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January 2016

A descriptive study was undertaken to assess the knowledge on Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever among adults residing in Makkalur village, Salem. Fifty samples were selected by non probability convenient sampling technique and data was collected with structured knowledge questionnaire using interview method. The demographic characteristics revealed that highest 40% of them belonged to the age group of above 31-40 years, 68% were males, 94% were Hindus, 86% were employed whereas 72% of them had previous source of information from media.

Background: Women are integral to all aspects of society. They are worshipped, but when it comes to dealing with them, much still remains. Women bear the burden of responsibility associated with being wives, mothers and carers of others. There is a dearth of case-control studies. Domestic violence in women with psychiatric morbidity has not received sufficient attention.

Two classes of oral anti-coagulant (OAC) are available to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke: vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and direct oral anti-coagulants (DOA). Our goals were to evaluate current prescription practices in a neurovascular care unit (NCU), to inform discharged patients on their drug and to follow them up. A registry of 124 patients with an OAC prescription, was kept by our clinical pharmacist team. Indications were analysed and patients got a pharmaceutical interview whenever possible.

Most lecturers and other staff members, whose training and experiences are anchored in the conventional system of education, are often employed in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions. The employees are expected to deliver quality goods at all levels. Questions may be raised as to what ODL expertise these practitioners rely on to accomplish their daily activities in an ODL institution, and to what extent the ODL system is credible under such operations? A cross sectional survey was carried out in this study.

Background: Thyroid disease is a common prevalent disease in the women of reproductive age. This disease arises due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. On the other hand, the relations between genes and environment are yet to be identified. The most important susceptibility genes that have been identified is the HLA-DQB1 gene locus on chromosome number six. The major environmental factors include iodine, medications, infection, smoking, and possibly stress.

Protein energy malnutrition is highly prevalent in the developing countries among the under-five children. Nigeria accounts for one third of all new HIV infections among children in the 21 priority countries in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV infection in children worsens their nutritional status with its attendant morbidity and mortality. Aim: Thus this study seeks to assess the growing trend of HIV infection among malnourished children. Methodology: A retrospective review of children admitted for acute severe malnutrition in the Children’s ward of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital.

Birth defects are the leading cause of infant mortality accounting for approximately 21% of infant death rate. Developmental anomalies of the urogenital system is one of them, and of paramount clinical importance. About 100 foetuses of age groups four months to nine months of intrauterine life were collected from local hospitals at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh and preserved in 10%formalin. After making an incision in the anterior abdominal wall. The abdomen was eviscerated. The posterior abdominal wall and the excretory organs were exposed on both the sides.

Background: Solar radiation induces a deleterious effect on the skin, expressed by visible clinical changes. One of the consequences of frequent skin exposure to solar radiation is induced skin aging. Objective: The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical signs of skin aging, in people of black race living in tropical zone and their possible correlation with lipoperoxidation. Methods: The sampling consisted of 60 people divided into two groups of 30 people each. Group A consisted of 30 fishermen located in the area where sunlight is intense.

Aim: The study was aimed to assess the quality of life (QoL) of patients with psoriasis and the association of QoL scores with the selected socio-demographic variables. Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 200 patients affected with psoriasis. Study subjects were recruited from Dermatology clinic, JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical education & Research), hospital, Puducherry.

Introduction : Stress is one of the emotional disturbances experienced by the women with infertility. The present study was conducted to assess the level of stress among women with primary infertility. Methodology : A cross – sectional survey was conducted. Infertility related stress was assessed by using the fertility problem inventory. The interview method was used to collect the data. Results: 40 % had average stress, 30.9 % had moderately high stress, 15.1% had low stress and 14 % had very high stress.

Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional surgical knife to that of laser assisted excision of operculum in terms of patient comfort assessment, post-operative pain and healing. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yenepoya Dental College, Mangalore. Study consisted of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed Pericoronitis who required excision of the Oerculum. They were divided in 2 groups: A and B.

Background: Resistance to broad spectrum β-lactams mediated by Extended spectrum β-lactamases and AmpC β lactamases is an increasing problem worldwide. The advent of carbapenems heralded a new treatment option for serious bacterial infection. But carbapenemases have emerged and spread, leading to carbapenem resistance .Hence, it is necessary to know their incidence in the clinical isolates of the hospital, so as to formulate a policy of empirical therapy in high risk patients.

A study was undertaken to find out certain macro and micro mineral levels (Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu) in soil, fodder and serum of dairy cattle owned by College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati-22. The soil and fodder samples were collected and processed following the procedure of Mitchell and Rhue (1979) and Fick, et al. (1979), respectively. The serum samples was analysed as per method of Fick et al. (1979) with the help of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.

Mosquitoes constitute a major public health problem as a vector of serious human and animal diseases which causes millions of illnesses cases, and deaths. In present study the author evaluate an industrial waste product from natural origin as larvaicide and adulticide agents on mosquito, Culexpipiens. Black liquor showed potency as larvicideand its potency was increased when mixed with the emulsifier in different ratio. The LC50 and LC95 for Black liquor alone, Black liquor with emulsifier 1:1 and 1:2 were 3944.6 and5766.5, 2886.7 and 4426.6 and 2184.1 and 3985.6 respectively.

Plasmacytoma is a localized collection of malignant plasma cells. SBPs are found primarily in the axial skeleton, particularly the vertebrae, ribs, and pelvis, but may involve any bone in the body. But plasmocytoma in clavicle is very very rare.

Twelve lactating Red Sokoto Goats in their first parity were used to determine the effect of replacing cassava peel meal with discarded Tiger nut meal (DTNM) on milk yield and composition. The experimental design was CRD. Cassava peel meal was replaced at the levels of 0, 30 and 60%. Each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters measured were DM intake and milk yield. The results shows that DM intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher for goats on treatment 2 (30% DTNM). The mean daily milk yield of goats in treatment 1 and 2 were not significantly (P>0.05) different.

Children differ from adolescents and adults in their interpretation and ability to express their experience. They simply know that something is going wrong and that they are very afraid. Children can only describe the physical symptoms. They have not yet developed the constructs to put these symptoms together and label them as fear. The objective of present study was to understand the prevalence of anxiety related disorders and gender differences among children. The sample size of present research was 200 children. The sample consists of 100 boys and 100 girls between ages 9-11 years.

Background/Objective: To compare the levels of antioxidants in malnourished children before and after sesame oil supplementation, to determine the effectiveness of sesame oil on nutritional parameters and to assess the acceptability and palatability of sesame oil. Design: Cross sectional study, Open prospective and international study. Setting: Departments of Pediatrics and Biochemistry of a Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Children between the age group of 1-5 yrs with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM).

Background: Changes in the lifestyle of school student are one of the most important factors for the postural problems that are developing in students. This study aims to find the reliabity of postural measurements within trial and across trial measurements. Method: In this study, 97 middle grade school students (10- 11 years) were included. Photographs were taken in sagittal plane in 2 trial and 3 sessions which were assessed quantitatively and reliability was calculated.

Introduction: The management of left colonic obstruction is a real clinical challenge for surgeons. The resection with on table lavage and anastomosis is the cornerstone of surgical management of large gut obstruction. Methodology: Among the left colonic obstructions, 40 samples included in this non-randomized, longitudinal study in a prospective case series design which satisfy the criteria. Results: Almost 80% cases of acute large gut obstruction occurred between 51 to 80 years of age.

Aim: Assess the oral health status and treatment needs of geriatric and pediatric population in a ward of Jaipur city Objective: Assess the oral health status using the Oral Health Assessment form of subjects of 5 and 65-74 years in a ward of Jaipur city.

Physiological aging encompasses progressive changes in an organism which results in a decrease in organ function and an increase in the risk of mortality over time. This innate phenomenon engages several cellular components including lipids. Determining the influence of different ages on the amounts of these lipids is a mean to better understanding of their role in physiological aging. Male wistar rats were utilized to investigate the effect of age on these lipids.

Breast carcinoma is one of the leading cause of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology, which is quick and non invasive procedure to assess in vivo tumor grade. Cytological grading in aspiration of breast malignancies is a useful tool for surgical maneuvar and prognosis.

Background: Hand washing has become one of the most recommended methods of infection control in hospitals. Studies indicate that the knowledge, attitude and practices are poor in many countries. There has not been any similar study in Trinidad and Tobago. This study is attempt to document the situation in the twin-Island state. Aim: To document the perceptions of the nurses in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of the selected hospitals in Trinidad with regard to hand washing in accordance with the policies of the Ministry Health, Trinidad and Tobago.

Preterm delivery is the leading cause of perinatal mortality accounting for up to 40-60% of perinatal deaths. These have been attributed to a variety of factors, though in some cases the direct cause is not readily apparent. Materials: Information required was obtained from folders of preterm babies admitted into special care baby unit in the study center for a period of five years (2005-2010). Results: In this study, there was a significant association between birth weight, uptake of antenatal care and marital status, (likelihood ratio; 0.03, 0.000 and 0.001) respectively.

Background: The goal of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of arthroscopic ACL reconstructions, subjectively and objectively using the ALL PRESS-FIT fixation technique . This study will evaluate the results of this technique, highlight its limitations and point out to its complications.

Aim: The aim is to assess the interplay between anxiety and depression was also assessed by comparing the HAD scales with biochemical serum markers of anxiety and depression, namely cortisol and serotonin during surgical removal of third molar. Materials & Methods: A prospective randomized study was conducted using 30 healthy patients (male-13,female-17) between 18-45 years, requiring surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar were included in the study. Hospital anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) scale is a questionnaire used to assess levels of Anxiety and Depression.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients needed for healthy growth and development. It is beneficial for a new born as well as a mother as it protects both of them from numerous diseases. In this review we have considered the studies having its concern with benefits of breast feeding for mother and infant. In the last section of the study discussion is made for promotion of breast feeding.

Infant and under five mortality in developing countries has declined in the past two decades while the new born mortality has not significantly changed. Most neonatal death take place at home, this indicate that lack of early recognition on the danger sign and low treatment seeking behavior of mothers (care taker) towards modern health care service. The objective of this study is to assess knowledge of mother on danger signs of neonatal and postnatal illness and health seeking behavior among pregnant and postpartum mother in Gedeo Zone, 2014/15.

Delirium is a neurobehavioral syndrome caused by dysregulation of neuronal activity secondary to systemic disturbances. It occurs in 35 to 80 % of critically ill, hospitalized patients. Recent estimates of in-hospital mortality rates among delirious patients have ranged from 25 to 33%.Based on arousal disturbance and psychomotor behaviour, the following three clinical subtypes of delirium have been described like hyperactive (hyper aroused, hyper alert, or agitated), hypoactive (hypo aroused, hypo alert, or lethargic), and mixed (alternating features of hyperactive and hypoactive types).

Pregnancy is a holistic experience which suggests that every little thing that happens to the mother anyplace in or on her physique has the chance of influencing the infant. Adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, are important events determining neonatal morbidity and mortality. In the present scenario the oral hygiene is the least cared for during pregnancy and owing to the high impact of dental disease on pregnancy outcome research into this area becomes mandatory.

Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of the distal tibia offers several advantages compared to classic open reduction and internal fixation. Minimally invasive percutaneous plating osteosynthesis (MIPPO) technique in fractures of distal tibia provides mechanically stable fracture-bridging osteosynthesis thereby preventing damage to bone vascularity, reduce iatrogenic soft tissue injury and preserve the fracture hematoma as compared to classic open reduction and internal plate fixation.

To identify the risk factors other than tobacco and alcohol for the development of head and neck cancer, functional polymorphisms of DNA repair genes including XRCC1 Arg194Trp in the exon 6, Arg280His in the exon 9, Arg399Gln in the exon 10, XRCC2 Arg188His in the exon 3, XRCC3 Thr241Met in the exon 7, XRCC4 codon 247, XRCC4 G1394T, XRCC4 intron7, XRCC5 2R/1R/0R, XRCC6 61 (C>G) and XRCC7 6721 (G>T) were studied among rural population of Maharashtra.

The police are the law enforcement personnel. They deal on a regular basis with avariety of unique situations and stressors. Occupational stress, if untreated, can lead to negative changes in police officers, specifically in their self-schemas and in how they perceive the communities in which they serve. The impact of an unhealthy or mentally impaired police officer has implications not only for the individual officer, but also for the society as a whole. A mentally and physically fit officer will respond more appropriately in a variety of situations that they encounter.

High serum CK levels are found in many muscular dystrophies as well as inflammatory, toxic, metabolic, and mitochondrial myopathies. The highest values are seen during attacks of myoglobinuria (“rhabdomyolysis”), a clinical syndrome of diffuse myalgia, myoglobinuria, and, often, renal failure. Idiopathic hyper CKemia indicates persistently elevated CK with no symptoms or minimal symptoms, such as muscle aches at rest or with exercise, muscle cramps, or stiffness. On examination, there should be no weakness, wasting, loss or increase of tendon reflexes, or fasciculations.

Objective: this review aimed to fill the gap about information related to ornamental fishes in the Sudanese Red Sea waters. Methods: data was collected from various sources including publications and observations. Results: the large families found are the Labridae, Pomacanthidae, Gobbidae, Pomacentridae and Chaetodontidae, while the small families are the Torpedinidae, Lenthrindae, Ephipidae, Monodactylidae and Ophichthidae. Conclusion: the study is the first to review and report in details the presence of ornamental fishes in the Sudanese Red Sea waters.

Purpose: The purpose of our study is to determine the ratio of abnormal cervical cytology among the results of the first cervical screening of women in the Darfur area of Central Africa. Material and Method: The cytology results of women who had Pap smear tests done in a Saharan hospital between 2014-2015 were screened retrospectively. Women with abnormal cervical cytology results in the conventional evaluation were examined further. Women with cervical cytology results of ASC-US, ASC-H, LGSIL, HGSIL, and AGC were included in the study.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and biochemical profile and Growth hormone receptor Polymorphism of children presenting with short stature to a tertiary care centre, and also to study the molecular players/polymorphism that might give us an insight into good response to a relatively expensive modality of treatment. This would thus be directing resources to patients with GH deficiency who would respond best to it. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study on short stature children presenting to a tertiary care hospital over a period of 3 years.

Background: Tobacco and alcohol use are serious public health problems in many countries including India because of the associated health hazards. In contrast to urban areas, there are relatively few data on the prevalence of risk factors among rural population in various age-groups from Tamil Nadu. So, a study was conducted to estimate prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in a rural population in Tamil Nadu, India.

Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds which are used for curing of various human diseases and also play an important role in healing. Phytochemicals have two categories i.e., primary and secondary constituents. Primary constituents have chlorophyll, proteins and amino acids. Secondary constituents contain terpenoids, flavonoid, glycoside and alkaloids. This paper deals with Phytochemical studies of Trifolium pratense, Astragalus corrugates and Hypericum perforatum. Phytochemical tests were carried out to know about the qualitative existence of secondary metabolites in them.

Atypical pneumonia is atypical in presentation with only moderate amounts of sputum, no consolidation, only small increases in white cell counts and no alveolar exudates; and sometimes, not even presenting with respiratory symptoms. Here we present a case of a 65 years old elderly man who presented with disorientation, hiccups and loss of appetite. He was a known diabetic and hypertensive. On presentation patient had a SpO2 of 96%. Lab reports were suggestive of severe hyponatremia of 92meq/L and clinically he was euvolaemic. Chest X-ray showed right sided consolidation.

Introduction: Menopause is permanent cessation of menstruation secondary to genetically programmed loss of ovarian follicles and cessation of ovarian estrogen secretion. Post menopausal bleeding is an alarming symptom of genital pathologies and requires complete evaluation to exclude malignancy (5% to 15%). Over half of the cases show atrophic endometrium. Endometrial proliferation which may develop into hyperplasia or even carcinoma or estrogen available from other sources.

Wound dehiscence is disruption of any or all of the layers in a wound. Dehiscence may occur in up to 3% of abdominal wounds and is very distressing to the patient. Wound dehiscence is an acute wound failure. Acute wound failure has been discussed under various names i.e. wound dehiscence, burst abdomen, wound disruption and evisceration. Despite advances in perioperative care and suture materials, incidence and mortality rates in regard to abdominal wound dehiscence have not significantly changed over the past decades.

Acute Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. A delay in performing an appendicectomy in order to improve its diagnostic accuracy increases the risk of appendicular perforation and sepsis, which in turn increases morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic accuracy can be further improved through the use of ultrasonography or computed tomography imaging. However, these modalities are costly and may not be easily available when they are required.

Fungal and aflatoxins contamination in rabbit's environment and evaluation the efficacy of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and probiotic in amelioration the toxic effects of aflatoxins were investigated. One hundred samples, including (25 each of feed, water, litter and wires of rabbit's cages) were collected from private rabbit's farms at El-Giza Governorate. The mycological examination resulted in recovering Aspergillus sp. at the top of fungi isolated from all examined samples(68%), followed by Mucor sp.(35%), Penicillium sp. (31%), Fusarium sp. (23%), Rhizopus sp. (21%),Cladosporium sp.

Aim and Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of medical students towards patients suffering with HIV/AIDS. To determine if students felt adequately prepared to deal with medical and psychological aspects of HIVIAIDS. Methodology: the study was conducted in a questionnaire based pattern at Government Medical College, Anantapuramu, including MBBS students of all the semesters. A structured questionnaire was distributed to all the medical students of each year.

Urolithiasis is one of the major health issue in urinary system which causes large health care burden. Although many therapeutic options have been develop for the treatments of renal stones, mechanism of formation of renal stone is still remains as controversial. In order to detect formation of stone in different anatomical locations in renal system, we have examined 76 renal stone samples in different anatomical locations collected from Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya. Surface and cross sectional visual and microscopic analysis were done in all samples.

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), or increased LV mass, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Echocardiographic LVH is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of the left ventricular geometric patterns in normal population may have some prognostic significance. 200 healthy young adults of either sex in the age group of 18-22 were recruited for the study. All subjects were clinically evaluated and an echocardiographic examination was performed. Study showed a increased in left ventricular mass with increase diastolic and systolic pressure.

Background: Group A individuals are further subdivided into A1, A2 and other rare types like A3, A intermediate (int.), Ax, Am, Aend, Ay, Ael, etc. Subgroups of A can result in discrepancy in ABO blood typing. The occurrence of weak variants due to heterogeneity of the A and B alleles poses a challenge for immunohaematology practice. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 2.5 years from January 2013 to July 2015 carried out at the Department of Immunohaematology & Blood Transfusion of MGM Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai.

Thrombosis of the cerebral dural sinuses has been well described in the literature and rarely the dural sinus obstruction can result in unremitting papilledema (raised intracranial hypertension) causing blindness. We report a case of a 21-year-old man, who was diagnosed to have extensive sinus thrombosis involving superior sagittal sinus thrombosis and developed visual deterioration. The patient did not respond to conservative treatment and a thecoperitoneal shunt was performed; following which he developed intracranial hypotension with bilateral SDH needing bilateral burr hole evacuation.

Aims: The overall aim was to evaluate the outcome of decompressive craniectomy (DC) in patients with acute massive cerebrovascular accidents in a tertiary referral center with the primary outcomes being survival, functional ability and psychosocial consequences. Methods: The study was a retrospective study over the last four years. Data derived from case sheets, reports and operative notes.

Objective: To assess the normal or abnormal progress of the labour by the use of partograph. Materials and Methods: The Prospective case-controlled study was conducted in obstetrics and gynaecology department of SMS Medical College hospital, Jaipur; Rajasthan. Antenatal cases of term pregnancies with labour pain and cephalic presentation recruited for study. The patients assigned randomly in two groups (1) control group, in which labour was not monitored with partograph and (2) study group, in which labour monitored with partograph.100 cases enrolled in each group.

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is caused by overgrowth of Candida yeast species in the vagina. It is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge, itching, and erythema. It affects 3 out of 4 women in their lifetimes. Pregnancy, use of high estrogen oral contraceptive pills, steroids, antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs and aging favour the growth of Candida species. Womwn are generally reluctant about VVC which leads to emergence of pelvic inflammatory diseases in them.

The traditional management of breast abscesses involves incision and drainage of pus along with anti staphylococcal antibiotics, but this is associated with prolonged healing time, difficulty with breast feeding, regular dressings and possibility of milk fistula and sometimes scarring with unsatisfactory outcome. Aim of our study was to analyze diagnostic methods, different treatment modalities and outcome of patients with breast abscess treated at our institution, as to determine whether minimally invasive treatment (needle aspiration) is successful.

Penetrating Abdominal trauma is increasing because of the increase of violence in our fellowship. A number of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma have normal vital signs and negative abdominal examination when referred to trauma centres. A great heap of contention exists between authorities about screening these patients for emergency laparotomy. The optimal management of hemodynamically stable asymptomatic patients remains controversial. The goal is to identify and treat injuries in a cost efficient way.

Salivary gland swelling commonly encountered in routine surgical practice can present with diverse pathology and associated with various etiologies like inflammation, sialolithiasis and tumors. Clinical examination often helps to differentiate between cysts, inflammation and tumor. Wide range of patients with acute bacterial and viral infection of the salivary glands present with varied symptomatology and severity. Successful management of the salivary gland swelling depends on accurate clinical assessment and diagnosis, with appropriate use of fine needle aspiration and CT or MRI imaging.

Endodontics encompasses the study and practice of the basic and clinical sciences of the biology of the normal dental pulp and the etiology, diagnosis, prevention treatment of diseases and injuries of the dental pulp along with associated periradicular conditions. Endodontics has evolved tremendously in the past decade and its applications have immensely improved the quality of dental treatment. Hence exploring the different aspects of the principles of endodontics, tackling certain challenges will help to boost its development with the advantage of innovations in research and technology.

The present prospective cross sectional study was conducted at Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana on 100 patients of pancytopenia of age group 14-65 years coming to OPD and admitted in hematology and medicine ward during year 2012-2013, over a period of 1 year. The patients were properly evaluated for their complete clinical profile & etiology of pancytopenia. Panctopenia was diagnosed in the presence of hemoglobin <12gm/dl, total leukocyte count (TLC) <4000/microL, platelet count <1,00,000/microL. Thorough relevant investigations were carried out.

A total of one hundred feed samples were collected from Cairo and Giza governorates and screened for aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungal isolates. A total of 106 fungal isolates comprising, Aspergillus flavus, A. ochraceus and A. niger wererecovered from feed samples and tested for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. The most predominant isolate was A. flavus, which was recovered at the range of (40-55%), followed by A. niger (30-50 %) and A. ochraceus (15-20%). Thirty three of 47 A.

Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare complication of syphilic aortitis and majority of cases have been reported only at autopsy. The prevalence of coronary ostial lesions with aortic regurgitation has been reported to be 14%. In the current era of penicillin where not many cases of syphilis can be seen, symptomatic tertiary syphilis presenting as ostial stenosis and aortic regurgitation is a rarity in itself. Here we report a case of cardiovascular syphilis presenting with isolated aortic regurgitation and syphilitic aortitis.

Metastatic cardiac tumors are more frequent than primary tumors. Osteosarcomas very rarely metastasizes to the heart and to our knowledge, no cases have been reported to occur in the whole right cavity. We report a case of cardiac metastasis in a 77 year old patient with osteosarcoma of the humerus, presenting after more than one year of surgical treatment of primary lesion with signs of right heart failure and severe respiratory distress. Diagnosis was made on echocardiogram and chest CT scan: The patient had a large tumor within the right ventricle and atrium.

Introduction: Among the many other techniques employed, window shade grafting was first described by Calcaterra in 19722. We present our experience and results using this technique of tympanic membrane grafting in perforations with narrow anterior rim. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from 2004 to 2007. A total of 35 patients of chronic suppurative otitis media (tubotympanic type) with a perforation with narrow anterior rim were included in the study. 15 (42.8%) patients were male and 20 (57.1%) were female.

The present study was done in the department of Anatomy at Government Medical College Srinagar to study the variationsin the arrangement of structures at the hilum of kidney and their clinical Significance.30 kidneys (n:2) from 15(n:1) formalin preserved cadavers were taken for this study and anatomical variations of renal arteries and arrangement of structures at the hilum of each kidney was studied.

Background and Objectives: Determining the cause of death is one of the most important diagnosis issued by doctors and lack of enough precision and failure to observe scientific principles can lead to serious legal problems for doctors. Lack of attention to the possibility of apparent death in the diagnosis of death, in addition to causing delay in CPR proceedings, can lead to victims family’s complains from doctors and make them face serious problems.

Splenic hydatidosis has been reported since ancient times. Berlot in 1790 was the first to describe splenic hydatidosis as an autopsy finding. It may be detected incidentally or present with non-specific complaints. It is endemic in cattle-rearing areas of South America, Africa, Middle East, South Europe, India, and Australia. The rarity of splenic hydatid disease poses a diagnostic challenge for clinicians, particularly in non-endemic areas.

To determine positivity of lymph nodal metastases at level IIb in patients with oral and laryngeal cancers undergoing neck dissection Design: Prospective study Setting: Academic tertiary care referral center Patients: 50 patients undergoing neck dissection for oral and laryngeal cancer between June 2, 2008 and November 30, 2010, were prospectively analyzed. Patients with a history of neck dissection or whose pathology reports did not clearly distinguish the level IIb from other nodal levels were excluded from study.

People are using herbal medicines from centuries for safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects. Plant and plant products have utilized with varying success to cure and prevent diseases throughout history. Due to side effects of synthetic products, herbal products are gaining popularity in the Indian market. Scenario and perceptions of herbal medicine are discussed.

Ganglion cell tumors in intersellar region are rare. They occur in combination with a pituitary adenoma. The etiopathogenesis of these collision tumors in the sellar region is not clearly defined. Whether these arise from cells of different histogenesis or they are derived from the same cell is still a matter of debate. We report a case of intersellar gangliocytoma with a pituitary adenoma presenting with acromegaly.

A series of 100 patients presenting with suspected diagnosis of non traumatic acute abdomen have been studied by helical computed tomography with the aim to diagnose the etiology of pain, to suggest the mode of management and also to compare CT findings with clinical, ultrasound and operative findings wherever surgery was done. In the present study, pancreatitis was the most common cause of non traumatic acute abdomen present in 40% of the cases. Abscess was the second most common cause present in 20% cases.

This study was conducted in order to known the occurence of MDR Salmonella typhi in Amravati city. Widal positive blood samples were collected and analysed for typhoid causative agent Salmonella typhi. The Salmonella typhi isolates were obtained and confirmed by various morphological, biochemical, cultural and molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella typhi isolates was carried out using disk diffusion method. Out of 400 blood samples, 230 samples showed the presence of Salmonella typhi.

Background: Female genital mutilation is a commonly applied tradition in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It has three subtypes. Currently, it has been mostly illegal. But tradition still goes on. Methods: This study included 407 male and 412 female university students who study in Nyala University in the State of South Darfur. Students were questioned for the followings in common: age, faculty of study, reasons for female circumcision, effects of female circumcision on female sexual functions, and their views about the circumcision of the possible future daughter.

Background: Malnutrition is often found in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and inflammation is an important factor in the complications of CKD. However, until now it is unclear whether the inflammatory reaction is a major cause of malnutrition or just merely signs in CKDpatients. Aim: Know the role of inflammation to the incidence of malnutrition in predialysis CKDpatients. Methods: Observational study with cross sectional method on October 2010-March 2011 in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Makassar.

Contraceptive methods are used to alter or avoid the body's natural state of fertility, thereby preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse. A comparative study was conducted to assess preference and usage of contraceptive methods among 100 married women of selected rural and urban areas of District Ludhiana, Punjab by using convenience sampling technique, The findings of the present study revealed that, Male condom was 1st preferred contraceptive method both in rural area & urban area.

Introduction: The national Capital region of Delhi is the hub of call centers in India. There are a lot of occupational health problems in call center employees. There are physical, psychological and behavioral deviations among them. This paper aims to study the psychological problems in call handlers employed in international call centers in the national capital region of Delhi, India. Objective: To measure the level of perceived stress, anxiety and depression among call handlers working in call centers in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR), India.

In view of the global epidemic of untreated caries in children there is an urgent need to establish a scoring system that both assesses and quantifies various advanced stages of caries. The DMF index despite having limitations has been widely utilized in oral epidemiological surveys. It is recommended by the WHO for measuring and comparing the experience of dental caries in populations. The future new research in caries epidemiology will depend on finding an ideal caries index.

Background: Although LBP during pregnancy is a common clinical problem, no study was found documenting prevalence of LBP during pregnancy in rural women in India mainly Anand district. Objectives: To find prevalence of LBP during pregnancy in rural women and to identify risk factors associated with LBP during pregnancy in rural women. Methods: 200 pregnant rural women were recruited from villages of Charotar region with help of Anganwadi workers and from nearby Hospitals. After consideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria informed consent was taken.

Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in both developed and developing country. As per global health estimates,WHO-2013,about 508000 females died of breast cancer in 2011.Though breast cancer is considered a disease of developed countries, in recent years a rising incidence of cases is also being seen in developing countries. India is no exception to this. Breast cancer is on the rise particularly in urban areas. Objective: To find the awareness regarding breast cancer in women in an urban area of Rohtak, Haryana.

Background: diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes is of utmost importance in the field of obstetrics to decrease possible complications and prevent unneeded intervention. However, there is no gold standard marker for diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes. Aim of the work: This prospective case control study was done to compare the reliability of vaginal fluid creatinine and quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin for diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes.

For the past 30 years, the Sanger method has been the dominant approach for DNA sequencing. In the new era of high-throughput sequencing the genomic analysis now referred as next-generation sequencing (NGS). Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened fascinating opportunities for the analysis of sequences. During the last few years, NGS methods have become widely available and cost effective. They can be applied to a wide variety of biological fields. In this review, fundamental principles of commercially available NGS platforms are discussed.

Decorative bushes introduced in Batumi Botanical Garden: AbeliaGrandiflora (Andre) Rhed, Forsythia ViridissimaLindl and Pieris Japonica Thunb. D. in the humid subtropical zone of the Black Sea are characterized with high growth rhythm and abundant blossom. Therefore, these plants are widely used in greening and phitodesign of sea coast parks and orchards. The aim of our research was to determine the consistency of the antocianes and phlavanoidic glycosides in the introduced decorative bushes for the medical and cosmetic purposes.

Home textile is an important segment of technical textiles, which covers soft and hard sectors depending on the unique characteristic of the product. New design concept and innovation are the areas to be explored to impart functional features, which may sometimes been derived from apparel technology. India is globally recognized and appreciated for its wide variety and exquisite designs in home textiles & furnishing fabrics.

The present study deals with the effect of dominance of Tilapia on fisheries of minor reservoir. In the present study two reservoirs were selected with almost equal water speared area and analyzed for three years. Julur was selected as experimental reservoir due to the dominance of Tilapia (61.23%), where as Bibinagar (17028’48.6N, 78047’34.7”E) was selected as control reservoir, where Tilapia population was negligible (0.27%). The physico-chemical parameters indicated the mesotrophic nature of water in both the reservoirs. The Ichthyofuna diversity in both reservoirs was almost similar.

Efficient and safe wastewater treatment methods with low costs with minimum requirements are urgently needed instead of conventional and currently used methods. The aim of the present study was to isolate resistant microbes from wastewater treatment plant and selection of the most active isolate for bioremediation process. Three different waste water samples were collected from Bani Malek, heated and used for actinomycetes isolation on starch nitrate agar with Cu++ and Cd++. All plates were incubated at 45ᵒC for 10 days and the obtained bacterial colonies were purified and preserved.

Jojoba is a dioecious desert shrub which produces high quality oil used in cosmetics and lubrication. An experiment was conducted to identify the most appropriate plant growth regulators and genotypes for Jojoba propagation. A 4x4 factorial arrangement laid down in a randomized complete block design was used with 16 treatments replicated 3 times. Treatments comprised of 4 factors of growth regulators and 4 types of genotypes. The experiment was carried out for 5 months in 2013. The variables sampled included roots, leaves and shoot.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the socio-economic condition of the coastal community residing near the mangrove habitats of South Andaman Islands. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the survey data. Essential information e.g. employment, education, hygiene, family size, income and utilization of nearby mangrove regions were taken into consideration. A total of 120 households were surveyed and it was found that middle age group was highest (58.8%) and young group was lowest (2.5%), represented by 87.5% Hindu.

A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2013 at College farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad with three plant densities 66,666 plants ha-1, 88,888 plants ha-1 and1,11,111 plants ha-1 and four nitrogen levels 120 kg ha-1, 180 kg ha-1, 240 kg ha-1 and 300 kg ha-1. The results revealed that population density of 88,888 plants ha-1 was found to be economical with higher grain yield (7597 kg ha-1), stover yield (9929 Kg ha-1) with high net return (Rs. 65,476 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.9) but it was onpar with 1,11,111 plants ha-1.

The article discusses the results of screening for antibacterial activity of Dendron plant extracts growing in humid subtropical zone of Western Georgia, Ajara. Phythopatogenic bacteria, an important, quarantinable microorganism Ralstonia solanacearum, giving economic loss, was selected as the test-culture. We used the strains collected in 2012-2014, which were isolated from different bacterial recipient plants (potato, tomato, pepper). 7 strong and 12 medium of antibacterial activity out of the studied 60 species have been identified.

Allelopathic effects of aqueous and methanolic leaf extract of invasive tree para rubber is assayed in the laboratory condition on germination and seedling growth of four commonly cultivated leguminous crops of Tripura. Both the extracts were strongly hinder the seed germination and seedling growth of Cicerarietinum, Lens culinaris and Vignaradiata, applied in very lower concentration (0.62-2.5% aqueous and 0.1mg/ml – 0.5mg/ml methanol extract).

An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Vegetative Growth, Flowering and Fruiting of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized bloc design with 8 treatments using chemical fertilizers (NPK), vermicompost and biofertlizers (Azotobacter and Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria) in different combinations including one control treatment. The results indicated that maximum growth parameters i.e. plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, number of flowers and fruits of Coriandrum sativum L.

The present study was focused to assess the levels of different heavy metals (xenobiotics) like Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe in vegetables irrigated with waste water (sewage). The results indicated a sustainable build up of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with sewage. The maximum accumulation of inc in sewage irrigated vegetable noticed is Radish root (81.4 ± 2.08 µg/g).

The study has been attempted with a specific objective i.e. To focus on the understanding of the utilization of farm based resources within the rural areas of the North Eastern region to integrate such agrarian ecosystem to the mainstream of the economy by developing it into tourism areas through community participation.

This study aimed at characterizing the floristic features of plant species associated with four wild medicinal plants in the Egyptian deserts. Two plants were chosen from the inland north part of the Eastern desert (Wadi Hagul and Wadi El-Molak) namely Pulicaria undulata (L.) C. A. Mey. and Hyoscyamus muticus L., and the two other species were selected from the coastal desert along the Deltaic Mediterranean Sea coast namely Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum and Nicotiana glauca R.C. Graham. A total of 125 plant species belonging to 107 genera and 29 families were recorded.

Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) worldwide and a leading cause of Diabetes Mellitus related morbidity and mortality, which can be assessed by estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate. The early detection of renal dysfunction in subjects with diabetes is of vital importance as appropriate interventions have been shown to retard the progression of ESRD. We compared advantages of serum Cystatin C over Serum Creatinine for determination of early Decline in Glomerular Filtration Rate in Type ll Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

The present study entitled "Estimate the compound growth rates of area, production and yield of summer bajra in Banaskantha district of Gujarat state" was undertaken to calculate the compound growth rates of area, production and productivity of summer bajra. The study is based on data collected from 126 farmers selected from 6 randomly selected villages and 20 market functionaries in two market areas namely Deesa and Tharad of Banaskantha district of Gujarat state. To calculate the compound growth rates by exponential function was fitted to the indices of area, production and productivity.

A trial was conducted to study the effect of integrated use of nutrients on growth, yield and qulity of sweet orange cv. Mosambi at regional research station, Jhargram of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya. Growth in terms of canopy height, basal girth and canopy volume were significantly improved with application of nutrients and maximum growth was observed in plants received with (N200P75K150g + neem cake 2.0kg)/ plant / year followed by (N200P75K150g + neem cake 2.0kg + VAM)/plant/year.

A field experiment was carried out in clay soil to investigate the effects of gibberellic acid and proline, and their interaction on the vegetative characteristics of Zea mays L. cultivar Fajir-1. The experiments were carried out based on the Randomised Complete Block Design. Gibberellic acid and proline were sprayed twice on the plant leaves at the concentration of 100 and 200 mg/l. The first application was during the stage of 4-6 leaves, and the other application was at the beginning of flowering stage.

In laboratory and greenhouse conditions in Episkop Konstantin Preslavski University of Shumen, during the period 2013-2014 studies were performed of fungal isolates from rhizosphere of “slaughtered” plants of sugar beet. The ability of a variety of sustaining media for the cultivation of the isolates and the influence of factors soil herbicide (Dual) and humidity of the environment for the growth and aggressiveness of the different isolates was studied. It was found that Alternaria ssp.

The studies were conducted in the laboratory of plant protection at Konstantin Preslavski University of Shumen in 2015. Under in vitro conditions the influence of 7 concentrations of aqueous extract of tutsan leaves (Hypericum perforatum L.) on growth and aggressiveness of isolates of fusarium root decay in beet (Fusarium oxysporum) was investigated. The contents of the extract of the tutsan in a concentration 10,15 and 20 ml/l nutrition media increases as the growth of mycelium, as the aggressiveness of the pathogen.

Due to high durability, cheap cost and ease of manufacture, billion tons of plastic based products are manufactured, which leads to generation of millions tons of plastic waste annually around the globe. Of the total plastic waste, polythene shared 64%. The plastic waste finally enters into the sea through different water bodies and leads to deaths of million sea animals. Among the various methods used to dispose plastic waste, biodegradation is considered as the most accepted, ecofriendly and cost effective method.

Prefilled syringes are a fast growing alternatives to vials for many drug products. Increased interest in prefilled syringes is largely driven by the advantages they offer relative to the vials. Currently, most prefilled syringes are made of glass, but plastic syringes are gaining popularity, particularly in applications for which glass is an unsuitable delivery system. Plastic has been an alternative to glass in prefilled syringes since the early 1990’s.

The study was conducted at the animal farm, Department of Animal production, College of Agriculture - University of Tikrit, included field experimentation which conducted during 28/3/2013 to 9/5/2013 The present study was conducted to explore the effect of different levels of Neem (Azadirachtaindica) Seeds powder and aqueous extract on Performance of production of the Broiler Chickens , the study include 525 chicks of broiler from un sexed hybrids (Hubbard), day one-old from Samarra's Salahaldin province, The chicks were divided randomly at the age of 2 week to seven treated groups each gro

Rooting ability in IBA induced rooting experiments largely depends on the medium used for rooting this has been established using SVI (sprouting value index), which, is a mathematical approach. Coral bush, Ardesia littoralisis a medicinal and avenue plant species of India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Malesia. Field studies were carried out using three rooting medium at a location in Central Kerala, Peninsular India, for three times at four months regular interval.

The environmental infectivity caused by extreme use of chemical pesticides increased the interests in integrated pest management (IPM), where chemical pesticides are substituted by bio-pesticides to control plant pests and plant diseases. Genus Trichoderma has high ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungus by secreting some enzymes. Trichoderma is an asexually reproducing filamentous fungus and a species aggregate.

The goal of this study was to determine the food intake by the faculty of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana. A random selection of 240 university faculty from PAU was made. A questionnaire was designed to assess general characteristics, daily food intakes among university faculty. Dietary survey was carried out by using “24 hour recall method” for three consecutive days and food intake was compared with the suggested dietary intakes (ICMR 2010) and percent adequacies were calculated.

The study was conducted to examine whether there are real opportunities for the creation of ultra early-winter wheat, using wheat with spring type of development. To achieve the target 24 hybrid combinations between 6 and 8 early spring winter wheat varieties in two consecutive years are made. With different vernalization requirement of plant populations in an artificial climate in the greenhouse winter and spring type plants habit are separate through consistent double selections.

A field experiment on “Growth and yield of safflower as influenced by INM under irrigation and rainfed planting” was conducted during rabi, 2013 at College Farm, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.

The present study was done to assess the organoleptic acceptability, physical characteristics, nutritional composition and shelf life study of value added biscuits developed from newly released wheat varieties (WH-1129 and HD-2967) flours supplemented with sorghum and soybean flours. The overall acceptability scores of four types of biscuits was in the category of ‘liked very much’. The thickness of composite flour biscuits increased significantly (P≤0.05) with the increase in the level of substitution of wheat flour with sorghum and soybean flours.

Supplemented garden cress seed (GCS) product was standardized and analyzed for their sensory and nutritional evaluation. Sensory evaluation of products was made in terms of their color, appearance, aroma, taste, texture, and over all acceptability using nine point hedonic scales. The recipes for the preparation of various products from (GCS) flour were standardized by use of various degrees (5%, 10%, and 15%). The sensory evaluation of supplemented products was significantly different as compared to their control.

Soil borne diseases are very difficult to control, traditionally chemical soil fumigants were used to manage them but they are harmful to the environment and human health. For the management of soil borne diseases in organic production system use of various eco-friendly methods viz. green manures, mulches, organic amendments and composts etc. was recommended and practiced. In this context biofumigation is a new concept, which is gaining attention of the researchers and shown some potential in management of soil borne disease in Europe and Australia.

Garcinia imberti Bourd. is an endangered endemic niche specific dioecious species of southern Western Ghats. The field studies conducted from three populations viz. Chemunji, Bonacaud and Ponmudi revealed pioneer observation of individual accessions which differs in floral colour as well as number of seeds per fruit at different sites. The present study may suggest cues on the ecological scope of variations among some accessions with respect to enhanced chance of pollination, fruit set and subsequent seed dispersal ensure species survivorship.

Vermicompost is rich in NKP (nitrogen 2-3%, potassium 1.85-2.25% and phosphorus 1.55-2.25%), micronutrients, beneficial soil microbes and also contain ‘plant growth hormones & enzymes’. It is scientifically proving as ‘miracle growth promoter & also plant protector’ from pests and diseases. Vermicompost retains nutrients for long time and while the conventional compost fails to deliver the required amount of macro and micronutrients including the vital NKP to plants in shorter time, the vermicompost does.

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of emotional eating among youths (university students) in Sudan. The students were recruited from University of Khartoum. The total sample was 400 (183 males and 217 females), with ages ranging from 18 to 30 years. Females were more likely to eat while watching television (p<0.001) and when bored (p<0.01), whereas males were more prone to eat late at night (p<0.02). There were no significant differences between genders regarding eating when angered and eating when anxious.

North-east India that comprises of seven states of India is a unique geographical location. It is located in between 27o57ʹN and 28o23ʹN latitudes and 89o46ʹE and 98o25ʹE longitudes. Most of the states are situated in the Himalayan range. This zone is endowed with diversity of natural flora and fauna. A large number of plant parasitic secernentean as well as adenophorean nematodes have been reported from this zone from around the root zones different plants.

Dendrobium orchids are popular flowering potted plants and cut flowers throughout the world due to their floriferousness, diversity in flower size, shape and colour, round the year availability and long keeping qualities. The present investigations were carried out with 16 hybrids of Dendrobium in CRD design with four replications. Significant variations were also observed with both vegetative and reproductive parameters. The spike length varies from 21.9cm in ‘Triple Pink’ to 47.7 cm in case of ‘Madam Pink’.

In this article, we demonstrate the effect of initial pH (2-10), charge loading (1.83-18.25 Fm-3), current density (0.4-3.2 Adm-2), distance between two electrodes (1-5 cm), time of electrolysis (5-50 min), and metal ion concentration (2-25 mgl-1) on the removal of cadmium (Cd) from industrial wastewater using electro-coagulation (EC) technique.

The phenotype of a red cell is defined by the presence or absence of D,C,c,E, and e antigens. A detailed knowledge of Rh system gene frequencies in an Indian population is very important in blood transfusion service in area such as antenatal work, percentage testing and for selecting compatible blood in problem transfusion. From serological studies it is often impossible to determine the true genotype of person in the absence of family information, phenotypes are often symbolized as the most probable genotype deduced from known haplotype frequencies.

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropic hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the mammalian pituitary gland which regulates the normal female and male gamete growth and maturation and normal gonadal steroid production. Deficient endogenous production of FSH is a known cause of infertility and therapeutic preparations of FSH are widely used in the treatment of this condition.

Rice (O. sativa L.) is one of the world’s most important crops, particularly in Asia, but increasingly in Africa and Latin America as well. It is one of the important food crops drastically affected by raise in global temperature and has an impact throughout worldwide on people who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of direct selection for grain yield under heat and irrigated conditions. 274 BC2F6 BILs were derived from a cross between Oryza sativa IR58025B and Oryza meridionalis Ng.

The Physico-chemical and biological analysis of the Heirok-Wangjing River water was carried out over a stretch of 22.5km. Temperature, transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen, bio-chemical oxygen demand, carbon-dioxide, chloride, total alkalinity, acidity, calcium hardness, NO¬2 and NO3 etc. increased slightly from its origin to the end of the river in the valley. This increase in the parameters was the result of human activities. A total of fifteen species of fish and seven groups of aquatic insects and one class of annelids were recorded from the river.

India contributes to more than one fifth of the global incidence of cervical cancer cases. This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and screening of middle and low socioeconomic group women of our population. This investigation was done in the form of group of case studies in which some parameters such as the occurrence of micronucleate (MN) and binucleate (BN) cells in the cervical epithelium and urothelial cells and their relevance with regard to cervical/urothelial inflammation or infection was explored.

Fistula-in-ano is also known as Bhagandar according to Ayurveda, In- general, Fistula can be defined as a communicating tract between two epithelial surfaces commonly between a hollow viscous and the skin (external fistula) or between two hollow viscera (internal fistula). The Fistula-in-ano can be classified into two categories viz.low level fistula and high level fistula.According Ayurveda types are as per their morphological structure ie. Shatponaka, Ushtragreeva, Parisraavi, Shambukavarta, Unmargi.

Feeding flies on wheat cream agar media supplemented with antiepileptic drugs are studied for adult locomotary behaviors like preferential adult geotaxis. The behavioral plasticity of climbing ability of an adult is an important event with decisive influence on their preference and capability. Drosophila sensory systems contribute to detect, localize and provide information about the availability of food and chemical features of environments.

The recent approach for rice production includes the improvement of yield is necessary to cater for consumer demand. Therefore, a field experiment (diallel analysis) was conducted at RiceResearch and Training Center, Egypt during 2014 and 2015growing season to estimate combining ability, heterosis and genetic parameters in ricefor improving the yield. The results indicated that, Sakha101 and Sakha105 were recorded highest mean values for most traits.

The higher education in Odisha has taken massive structural and systemic changes that have started showing encouraging results. About 20 years ago, the class rooms were only a four walled structure for teaching, but now it has undergone a sea change with modernization and infrastructure developments. The is visibility of Smart class rooms, use of ICT tools in general colleges also. The number is gradually increasing with flow of state govt., UGC and RUSA fund.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify and set a standard for the Waist Circumference (WC) in children as a marker for abdominal obesity. Methods: The study involved 8 state schools in the city of Lins, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population of the study comprised 882 children of both sexes, with ages ranging from 6 to 10. The following anthropometric variables were evaluated: BMI/A (body mass index in relation to age); W/A (weight in relation to age); the TSF (Tricipital Skinfold), and the WC.

Studies were conducted to assess the effect of different organic additives on the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes and their influence on the spawn and sporophore production. Horsegram flour influenced the maximum production of Exo -1,4 glucanase, Endo -1,4 glucanase, -glucosidase, Laccase, Xylanase and Polyphenol oxidase in Hypsizygus ulmarius. Among the different spawn substrate paddy grain recorded the fastest mycelia growth covering the spawn bottle in 12.05 days.

In this article, a problem of bivariate stratified sample surveys in presence of partial responses has been considered. The population in each stratum is divided into three group’s i.e. complete non-respondents, respondents of questions of category I or partial respondents and complete respondents. It is assumed that the respondents of the questions of category II always reply the questions of category I but not necessarily the vice versa. The problem of finding optimum allocations is formulated as Bi-objective Nonlinear Programming Problem (BONLPP).

Dry, hot climate of our republic together with high value of photosynthetic radiation provide the high maintenance of fibers and gluten in grains of firm sorts of wheat and in the whole their high quality. Firm sorts of wheat in comparison with soft sorts more a rack to shallowness, to heats, are less subject to a yellow, brown rust and smut, the ripened ears do not lose some grain.

The ac impedance and conductivity properties of BaZrxTi1-xO3 (BZxT) ceramics in a wide frequency range (1kHz-2MHz) at different temperatures have been studied. An ac impedance spectroscopic technique was used to correlate between the microstructure and electrical properties of the compound. The presence of both bulk and grain boundary effect in the compound was observed. The frequency-dependent electrical data were used to study the conductivity mechanism and estimate the activity energy (Ea).

Like most mega cities in the world, road traffic is a mayhem in the city of Lagos, halting the flow of movement and business to a slow pace. This study therefore examined the role of Lagos Traffic Radio in educating road users in Lagos State on traffic management.

The fortification of dairy products with prebiotic and probiotic ingredients is gaining a huge impact in the food industry. A quick screening methodology was developed to isolate existing lactic acid bacteria from dairy products and determine compatible carbon and nitrogen sources using Phenotypic screening for production of conjugated linoleic acid. Three isolates were selected from different dairy products based on their acid production potential when grown on sugar sources and/or fatty acids.

Water quality index (wqi) was applied to study the quality and suitability of the borehole water for drinking purposes in afikpo south local government area. This was carried out by subjecting samples collected from eight locations by analyzing the physico-chemical parameters according to apha (1998) methods. Ten parameters such as the colour, temperature, ph, electrical conductivity (ec), total dissolved solids (tds), total alkalinity (ta), total hardness (th), dissolved oxygen (do), chemical oxygen demand (cod), ci-, so42-, no3-, na+, ca2+ and mg2+ were calculated for wqi .

Jatropha curcas L. seed oil has been identified as one of the potential source of feedstock for biodiesel production which is a renewable energy. The oil cannot be used directly as fuel due to its high viscosity and therefore has to be processed to lower the viscosity. Transesterification is the best process adopted by many of the researchers for processing jatropha oil into biodiesel.

Erosion by solid particles in the coating of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates of AISI 304 stainless steel was analyzed. The specimens used were 25mm square and 3 mm thick, Silicon Carbide as abrasive particle 300-450 µm size was used. Experimental tests were performed on an apparatus developed in accordance with some parameters of the ASTM standard G76-95.

In this paper, we attempt to propose a method to enhance ad-hoc file transfer. We employ the idea of using Wi Fi Peer to Peer MAC to establish connection with the desired peer. The Wi Fi Peer to Peer MAC is obtained by discovering the recipient peer through Bluetooth, and then employing an algorithm that computes the MAC using the recipient’s Bluetooth MAC address. The advantage of establishing a peer- to-peer network lies in bypassing the need of connecting to AP (Access Point) and in better transfer rate and range over file transfer using Bluetooth.

Data mining techniques have higher usefulness in medical data mining as there is voluminous data in this industry. General survey on Data Mining Techniques, Methods, Tools and Challenges of Data Mining in health care domain is at most important and so much in demand, applying machine learning concepts and techniques in medical field is also most essential in the present scenario. The challenges for Data Mining in the healthcare domain are also listed.

Using Agents to extract data from existing sources of information is a key development area to unlock previously unknown relationships between heterogeneous data sources. It becomes an issue when large volumes of data, such as in the case of data from different sources like SQL, ORACLE,IBM-DB2,MySQL,FLAT FILES and others need to be analyzed. The main focus of this paper is on how data warehousing and mining techniques can be applied in knowledge discovery.

This document presents crack detection and removal techniques on digitized paintings. The crack detection technique proposed here can also be used to detect cracks in concrete structures by processing the digitized concrete images. Safety inspection of concrete structures is very important since it is closely related with the structural health and reliability. So, the development of crack detecting systems has been a significant issue.

Packed bed reactors are important and have gained popularity because of their ideal plug flow behavior, low maintenance cost and reduced loss due to attrition and wear. Here, we wanted to carry out simulation for the same. For development of simulation, we first chose Dispersion model and Tanks in series model. RTD experiments were carried out for the reactor. Reactions between sodium thiosulphate and hydrogen peroxide were carried out at different temperature and concentration. Results of the reactions were analyzed and then simulation was carried out based on it.

Bees-hive products (honey, beeswax, Propolis and royal jelly) have high economic value (FAO ROME, 2011). However; the magnitude of value addition in Kakamega County has not been established. This study sought to investigate whether Value addition enhances bee farmers’ livelihoods.

After carrying out simulation for Packed bed reactor, we decided to do the same for Continuous stirred tank reactors in series (CSTRs in series) which is also referred as Back mix or Mixed flow rectors are widely used in chemical process industries for conductions single as well as multiphase reactions. These reactions have provisions for continuous inflow of reactants and outflow of product mixture. A certain pool of reaction mixture is always maintained in the reactor so that there is no variation of concentration, temperature or reaction rate throughout the reactor volume.

If we use beds in series type fixed bed reactor, we need to take reactants/(Product +Reactants) out and exchange heat in heat exchanger & then to take back to the reactor & sent them to the next bed of catalyst. Here, we need to use heat exchanger for which capital & operating cost is required during designing of reactor for manufacturing of ethyl benzene from benzene & ethylene, we decided to use multi-tubular reactor in place of fixed beds in series. So, that capital & operating cost can be saved for heat exchanger.

Bio treatment a high strength toxic petrochemical (acrylonitrile) waste water to reduce COD and cyanide. Among the waste water generated in petrochemical industry, the process waste water stream generated during the manufacturing of acrylonitrile are considered to be one of the most toxic as they can take cynides are extremely harmful to lives on earth including human and can cause irreparable damage to environment.

This study has been carried out in Afyonkarahisar –Dazkırı region which is dealing with setting up the network to obtain the performance production of electricity by using Monocrystalline suncell panel by locating them according to 15degrees (angle) of deflection according to sundirection with respect to the ceiling to be able to get 100 Wp power of electricity from one building by using PV software program. The data’s of the average of the sun a day, month and average temperature of weather of Dazkırı region from State general director of Meteorology of Turkey Republics.

Facile, efficient, and robust immobilization of metal nanostructures on porous bioscaffolds is an interesting topic in materials chemistry and heterogeneous catalysis. This paper reports an in situ method for the synthesis and immobilization of small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature on natural eggshell membrane (ESM). The eggshell membrane is the clear film lining the eggshell, visible when one peels a boiled egg, which presents interwoven fibrous structure and can be used as a unique protein-based biotemplate.

The traditional structures were built with natural materials such as stone and earth that provide healthy indoors, concerning the climatic conditions. The developing in the technology gained momentum after industrial revolution in all sectors as well as in the construction industry; resulting to give the importance to stones and natural materials. Lot of energy is being used to provide comfortable life inside building even the changing of temperatures according to climate. Recently the energy has gained special importance after the increasing of cost fuel oil and electricity.

In this study, Oil from the seed of Dacryodes edulis was extracted using cold maceration method. The oil obtained had high acid value of 4.40mgKOH/g. Therefore the production of biodiesel was processed via two step acid – base transesterification process. The first step reduced the acid level to 2.60mgKOH/g while the second step involved direct conversion to fatty acid methyl ester using 1wt% NaOH as catalyst, 1:6 of oil to methanol ratio, 333 Kelvin and 1 hour reaction time. The yields of the oil and its methyl ester were 29% and 67% respectively.

This research work was carried out using the record of applicants whose apply for admission into Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil. The researcher apply the Binary logistic regression analysis technique to form a model that will be fit for the data and to know if there is any significance of the two independent variables that is Gender and Jamb scores of the students on the dichotomous dependent variable (admitted/not admitted) for the student.

On transparencies or are encoded and stored in a digital form, conventional visual secret sharing (VSS) schemes hide secret images in shares that are either printed. But it will arouse suspicion and increase interception risk during transmission of the shares, the shares can appear as noise-like pixels or as meaningful images. For the secret itself and for the participants who are involved in the VSS scheme, VSS schemes suffer from a transmission risk problem.

Fundamental obstacle in wireless communication system design is fading. Though different techniques have been used to minimize the effect of fading, adaptive channel coding with multi carrier modulation technique is less likely used by the researchers. Adaptive channel coding minimizes the reception of erroneous data by assigning different channel coding techniques depending on the quality of the channel .To achieve high data rate transmission and to minimize fading, multi-carrier modulation systems are preferred over single carrier modulation systems.

The charge-transfer complex crystal of N, N dimethyl 4 amino pyridinium 4 amino benzoate dehydrate is synthesised and the complex has been confirmed by studying the spectroscopic results. The crystal structure was comprehended by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The cation and anion are linked through strong hydrogen bond in the molecule. The Mulliken atomic charge and the values of electronegativity and chemical hardness index were calculated for interpreting and predicting the reactive behaviour.

Corrosion of mild steel and its inhibition by ceftriaxone in 1M sulfuric acid has been investigated by weight loss, open circuit potential (OCP), potential dynamic polarization and surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy SEM and electron x-ray diffraction (EDAX) techniques. Different concentration range of inhibitor solution from 10-500 ppm was used which revealed that 500 ppm solution shows excellent inhibition performance of nearly 94%.

ZnO nanorods are grown on quartz substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylzinc (DEZn) and tert-butyl alcohol. Nanorods are grown basically by controlling the temperature and duration of growth at various steps. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of ZnO naorods. FESEM images show the uniform distribution of nanorods on the substrate. The mechanism of formation of ZnO nanorods is proposed.

The present paper deals with the estimation of finite population meanusing ratio method of estimation when two phase sampling scheme is used. In the present work we have proposed a pooled estimator for population mean at the current occasions by using ratio type estimator involving a suitably chosen scalarθ. We have calculated its variances upto the first order of approximations and obtained the optimum replacement policy. We have also investigated the efficiency of the proposed estimator compared with other conventional estimators with and without cost considerations.

Millions of closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras are installed in streets and businesses throughout the world with the stated goal of reducing crime and increasing public safety. This leads to large collection of video data. For searching particular object or person from whole CCTV video data is too much time consuming. The proposed algorithm extracts key frames from these videos to overlook videos. From these key frames required frames are easily detectable and video can be played from that frame to analyze further in details.

This product for bute to present zirconium effect on Raman modes and structure of Barium Titanate Powders. The adjustment of raman indque modes of BaTiO3 Doping by 15% zirconium causes significant broadening of the modes E (LO4)/A1(L03) and E(TO3+ LO2)/B1 (50% higher) characteristic of quadratic phase BaTiO3. The results obtained show that when zirconium rate increases, the lattice parameters increase along the axes (a) and (c) against the quadracité decrease and change of the lattice parameter following the axis (a) is more important than that the axis (c).

Quality metrics are used throughout the pharmaceutical industry to monitor quality systems, processes and drive continuous improvement efforts in drug manufacturing. Quality Metrics (QM) are the refined and systematic representation of Quality- Key Performance Indicators (Q-KPI) during manufacturing operation. These can used to identify, where performance of quality management is good and meeting desired standards or where performance requires amendment.

Studies of the restricted three-body problem can help in understanding the dynamics of three-body interactions in the solar system. The Lagrangian points have important applications in astronautics, since they are equilibrium points of the equation of motion and very good candidates to locate a satellite or a space station. Zero velocity curves were plotted for constant values of C. The curves were used to define areas of the Lagrange points of the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem. The equations of motion were linearized to find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues.

In this paper a new technique that employs support vector machines (SVMs) and Gaussian mixture densities (GMDs) to create a generative/discrimitive object classification techniques using local image features. Future to rank the images according to how well they conform to the relevant features a feedback mechanism is also designed. The entire system is developed using LABVIEW software. Finally the simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme.

The research objective to be achieved is to know the effect of the model position of (2, 3, 4) bolts to support the increased tensile strength of welded connection direction of transverse, longitudinal and combination direction (transversal + longitudinal) with strong currents 120Ampere.Method used is formed specimens of welded connections (longitudinal and transverse) with types of models bolt position.

One of the efforts that must be undertaken by companies in the field of production is the production process should be designed as efficiently and effectively as possible. For that in the implementation of the production process of the need for planning and monitoring good production so lightweight brick production process can run well, so that later can increase the number of qualified products.

In this Paper, an M/M/1/N interdependent queueing model with controllable arrival rates and reverse balking is considered. This model is much useful in analysing the particular situations arising at the places like a data voice transmission, computer communication system etc. The steady state solution and the system characteristics are derived for this model. The analytical results are numerically illustrated and the effects of the nodal parameters on the system characteristics are studied.

In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics and Numerical Analysis is used to investigate the rocket thrust chamber cooling characteristics. The scope of the investigation involves the study of effect of regenerative and film cooling on the heat transfer characteristics of coolant channel. Steady state pressure based analysis is carried out in this work. The temperature distributions of coolant along the rectangular cooling channel, temperature distributions of copper and stainless steel walls are the main focus of the study.

A model of manufacturing plant of Mosquito coil in an industry is developed for its stochastic analysis by personally visiting the Jyoti Laboratory limited industry situated in Samba district of State J&K. The said system consists of three units- Mixing, Extrusion, Punching Machine. The Mixture machine is in parallel form with the other two units but Extrusion machine and Punching machine are in series form such that if any one of the two units is failed, the other is kept in standby mode.

The research objective to be achieved is to analyze the influence of strong currents (100, 120, 140, 160) Ampere, the model position number (2, 3, 4) bolt in the direction of the weld longitudinal and transverse as well as determine the best model of weld and bolt connection combination as an effort to increase tensile strength plate. The method used is to form specimens of welded connections (longitudinal and transverse) with various types of bolt position model.

The present study explored the relationship between personality profiles and emotional maturity of children of working mothers. A sample of 400 children of working mothers were randomly selected from the elementary schools of two districts Srinagar and Shopian of Kashmir valley. The sample subjects were comprised of 8th class students within an age range of 13-14years. High school personality questionnaire (HSPQ), of Cattell (1969) and Emotional maturity scale of Singh and Bhargava (1990) were used to measure the personality and emotional maturity of children of working mothers.

Ghana in 1986, as part of Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) implemented Financial Sector Adjustment Program (FINSAP), the financial sector reform programme was followed up with the Financial Sector Strategic Plan (FINSSP) in 2003. It became imperative to explore with the indices to find out whether these reforms have facilitated economic growth in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to investigate the significance of financial deepening on economic growth. The study developed an index for financial deepening following Abiad et al. (2010) and Bawumia (2010).

Violent video games have become one of the favorite activities of adolescent. Children who play more violent video game likely to have increased Hand-eye coordination, develop problem-solving skills, mapping ability, increase memory. The main objective of the study was to see the positive effect of violent video game on adolescent. The present study was conducted in Lucknow Uttar Pradesh in the academic year 2014-2015. The study was conducted on 120 adolescents. Purposive random sampling technique was used to select the sample.

A curious seasonal anomaly found in finance is the turn of the month effect, where the daily mean return of stock market at the end of a month and beginning of a month is significantly higher than the average daily return of all the days of a month. There have been evidences that certain months in a year deliver significantly higher returns. Similar anomalies are found for week days also, where some days in a week deliver above average returns. Seasonal anomalies for researchers have been a subject of great interest and lot of literature is available worldwide.

Dalit, meaning "oppressed" in South Asia, is the self-chosen political name of castes in the SAARC region which the varna system considers "untouchable". Though the name Dalit has been in existence since the nineteenth century, the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956) popularised the term. Dalits were excluded from the four-fold Varna system and formed the unmentioned fifth varna; they were also called Panchama.

The present paper discusses the issues challenges and trends of public debt in India since 1980. It first explains the reason for public debt and then gives a brief overview on the concept of Public Debt. The paper analyses the theoretical perspective of the public debt in which the views of various authors on public debt have been explained. Further the paper looks at the trends of public debt and gross interest obligation of the government since 1981. It discusses how the government debt have been used and specifically focuses on decline in the recovery ratio over the years.

The recognition and respect for customary law community in Bali (Pakraman) is mentioned in Article 18 (B)(2) of the 1945 Constitution of Republic of Indonesia. It states, "The State recognizes and respects the units of customary law communities along with their traditional rights as along asit still exists and in accordance with the development of society and the principles of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia which is regulated by the Law ".

The infanticide of Baatombu is a ritual practice that raises faiths, myths and local representations. To analyze its various characteristics and foundation, we drew on the reports of seminaries (seminars), workshops, drills organized by NGO (non-governmental organizations), national and international documents, and we questioned about ten people as resources. After analyzing all of this information, we found that the phenomenon of the infanticide is practiced in several cultures: Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Aim of this study is to gather participants’ views about the service of workplace counselling and lighten some issues about expectations from a workplace counsellor with regard to career counselling and counselling roles. Workplace counselling has been widely used in United States of America and European Countries. However, usage of this service has been recent in Turkey. Even though there are researches conducted in this area, there has been a gap and dissensus in the literature about the aims, responsibilities and roles of workplace counselling. This study aims to contribute to this gap.

Research problem of this study is finding out; (1) How does the description of a cooperative learning model implemented by tutor in learning activities of Keaksaraan Usaha Mandiri (KUM) program in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi province ?; (2) How does the description of the motivation to learn by citizens of UKM program in UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi province ?; and (3) Is there any significant relationship between cooperative learning model applied by tutor with the motivation of citizens to learn in KUM program (KUM) of UPTD-SKB Kendari Southeast Sulawesi province?.

Description of the mechanisms of development of political parties in the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan is given. The significance of legal framework for prosperity of multiparty system and enhancement of the role of political parties in a civil society which is of great importance for democratization and modernization of the society, realization of human rights and freedoms and development of citizens’ political consciousness and culture in Uzbekistan is shown.

There are millions of children in the world die every year before reaching the age of five due to malnutrition and infectious diseases and they are mostly from the developing countries like Somalia, Uganda, Bangladesh, Nepal, Tanzania, Ghana, India, Sudan, Pakistan, Nigeria etc. There is no doubt that infants are prone to infection due to their not fully developed immune system. Apposite food and nutrition during infancy are very essential for immediate and future health, physical growth, mental development and a healthy immune system.

Bankura district is famous as a hub of small cottage industries in West Bengal, and “terracotta” cottage industry plays a great role in this sector. Terracotta cottage industry is originated in Panchmura village of Taldangra block adjacent to Bishnupur block of Bankura district and the market area of terracotta products mainly located in Bishnupur municipality (ward no. 2&3).

The objective of the study is to determine the impact of global environmental forces namely global economic, political – legal and socio-cultural in enhancing management effectiveness and development in the Nigeria Breweries Plc Lagos in Nigeria. Data for this study was obtained through primary and secondary sources. Questionnaire was the main primary instrument of data collection using five (5) point Likert rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), undecided (U), Disagreed (D) and Strongly Disagreed (SD). Survey research design was adopted for the study.

Present paper deals about most abundant insect faunal species of PBR, and variation in diversity pattern of insect species in teak –Sal forest ecosystem with seasonal variations. Insect species like Camopnotous, Aciagrion sp, Metochus uniguttattus (Thunberg), Creatonotus gangis (Linn), Ypthima sp, Myrimica sp, Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius)*, Ypthima sp, Clania crameri (Westwood), Scudderia furcata (Braner), and Lasius niger (Linn.) are most abundant and adaptive insect species of Teak- Sal ecotone in PBR, on the basis of richness count.

Farmers’ suicides in India have led to public policy and academic discourse. Relatively higher suicide rates for farmers are to be identified as a symptom of a larger socio-economic malaise. Various reasons are attributed for the suicides namely, poor productivity, fluctuation in rainfall and climate, huge investment and low income, indebtedness, socio-economic impact. This review focuses on the reasons and suggests some remedies to resolve the issue of suicides by farmers.

The Indian telecommunication industry is one of the fastest growing in the world. In Wireless market Bharti Airtel is the market leader with a 22.7% share of total subscription. The study examines the relationship between leverage and profitability in Bharti Airtel. The study based on secondary data during the period from 2005-06 to 2014-15. The data was collected from the published sources like books, annual reports of companies and website of money control.com.

The aim of this study is to understand school bussing in primary and lower secondary, upper secondary education in Turkish Education System with its reasons and evaluate school bussing in primary and secondary education with different aspects, especially the development of school bussing in terms of years. The focus is on the development of school bussing after the changes on the duration of compulsory education.

Recent advancements in ICTs, especially internet, has been transfiguring the nature and the domain of the public sphere significantly. Though the idea of internet as a public sphere is challenged with many critics not disposed to accept it as a public sphere, the remarkable impact that the internet has been able to bring on the nature of public sphere, or at least it’s role in impelling the contents that are discussed in the public sphere makes us to question whether the stand of these critics in dismissing the internet as public sphere is justifiable or not.

The outsourcing and contracting policy-practice establish principal and agent relations in the environment of learning and development within the public service. The article applies the principal-agent model and determines the nature and extent of the contractual relations between government departments on the one side, and on the other, higher education and training institutions (HETIs) and independent individual contractors (IICs).

Effect of flaxseeds supplementation on serum lipid profile of hypercholesteromia induced animals was studied. Flaxseeds were processed (roasted), grinded and administered at dose of 250grams and 500 grams as low dose and high dose. Administration of roasted Flaxseed powder of 250 gm (low dose) and 500 grams (high dose) for 42 days produces significant (P<0.001) reduction of serum LDL-cholesterol and in body weight reduction in hyperlipidemia induced rats.

This research aims to clarify the definition of leadership, levels of leadership, characteristics of each level of leadership, and the teachings of Buddhism that can be used to strengthen leadership. We also present a conceptual framework for using Buddhism to develop leadership. A mixed methods approach, using both sequential and parallel designs, was used. We found that leadership refers to the relationship between leader and follower in a relational process that transitions to a new world or a better future, whether one is a leader by position or by nature.

This paper examines the household livelihood strategies under resettlement stress of Van Gujjar community in the Shivalik foothills of Northern India. It also looks at the relationship between household assets and livelihood strategies. The accessibility to capital assets was assessed by the marginalized and depressed sections of the society and analysed in detail. Major causes of increasing exclusion from their natural habitat and increasing sedentarization. Livestock continues to be the most important asset determining livelihood outcomes.

The article addresses the issue of teacher competence as an important factor in teaching and learning process. Outputs research plays the relation: a competence technology. Expressed position that a resolution of the many variations of pedagogical problems encountered in contemporary school is necessary to conceptualize the idea of Competency technology. Because Bulgarian teachers have developed a number of professional and personal competency, but fail to combine their best effective strategy. And this is because in practical life lost strategic goal.

The study aims to determine the metacognitive awareness and academic achievement in genetics among the eleventh standard students through the Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach. The Sample for the study (n=106) were selected in three schools in Chennai through purposive cluster sampling technique. Single group pre-post test comparison design was used to collect the data using the Metacognitive awareness Inventory (MAI) and achievement test in genetics constructed by the researcher.

The history of Gond Community has been glorious and their social, culture and traditional heritage are also rich. They have their own language, life style and religion, which makes them different from other. Gond kingdoms were strongest political power in Central India (Gondwana) since 17th to mid 20th century. Gonds are recognized as one of the oldest tribe of world and inhabitated in India before Aaryan invasion. This paper highlights the Political, Cultural and Social variety of Gond history.

The present study on “Physical attributes as influenced by variety, desiccant and positioning for dried flower suitability under laboratory condition” was carried out with four gerbera varieties viz., Sangria, Goliath, Impireal and Rosalin. Flowers were embedded in desiccants and kept different positions under laboratory condition. The highest dry weight (2.12 g/flower) was recorded in var. Goliath. The least dry weight (1.64 g/flower) was noticed in var. Impireal.

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