for native climate is to have a high cold resistance. It achieves much more difficult against the earlier date of ear heading date. The results show that it is implicitly associated with the winter cold tolerance of winter parents in every cross combination.

  106. Kishore Kumar, U., Dr. Vani, K. P., Dr. Srinivas, A. and Dr. Surendra Babu, P.

    A field experiment on “Growth and yield of safflower as influenced by INM under irrigation and rainfed planting” was conducted during rabi, 2013 at College Farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with two main treatments viz., M1: irrigation at rosette, branching and flowering, M2 : rainfed planting; and seven sub treatments viz., S1 : Control (no fertilizers), S2: RDF, S3: soil test based fertilizers, S4: RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1, S5 : soil test based fertilizers + FYM @ 5 t ha-1, S6: RDF + vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1 and S7: Soil test based fertilizers + vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1 and replicated thrice. With respect to irrigations at critical stages gives higher plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area index, dry matter production per plant (g) and seed yield were recorded with irrigation treatment and it was significantly higher than rainfed planting. With respect to organics and soil test based inorganic fertilizers gives higher plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area index, dry matter production per plant (g) and seed yield were recorded with S7 (soil test based fertilizers + vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1) and it was significantly superior to S6 (RDF + vermicompost @ t ha-1) followed by S5 (soil test based fertilizers + FYM @ 5 t ha-1), S4 (RDF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1), S3 (soil test based fertilizers), S2 (RDF) and S1 (control) treatment. Interaction effect of plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area index, dry matter production per plant (g) and seed yield of safflower crop as influenced by main and sub treatments were found to be non-significant.

  107. Pandey, L. and Sangwan, V.

    The present study was done to assess the organoleptic acceptability, physical characteristics, nutritional composition and shelf life study of value added biscuits developed from newly released wheat varieties (WH-1129 and HD-2967) flours supplemented with sorghum and soybean flours. The overall acceptability scores of four types of biscuits was in the category of ‘liked very much’. The thickness of composite flour biscuits increased significantly (P≤0.05) with the increase in the level of substitution of wheat flour with sorghum and soybean flours. The value added biscuits from prepared from WH-1129 wheat variety had significantly (P≤0.05) higher contents of protein, crude fibre and ash as compared to biscuits prepared from variety HD-2967 while HD-2967 value added biscuits had significantly had significantly (P≤0.05) higher fat content than WH-1129 and control wheat flour biscuits. The shelf life study indicated that there were no significant changes in the overall acceptability of the developed biscuits and they were acceptable upto 3 months of storage.

  108. Reenu Rana and Dr. Parvinder Kaur

    Supplemented garden cress seed (GCS) product was standardized and analyzed for their sensory and nutritional evaluation. Sensory evaluation of products was made in terms of their color, appearance, aroma, taste, texture, and over all acceptability using nine point hedonic scales. The recipes for the preparation of various products from (GCS) flour were standardized by use of various degrees (5%, 10%, and 15%). The sensory evaluation of supplemented products was significantly different as compared to their control. All supplemented product were desirable and moderately desirable in all terms. The moisture, protein, and fiber contents of supplemented products were significantly higher as compared to those of control. Iron was maximum in supplemented products .It was 13.60% in Biscuit followed by Ladoo (13.37%) and Namakpare (7.61%) as compared to their control.

  109. Smita Puri

    Soil borne diseases are very difficult to control, traditionally chemical soil fumigants were used to manage them but they are harmful to the environment and human health. For the management of soil borne diseases in organic production system use of various eco-friendly methods viz. green manures, mulches, organic amendments and composts etc. was recommended and practiced. In this context biofumigation is a new concept, which is gaining attention of the researchers and shown some potential in management of soil borne disease in Europe and Australia. Biofumigation is an agronomic technique that makes use of some plants' defensive systems and biofumigant plants are mainly Brassicas. It is an eco-friendly process and important strategy of disease management in organic production system in the developed countries. The present review was prepared in an effort to compile different research works conducted worldwide regarding various aspects of biofumigation.

  110. Anto, M., Prajith, T. M., Jothish, P. S. and Anilkumar, C.

    Garcinia imberti Bourd. is an endangered endemic niche specific dioecious species of southern Western Ghats. The field studies conducted from three populations viz. Chemunji, Bonacaud and Ponmudi revealed pioneer observation of individual accessions which differs in floral colour as well as number of seeds per fruit at different sites. The present study may suggest cues on the ecological scope of variations among some accessions with respect to enhanced chance of pollination, fruit set and subsequent seed dispersal ensure species survivorship.

  111. Eswaran, N. and Mariselvi, S.

    Vermicompost is rich in NKP (nitrogen 2-3%, potassium 1.85-2.25% and phosphorus 1.55-2.25%), micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes and also contain ‘plant growth hormones & enzymes’. It is scientifically proving as ‘miracle growth promoter & also plant protector’ from pests and diseases. Vermicompost retains nutrients for long time and while the conventional compost fails to deliver the required amount of macro and micronutrients including the vital NKP to plants in shorter time, the vermicompost does. Vermicompost is the product or process of composting using various worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms to create a heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast. Significantly, vermicompost works as a ‘soil conditioner’ and its continued application over the years lead to total improvement in the quality of soil and farmland, even the degraded and sodic soils. Vermicompost is free of toxic chemicals, Induce biological resistance in plants, Suppress plant disease, Rich in humic acids and Biochemical promoting root growth & nutrient uptake. Similarly, the vermicompost prepared from cow dung had the highest total nitrogen (N) content (275%) phosphorus (12.70 mg/g) and total potassium (11.44 mg/g). Reduced use of ‘water for irrigation’ as application of vermicompost over successive years improved the ‘moisture holding capacity’ of the soil.

  112. Abdulrahman O. Musaiger, Fatima Al-Khalifa and Mariam Al-Mannai

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of emotional eating among youths (university students) in Sudan. The students were recruited from University of Khartoum. The total sample was 400 (183 males and 217 females), with ages ranging from 18 to 30 years. Females were more likely to eat while watching television (p<0.001) and when bored (p<0.01), whereas males were more prone to eat late at night (p<0.02). There were no significant differences between genders regarding eating when angered and eating when anxious. The findings of this study indicated an alarming prevalence of emotional eating among urban youths in Sudan.

  113. Debanand Das, Rimi Deuri and Prabhat Das

    North-east India that comprises of seven states of India is a unique geographical location. It is located in between 27o57ʹN and 28o23ʹN latitudes and 89o46ʹE and 98o25ʹE longitudes. Most of the states are situated in the Himalayan range. This zone is endowed with diversity of natural flora and fauna. A large number of plant parasitic secernentean as well as adenophorean nematodes have been reported from this zone from around the root zones different plants. This review makes an effort to compile the all possible information on the report of nematodes by nematologist of this zone upto 2013.

  114. De, L. C. and Deb, P.

    Dendrobium orchids are popular flowering potted plants and cut flowers throughout the world due to their floriferousness, diversity in flower size, shape and colour, round the year availability and long keeping qualities. The present investigations were carried out with 16 hybrids of Dendrobium in CRD design with four replications. Significant variations were also observed with both vegetative and reproductive parameters. The spike length varies from 21.9cm in ‘Triple Pink’ to 47.7 cm in case of ‘Madam Pink’. Highest number of spikes/cane was recorded in ‘Julie’ (4.0) followed by ‘Thongchai Gold’ (3.0) and ‘Big White Jumbo’(3). ‘Madam Pink’ had highest number of florets/spike (15) while ‘Emma White’ had minimum (5.4). The hybrid ‘Triple Pink’ had the highest vase life (40 days) and lowest in ‘Madam Pink’ (15.3 days). There were significant variations in the content of carbohydrates in pseudobulbs and flowers and chlorophyll content in leaves. In flower, maximum amount of carbohydrate was estimated in ‘Kating Dang’ (260 mg/g) and minimum in Lervia (112mg) and ‘Big White Jumbo’(112 mg/g). In pseudobulb, carbohydrate content ranges from 46 mg/g in ‘Fatima’ to 279 mg/g in case of ‘Erika’. In variable response to chlorophyll content in leaves, ‘Ear Sakul’ had maximum (47.8 mg/100 g) followed by ‘Madam Pink’ (46.5 mg/100g), ‘Erika’ (44.6 mg/100g) and minimum in ‘Kating Dang’(27.5 mg/100g).

  115. Daniel Reddythota, Medikonda Anil Kumar and Prabhakara Rao, A. V. S.

    In this article, we demonstrate the effect of initial pH (2-10), charge loading (1.83-18.25 Fm-3), current density (0.4-3.2 Adm-2), distance between two electrodes (1-5 cm), time of electrolysis (5-50 min), and metal ion concentration (2-25 mgl-1) on the removal of cadmium (Cd) from industrial wastewater using electro-coagulation (EC) technique. In particular, we find that when the initial pH of 8, charge loading of 18.25 Fm-3, current density of 3.2 Adm-2, and distance between electrodes is 3 cm; Cd percentage of the industrial wastewater is reduced to 99.9 % after 15 minutes of electro-coagulation process. In spite of this result, for 1 kg of Cd removal produces 2.8 kg of sludge; meanwhile, the 32 kg of sludge is generated from the iron sulphate precipitation method. These results suggest that the proposed EC technique has improved industrial wastewater quality by controlling various physico-chemical characteristics.

  116. Dr. J. P . Prasad, Dr. Meena, Sudha V. Gopinath and Madhu, E.

    The phenotype of a red cell is defined by the presence or absence of D,C,c,E, and e antigens. A detailed knowledge of Rh system gene frequencies in an Indian population is very important in blood transfusion service in area such as antenatal work, percentage testing and for selecting compatible blood in problem transfusion. From serological studies it is often impossible to determine the true genotype of person in the absence of family information, phenotypes are often symbolized as the most probable genotype deduced from known haplotype frequencies. Red blood cell transfusion in patients with clinically significant mixture of antibodies require the availability of matched blood units lacking the antigens to which antibodies are directed. This implies the need to phenotype RBC unit to one or several antigenic system since only ABO and RH-D are usually typed. The Rh phenotypes and its frequencies have been studied and established in many western countries, as well as in Asia, whereas very sporadic data is available on phenotyping and its frequency in Indian population.

  117. Richa Baranwal, Rashmi Srivastava, Nanda Gopal, Subhash Kumar, Rajeev Srivastava, Mohit Kumar, Aditi Saini, Rashmi Jain, Niharika Sood, Charu M Kamal, Prasad, J. P. and Shikha Yadav

    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropic hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the mammalian pituitary gland which regulates the normal female and male gamete growth and maturation and normal gonadal steroid production. Deficient endogenous production of FSH is a known cause of infertility and therapeutic preparations of FSH are widely used in the treatment of this condition. In this study, 27 batches of therapeutic rh-FSH preparations were evaluated for their identity and potency before the batch release for use in patients, by using rat ovary weight gain assay as described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The results were calculated by using the Parallel-line assay; COMBISTATS v 4.0 software from EDQM. Based on the findings, it was established that all the 27 batches of rh-FSH were identified to be Follicle Stimulating Hormone and their estimated potencies were found to be within the specification limits as per the European Pharmacopeia.

  118. Kiran, B., Mohan Kumar Varma, C ., Maheshwari Parveda, Kalmeshwer Gouda, P., Rajendra Krishna, G. V., Vinay Shenoy, Kavi Kishor, P. B. and Subba Rao, L. V.

    Rice (O. sativa L.) is one of the world’s most important crops, particularly in Asia, but increasingly in Africa and Latin America as well. It is one of the important food crops drastically affected by raise in global temperature and has an impact throughout worldwide on people who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of direct selection for grain yield under heat and irrigated conditions. 274 BC2F6 BILs were derived from a cross between Oryza sativa IR58025B and Oryza meridionalis Ng. (2n = 24, AA), a heat tolerant wild species to evaluate 18 yield and its related traits and for heat tolerance under irrigated and stress conditions. Analysis of variance and genetic estimates indicated there is substantial genetic variation among progenies under both stress and control conditions. The genotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 1.57 for canopy temperature to 77.29 for line yield per plot, whereas, the phenotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 4.31 for panicle temperature to 91.68 for spikelet fertility. The GCV ranged from 6.35 (panicle length) in control to 77.29 (line yield) in stress condition, the PCV ranged from 9.71 (panicle length) to 93.20 (line yield) in stress condition. Further, for physiological traits like flag leaf temperature, panicle temperature, canopy temperature and leaf area index the GCV ranged from 1.57 (canopy temperature) to 17.13 (leaf area index) in stress, the PCV ranged from 1.84 (panicle temperature to 27.05 (leaf area index) in stress. Broad sense heritability estimates varied from 0.34 (panicle temperature) to 0.86 (plant height) in control condition, and 0.12 (canopy temperature) to 0.77 (Days to 50% flowering) in stress condition. Hence, this species can be a novel source of natural genetic variation for the improvement of rice and simultaneously help in expansion of the cultivated gene pool of O. sativa.

  119. Mohendra Singh, N., Kh. Rajmani Singh and Ranabir Singh, P.

    The Physico-chemical and biological analysis of the Heirok-Wangjing River water was carried out over a stretch of 22.5km. Temperature, transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen, bio-chemical oxygen demand, carbon-dioxide, chloride, total alkalinity, acidity, calcium hardness, NO¬2 and NO3 etc. increased slightly from its origin to the end of the river in the valley. This increase in the parameters was the result of human activities. A total of fifteen species of fish and seven groups of aquatic insects and one class of annelids were recorded from the river.

  120. Asha Khanna, Mubashir Azam Mir, Varsha Aglawe and Rekha James

    India contributes to more than one fifth of the global incidence of cervical cancer cases. This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and screening of middle and low socioeconomic group women of our population. This investigation was done in the form of group of case studies in which some parameters such as the occurrence of micronucleate (MN) and binucleate (BN) cells in the cervical epithelium and urothelial cells and their relevance with regard to cervical/urothelial inflammation or infection was explored. A high occurrence of these parameters points towards a high susceptibility of such cases to malignancy. Among the samples of (cervical scrapings) patients analyzed, the occurrence of MN was highest in fibroid patients followed by those with prolonged menstrual bleeding and leucorrhoea. The highest occurrence of MN in urothelial cells was found in a 76 year old patient with pus cells, followed by a 40 year old leucorrhoea patient. Thus urinary infections are also a cause of high BN and MN occurrence. Metrorrhagia and leucorrhoea are also associated with more BN cells. The DNA damage in cells of some cervical epithelium and urothelial cells was also assayed by comet assay. Thus BN, MN and comet assay can be used as biomarker for predisposition to malignancy in conjunction with other symptoms.

  121. Dr. Sheetal G. Asutkar

    Fistula-in-ano is also known as Bhagandar according to Ayurveda, In- general, Fistula can be defined as a communicating tract between two epithelial surfaces commonly between a hollow viscous and the skin (external fistula) or between two hollow viscera (internal fistula). The Fistula-in-ano can be classified into two categories viz.low level fistula and high level fistula.According Ayurveda types are as per their morphological structure ie. Shatponaka, Ushtragreeva, Parisraavi, Shambukavarta, Unmargi. Ksharsutra application is the best methods of treatment in the management of such condition and can be used based on condition or degree and severity of the disease. It can be successfully practiced in present days as it is very cost effective.

  122. Harini, B. P

    Feeding flies on wheat cream agar media supplemented with antiepileptic drugs are studied for adult locomotary behaviors like preferential adult geotaxis. The behavioral plasticity of climbing ability of an adult is an important event with decisive influence on their preference and capability. Drosophila sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments. The present study revealed that the Dose dependent action of different AEDs produced a maximal effect on behaviors of Drosophila species and provides an efficient system to study genetic, neurological, and behavioral mechanisms mediating these effects. Irrespective of the species the responses are similar on exposure to higher doses with decreased activity. AED has an important role in regulating behavior through metabolism; such studies should be useful for understanding the multiple effects on behavior and health.

  123. Anis, G., El-Sabagh, A., El-Badry, A. and Barutçular, C.

    The recent approach for rice production includes the improvement of yield is necessary to cater for consumer demand. Therefore, a field experiment (diallel analysis) was conducted at RiceResearch and Training Center, Egypt during 2014 and 2015growing season to estimate combining ability, heterosis and genetic parameters in ricefor improving the yield. The results indicated that, Sakha101 and Sakha105 were recorded highest mean values for most traits. The crosses (Giza177 × Sakha106, Sakha101 × Sakha104 and Sakha101 × Gz7576-10-3-2-1) were recorded highest mean values for grain yield plant-1.Sakha106 and Sakha104 recorded the highest mean values for flag leaf area.It is evident from the result, a positive correlation was observed between flag leaf area and grain yield plant-1as well as, the results were recorded positively correlation coefficient between number of days to heading, number of filled grains panicle-1 and 1000-grain weight. Special attention was paid to, the cross Sakha 101/Sakha 104, Sakha 104/Sakha 106, Sakha 105/BL1 and Sakha 106/BL1 were identified as themost promising cross for developing high yielding rice varieties and could be further benefits to isolate superior transgressivesegregants for breeding programs in rice.

  124. Dr. Mohanty, B. K.

    The higher education in Odisha has taken massive structural and systemic changes that have started showing encouraging results. About 20 years ago, the class rooms were only a four walled structure for teaching, but now it has undergone a sea change with modernization and infrastructure developments. The is visibility of Smart class rooms, use of ICT tools in general colleges also. The number is gradually increasing with flow of state govt., UGC and RUSA fund. The challenges for planners, administrators and teachers are huge to provide online educational platform, educational apps, smart class rooms with wi-fi campus to a considerable percentage of college and universities in 2030.

  125. Sandra M. Barbalho, Marcio Emílio Paiva Filho, Ana Paula M. Spada, Marie Oshiiwa and Karina Rodrigues Quesada

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify and set a standard for the Waist Circumference (WC) in children as a marker for abdominal obesity. Methods: The study involved 8 state schools in the city of Lins, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population of the study comprised 882 children of both sexes, with ages ranging from 6 to 10. The following anthropometric variables were evaluated: BMI/A (body mass index in relation to age); W/A (weight in relation to age); the TSF (Tricipital Skinfold), and the WC. The curves used to determine the parameters evaluated here are for children and adolescents aged 2 to 20. Results: An analysis of the WC values in terms of pBMI/A, pTSF, and pW/A indicates that, in terms of the variables studied here, the WCs are the same for both sexes and it is reasonable to suggest that a correlation between the WC and the pBMI/A, pTSF and pW/A is a good parameter to diagnose the nutritional status of 6 to 10-year-old children, and that it can be used in clinical practice to aid the diagnosis of obesity and its correlation with the development of metabolic disorders. Conclusions: The results show that the WC is a valid parameter to diagnose the nutritional status of children between 6 and 10 years of age.

  126. Sutha Raja Kumar, R. and Eswaran, A.

    Studies were conducted to assess the effect of different organic additives on the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes and their influence on the spawn and sporophore production. Horsegram flour influenced the maximum production of Exo -1,4 glucanase, Endo -1,4 glucanase, -glucosidase, Laccase, Xylanase and Polyphenol oxidase in Hypsizygus ulmarius. Among the different spawn substrate paddy grain recorded the fastest mycelia growth covering the spawn bottle in 12.05 days. Mushroom beds inoculated with Paddy grain spawn recorded maximum number of sporophores (118.00), maximum weight of sporophores (492.88 g bed-1) and the best biological efficiency (98.57 %). Among the different additives viz., Blackgram flour, Cotton seed Powder, Finger millet flour, Groundnut cake, Horsegram flour, linseed cake, Redgram flour and sorghum flour. Horsegram flour supplemented paddy grain recorded minimum spawn run days (10.1 days) and subsequently inoculation of spawn supplemented with horsegram provided highest biological efficiency (103.01%) of Hypsizygus ulmarius.

  127. Neha Gupta and Irfan Ali

    In this article, a problem of bivariate stratified sample surveys in presence of partial responses has been considered. The population in each stratum is divided into three group’s i.e. complete non-respondents, respondents of questions of category I or partial respondents and complete respondents. It is assumed that the respondents of the questions of category II always reply the questions of category I but not necessarily the vice versa. The problem of finding optimum allocations is formulated as Bi-objective Nonlinear Programming Problem (BONLPP). Since the problem is bi-objective the optimum solution cannot be obtained because the optimum solution of one objective may or may not be optimum for the second objective, so we obtain compromise optimum solution using four different methods i.e. Value function, Fuzzy programming, Goal programming and Chebychev approximation. For the demonstration purpose an illustrative example has been solved and also an R simulation study has been carried out to show the efficiency of the methods. Comparison of the solutions obtained by four different methods is shown graphically in the figure.

  128. Turdieva, N. M. and Mazhidov, H.

    Dry, hot climate of our republic together with high value of photosynthetic radiation provide the high maintenance of fibers and gluten in grains of firm sorts of wheat and in the whole their high quality. Firm sorts of wheat in comparison with soft sorts more a rack to shallowness, to heats, are less subject to a yellow, brown rust and smut, the ripened ears do not lose some grain. Besides, for the purpose of maintenance of the population with food production on the firm sorts of wheat liberated from a sowing the areas it is possible to cultivate green gram, millet, soya and other cultures, and for increase of fertility of soil – anindi gopherplant as green weight. Cultivation of these cultures, besides other, gives high economic benefit.

  129. Abdelhalim Elbasset, Farid Abdi, Tajdin. Lamcharfi, Haj Omari, L., Lamiae Mrharrab and Zouhairi Mohammed

    The ac impedance and conductivity properties of BaZrxTi1-xO3 (BZxT) ceramics in a wide frequency range (1kHz-2MHz) at different temperatures have been studied. An ac impedance spectroscopic technique was used to correlate between the microstructure and electrical properties of the compound. The presence of both bulk and grain boundary effect in the compound was observed. The frequency-dependent electrical data were used to study the conductivity mechanism and estimate the activity energy (Ea). An analysis of the electric impedance with frequency at different temperatures has provided some information to support suggested conduction mechanism.

  130. Atakiti Ifeoluwa O., Ogunwemimo, Taiwo A., Alao, Oluwafisayo O., Chioma, Patricia, E. and Ofurum, Ihuoma

    Like most mega cities in the world, road traffic is a mayhem in the city of Lagos, halting the flow of movement and business to a slow pace. This study therefore examined the role of Lagos Traffic Radio in educating road users in Lagos State on traffic management. Adopting the survey research design, 300 road users within the ages of 18 and 60 were purposively sampled from five select areas in Lagos that are notorious for daily traffic congestions (Ikorodu Road, Ojota, Alakpere, Third Mainland Bridge, and Victoria Island) The study found that majority (63.4%)of the road users in Lagos listen to Lagos Traffic Radio on a daily basis while learning useful tips on traffic management while providing alternative routes during gridlock. The study however recommended that more programs be aired in indigenous languages to expand comprehension of messages.

  131. Mrunal A. Warke, Lino P. Cardoz, Vivien Amonkar, Annamma A. Odaneth and Arvind M. Lali

    The fortification of dairy products with prebiotic and probiotic ingredients is gaining a huge impact in the food industry. A quick screening methodology was developed to isolate existing lactic acid bacteria from dairy products and determine compatible carbon and nitrogen sources using Phenotypic screening for production of conjugated linoleic acid. Three isolates were selected from different dairy products based on their acid production potential when grown on sugar sources and/or fatty acids. The microorganisms were able to produce conjugated linoleic acid from castor oil hydrolysate in MRS broth and also in fat rich milk during fermentation under the given experimental conditions. The conjugated linoleic acid profiles and contents were determined and compared with Lactobacillus delbrueckii. An average CLA content of 0.1g L-1 was observed in fermented fat rich milk with the isolates while 0.5g L-1 was seen with L. delbrueckii.

  132. Ibiam, J. A., Afiukwa, J. N., Oti Wilberforce, J. O., Ezem, S. N. and Ugbo, U. I.

    Water quality index (wqi) was applied to study the quality and suitability of the borehole water for drinking purposes in afikpo south local government area. This was carried out by subjecting samples collected from eight locations by analyzing the physico-chemical parameters according to apha (1998) methods. Ten parameters such as the colour, temperature, ph, electrical conductivity (ec), total dissolved solids (tds), total alkalinity (ta), total hardness (th), dissolved oxygen (do), chemical oxygen demand (cod), ci-, so42-, no3-, na+, ca2+ and mg2+ were calculated for wqi . Results were presented in mean and standard error. The results obtained for wqi varied 121.57 – 186.68 for dry season and 101.59-167.82 for rainy season. The results indicate that borehole water in all the locations were unsuitable for drinking and need treatment. The deterioration of the water quality may have been contributed by the pollutants that were leached from the refuse dumps and agricultural practices which might have concentrated over a period of time and percolated into the aquifer.

  133. Chiromam, T. M., Tsware, B. J. and Mujtaba, I. M.

    Jatropha curcas L. seed oil has been identified as one of the potential source of feedstock for biodiesel production which is a renewable energy. The oil cannot be used directly as fuel due to its high viscosity and therefore has to be processed to lower the viscosity. Transesterification is the best process adopted by many of the researchers for processing jatropha oil into biodiesel. The current review is intended to look at these different processes used by many of the researchers; considering the conditions that optimized the process used, comparing the yield and quality of the biodiesel produced with the standard properties prescribed by American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard. The use of subcritical hydrolysis or addition of micro amount of catalyst employed with supercritical transesterification has shown to reduce drastically the high reactant molar ratio, temperature and pressure associated with supercritical transesterification process. Heterogeneous transesterification of high free fatty acid (FFA) content jatropha oil assisted with ultrasonic irradiation reduces the reaction time and increase yield of biodiesel. All the transesterification processes used by many of the researchers gives high yield of biodiesel from jatropha oil or seed at various reaction conditions and the fuel properties falls within the ASTM standard specification. There is a need to carry out research on the economic analysis of the best processes that gives high yield at better reaction condition which can be employed in the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. seed oil at industrial scale.

  134. Martínez-Arriero, Z., Vite-Torres, M., Gallardo-Hernandez, E.A., Laguna-Camacho, J. R., Sedano- de la Rosa, C. and Lasorsa, C.

    Erosion by solid particles in the coating of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates of AISI 304 stainless steel was analyzed. The specimens used were 25mm square and 3 mm thick, Silicon Carbide as abrasive particle 300-450 µm size was used. Experimental tests were performed on an apparatus developed in accordance with some parameters of the ASTM standard G76-95. Four angles of impact at 30°, 45°, 60° and 90 ° are contemplated with an approximate particle velocity of 25 ± 2 m / s with a maximum exposure time of 10 minutes per specimen, taking measurements of weight intervals 2 minutes to determine the loss of mass. The wear mechanisms were identified that these small angles were: Plastic deformation, displacement of material, plow mechanisms. While at higher angles they were present mainly: Cuttings, pitting, fractures and microcracks. It was observed that the rate of erosion depends on the angle of incidence of the abrasive particles.

  135. Harish, T. and Anjana Sharma

    In this paper, we attempt to propose a method to enhance ad-hoc file transfer. We employ the idea of using Wi Fi Peer to Peer MAC to establish connection with the desired peer. The Wi Fi Peer to Peer MAC is obtained by discovering the recipient peer through Bluetooth, and then employing an algorithm that computes the MAC using the recipient’s Bluetooth MAC address. The advantage of establishing a peer- to-peer network lies in bypassing the need of connecting to AP (Access Point) and in better transfer rate and range over file transfer using Bluetooth. Further, test results show that our proposed implementation has the potential to achieve improved speed, wider range and better security when compared to existing peer-to-peer file transfer techniques, viz. NFC, Infrared and Bluetooth.

  136. Dr. Mohan Kumar, S. and Jaya, R.

    Data mining techniques have higher usefulness in medical data mining as there is voluminous data in this industry. General survey on Data Mining Techniques, Methods, Tools and Challenges of Data Mining in health care domain is at most important and so much in demand, applying machine learning concepts and techniques in medical field is also most essential in the present scenario. The challenges for Data Mining in the healthcare domain are also listed. This paper describes the healthcare related research work with diseases and data mining techniques applied- summary, healthcare related researchers and percentage of accuracy achieved through applied through DM. Through this paper it is possible to recognize the importance of Data Mining in general and especially in the healthcare industry.

  137. Kalisa Wilson, Ndatinya Eustache and GakizaCanisius

    Using Agents to extract data from existing sources of information is a key development area to unlock previously unknown relationships between heterogeneous data sources. It becomes an issue when large volumes of data, such as in the case of data from different sources like SQL, ORACLE,IBM-DB2,MySQL,FLAT FILES and others need to be analyzed. The main focus of this paper is on how data warehousing and mining techniques can be applied in knowledge discovery. We therefore proposed architecture for heterogeneous data integration based on Multi-Agent Driven Rule-based Decision Support System in data warehousing. With our predictive model, we achieved high accuracies of over 83% compared to (65%-72%) and (66%-72%) achieved by Clark, P & Niblett, T and Michalski, R.Set. al respectively on the Breast Cancer Wisconsin dataset.

  138. Kaushik Bose and Prof.(Dr.) Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    This document presents crack detection and removal techniques on digitized paintings. The crack detection technique proposed here can also be used to detect cracks in concrete structures by processing the digitized concrete images. Safety inspection of concrete structures is very important since it is closely related with the structural health and reliability. So, the development of crack detecting systems has been a significant issue. One of the objective of this document is to provide a method to develop an automatic crack detection system that can analyse the concrete surface and detect the cracks efficiently. The crack detection procedure proposed here is based on morphological bottom-hat transformation and finally crack filling is done by applying order static median filter using information of neighbourhood pixels.

  139. Shilpa S. Patel, Joshi, P. A. and Jayakumar, N. S.

    Packed bed reactors are important and have gained popularity because of their ideal plug flow behavior, low maintenance cost and reduced loss due to attrition and wear. Here, we wanted to carry out simulation for the same. For development of simulation, we first chose Dispersion model and Tanks in series model. RTD experiments were carried out for the reactor. Reactions between sodium thiosulphate and hydrogen peroxide were carried out at different temperature and concentration. Results of the reactions were analyzed and then simulation was carried out based on it.

  140. Gladys Onditi Ominde and Raphael Ondeko Nyonje

    Bees-hive products (honey, beeswax, Propolis and royal jelly) have high economic value (FAO ROME, 2011). However; the magnitude of value addition in Kakamega County has not been established. This study sought to investigate whether Value addition enhances bee farmers’ livelihoods. Systematic and stratified random sampling were used to select 127 respondents from whom relevant data was collected by the aid of questionnaires, and data analysis done using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS).Qualitative data analysis was done by summing up total scores on variables under study, and finally analyzing the data in form of descriptive statistics presented in form of frequency tables. Respondents were categorized into three; value adders (basic (56.7%) and advanced (22.6%) and non-value adders (20.8%). Basic value adders generated Kshs.170 per kilo of honey, advanced, Kshs.211 and non value adders, Kshs.140.Advanced value adders were likewise able to make an extra Kshs.150 and Kshs.135 from sale of royal jelly and beeswax respectively. Advanced value adders generated more income therefore had better saving culture. Advanced and basic value adders had access to more meals per day and recorded less incidences of nutritional deficiencies compared to non-value adders. The study recommends training of farmers on harnessing hive products and value addition.

  141. Shilpa Patel and Kiran Patel

    After carrying out simulation for Packed bed reactor, we decided to do the same for Continuous stirred tank reactors in series (CSTRs in series) which is also referred as Back mix or Mixed flow rectors are widely used in chemical process industries for conductions single as well as multiphase reactions. These reactions have provisions for continuous inflow of reactants and outflow of product mixture. A certain pool of reaction mixture is always maintained in the reactor so that there is no variation of concentration, temperature or reaction rate throughout the reactor volume. CSTR is having much attention because of its simulation is simple due to absence of temperature and concentration gradient within the reacting fluids. Mathematical modeling and experimental verification of the steady state and dynamic behavior of CSTRs in series is useful for designing of a safe operation of reactor with suitable control. Here, hydrolysis reaction of acetic anhydride in the presence of acetic acid as solvents and sulphuric acid as catalyst was chosen as a reactions system. Experiments were carried out for heat loss for all the three reactors as model and then simulation was carried.

  142. Shilpa Patel and Thakore, S. B.

    If we use beds in series type fixed bed reactor, we need to take reactants/(Product +Reactants) out and exchange heat in heat exchanger & then to take back to the reactor & sent them to the next bed of catalyst. Here, we need to use heat exchanger for which capital & operating cost is required during designing of reactor for manufacturing of ethyl benzene from benzene & ethylene, we decided to use multi-tubular reactor in place of fixed beds in series. So, that capital & operating cost can be saved for heat exchanger. When we did calculations length of tubes required was much more than the height of the bed of catalyst. So, for better heat transfer we distributed total length of the bed of catalyst into three beds of catalyst in tubes only.

  143. Shilpa Patel, Paulomi Parmar and Dr. C. Ramakrishna

    Bio treatment a high strength toxic petrochemical (acrylonitrile) waste water to reduce COD and cyanide. Among the waste water generated in petrochemical industry, the process waste water stream generated during the manufacturing of acrylonitrile are considered to be one of the most toxic as they can take cynides are extremely harmful to lives on earth including human and can cause irreparable damage to environment. Biological degradation of the high strength toxic petrochemical waste water using laboratory scale immobilized cell bio reactor (immobilized cells act as bio catalyst – 4% sodium alginate beads in 0.85% saline, containing 4.6 mg/ L of mixed culture. This was added dropwise to 2.0 M cacl2 solution and each drop hardened in to a bead containing entrapped cells. The beads were allowed hardened further in cacl2 solution at 5 0 c for 24hr. COD reduction was measured for various organic loading.

  144. Bahtiyar Uslu and Abdil Karakan

    This study has been carried out in Afyonkarahisar –Dazkırı region which is dealing with setting up the network to obtain the performance production of electricity by using Monocrystalline suncell panel by locating them according to 15degrees (angle) of deflection according to sundirection with respect to the ceiling to be able to get 100 Wp power of electricity from one building by using PV software program. The data’s of the average of the sun a day, month and average temperature of weather of Dazkırı region from State general director of Meteorology of Turkey Republics. In addition to use the data of average of sun day and month by using software program MATLAB. By this way the maximum production of l sun cell panel has obtained by adding important factors. It has obtained maximum of electricity by using the photovoltaic system with 35o. The adjustment of location of suncell panel according to the monthly periodhas provided 4,8 % of ratio increasing in performance. If the suncell panel location adjusts according to seasons the performance would be increased by 3,4 %. The changing of the suncell panel is not easy in practice. According to the calculation of electricity flow of electricity which has produced with different angles (locations) has showed by graphics.

  145. Manasi Gaikwad and Shweta Deshpande

    Facile, efficient, and robust immobilization of metal nanostructures on porous bioscaffolds is an interesting topic in materials chemistry and heterogeneous catalysis. This paper reports an in situ method for the synthesis and immobilization of small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature on natural eggshell membrane (ESM). The eggshell membrane is the clear film lining the eggshell, visible when one peels a boiled egg, which presents interwoven fibrous structure and can be used as a unique protein-based biotemplate. Many chemical and physical techniques are available for the synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticle (AgNPs), but the green synthesis is the most emerging method of synthesis. Here the silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts which act as both reducing and capping agent. Visual color change, UV spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy unambiguously identifed the presence of AgNPs on ESM. Besides the antibacterial activity of these ESM’s was seen through the zone of inhibitions observed for the test samples against plates of Escherichia coli. Such egg membranes can be used against skin wounds like that in burns wherein the AgNPs can prevent the bacterial infections and the presence of ESM will also help the recovery of the skin as the amino acid composition of the egg membranes is quite close to that of human skin and other human tissues.

  146. Riyad Şihab Abd and AbdilKarakan

    The traditional structures were built with natural materials such as stone and earth that provide healthy indoors, concerning the climatic conditions. The developing in the technology gained momentum after industrial revolution in all sectors as well as in the construction industry; resulting to give the importance to stones and natural materials. Lot of energy is being used to provide comfortable life inside building even the changing of temperatures according to climate. Recently the energy has gained special importance after the increasing of cost fuel oil and electricity. The most part of energy has been used in residential and industrial fields.

  147. Iloamaeke, I. M., Onuigbo C. C., Umedum, L. N., Umeobika, C. U. and Oforah P. U.

    In this study, Oil from the seed of Dacryodes edulis was extracted using cold maceration method. The oil obtained had high acid value of 4.40mgKOH/g. Therefore the production of biodiesel was processed via two step acid – base transesterification process. The first step reduced the acid level to 2.60mgKOH/g while the second step involved direct conversion to fatty acid methyl ester using 1wt% NaOH as catalyst, 1:6 of oil to methanol ratio, 333 Kelvin and 1 hour reaction time. The yields of the oil and its methyl ester were 29% and 67% respectively. The biodiesel produced was analyzed for its fuel properties and yielded the following result; viscosity at 40oC (5.17mm2/s), density (0.87g/ml), cloud point (8oC), pour point (7.500C), flash point (1520C), fire point (1600C) and acid value (1.80mgKOH/g). The results obtained showed that most of the important properties were within the American standard test method (ASTM) of D 6751 of Biodiesel.

  148. Kabiru Tukur and Abdullahi Ubale Usman

    This research work was carried out using the record of applicants whose apply for admission into Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. The researcher apply the Binary logistic regression analysis technique to form a model that will be fit for the data and to know if there is any significance of the two independent variables that is Gender and Jamb scores of the students on the dichotomous dependent variable (admitted/not admitted) for the student. And the analysis indicated that the gender is not significance in predicting the dependent variable as its p-value is greater than 0.05 while jamb score is significance in the predicting the dependent variable because it’s p-value is less than 0.05 and by looking at the goodness of fit I found out that the model is fit since the value is not 0.05 and at least one of the independent variable (jamb score) is significant.

  149. Priyanka R. Pawar and Manjusha S. Borse

    On transparencies or are encoded and stored in a digital form, conventional visual secret sharing (VSS) schemes hide secret images in shares that are either printed. But it will arouse suspicion and increase interception risk during transmission of the shares, the shares can appear as noise-like pixels or as meaningful images. For the secret itself and for the participants who are involved in the VSS scheme, VSS schemes suffer from a transmission risk problem. To protect the secret and the participants during the transmission phase, to address this problem, we proposed a natural-image based VSS scheme that shares secret images via various carrier media. The proposed (n, n) - NVSS scheme can share one digital secret image over n - 1 arbitrary selected natural images and one noise-like share. In digital form or in printed form, the natural shares can be photos or hand-painted pictures. The noise-like share is generated based on these natural shares and the secret image. Thus greatly reducing the transmission risk problem, the unaltered natural shares are diverse and innocuous. We also propose possible ways to hide the noise like share to reduce the transmission risk problem for the share. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is an excellent solution for solving the transmission risk problem for the VSS schemes.

  150. Sangeetha, V. and Dr. Sudha, P. N.

    Fundamental obstacle in wireless communication system design is fading. Though different techniques have been used to minimize the effect of fading, adaptive channel coding with multi carrier modulation technique is less likely used by the researchers. Adaptive channel coding minimizes the reception of erroneous data by assigning different channel coding techniques depending on the quality of the channel .To achieve high data rate transmission and to minimize fading, multi-carrier modulation systems are preferred over single carrier modulation systems. The proposed research work is a novel approach to improve the Bit Error Rate (BER) using adaptive channel coding and multi -carrier modulation techniques to minimize fading effect using MAT Lab.

  151. Mohanbabu, B., Bharathikannan, R. and Siva, G.

    The charge-transfer complex crystal of N, N dimethyl 4 amino pyridinium 4 amino benzoate dehydrate is synthesised and the complex has been confirmed by studying the spectroscopic results. The crystal structure was comprehended by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The cation and anion are linked through strong hydrogen bond in the molecule. The Mulliken atomic charge and the values of electronegativity and chemical hardness index were calculated for interpreting and predicting the reactive behaviour. The lowering in the HOMO and LUMO energy gap explains the eventual charge transfer interactions that take place within the molecules. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic studies were also performed for the identification of different modes present in the compound. This dielectric study highlights the dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. The charge transfer crystal was subjected for its biological activity, such as antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized complex were examined against various bacteria and fungi species, which exhibited a good antibacterial and antifungal activity compared with standard antibacterial and fungal species. The compound has significant antioxidant activity against free DPPH radicals.

  152. Balkrishna D. Ambhore and Dubey R. S.

    Corrosion of mild steel and its inhibition by ceftriaxone in 1M sulfuric acid has been investigated by weight loss, open circuit potential (OCP), potential dynamic polarization and surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy SEM and electron x-ray diffraction (EDAX) techniques. Different concentration range of inhibitor solution from 10-500 ppm was used which revealed that 500 ppm solution shows excellent inhibition performance of nearly 94%. Ceftriaxone is mixed type of inhibitor but the cathodic Tafel polarization, βc values continuously increases as the concentration of inhibitor increases; hence comparatively, the cathodic polarization is more pronounce than the anodic polarization. The SEM examination shows the formation of protective surface film of inhibitor molecules on the surface of mild steel. EDAX shows peaks of N and S on the mild steel. The adsorption of inhibitor obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  153. Sumati Pati

    ZnO nanorods are grown on quartz substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylzinc (DEZn) and tert-butyl alcohol. Nanorods are grown basically by controlling the temperature and duration of growth at various steps. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of ZnO naorods. FESEM images show the uniform distribution of nanorods on the substrate. The mechanism of formation of ZnO nanorods is proposed.

  154. Sandeep

    The present paper deals with the estimation of finite population meanusing ratio method of estimation when two phase sampling scheme is used. In the present work we have proposed a pooled estimator for population mean at the current occasions by using ratio type estimator involving a suitably chosen scalarθ. We have calculated its variances upto the first order of approximations and obtained the optimum replacement policy. We have also investigated the efficiency of the proposed estimator compared with other conventional estimators with and without cost considerations.

  155. Hitesh Panchal

    Millions of closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras are installed in streets and businesses throughout the world with the stated goal of reducing crime and increasing public safety. This leads to large collection of video data. For searching particular object or person from whole CCTV video data is too much time consuming. The proposed algorithm extracts key frames from these videos to overlook videos. From these key frames required frames are easily detectable and video can be played from that frame to analyze further in details. Extracting small number of key frames that can abstract the content of video is very important for efficient browsing and detection. The amount of data in video processing is significantly reduced by using video segmentation and key-frame extraction. This paper presents algorithm for key frames extraction with matching difference between two consecutive frames is computed with different weights. Shot boundaries are detected with automatic threshold. Key frame is extracted by using reference frame-based approach.

  156. Abdelhalim Elbasset, Taj-dine Lamcharfi, Farid Abdi, Salaheddine Sayouri , Lamiae Mrharrab and Zouhairi Mohamed

    This product for bute to present zirconium effect on Raman modes and structure of Barium Titanate Powders. The adjustment of raman indque modes of BaTiO3 Doping by 15% zirconium causes significant broadening of the modes E (LO4)/A1(L03) and E(TO3+ LO2)/B1 (50% higher) characteristic of quadratic phase BaTiO3. The results obtained show that when zirconium rate increases, the lattice parameters increase along the axes (a) and (c) against the quadracité decrease and change of the lattice parameter following the axis (a) is more important than that the axis (c).

  157. Nirmal Kumar and Dr. AjeyaJha

    Quality metrics are used throughout the pharmaceutical industry to monitor quality systems, processes and drive continuous improvement efforts in drug manufacturing. Quality Metrics (QM) are the refined and systematic representation of Quality- Key Performance Indicators (Q-KPI) during manufacturing operation. These can used to identify, where performance of quality management is good and meeting desired standards or where performance requires amendment. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the quality key performance indicators (KPI) and how comprehensively these are used during pharmaceutical manufacturing and distribution operations. Method: The exploratory method has been used for study through data available on regulatory websites and secondary data in articles of other researchers. Result: KPIs shall be enabler to describe the performances measures for Quality in pharmaceutical industry Conclusion: The Quality-KPI are used as tool to maintain quality of pharmaceutical products. It is important to identify and track KPI for Quality in pharmaceutical industry during manufacturing and distribution operations.

  158. Azem Hysa

    Studies of the restricted three-body problem can help in understanding the dynamics of three-body interactions in the solar system. The Lagrangian points have important applications in astronautics, since they are equilibrium points of the equation of motion and very good candidates to locate a satellite or a space station. Zero velocity curves were plotted for constant values of C. The curves were used to define areas of the Lagrange points of the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem. The equations of motion were linearized to find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues. We computing the eigenvalues to investigate the stability. The invariant manifold structures of the collinear libration points for the spatial restricted three-body problem provide the framework for understanding complex dynamical phenomena from a geometric point of view. In order to generate a trajectory around the Earth, Moon and Earth-Moon system, the two-dimensional nonlinear equations of motion were numerically integrated.

  159. Bharathi, V., Avinash, C. M., Praveen M Koujalgi and Praveen A Patil

    In this paper a new technique that employs support vector machines (SVMs) and Gaussian mixture densities (GMDs) to create a generative/discrimitive object classification techniques using local image features. Future to rank the images according to how well they conform to the relevant features a feedback mechanism is also designed. The entire system is developed using LABVIEW software. Finally the simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme.

  160. Saripuddin, M., Hammada Abbas, Herman Parung and Danwahyu H. Piarah

    The research objective to be achieved is to know the effect of the model position of (2, 3, 4) bolts to support the increased tensile strength of welded connection direction of transverse, longitudinal and combination direction (transversal + longitudinal) with strong currents 120Ampere.Method used is formed specimens of welded connections (longitudinal and transverse) with types of models bolt position. The manufacturing process produced a connection position 2 bolts model (Horizontal, Vertical, Leaning A and Leaning B), and the position of 3 bolts with the model (ΔA, ΔB, ΔC and ΔD) and position 4 bolts with the model (Square, rhombus, parallelogram A and parallelogram B). The process of testing the tensile test produced output value of load, extension, maximum tensile and maximum tensile strain with the best models bolt position. Tensile test results showed the highest maximum tensile strength at position 2 bolts occurred on slant model B of and position for 3 bolts occurred in triangular model A (ΔA) of and for the 4-position bolts occurred in the model of parallelogram B with weld directions combination . Position 4 bolts models of parallelogram B in combination connection of welding direction (transversal + longitudinal) with a current strength of 120 Ampere showed the highest value of the maximum tensile strength of tensile test result and the best model of bolts position.

  161. Suradi, Hammada Abbas, Wihardi Tjaronge and dan Victor Sampebulu

    One of the efforts that must be undertaken by companies in the field of production is the production process should be designed as efficiently and effectively as possible. For that in the implementation of the production process of the need for planning and monitoring good production so lightweight brick production process can run well, so that later can increase the number of qualified products. The aim of research analyzing the quality standard time lightweight brick production process, method of data collection directly to the worker / operator in the process I Ball Mill and Raw Material. The research result analysis cycle time, normal time and standard time, then the part I. Process Ball Mill and Raw Material 1 operator obtained a standard time 67.86 minutes, Operator 2 is obtained standard time standard time acquired 36.20 minutes, Operator 3 is a standard time 56.95 minutes. Standard time or standard time gained to the three operators in the process I. Ball Mill and Raw Materials takes one time settlement activities in the amount of 161.01 minutes.

  162. Sasikala, S. and Thiagarajan, M.

    In this Paper, an M/M/1/N interdependent queueing model with controllable arrival rates and reverse balking is considered. This model is much useful in analysing the particular situations arising at the places like a data voice transmission, computer communication system etc. The steady state solution and the system characteristics are derived for this model. The analytical results are numerically illustrated and the effects of the nodal parameters on the system characteristics are studied.

  163. Sarath Raj

    In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Numerical Analysis is used to investigate the rocket thrust chamber cooling characteristics. The scope of the investigation involves the study of effect of regenerative and film cooling on the heat transfer characteristics of coolant channel. Steady state pressure based analysis is carried out in this work. The temperature distributions of coolant along the rectangular cooling channel, temperature distributions of copper and stainless steel walls are the main focus of the study. In this study the, the coolant (kerosene), which is the fuel) enters at the aft end of the thrust chamber and passes through the rectangular cooling channels before it is fed to the injectors.

  164. Neha Kumari and Sunny Babber

    A model of manufacturing plant of Mosquito coil in an industry is developed for its stochastic analysis by personally visiting the Jyoti Laboratory limited industry situated in Samba district of State J&K. The said system consists of three units- Mixing, Extrusion, Punching Machine. The Mixture machine is in parallel form with the other two units but Extrusion machine and Punching machine are in series form such that if any one of the two units is failed, the other is kept in standby mode. If repair of failed unit is not completed after random period of time then other units are kept in standby mode. A single repair facility is always available with the system to repair a failed unit. All the failure time distributions are taken to be negative exponential. All the repair time distributions are taken as arbitrary.

  165. Saripuddin, M., Hammada Abbas, Herman Parung and Wahyu H. Piarah

    The research objective to be achieved is to analyze the influence of strong currents (100, 120, 140, 160) Ampere, the model position number (2, 3, 4) bolt in the direction of the weld longitudinal and transverse as well as determine the best model of weld and bolt connection combination as an effort to increase tensile strength plate. The method used is to form specimens of welded connections (longitudinal and transverse) with various types of bolt position model. The manufacturing process produces a connection position 2 bolts model (Horizontal, Vertical, Slant A and Slant B), and the position of 3 bolts with the model (ΔA, ΔB, ΔC and ΔD) and position 4 bolts with the model (Square, rhombus, parallelogram A and parallelogram B). Welding treatment is done through a longitudinal direction, transverse direction and combinations (Longitudinal + transversal) with vary of strong currents. The testing process of tensile test produces output value of load, extension, tensile strain, maximum tensile and the time used. The phenomenon of the test results showedthe best the connection of weld and bolt combination. Results of tensile test results in improved strength through the addition of a (2, 3, 4) bolt from the various models and position 4 bolts models parallelogram Bhas the highest tensile strength of and weld connection combination direction (Longitudinal + transversal) with a strong current of 120 Amperes has highest tensile strength of and connection combinations of welding direction transversal to position of 3 bolts models triangleD in a strong current of 140 Ampere has the highest tensile strength values of compared to the 2 bolts models of slant A of and position for 4 bolt model parallelogramB of .Position 3 bolts models triangle D in weld connection combination direction transverse with a strong current of 140 Ampere showed the value of the highest maximum tensile strength as a results of tensile test and the best connection.

  166. Syed Riyaz Ahmad Shah and Prof. (Dr.) Mahmood Ahmad Khan

    The present study explored the relationship between personality profiles and emotional maturity of children of working mothers. A sample of 400 children of working mothers were randomly selected from the elementary schools of two districts Srinagar and Shopian of Kashmir valley. The sample subjects were comprised of 8th class students within an age range of 13-14years. High school personality questionnaire (HSPQ), of Cattell (1969) and Emotional maturity scale of Singh and Bhargava (1990) were used to measure the personality and emotional maturity of children of working mothers. The data were analyzed by using mean, S.D and correlation. The result indicated that, there is significant relationship between personality profiles and emotional maturity of children of working mothers.

  167. Samuel Kwaku Adjei, BismarkOsei and Isaac Osei Mensah

    Ghana in 1986, as part of Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) implemented Financial Sector Adjustment Program (FINSAP), the financial sector reform programme was followed up with the Financial Sector Strategic Plan (FINSSP) in 2003. It became imperative to explore with the indices to find out whether these reforms have facilitated economic growth in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to investigate the significance of financial deepening on economic growth. The study developed an index for financial deepening following Abiad et al. (2010) and Bawumia (2010). The study adopted the Johansson Co-integration regression procedures with evidence suggesting financial deepening has a significant impact on economic growth, and also there is bi-directional causality between the official exchange rate and credit to the private sector for investment. Thse study therefore recommended policies should place emphasis on removal of any unnecessary restriction in the financial sector and deepening the reforms to promote economic growth.

  168. Singh Neetu and Dr. Agarwal Shalini

    Violent video games have become one of the favorite activities of adolescent. Children who play more violent video game likely to have increased Hand-eye coordination, develop problem-solving skills, mapping ability, increase memory. The main objective of the study was to see the positive effect of violent video game on adolescent. The present study was conducted in Lucknow Uttar Pradesh in the academic year 2014-2015. The study was conducted on 120 adolescents. Purposive random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Self-constructed interview schedule was used to collect the data. The data analysis was done using ‘F’ test for independent groups, and following result was achieved at the 0.05 level. The main result from the present study that the negative effect of violent video game was influenced by the gender.

  169. Dr. Jay Desai and Nisarg A Joshi

    A curious seasonal anomaly found in finance is the turn of the month effect, where the daily mean return of stock market at the end of a month and beginning of a month is significantly higher than the average daily return of all the days of a month. There have been evidences that certain months in a year deliver significantly higher returns. Similar anomalies are found for week days also, where some days in a week deliver above average returns. Seasonal anomalies for researchers have been a subject of great interest and lot of literature is available worldwide. This paper examines presence of day of the month effect on ten stock markets, geographically located in different corners of the world. This paper is not intended to study only the anomalies and inefficiencies present in various world markets, it is intended to highlight the profit potential available to individual investors and professional fund managers. The date wise daily returns are calculated in percentage terms to make the phenomena easy to understand. The statistical significance of daily returns is tested with Z-Statistics, in total 310 hypotheses are tested in the research. We found day of the month effect present in all the stock markets tested across the world, some days in a month historically are found to have delivered significantly higher returns.

  170. Dr. Venkataiah, B.

    Dalit, meaning "oppressed" in South Asia, is the self-chosen political name of castes in the SAARC region which the varna system considers "untouchable". Though the name Dalit has been in existence since the nineteenth century, the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956) popularised the term. Dalits were excluded from the four-fold Varna system and formed the unmentioned fifth varna; they were also called Panchama. While "scheduled castes" (SC) is the legal name for those who were formerly considered "untouchable," the term Dalit also encompasses scheduled tribes (ST) and other historically disadvantaged communities who were traditionally excluded from society.

  171. Piyush Bhadani

    The present paper discusses the issues challenges and trends of public debt in India since 1980. It first explains the reason for public debt and then gives a brief overview on the concept of Public Debt. The paper analyses the theoretical perspective of the public debt in which the views of various authors on public debt have been explained. Further the paper looks at the trends of public debt and gross interest obligation of the government since 1981. It discusses how the government debt have been used and specifically focuses on decline in the recovery ratio over the years. Due to decline in recovery ratio there is either increase in fiscal deficit or decline in non interest expenditure of the government or a combination of both. Also the increased amount of public debt is not leading to increase in productive capacity of the government indicating the inefficient utilization of the funds borrowed either from internal of external source. Lastly the paper points out the areas where the government is lacking and the measures the government should take so that the funds can be used in an efficient manner.

  172. Nyoman Satia Negara, I.

    The recognition and respect for customary law community in Bali (Pakraman) is mentioned in Article 18 (B)(2) of the 1945 Constitution of Republic of Indonesia. It states, "The State recognizes and respects the units of customary law communities along with their traditional rights as along asit still exists and in accordance with the development of society and the principles of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia which is regulated by the Law ". Pakraman is the unity of tradition and manners in the social life of Hindu people passed down from generation to generation in the bond of Kahyangan Tiga or Kahyangan Desa (three main temples within the Pakraman) that have particular area, their own properties and is entitled to manage its own household. Meanwhile the village administration is an authority that organizes village governments to regulate and manage the interests of the local community in the state government system. This article has two legal issues. First, how is the existence of customary law communities in the system of village administration in Bali? Second, how is the implementation and the authority of customary law communities in the village government system? This is as a normative legal research that employs statutory approach, conceptual approach and principles of law. Theoretically, the state recognizes the customary law community (in Bali) with the original composition as customary law community which has tradition and traditional rights. Bali customary law community (Pakraman) basically still can co-exist with the village administration in the implementation of the village administration.

  173. BIGA BOUKARY Alassane, Adolphe Ahonnon, NAKOU Sounon Adam and TANIMOMO Libérat

    The infanticide of Baatombu is a ritual practice that raises faiths, myths and local representations. To analyze its various characteristics and foundation, we drew on the reports of seminaries (seminars), workshops, drills organized by NGO (non-governmental organizations), national and international documents, and we questioned about ten people as resources. After analyzing all of this information, we found that the phenomenon of the infanticide is practiced in several cultures: Europe, Asia, and Africa. In Benin, an analysis of the phenomenon showed that, under the influence of the faiths and myths, children being born in abnormal conditions are accused of witchcraft. In these circumstances, the incriminated children are either eliminated by the executioners or repairers, or marginalized or abandoned in bad weather. At best, they are freed of the evil “that they shelter,” in the hopes of full recovery, by a person of willingness or a charitable organization. This practice has fatal consequences psychological, economic, and social to both the family and society. In spite of a legal and institutional environment suited for the protection of the children and the raising of awareness, the infanticide still persists in zones moved back by Benin.

  174. Nil Selenay ERDEN

    Aim of this study is to gather participants’ views about the service of workplace counselling and lighten some issues about expectations from a workplace counsellor with regard to career counselling and counselling roles. Workplace counselling has been widely used in United States of America and European Countries. However, usage of this service has been recent in Turkey. Even though there are researches conducted in this area, there has been a gap and dissensus in the literature about the aims, responsibilities and roles of workplace counselling. This study aims to contribute to this gap. First of all, literature survey on workplace counselling and counselling roles will be mentioned and research questions with demographic information of the participants will be presented. Findings of the study in reference to the previous research and essential points that should be investigated in the future research are also discussed.

  175. Zulkifli, M.

    Research problem of this study is finding out; (1) How does the description of a cooperative learning model implemented by tutor in learning activities of Keaksaraan Usaha Mandiri (KUM) program in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi province ?; (2) How does the description of the motivation to learn by citizens of UKM program in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi province ?; and (3) Is there any significant relationship between cooperative learning model applied by tutor with the motivation of citizens to learn in KUM program (KUM) of UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi province?. The objectives of this study are (1) to determine the cooperative learning model applied by tutor in the learning activities of KUM programs in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province; (2) to describe the motivation of citizens to learn in KUM program of UPTD-SKB Kendari; (3) to know the significant relationship between cooperative learning model applied by tutor with the motivation of citizens to learn independent business literacy program (KUM program) in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province. Population of this research is all citizens of KUM program in UPTD-SKB Kendari city, by 26 people of total population. The techinque of sampling uses total population techniques. Data analysis techniqueas of this research are descriptive statistical analysis techniques and nonparametric statistical analysis techniques and to test the hypothesis by using Spearman rank formula followed by the t-test. The results show that the description of cooperative learning model implemented by tutor learners in learning activities of KUM program in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province is at the level of the medium rank category; and the motivation of the citizens to learn the program is at the level of intensity of response which also categorized medium rank. In addition, the significance of test results through the t-test is at the level of α = 0.05 with df = (n - 2) = 26-2 = 24: obtained index t (4,6)> t table (2.064); and the result of coefficient rs is 0.68 (categorized in fairly strong by positive correlation), which means that there is a significant relationship between cooperative learning model applied tutor with the motivation of citizens to learn independent business literacy program (KUM) in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi Province

  176. Sirojjon Berdikulov Nasipkulovich

    Description of the mechanisms of development of political parties in the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan is given. The significance of legal framework for prosperity of multiparty system and enhancement of the role of political parties in a civil society which is of great importance for democratization and modernization of the society, realization of human rights and freedoms and development of citizens’ political consciousness and culture in Uzbekistan is shown.

  177. Koel Mukherjee and Kaustav Das

    There are millions of children in the world die every year before reaching the age of five due to malnutrition and infectious diseases and they are mostly from the developing countries like Somalia, Uganda, Bangladesh, Nepal, Tanzania, Ghana, India, Sudan, Pakistan, Nigeria etc. There is no doubt that infants are prone to infection due to their not fully developed immune system. Apposite food and nutrition during infancy are very essential for immediate and future health, physical growth, mental development and a healthy immune system. According to World Health Organization, breast milk is the ideal food for normal infant and they strongly recommend exclusive breast feeding for first six months of the normal infants instead of any prelacteals. Colostrum is the earliest and most immunologically protective secretion of the mammary glands, which is highly nutritious, easily digestible substance and acts also as natural vaccine against various health related threats in humans. Lots of evidence reported from all over the globe revealed that neonatal and post neonatal deaths were become lower among those infants who fed colostrums than those who were not. But there are much higher number of reported cases of colostrum avoidance due to various cultural beliefs and practices from communities and States of different countries. This paper is an attempt to review the scenario of colostrums avoidance in present day context based on available literatures.

  178. Pinki Mandal Sahoo, Prakriti Joddar, Sushama Biswas and Biplab Sarkar

    Bankura district is famous as a hub of small cottage industries in West Bengal, and “terracotta” cottage industry plays a great role in this sector. Terracotta cottage industry is originated in Panchmura village of Taldangra block adjacent to Bishnupur block of Bankura district and the market area of terracotta products mainly located in Bishnupur municipality (ward no. 2&3). Various types of Terracotta artworks are being manufactured in this village like terracotta horse, Manasha jhar (Hanging clay lamps), doll, women’s water pot, the tribal art, models of monkey, cat, astray flower vase, horse, ganesh (Hindu God), incense sticks stand, and Terracotta jewellery etc. Every members of the family join into this profession including the children. The economic condition of the potters of Panchmura village and the people dependent on the terracotta industry in the Bishnupur Municipality is not so healthy. As the production cost is very high than the labour cost, the producers could not be benefitted. Another reason of this backward condition is the presence of “Middle Man”. The middle men purchase the handicrafts from producers at a very low rate and sell it in the market at profitable cost. This is very much unsatisfactory to the producers. In recent times to increase the interest on this profession and to make alive of these traditional artworks, the state government, state craft’s council and central government issue many awards, organize numerous exhibitions and grants aid to terracotta cottage industry for encouraging and helping the producers. As a result the producers get motivated and interested to make new design terracotta handicrafts to get recognition in the world market.

  179. Sev Joseph Teryima, Ugba Vivien Anna and Emakwu John

    The objective of the study is to determine the impact of global environmental forces namely global economic, political – legal and socio-cultural in enhancing management effectiveness and development in the Nigeria Breweries Plc Lagos in Nigeria. Data for this study was obtained through primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was the main primary instrument of data collection using five (5) point Likert rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), undecided (U), Disagreed (D) and Strongly Disagreed (SD). Survey research design was adopted for the study. The numbers of respondents were 342 from the surveyed firm. Multiple regression test was used in testing the formulated hypothesis. The findings revealed that the global environmental forces have a relationship with the management effectiveness and development of Nigeria Breweries Plc Lagos. The paper recommends that proper examination and analysis of the global environmental force (i.e global economic, political – legal, socio –cultural forces) by the Nigeria Breweries Plc Lagos using SWOT analysis – strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, PEST Analysis framework variable (political/legal, economic, socio – cultural variables) that affect the industry be carried out periodically by professional consultants to sustain effectiveness of management and development of Nigeria Breweries Plc Lagos.

  180. Manisha Kol and Dr. P. B. Meshram

    Present paper deals about most abundant insect faunal species of PBR, and variation in diversity pattern of insect species in teak –Sal forest ecosystem with seasonal variations. Insect species like Camopnotous, Aciagrion sp, Metochus uniguttattus (Thunberg), Creatonotus gangis (Linn), Ypthima sp, Myrimica sp, Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius)*, Ypthima sp, Clania crameri (Westwood), Scudderia furcata (Braner), and Lasius niger (Linn.) are most abundant and adaptive insect species of Teak- Sal ecotone in PBR, on the basis of richness count. SHE analysis is made to analyze diversity pattern in both ways yearly and seasonally of insect species of PBR

  181. Dilip R. Khairnar, Swati T. Kale and Kiran Kharat

    Farmers’ suicides in India have led to public policy and academic discourse. Relatively higher suicide rates for farmers are to be identified as a symptom of a larger socio-economic malaise. Various reasons are attributed for the suicides namely, poor productivity, fluctuation in rainfall and climate, huge investment and low income, indebtedness, socio-economic impact. This review focuses on the reasons and suggests some remedies to resolve the issue of suicides by farmers.

  182. Mohan Kumar, M. S., Dr. Aswatha Narayana, T. and Vijo Jose Vellakottil

    The Indian telecommunication industry is one of the fastest growing in the world. In Wireless market Bharti Airtel is the market leader with a 22.7% share of total subscription. The study examines the relationship between leverage and profitability in Bharti Airtel. The study based on secondary data during the period from 2005-06 to 2014-15. The data was collected from the published sources like books, annual reports of companies and website of money control.com. The collected data will be analyzed by using profitability ratios, leverages, Average, Standard deviation, coefficient of variance and correlation was used for verify the relationship between leverages and profitability. The study reveals liquidity position of the Bharti Airtel is not up to the standard norm, but Profitability ratios are shown in the positive trend during the study period. The relation between profitability and leverage of Bharti Airtel varies. The correlation of coefficient of DOL was negative with ROCE. But DFL and DCL were positively correlated with ROCE. The DOL and DFL were statistically significant but DCL was statistically not significant. We can observe that the company was unable to use its resources in optimal level. It can improve its performance in future.

  183. Ergün Recepoğlu

    The aim of this study is to understand school bussing in primary and lower secondary, upper secondary education in Turkish Education System with its reasons and evaluate school bussing in primary and secondary education with different aspects, especially the development of school bussing in terms of years. The focus is on the development of school bussing after the changes on the duration of compulsory education. At this point, the role of school bussing on spreading compulsory education is important and numerical data show that school bussing made a major contribution to the process especially in and after the period of eight years and 12 years compulsory education. With the transition to 12 years compulsory education in the academic year 2012-2013, school bussing expanded and it will continue to expand possibly. At present, almost 900,000 of school age population are on the scope of school bussing. Finally, it can be asserted that school bussing is of great importance for Turkish Educational system and therefore, the determination and analysis of problem issues and finding constructive and effective solutions to problems is very important for the functioning of the school bussing in a more useful and healthy way.

  184. Attikuppam Umapathi

    Recent advancements in ICTs, especially internet, has been transfiguring the nature and the domain of the public sphere significantly. Though the idea of internet as a public sphere is challenged with many critics not disposed to accept it as a public sphere, the remarkable impact that the internet has been able to bring on the nature of public sphere, or at least it’s role in impelling the contents that are discussed in the public sphere makes us to question whether the stand of these critics in dismissing the internet as public sphere is justifiable or not. Any advancements in communication, interaction related platforms are bound to influence the way public interact, and the interaction modes obviously influence all public sphere related outcomes. The fact that internet is a better mode of communication than any other mode of communication that we have experienced so far, is an indisputable fact. The question is whether internet related platforms, or interactions thorough these platforms can be called as rational-critical debate that is expected to take place in a public sphere. As a matter of fact internet is a world of many things, and acting as a public sphere, or acting as a platform to accommodate rational-critical debate is one among the many aspects that the internet does. Nonetheless, the transference of audience from mass media to internet for each and every aspect indicates that the internet has swamped, and replaced mass media as a primary source of public sphere. Access to internet is becoming relatively cheaper vis-à-vis mass media. Besides being economical, the internet also provides speed in communication, and the best dimension of internet as a mode of communication is, it acts as a two way mode of communication where the parties involved can interact with each other in a democratic manner i.e., without any hierarchy in the direction of flow of information. Information can originate at any end, and can reach to indefinite number of people. A mode of communication with these dimensions is destined to influence the nature of public sphere profoundly. This papers attempts to track down the structural transformation of the public sphere in sync with the changes in communication methods, by specifically looking at the structural differences between mass media and internet, and looks at how discursive the internet derived public sphere is vis-à-vis mass media based public sphere.

  185. Daniel Plaatjies

    The outsourcing and contracting policy-practice establish principal and agent relations in the environment of learning and development within the public service. The article applies the principal-agent model and determines the nature and extent of the contractual relations between government departments on the one side, and on the other, higher education and training institutions (HETIs) and independent individual contractors (IICs). This article argues that the interplay and mutual support of the different decisions within these collusive contexts combine with the outsourced contracting policy-practice contribute to multiple principals and agents across the components of education, training and continuous professional development (ETPD) provisionin the public service. The principal-agent model provides opportunities for agency and self-interests behaviour in ETPD provision.

  186. Pooja Verma and Sunita Mishra

    Effect of flaxseeds supplementation on serum lipid profile of hypercholesteromia induced animals was studied. Flaxseeds were processed (roasted), grinded and administered at dose of 250grams and 500 grams as low dose and high dose. Administration of roasted Flaxseed powder of 250 gm (low dose) and 500 grams (high dose) for 42 days produces significant (P<0.001) reduction of serum LDL-cholesterol and in body weight reduction in hyperlipidemia induced rats. The present study confirmed that roasted Flaxseeds powder incorporated would be considered as effective agent for lipid lowering purposes.

  187. Wirot Sanrattana, Forrest W. Parkay, Phrakrusutheejariyawattana, Phrakrupaladsamai and Paisan Suwannoi

    This research aims to clarify the definition of leadership, levels of leadership, characteristics of each level of leadership, and the teachings of Buddhism that can be used to strengthen leadership. We also present a conceptual framework for using Buddhism to develop leadership. A mixed methods approach, using both sequential and parallel designs, was used. We found that leadership refers to the relationship between leader and follower in a relational process that transitions to a new world or a better future, whether one is a leader by position or by nature. Leadership is divided into three levels: (1) self-leadership, (2) team leadership, and (3) organizational leadership. The characteristics of leadership that reflect the "talent" of leadership is "the ability of leaders to think, to have, and to do.”The teachings of Buddhism should be used to strengthen and develop the concept of leadership as perceived by Western scholars. Eastern and Western views of leadership are not in conflict; neither is “better” than the other; and they each have their own strengths. The researchers conclude by presenting a conceptual model for developing leadership called the H-E-B-M-H-F Model.

  188. Rubina Nusrat

    This paper examines the household livelihood strategies under resettlement stress of Van Gujjar community in the Shivalik foothills of Northern India. It also looks at the relationship between household assets and livelihood strategies. The accessibility to capital assets was assessed by the marginalized and depressed sections of the society and analysed in detail. Major causes of increasing exclusion from their natural habitat and increasing sedentarization. Livestock continues to be the most important asset determining livelihood outcomes. The livelihood strategies have been investigated in relation to education, Social Participation, credit facilities, cooking fuel and Source of water. The alternate livelihood strategies adopted by Van Gujjars includes diversification of life stock rearing, wage employment and exchange of labour. Mitigation of sedentarization distress requires provision of education, health and other social safety measures.

  189. Rumyana Ilcheva Neminska

    The article addresses the issue of teacher competence as an important factor in teaching and learning process. Outputs research plays the relation: a competence technology. Expressed position that a resolution of the many variations of pedagogical problems encountered in contemporary school is necessary to conceptualize the idea of Competency technology. Because Bulgarian teachers have developed a number of professional and personal competency, but fail to combine their best effective strategy. And this is because in practical life lost strategic goal. Competency technology is one technology that can combine certain individual competencies to solve specific educational and professional case. As a foothold for constructing Competency technology used "effects" of the study "Visible Learning" Professor John Hattie. Discussed are such effects in the study were identified as unworkable, but Bulgarian reforming educational system are a major trend. Outputs groups relevant factors / effects that are possible core competency of operating technologies. Draws attention to the goal - why construct one such technology: how and what to choose a teacher to operationalize the activities in the context of achieving a school purpose.

  190. Ranjanie, B. and Rajeswari, V.

    The study aims to determine the metacognitive awareness and academic achievement in genetics among the eleventh standard students through the Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach. The Sample for the study (n=106) were selected in three schools in Chennai through purposive cluster sampling technique. Single group pre-post test comparison design was used to collect the data using the Metacognitive awareness Inventory (MAI) and achievement test in genetics constructed by the researcher. Appropriate statistical analysis of the collected data reveal that PBL was more effective in developing metacognitive awareness among the students and enhanced the students to reveal their academic potential in learning genetics.

  191. Ramesh Kumar Rai

    The history of Gond Community has been glorious and their social, culture and traditional heritage are also rich. They have their own language, life style and religion, which makes them different from other. Gond kingdoms were strongest political power in Central India (Gondwana) since 17th to mid 20th century. Gonds are recognized as one of the oldest tribe of world and inhabitated in India before Aaryan invasion. This paper highlights the Political, Cultural and Social variety of Gond history. To day majority of Gonds are live as only tribe, they have duel status and also apart from main stream of development.

  192. Shivayya Mathapati, Hemla Naik, B., Suresh Chougala and Savita, K. H.

    The present study on “Physical attributes as influenced by variety, desiccant and positioning for dried flower suitability under laboratory condition” was carried out with four gerbera varieties viz., Sangria, Goliath, Impireal and Rosalin. Flowers were embedded in desiccants and kept different positions under laboratory condition. The highest dry weight (2.12 g/flower) was recorded in var. Goliath. The least dry weight (1.64 g/flower) was noticed in var. Impireal. The maximum dry weight (1.95 g/flower) was obtained with sand, whereas minimum (1.85 g/flower) was recorded in desiccant silica gel used, among the varieties studied. Positioning face down recorded maximum dry weight (1.95 g/flower), while face up noticed minimum (1.86 g/flower) (Table 1(c)).

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