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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.













October 2016

Radiotherapy is defined as the treatment of malignant (occasionally non malignant) diseases by ionizing radiation. Radiation oncology is the science that deals with the study of tumor biology and application of ionizing radiation in the management of cancers. It is based on the principle that rapidly proliferating cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation compared to normal cells. This differential cell kill is used for the treatment of tumors. A dose of radiation that is sufficient to kill cancer cells will produce considerable if not permanent damage to the normal tissues.

Aim: To investigate possible factors contributing to chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD), efficacy of histopathological evaluation in recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and determinative role of histopathological signs in graft survival. Methods: Data of the recipients who underwent renal transplantation (n=270) 10 years in our department were evaluated. The recipients were evaluated in 3 groups as normal allograft function (NAF) group (n=154) and CAD (n=64) and CAN (n=52) groups. Results: Regarding the allograft survival, the NAF group had the best allograft survival.

Background: The lack of bone in the alveolar ridge has been a major problem in aesthetic functional recovery in patients who have suffered traumas dentoalveolar, traumatic dental extractions, dental congenital absence pathologies involving the jaws. Thus, the zygomatic implant is an excellent alternative in the dental implant process with bone loss. Still, the zygomatic implant also applies when there is poor bone quality and quantity. Objective: To show through a case report the success of the zygomatic implant compared to the previous failure and graft osseointegration.

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Materials and Methods: This is a combined cross sectional and case control study. This study was carried out in the Research laboratory of the department of physiology, Coimbatore medical college, Coimbatore. The approval of the ethical committee was obtained prior to the commencement of the study.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate & compare cleaning ability of two different single file rotary files. Methods: 20 canals of 10 extracted molars were selected. After preparing an access cavity, K-file size #15 was introduced into the root canal and India ink was injected. Twenty samples were randomly divided in to experimental groups in group I (n=10), root canals were prepared with OneShape file; in group II (n=10), WaveOne were used for instrumentation. After clearing, the removal of India ink from cervical, middle, and apical thirds was scored.

Aortic Regurgitation [AR] is diastolic flow of blood from aorta to left ventricle. AR could be acute or more commonly chronic. chronic AR could congenital or acquired .it could be due to valve leaflet pathology, aortic wall defect or both. Severe, prolong hypertension can cause aortic root dilatation and consequently lead to AR. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of AR in prolong hypertension i.e. hypertension related aortic regurgitation [HT- related AR] and prognostic significance of AR in hypertensive patients.

Respiratory Foreign body Aspiration (FBA) is a suddently life-threatening emergency. But, it is a seldom elaborated in textbooks. The most common site for that is the right low bronchus or its bronchus intermedius as it is more wider, shorter and vertical. Most of the patients are children, and their atypical symptoms often cover the disease. It is required rapidly identify diseases and take measures to prevent potentially fatal complications. The treatment is usually via either endoscopic or surgical extraction. FBA of a river shimp has been reported as a special case in the literature.

Objectives: Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar in many cases leads to debilitating post-operative complications which are routinely managed with drugs like corticosteroids, NSAID’s and opiods. Unfortunately these drugs carry their share of side effects; hence a natural, effective and safe remedy that lacks undesired side effects is desired.

Background and Objectives: Strict insulin therapy is necessary for the proper control of blood sugar level in insulin requiring diabetic patients. This leads to elevated complications associated with insulin administration. Insufficient knowledge about insulin leads to preventable complications, adverse patient outcome, and poor glycaemic control. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of patients towards the insulin use, before and after patient counselling.

A metal-free dentistry has long been the dream of all practitioners. However, the inherent fragility, low flexural strength, as well as the low fracture resistance of ceramics were the main obstacles slowing the use of these materials. To overcome this weakness, researchers and manufacturers have developed advanced formulas to prevent the propagation of cracks in the ceramic using mainly yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), commonly known as "zirconia".

Background and Objectives: Beta blockers, one of the prescribed classes of cardio vascular medications reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. It is highly necessary for the clinical pharmacist to review and clinically check all prescriptions presented at the wards. This study aims to assess the prescribing pattern of beta blockers in Acute Coronary Syndrome in the study population. Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted in 108 patients, diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

A view that Th1/CD4 lymphocytes are responsible for inflammation in multiple sclerosis is very common. However, it was proved that destruction of the axons in the demyelination plaque correlated better with macrophages and CD4 lymphocytes activity than CD8 lymphocytes activity. Macrophages play a key role in all the multiple plaques. They are usually surrounded by lymphocytes and located around the small venous vessels. Macrophages undergo polarization that depends on the activating factors. In autoimmune disorders phenotype M1 of macrophages overbalance in acute phase of inflammation.

Several studies have been undertaken thus far which compares the techniques of Inferior alveolar nerve block and Gow Gates mandibular block but a final conclusion on their efficacy is still controversial. This study, having been performed with standardized, accurate criteria, compared both the techniques between different age groups of patients. Thirty patients of age group 15-65 years were divided into group A (15 members) for Gow Gates technique and group B (15 members) for Inferior alveolar nerve block technique.

Back ground and Objectives: Antihypertensive drugs Amlodipine and Telmisartan are used to control blood pressure and reduce macro and microvascular complications in diabetic patients with hypertension. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the management of hypertension. Telmisartan is a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor. So this lower the risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure in diabetic patients. Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker.

Aim: The aim of this IN VITRO study was to examine and compare the apical micro-leakage of AH PLUS, MTA Fill, ZOE apex sealers in dry and moist root canals by dye penetration method using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 38 extracted teeth with single root canal. Hand protaper files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta-percha cone, using one of the three sealers, under dry and wet root canal conditions (6 teeth in each group) and one positive control group and one negative control group.

The inventions of new technology and the discovery of opportunities have tremendously impacted the world in the 21st century. The thrive to be different and the thrust to prove oneself is increasing among the people with the advancements in this world. There is no person today who can say that he is absolutely good for nothing. Each person is gifted with a unique talent. It is a matter of challenge whether he can discover his innate talent. The talent when nurtured grows into a successful tree that bears fruit evidently satisfying the needs and desires of others.

Background: This study was carried out to determine the significance of training undergraduate medical and dental students in prescription writing and to identify the errors in prescription writing and types of drug-drug interactions in a prescription to allow safety of the patients and prevent adverse drug reactions. Methodology: The study was conducted in Pharmacology Department, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi. The participants include 70 MBBS undergraduate students and 50 BDS undergraduate students.

Radiographic assessment is a significant tool in evaluating the quantity and the quality of the alveolar bone, locating any anatomical landmarks, and/or detecting pathological lesions. It helps the clinician to visualize and judge the likelihood of executing the proposed treatment plan. In addition to determining bone dimensions accurately, the available technical advancements in radiography have helped improve case design and treatment planning, thus conferring upon clinical results a measure of predictability.

Objectives: To compare the sensitometric properties of Insight (F-SPEED) and Ektaspeed Plus radiographic (E-speed) film which was manually and automatically processed using fresh and depleted chemical solutions. Methods: 8 sets of each type of film were obtained (1set=5films), 4sets being manually processed and 4sets being automatically processed. A total of 80films (40 Ektaspeed Plus and 40 Insight film) were exposed and developed.

The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands out as a potentially toxic waste-generating activity. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human health and to the environment.

Background: Care of patients with tuberculosis starts with a quality assured medical treatment. This has several facets like clinical, radiological & laboratory techniques. The laboratory techniques need to be reliable, rapid, cost effective & reproducible not only for the patients but also for the clinicians, as it will lay down the base for early initiation of suitable treatment & reduce the mortality & morbidity of the diseased person. Objective: To ensure reliable, early detection and cost effective diagnostic technique by comparing two microscopic and cultures.

Adenomatoid odontogenic Tumor (AOT) tumor found to be a rare variety comprising of 3-7% of all odontogenic tumors. The most common location for AOT is anterior maxilla and very often confused with dentigerous cyst having similar radiological presentation. The tumor occurs in two forms central or intraosseous which is more common and peripheral being rare. Treatment of the tumor involves enucleation and curettage. We report a case of young female having AOT in left anterior maxilla with clinical, radiological, histopathological presentation and the management.

Hortaea werneckii is a most common cause of tinea nigra transmitted by contact between humans and is an example of phaeoid (dematiaceous)fungi. Tinea nigra is an uncommon superficial fungal infection of horny layer of epidermis characterized by presence of painless brown to black, pigmented, non-scaly, macular patches usually affecting palms (tinea nigra palmaris), occasionally soles (tinea nigra plantaris) and very rarely other parts of body of young adults.

Loss of an eye is a traumatic event which has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Several ocular disorders require surgical intervention that may result in the ocular defect. An ocular prosthesis is fabricated to restore the structural, functional and cosmetic defects created by such conditions. This case report presents the prosthetic management of the ocular defect with a custom made ocular prosthesis.

The term ‘Hypodontia’ refers to the developmental absence of one or more teeth, either in primary or permanent or mixed dentition, excluding the third molars. It is the most common craniofacial malformation. If six or more permanent teeth are missing, the term ‘Oligodontia’ is used. Oligodontia creates significant challenges to the clinicians in both diagnosis and management. The ability to address this condition during the early stages of the dentition maximizes the potential for a treatment with functional, esthetic, and stable results.

The ureter is a subject to a number of natural variations, and duplex ureter is one of the rare congenital abnormalities affecting the ureter, occurring in around 1% of general population1. We here are reporting a case of a 25 year old gentleman, who had come with complaints of pain on the left flank and LUTS (Lower urinary tract symptoms). Investigations revealed that he had ahydronephrotic left kidney, with the upper pole showing pyonephrosis with suboptimal function.

Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of implant support on different retention systems and their load distribution in a Distal Extension Removable partial denture. Materials and Methods: Three hemimandible models with canine to canine teeth were simulated. Model 1: Conventional cast partial denture with I – bar. Model 2: Cast partial denture with extracoronal ball attachment on the distal abutment. Model 3: Cast partial denture with extracoronal ball attachment and after a distal implant placement with healing abutment.

Aim: To evaluate influence and impact of custom made local language poster on awareness and knowledge of primary school teachers in Ambala district concerning emergency management regarding dental trauma. Materials and Methods: A cluster randomised study consisting of primary school teachers was carried out in Ambala district, Haryana (India). A cohort group of 100 primary school teachers and physical instructors from 9 government primary schools in Ambala, Haryana participated in study.

Atorvastatin is most effective cholesterol lowering agent. Most recently it was found that apart from their primary actions on HMG-CoA reductase enzyme this can also modulates the immune functions and inflammatory processes by their effects on expression of signaling proteins most importantly Rho, Rac and Ras. Therefore atorvastatin may have beneficiary effects of different inflammatorydiseases and autoimmune diseases. Out of theses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is most common public health problem and its accounts for about 3rd leading cause of death worldwide.

With the advent of magnification in the field of endodontics increases operator efficiency as well as the success rate. Traditional endodontics was based on feel not sight. Magnification helps the user not only to see more, but to see well. High levels of magnification increase the aggregate amount of visual information available to endodontists for diagnosing and treating dental pathology.

Oral cancers commonly develop in people who consume tobacco in various forms and drink alcohol. They are both independent risk factors, but they have a considerable synergistic effect. Various studies have tried to correlate the role of alcohol alone as a causative factor of oral cancer. But it is difficult to establish principally because alcohol consumption histories are subjective and difficult to verify, alter over time, both with respect to beverage type and quantity, and are frequently confounded by tobacco use.

HIV-related oral conditions occur in a large proportion of patients, and frequently are misdiagnosed or inadequately treated. Dental expertise is necessary for appropriate management of oral manifestations of HIV infection or AIDS, but many patients do not receive adequate dental care.

Loss of an eye or a disfigured eye has a far-reaching impact on an individual's psyche. Additionally it affects one's social and professional life. Cosmetic rehabilitation with custom made prosthetic devices gives such individuals professional and social acceptance and alleviates problems. This paper describes prosthetic rehabilitation of a 60-year-old female patient having right ocular defect with a combination of prefabricated and custom made ocular prosthesis. The resultant prosthesis was structurally durable and aesthetically acceptable with satisfactory retention.

Marfans syndrome is the most common dominant autosomic genetic disorder of the connective tissue. This pathology’s diagnosis is mainly based on physical characteristics. Herein, the authors’ present report of a case of Marfans syndrome in which patient presented with bone loss involving seven teeth which was diagnosed as periodontitis in Marfans syndrome. This case reports confirms the hypothesis that connective tissue disorders increased susceptibility to periodontal breakdown.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant relationship between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and the newborn sex ratio and neonatal birth weight. Study Design: A cross sectional study was done on 560 patients , data were collected from private clinics in different areas of Baghdad including Hay Aljameaa and Alharthya from the beginning of 2013 to the end of 2014, all 560 case had single pregnancy ,term births (>=37 weeks and >=2500 grams).Number of male fetuses = 292 and female fetuses = 268.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a high prevalence in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients; most likely cause is the frequent occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance in T2DM. Weight reduction by diet and exercise is effective in preventing and treating NAFLD in diabetics. Bariatric surgery is recommended in obese patients to reverse NAFLD.

Sialolith is one of the most common disorders of salivary glands. It may occur in all salivary glands but is most common in the parotid. This case report presents clinical and radiological diagnosis and uniquely rare management of a Sialolith in the Wharton’s duct by bimanual palpation.

Background: Immediate denture is a treatment modality which has many advantages compared to the conventional dentures as well as the implant dentures. But due to unknown reasons this treatment protocol is vanishing from every day dental practice. Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this survey was to understand the awareness and attitude of the patients towards immediate dentures among the local population of Western Maharashtra.

Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizens. They are in a continuous process of growth and development. Any alteration in its course lead to developmental disorders of learning. The learning disability plays a significant role as a silent handicap among children. It is estimated that 4-5% of students in school have learning disability. Hence my study is “a study to evaluate the effectiveness of self instructional module regarding learning disabilities of primary school children among primary school teachers Vidya sagar school at Indore, M.P Advanced academy at Indore, M.P.

In present investigation, B. subtilis and B. cereus was isolated and Identified from the petroleum contaminated site soil and identified by gram’s staining, motility and biochemical tests. After the isolation and identification, biosurfactant production from bacterial organisms was screened using mineral salt medium, by oil spreading, drop collapse and hemolysis test. From the blood agar plates, the biosurfactant producing bacterial culture were obtained and maintained as stock cultures.

Background: The etiology of human type 1 diabetes is still largely obscure, but it is recognized that both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in its risk. The aim of the study: To assess the genetic association of BANK1 rs3733197 polymorphisms in a sample of Egyptian children with T1DM and compare it to healthy controls. Methods: We enrolled 100 children;75 children with T1DM and 25 healthy control children matched for age and sex.

In Sudanese traditional medicine Acacia seyal is a very important plant, it has valuable uses in cosmetic and for treating of many diseases and infections. The pleasantly fragrant stem fumigate bath, known as Dokhan, is used for cosmetic and medicinal purpose, mainly for the treatment of vaginal and urinary tract infections. Searching for new sources of naturally occurring antioxidants and antimicrobial become of interest, due to the carcinogenic effect of synthetic antioxidants, and resistance of antimicrobial agents by microorganisms.

Objectives: The present study was carried out with an aim to detect correlation of CIMT with mortality in acute ischemic stroke. Methods: After ethical considerations, this prospective observational study was conducted on 200 patients of acute ischenic stroke. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was based on the clinical profile and confirmed by CT / MRI as defined by ASA/AHA. Results: Among the 200 patients studied age of patients with acute ischemic stroke ranged from 45-78 years with a mean age of 61.18±7.59 years. Majority of patients were in 51-70 years of age (n=43; 86%).

Oral cancer is serious and growing problem in many parts of the globe. Squamous cell carcinoma comprises more than 90% of all oral cancers. The etiology is multifactorial. The current case highlights the importance of assessing tooth mobility or other signs of periodontal diseases in an otherwise healthy mouth should be regarded as suspicious and further correlating such cases with thorough habit history, clinical and radiographic examination. This would avoid the chance of misdiagnosis and help in early treatment of the lesion.

Objectives: To find out the efficacy of multi-parametric MRI as a noninvasive diagnostic investigation in carcinoma prostate and its correlation with Gleason scoring among men with PSA levels between 4 to 10 ng/ml and with normal digital rectal examination. Methods: A prospective study was done in Institute of Urology, MMC, Chennai between September 2015 to April 2016. 25 male patients who presented with obstructive LUTS with PSA 4-10 ng/ml and a normal DRE were included in the study.

The habit of chewing areca nut has been reported since ancient times.It has been used as food, medicine, social and religious purposes, as described in Sanskrit manuscripts. The harmful effects of chronic chewing of areca nut have been well established, however, not much is documented regarding the advantages of chewing areca nut.

Rehabilitation of a patient who has suffered from trauma is a challenging task for the oral surgeon and the Prosthodontist. A multidisciplinary approach is required to rehabilitate the patient so as to enable function and esthestics. Use of a fixed removable option for long span endentulous spaces using precision attachments is a viable prosthetic option for patients who have suffered trauma due to road traffic accidents.

Objective: This survey intends to know the frequency of chronic low back pain and the line of management used by the doctors for managing chronic low back pain. Methods: This was a descriptive and cross sectional study with non-probability convenient sampling. This survey was carried out at different centers across Pakistan from May to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were the doctors who have potential to see more patients of low back pain including general physicians, orthopedician and neurologists. Incomplete Performa were excluded. SPSS version 20.0 was used for data analysis.

Abnormalities in the root canal anatomy are commonly occurring phenomenon. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy and its variations is necessary for successful completion of the endodontic treatment. Mandibular Premolars are known for having an aberrant anatomy. Mandibular first Premolars have high flare-up and highest failure rates because of extreme variations in root canal morphology.

Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. We conducted a retrospective study know the role of prophylactic platelet transfusion and its misuse in dengue patients. A total of 110 dengue patients who have been platelet transfused were taken in the study. A total of 311 platelet concentrates were transfused, while 70 units of FFP were infused to 41 patients with DHF or DSS.

Introduction: Tobacco use kills about five to six million people annually worldwide, accounting for about 20 percent of all adult male deaths and five percent of adult female deaths, over age 30. On current smoking patterns, annual tobacco deaths will rise to about eight to ten million by 2030.Tobacco use is a medical addictive condition, once addicted most smokers find it difficult to quit even when they develop smoking related diseases.

Purpose: The present study is designed to evaluate the marginal bone loss after immediate implant placement in mandibular molar region with autogenous versus synthetic hydroxyapatite graft. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with an mandibular molar is indicated for extraction were included in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group I, received immediate implants augmented with autogenous bone graft and group II, received immediate implants augmented with synthetic hydroxyapatite graft.

Objective: To determine frequency, demographics, laboratory parameters and disease severity in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients with a diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis, at the ‘Rheumatology Clinic’ of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from February 2004 to February 2014. Detailed history, examination, laboratory investigations and treatment regimen were recorded in a pre-designed structured proforma.

Dental implants have been a successful treatment alternative for restoring missing teeth. However, treatment is not always successful, as evidenced by reports reviewing the reasons for implant failures/complications. The aim of the present article is to discuss the less often seen, grey aspects of dental implants, like some of their local and systemic complications.

Objectives: To identify the incidence and risk factors of neonatal sepsis in patients born in the General Hospital of Specialties Dr. Javier Buenfil Osorio, during the period from January 2013 to December 2015. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective study, observational, descriptive; the record of 106 newborns diagnosed with sepsis were reviewed.

Introduction: Needle sticks and sharp injuries (NSSI) are identified as one of the occupational hazards in health care workers. NSSI increase risk of spread of diseases like HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C. Sharp injuries are a major source of HCV infection among health care workers (HCWS), accounting for 40% of HCV infections. Certain groups of individuals are at greater risk than others because of their nature of work. Numerous studies have found nurses to be the commonest group of health care workers in experiencing needle stick injuries due to their limited clinical experience.

The most common malignancy affecting the world population is the skin malignancy. Although melanoma only account for the 5% of the total cutaneous malignancy, the death related to it encompasses 75% of total skin cancer related deaths. It is very rare in oral cavity with only 0.5% of all oral malignancies. In this article we have presented two cases of extensive palatal discolouration with exophytic growth. These cases provide an extensive information about the pigmented lesion of the oral cavity which should be submitted for biopsy to exclude malignancy.

Colles fracture is the most common fracture in women middle-aged and elderly as can be seen, the variety of treatments used for resolution highlighting: the conservative surgical technique (percutaneous brads included in the cast) and management. These aspects determined conducting an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study, where 60 cases were reviewed. Of these, 30 were treated with surgical intervention and 30 with conservative management to establish the most effective, considering the variables of morphology, mobility and pain of the affected upper extremity.

Dengue fever is a major public health problem in tropical countries. Clinical manifestations range from a nonspecific viral syndrome to a severe fatal hemorrhagic disease. Menorrhagia as the sole presentation in dengue among the women is very rare. We report two adult women who presented with high fever, generalized bodyache with severe menstrual bleeding without any history of amenorrhea or any previous menstrual abnormality. Dengue was suspected because of thrombocytopenia and epidemic of dengue in West Bengal.

Twelve bivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori L. genotypes viz., SKAU-R-1, SKAU-R-6, SKUAST-28, SKUAST-31, CSR2, CSR4, CSR18, CSR19, NB4D2, SH6, DUN6 and DUN22 were studied for their performance during spring and summer seasons of 2012 and 2013. The data generated in respect of different traits was pooled separately and analyzed statistically. The results revealed that during spring, significantly higher estimates for larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio and filament length were registered by SKAU-R-1.

Aim: The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of nitrous oxide and oxygen inhalation sedation for pain control during inferior alveolar nerve block administration in children. Design: In this randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group study, 40 children in the age group of 7-10 years divided into 2 groups: GroupA (Nitrous oxide sedation) and Group B (oxygen). Pain perception for local anesthesia was assessed using face, legs, activity, cry, consolability scale.

Forty-three species of fungi were isolated from woods in Sundarban mangrove forest, India. The most frequently isolated species were members of Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Mucor and Pestalotiopsis. Species of Acremonium, Neosartorya and Cladosporium were rare, and no members of the Basidiomycotina were found. Few commonly encountered fungal isolates were tested for their wood decay ability by weight loss method in Czapek- Dox medium. The tested isolates showed soft rot of wood in laboratory tests.

Movement of people from rural areas to urban areas is very common in India. Migration has significant effects on both of the rural and urban areas as it involves the composition of societies living in these areas. This paper gives an idea about the consequences of rural out migration on the agriculture, women empowerment, biodiversity, food security and nutritional security of the rural people.

The relationships between characteres are established through correlation coeficientes of path analysis, wich provides understanding of cause and effect directs and indirects on the main variable. Itaimed to determine the direct and indirect phenotypic effects of the agronomically important characters related to grain yield of soybean with indeterminate growth habit and genetic dissimilarity between genotypes. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria, at Frederico Westphalen – RS Campus, in 2013/2014 crop.

Many studies have been developed on the mammalian target of rapamycin: mTOR. mTOR is a threonine/kinase protein with major role in cellular growth signaling, regardless the tissue organism. In this study it was shown that mTOR is responsible for signaling both positively and negatively cell growth. In this review we see that the stimulus mTOR pathway allows health benefits, working in protein synthesis, cell growth, immunology, satiety and depression.

Odontogenic This study aimed to assess the impact of warming up to 5 °C in air temperature in Santarém-PA region and other meteorological variables, such effect of climate change highlighted by IPCC (2007) using a biosphere-atmosphere interaction model (SiB2), using LBA data and calibration of the Biosphere-Atmosphere SiB2 interaction model proposed by Llopart (2009), in order to infer possible changes on soybeans and maize productivity in the region due to these changes.

Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM) were isolated in NBRIP medium containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P source, from roots and rhizospheric soils of Zea mays collected in three localities (Bini, Mbang-boum, Borongo) of the Vina Division of Adamawa Region (Ngaoundéré, Cameroon). Ability of these PSM to solubilize phosphate was tested in modified nutrient agar medium, on 4 inorganic P forms: Ca3(PO4)2, AlPO4.H2O, FePO4.2H2O and vivianite (Phosphate Rock) as natural phosphate source. At least 117 isolates were obtained from roots and soils samples.

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) is more susceptible to internal tipburn a calcium related physiological disorder, especially under protected conditions. Being a genotype specific disorder, the present experiment was carried out inside rainshelter with seven cabbage F1 hybrids and three levels of calcium foliar applications (0%, 0.5% and 1.5%). The interaction effects of calcium treatments were also observed.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of pre-emergent herbicide doses on the physiology of white clover seeds and the seedlings growth. The herbicides tested were atrazine, s-metolachlor and diclosulam and the application was performed in doses of 0 %, 50 %, 100 % and 200 % of the maximum registered dose of each product. Two tests were performed. The first one was carried out in laboratory, where germination, first germination count and germination speed index were evaluated.

Marine organisms play a crucial role in almost all biogeochemical processes that sustain the biosphere, and provide a variety of products (goods) and functions (services) which are essential to humankind’s well-being. The ink gland of Loligo duvauceli consist of melanin granules in a viscous colourless medium. As the ink gland extracts is inspiring new idea for drug development this study focuses on the formulation of gel using ink of Indian squid Loligo duvauceli.

Aim –The aim of the study was to systematically analyse contributory factors influencing levels of alcohol misuse among adolescents in the United Kingdom and subsequently identifying those which were most common, the wider determinants associated with these factors and how best to translate the findings of the study into meaningful information that can potentially be applied in public health interventions and practice.

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remain a promising class of anti-cancer drug targets with an ability to reverse abnormal epigenetic states associated with cancer. HDAC6, a subtype of HDAC, functions at the crossroads between atleast two cell signalling pathways involving ubiquitination and lysine acetylation. Over expression of this enzyme is associated with tumorigenesis and cell survival, other than promoting metastasis in cancer cells.

The paper focuses on landscaping of urban and rural environments through the use of locally adapted species. The research is embarked upon with a view that the loss of local vegetation and replacement with exotic landscaping is commonly recognized as a threat to biodiversity values and results in increased demand for water and nutrients (i.e. fertilizers). Discovered in the process, are the challenges and opportunities for the protection and enhancement of local natural resources.

The okra crop stands out as a viable alternative for family farmers in regions of semi-arid climate, due to its acceptance in the market and for being rich in vitamins, fibers and minerals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the gas exchanges of okra under water depths, soil cover and phosphate fertilization, in an experiment carried out in the municipality of Catolé do Rocha-Paraíba, Brazil, in the period from November 2014 to April 2015.

The plant breeding has been constantly working with the search for increasing agricultural productivity of many crops, targeting a system with higher productivity per area, due to the increasing world population, as well as foods with a higher content of nutrients. In this scenario, the corn crop stands out due to its direct contributions manufatured or processed foods as well as being the base of the feed chain.

In the present investigation hybridization has been employed for the development of some submergence tolerant high yielding lines. Fifty diverse paddy genotypes were screened for submergence tolerance in low land submerged field condition at Calcutta University Experimental Farm, Baruipur, West Bengal, India in 2010 where water level was more than 50 cm at least for two weeks in the vegetative stage of crop growth.

This research aims to identify and analysis of microscopic spermatozoa quality from infertile patient before and after take a supplements from Anadara granosa L. Semen sample were taken from infertile patients at the Prodia Laboratory, Makassar, Indonesia. The clamp sample were collected from Pannikiang Island, District of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Data analysis applied T-test in order to know the concentration, motility and viability of sperm quality from infertility patients.

The expansion of oilseed cultivation under semiarid conditions is related to the use of alternative water and efficient fertilization management. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and flowering of sunflower (EMBRAPA 122-V2000) irrigated with treated domestic effluent under different doses of boron (B). Hence, this study tested the application of five B doses (0 - control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg kg-1 applied as basal dose in the form of boric acid) in plants irrigated with two types of water (treated domestic effluent and public-supply water).

This multicultural twin study examined the structure and sources of individual differences in agreeableness. This study assessed cultural influences on the agreeableness component of the personality. A pair of 90 twins in the age group of 3-6 years from five cultural zones of state Haryana was taken. The data were analyzed for agreeableness culture wise and yield new insight into the trait. The results revealed that there was a significant cultural difference in agreeableness trait of personality in monozygotic twins.

Industries dairy, like most other agricultural industries, generates large flows of wastewater resistant, characterized by high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations (COD). Dairy effluent are considered a major contributor to the pollution caused by these industries.

The present study deals with the green synthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract and their antimicrobial effects on pathogens. The plant extracts plays a vital role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environment friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. The current study focused on morphology and size of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Hyptis suaveolens aqueous leaf extract.

This study was designed as baseline for an intervention to assess the effect supplementation of urban agriculture by production of traditional leafy vegetables on the dietary intake of protein, energy, vitamin A, iron and zinc, and the nutritional status of mothers of 0 to 3 months postpartum. Lactating mothers are likely to be nutritionally vulnerable and their low food intake and the poor nutrition is likely to negatively impact on the nutrition of the weaning children, especially during the period of exclusive breastfeeding.

The present work is aimed mainly to investigate and compare the antibacterial activities of methanol, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts of Aristida pungens Desf. leaves, and their synergic effect with some standard antibiotics on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion method. Results for antibacterial activity as obtained with Aristida pungens Desf plant revealed that the three different extracts tested showed weak bacterial activity against all the bacteria tested (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus).

The present experimental work is set as a vessel experiment in a non-heated greenhouse of department „Plant Production“, Technical University – Varna. There are used three biological products – Extrasol, Herbagreen, Life Bat Guano and one mineral fertilizer – NPK. It is followed the impact of the fertilizers on the microbiological activity, as there is analyzed and the content of macroelements in the soil.

The use of organic substrates of own formulation for seedlings production can be a viable alternative for producers by reducing costs and facilitating access. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early development of neem seedlings (Azadirachta indica) in different organic substrates.

Gonadotropic cells are distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary in Notopterus notopterus. Histochemical and electronmicroscopic techniques are applied for the present study. The PPD of pituitary gland in zero age group fish has very little number of gonadotropes. The cells are undifferentiated with indistinct boundaries. They markedly increased in number in one year aged fish, since the gonads of this age group fish shows advanced stages of growth.

The saponin containing pod extracts of Acacia concinna were tested for their effect on egg laying, adult emergence from grains and mortality of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. The Callosobruchus chinensis L. is the most widespread and a dreadful pests infesting gram, cowpea, beans, lentil and other pulses. The female lay eggs on the seed surface and after hatching larva bores the seed and consumes the seed cotyledons.

Biodiesel has established itself as a precisely sufficient alternative fuel for diesel engines. Generators are vital equipment of industry and have a wide usage area in agriculture. Furthermore engine performance and emissions of electric generators gain importance due to their indoor applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance and smoke results of Bombax pentandrum and Cassia siamea biodiesel utilization in diesel engine.

The aim of this study was to evaluate different doses of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in dual-purpose wheat seeds, and their answers on morphological traits, when measured in different evaluation periods. The experiment was conducted at 2013 crop year, in the experimental field of the Federal University of Santa Maria Campus Frederico Westphalen – RS, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block in a factorial design, two dual-purpose wheat genotypes x five doses of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate x four periods of evaluation, with four replications.

The objective of this study was to infer on yield performance through linear associations of traits and identify the genetic variation of soybean genotypes through canonical variables. The experiment was carried out during the 2013/2014 agricultural year in a randomized block design arranged in four replications. The following genotypes were utilized: NS 5445 IPRO, NS 6211 RR, TEC 6029 IPRO, TECS 13/03 RR, 6458 RSF IPRO, DON MARIO 5.8i, 6160RSF IPRO, DON MARIO 5.9i, CD 2611 IPRO, CD 2585 RR, and TMG 7161 RR.

The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in an aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of different amounts of extract of Nigella Sativa seeds. The previous work we proved that presence of this mixture in the solution decreases the corrosion current density. Long term immersion showed that lower amounts are more efficient than higher ones. And the inhibitor layer is more stable for smaller amount after 19 hours of immersion. The surface examination and analyses confirm that a layer is formed on the metal surface.

The paper deals with some biological aspects of Macrobrachium hendersodayanum a fresh water commercially important crustacean which is highly preferred by the consumers locally at river Jagbuda in village Melaghat, tehsil Khatima (790 45’ E Long. and 290 0’ N Lat.) of district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. The successful culturing of animal requires a basic understanding of its key biological processes.

Availability of organic input and output is critical for the improvement of organic farming in the country. Development of efficient marketing system is the need of the hour for strengthening the organic production in India. This paper made a humble attempt for understanding the consumer attitudetowards organic food product in Tirupur District, Tamilnadu. The results concluded that most of the consumer especially in urban people prefer organic food product.

Wheat grains have excelente bromatological quality, having high protein concentration. The increasing consumption of poultry meat is important for the economy, mainly in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The poultry industry generates high amount of waste, which can be used as fertilizer due to the concentration of nutrients and emerge as an alternative organic fertilizer for crops. The poultry litter can be characterized as waste composed by sawdust, wood shavings, rice hulls, poultry waste, feathers, ration residues, among others.

As a result of human activity, the contamination of water, soil and seeds by potentially toxic metals, such as aluminum (Al), is an obstacle to agriculture. The aim of this study was to verify how onion seeds tolerate aluminum during germination and initial seedling growth. Seeds were placed on paper soaked in an aqueous solution of aluminum chloride at concentrations of zero, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg L-1. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, and total length, shoot length, root length and dry mass of seedlings.

Trilophidia annulata is one of the most important agricultural pests in the low lying grasslands. It feeds on a wide range of crops but is primarily graminivorous. It’s all developmental stages cause damage to varieties of crops but their immature seem most destructive. During the present study immatures of T. annulata was discussed. It passes through 5th nymphal instars in male and 6th in female. All the morphological differences were shown through illustration and photographs.

An extensive survey of Thar has been made during the year 2015 to 2016, in the result of this a total of 943 specimens were captured and sorted out into 25 species. Majority of specimens belong to Acrididae followed by Pyrgomorphidae while only single species i-e Dericorys tibialis (Pallas, 1773) of Dericorythidae was come in collection. Specimens were captured from different habitats that include sandy, rocky, grassy and cultivated crops. This study will be fruitful for up gradation of checklist of caeliferans fauna of Thar Desert.

Maranta arundinacea commonly known as the West Indian arrowroot is a perennial rhizomatous herb cultivated widely in tropical countries for its starchy rhizomes. The edible tuberous rhizomes are rich in starch and are also a commercial source of fine grade starch used often in weaning foods and biscuits. The starch is reported to have medicinal uses and is an important ingredient in the preparation of barium meals and tablets. The plant which grows under shade is generally resistant to pests and pathogens. Traditionally the tuberous rhizomes are used in the treatment of diarrhea.

In the present study Vigna mungo plants were raised under different concentrations of zinc (5, 10, 25, 50 & 100 mgl-1). One set of seeds were irrigated with distilled water which served as control (0 mgl-1). Vigna mungo seeds were equispacealy placed in Petri plates lined with filter paper. They were irrigated periodically with various concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50 & 100 mgl-1). Five replicates were maintained for each concentrations including control. The number of seeds germinated were counted and recorded daily.

Laboratory persistence studies were performed in water at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 using bispyribac-sodium 40% SC (w/v) formulation at the rates of T0 – Untreated Control, 1.0 (T1) and 2.0 (T2) µg/mL. The different pH Waters samples have been kept under sunlight. The sampling occasions are Acidic water: 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 days for acidic water (pH 4.0), basic and Neutral water: 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 70 and 90 days Samples collected on different occasions were analysed for Bispyribac-sodium content by a validated HPLC method.

Internet access has been gaining popularity over the years for various purposes but there are some rural areas which are still not verse with Internet Technology. This paper emphasizes on introducing WiMAX technology as a heterogeneous network along with the in place technology for internet access such as WiFi and infrastructure based networks. Detailed implementation of WiMAX technology over the current existing network has been depicted. This paper also proposes an e-education program for digital empowerment of the citizenresiding in rural areas through WiMAX technology.

In graphs like social networks, Semantic Web and biological networks, every vertex has high information, which can be design by a set of tokens or elements. In this paper, we are studying about. Retrieving similarity set using sub graph approach, which gives subgraph that is structurally isomorphic to the query. Here we apply the apriori algorithm to find sub transaction set for actual transaction set in with each item get separated depending upon the category they are, which accomplish the frequent item set with its dynamic weight.

Density functional theory (DFT) is currently the method of choice for first principles studies of crystalline materials, which depict fundamental issues of structure and properties of various phases of zirconia.

For any graph G=( V,E ), the Line graph L(G) of a graph G is a graph whose set of vertices is the union of the set of edges of G in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding edges of G are adjacent. A dominating set D of a graph L(G) is a strong Line dominating set if every vertex in 〈V[L(G) ]-D〉 is strongly dominated by at least one vertex in D. Strong Line domination number 〖 γ〗_(SL ) (G) of G is the minimum cardinality of strong Line dominating set of G.

The thermal decomposition of diphenyl diperoxide (DFT) and dibutanal diperoxide (DPG) were investigated over the temperature range 130 to 166°C. They were found to be first order with a high degree of conversion (60%). Arrhenius parameters were calculated: activation energy, 108 kJ mol-1 and pre-exponential factor, 6.5 109 s-1 for DFT and 80.8 kJ mol-1 and pre-exponential factor, 1.8 109 s-1 for DPG. The principle decomposition products were aldehyde (about 1.9 mole per mole DFT and 2.0 mole per mole DPG) and oxygen molecule.

The objective of the study is to determine the characteristics of three different substrates-sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants, waste grown algae and the waste paper from the waste bins - and the influence of these characteristics on biogas production when they are added in a batch reactor under the anaerobic digestion. Integration of sewage sludge with waste paper and algae in anaerobic co-digestion has a great advantage on the treatment of sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment plants (WWTP).

Several studies have been investigated in the superconducting materials such as critical magnetic field, magnetic field, critical temperature etc. Here, we will discuss the empirical relation between critical magnetic field and temperature for superconductors. Till today, this empirical relation was obtained on the basis of experimental data of superconducting materials. Therefore, we are deriving this empirical relation theoretically by the use of the concept of BCS theory, thermodynamics and magnetic properties for superconductors.

Some major modifications have been introduced in the modified version of Magnetic Float Densitometer; change in the design of float, it had a depression (concave shape) at the upper part, ferrite core inside the solid cylinder concentric to coils and cylinder itself is used, electrical circuitry has been changed into auto circuit. These modifications improved the working easier.

This research paper discusses the different applications of 3D printing in various industries. Imagine a 3D printer printing whatever your child or you want to print. Right from printing the parts for your child’s game, printing synthetic parts of organs such as kidney, windpipe, lungs, a customized meal, to printing parts of an aircraft, everything is possible.

In this paper, we introduce a new classes of functions by using generalized#pre-closed sets and generalized #pre-open sets called strongly contrα- generalized #pre-continuous, strongly - generalized #pre-continuous function, contrα- generalized #pre-irresolute and almost contrα - generalized #pre-continuous function in topological spaces .Relationships between a new types of contrα - generalized #pre-continuous are established and we study some of basic properties.

This is the idea in which we can analyse our eye power by our own android device. In this idea we use the sensors and the device which are used by the eye specialist. The main device which is used by the eye specialist auto refractor. The project makes the auto refractor machine in to small integrated part by using the instrumentation and control concepts and MATLAB concepts.

In this article, I attempt to show the characteristics of the education system in Lithuania, doing so based on the educational performance revealed in different countries through the PISA 2006 Report. I describe the characteristics obtained by carrying out a comparison with other countries in the world, and I clearly define the benefits through four models that define the educational systems of the world to address their heterogeneity.

Morphometric analysis is a measurement and quantitative description of any drainage basin. It is understand to the nature of the different landforms and structure in given area. Morphometric analysis of a watershed provides a quantitative description of the drainage system, which is an important aspect of the characterization of watersheds (Strahler, 1964).

There is an enormous potential for the production of cotton in Ethiopia, given the suitable agro-ecological conditions in certain regions. However, with small area and low productivity, the country has insignificant gains from its cotton production. Soil-related constraints could be one of the factors for low cotton productivity. Presently, little information is available to farmers and extension workers on different aspects of soil management in the cotton growing areas of Ethiopia, in general, and Arba Minch Zuria Woreda in particular.

The objectives of this study were to examine the actual implementations of active learning in Wonji secondary school, grade nine English classes in focus. The research design of the study was mixed, both qualitative and quantitative. The study was conducted in grade nine students of Wonji secondary and Wonji Gefferssa Secondary schools. Data were collected from 180 male and 201 female students; systematic random sampling technique was employed to choose the sample students from 278 male and 323 female students. Among 1202 students of grade 9, only 33% were selected.

This study focuses on violent criminality experienced by buyers and sellers. Three objectives the structure: identify crimes against sellers and buyers; identify the factors that underlie these crimes; assess the impact of these crimes on sellers and buyers. Desk research, questionnaire and interview were used as data collection tools. The results of the survey indicate that stakeholders (buyers and sellers) in the market are victims of physical assaults, robberies and homicides.

Terrorism is the great threat faced by the whole world. Metropolitan cities are under serious threats of terrorist attacks globally. The strategy of terrorist activities to imply maximum damage to country is to attack citizens and business or economic centers of big and metro cities. Recent evidences of 9/11 attack of World Trade Center (2001), Mumbai attack of 26/11 (2008), Nice attack (2016) in Paris prove the assumption.

This research work examined the effect of monetary incentives on workers’ performance with particular reference to selected firms in Anambra state. This research work became necessary following incessant conflict in the organization as a result of the incentive scheme. Relevant literature relating to the monetary incentives and workers performance were reviewed. The firms selected for the study was drawn from the three senatorial districts of Anambra state.

Soil is a major part of the natural environment, alongside air and water and it’s vital to the existence of life on the planet. Investigation of soil series and its village wise distribution, crops grown and capability in Thanjavur Taluk on the basis of the data derived from the Soil Survey Department.

This article discusses the use of the Measurement Model using the First Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) for the constructs validity and reliability and item indicators developed by the researcher. There are 31 items indicators and represented by 10 constructs built in this study. Ten of these constructs are the religion factor, culture, the needs of Sexuality and Health Education curriculum, the role of parents/guardians, and the role of schools, teachers' beliefs, teachers’ awareness, cognitive readiness, affective (emotional) readiness, and behavior readiness.

This paper examined holistic education for sustainable education on graduates’ functionality in our contemporary society. Two research questions guided the study. The population comprised of 6,000 lecturers in two universities in Abia State namely; Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike (MOUAU) and Abia State University Uturu (ABSU). The sample size of 600 lecturers was selected through the stratified proportionate randomly sampling technique.

In article are analyzed aspects of clearing from the criminal liability of the accomplices of a crime in connection with rendering by them of assistance in revealing and disclosing of the organized group or criminal formation and their members.

Corporate social responsibility programs in the capital strengthening for farmers having the different orientation that is owned by the farmers. Farmers put more the social culture rather than the economic culture. This condition often leads an obstacle in the capital strengthening program. Thus it needs to be done the fund management by the farmers in order to make the capital strengthening program runs well. This research is done utilizing the descriptive qualitative approach with a case study on snake fruit farmers of Salam-Trumpon, Sleman Regency.

It is to the credibility of the human behavior that products are under a constant diversification process to meet the ever changing desires of people. The world is instilled with so many variations among its demographics that there is hardly any product that has the scope to reign in a constant form throughout the global market. It is not quite convincing to the artist to change his masterpiece for others but to be able to sell it, a little color must be added here and there to portray an appealing desire of the consumer.

There are some tariff and non tariff barriers to regulate the trade in goods. The tariffs and trade barriers effects on businesses, consumers and the government in form of price of goods, competition among producers and revenue for government. In the short run, higher prices for goods can decrease use by individual consumers and by businesses. During this time period, businesses will profit and the government will perceive an increase in revenue from taxes.

The expansion of HIV/ADS pandemic all over the world during these last years has weaken havoc creating within families a great number of orphans. Benin has not been on the fringes of this realty a real problem which has not stopped creating orphans and vulnerable children. Jean Pierre Pages’s Theory (1993) has served us as a model of analysis soas to build a field example controversy through a consideration of opinions of one another on the subject.

Personality refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviours consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. In the present study for comparing the personality traits of secondary school students of single-sex schools and co-educational schools a sample of 160 students was selected from different school of Hisar district. In the study personality was dependent variable and school type was independent variable. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) by Raymond B.

In this paper, some fixed point theorems are proved in D-metric spaces. The Generalization of fixed point theorems and selfmaps in F-orbitally compete D-metric space which include unique fixed point results in Dolhare (2016), Dhage et al. (2003), Dolhare (?), Dolhare and Bele (2016), generalized fixed point therems in F-orbitally complete D-metric spaces as a special cases.

Human settlements provide a special focus for most human activity, and therefore also strongly impact on the local land cover, water quality, and biodiversity. Set-up a development strategy and providing policy-relevant guidance therefore requires a detailed and accurate evidence base documenting the spatial distribution of populations, settlements and their inter-connectivity. Location of human settlements is determined by local amenities, economic factors, and communications.

Along with technological changes the teaching-learning process has also evolved, with the use of information technology (IT) a huge step has been given in distance education, creating a new term: e-learning, online education or distributed education. New technologies make us develop new teaching methods which could be able to operate on the Internet. These methods require new: teaching materials, pedagogical proposals and roles developed through instructional design; by using this, activities oriented to the accomplishment of objectives of specific learning are planned.

The conventional system of justice delivery is deeply flawed; as a result of which there is a backlog of pending cases in the Indian Courts. The judicial infrastructure is inadequate and is on the verge of a collapse. The question of delays in the Indian legal system has been the subject of a number of research initiatives. However, these reforms have not been able to keep pace with the growing pendency. The reason is that reformers have focused on the factors traditionally blamed for the delay without paying any heed to political-economic analysis.

Co-operative banks are contributing the constituent part in the India’s banking and financial system. The role of cooperatives in urban areas has been increased in a sufficient part now a days due to increase of primary co-operatives there but there main role of financing the rural areas is also goes on increasing. The co-operative banks origin can be drawn out in the 1904 when the efforts are made to open financial concerns based on cooperation’s principles for solving the peculiar problems of Indian Economic Environment.

As a branch of organic architecture or the architecture inspired by nature, animal architecture has been considered as one of the common architectural design methods. The main goal of this paper is to determine the position of this architecture among architectural methods and the way these methods overlap. The research concludes that animal architecture has remarkable similarities with some design methods specifically the methods known as analogy, metaphor, biomorphic and organi-tech.

Liquidity is playing major role to meet the short term obligations on time for the business. Automobile industry required large amount of investment. For getting this requirement creditworthiness and profitability of the company plays a crucial role in the process of decision making of the shareholders. This paper is making attempt to examine the liquidity, profitability of Ashok Leyland and financial health using Altman’s Z-score test. The study based on secondary data collected from annual report of Ashok Leyland during the period 2011-12 to 2015-16.

Microfinance through Self Help Group (SHGs) has been documented worldwide as the modern tool to combat poverty and for rural development. Self-help group is a method of organizing to poor people and the marginalized to come mutually to solve their individual problem. All the group members should be encouraged to do business also to develop their skills and talents by participating in various training programs. SHGs have witnessed a lot of new dimensions for the successful running and carrying out of new process.

This paper is a take on how the Federal Reserve’s actions not only affect the United States but also a series of other economies related through trade. It is an era of globalisation where one or the other country is connected. It has given rise to situations where things are likely to follow a ripple effect. This paper will focus mainly on the kind of effects the Fed’s decision have on other economies and what all those economies do in order to minimize the damage and maximise the benefit of it.

Background: The paper focuses an account of the origin, history and migration of the Banjara tribe. Banjaras have a unique culture of their own and spread all over the country. They give priority to community life, community values and have collective property resources for common use. Objectives: To study the origin and historical background of Banjaras, to analysis the various connotation on Banjaras and their migration, to focus the significance of the Banjara culture in the present day scenario and to suggest appropriate measures to restore their culture for future generation.

Marriage of girls less than 18 years is a fundamental violation of their human rights including their sexual and reproductive health. It is also a threat to the prosperity and stability of countries. As per the study it was found that poverty is one of the major factors underpinning child marriage. 50% of the respondents belong to economic poor communities, 60% are adopted nuclear families system. 50% are illiterates and 25% have studied below 8thStd. 80% of the respondent’s occupation is agricultural labour and farmer.More than 90% married girls are not earning even Rs11000/- per annum.

The paper focus India farmers’ income is raising at the rate of 1.5 percent and their expenditure is increasing at the rate of 4 percent. Nearly half of the Indian farmers are in debt trap. In the state of Andhra Pradesh 82 percent of farmers are under debt trap and a great number of suicide cases are coming from Andhra Pradesh. This is the fate of Indian agriculture in the globalization era.

In the present investigation, the effect of different concentrations of NaCl on growth and development, organic constituent of Ceriops roxburghiana, a dicotyledonous halophyte has been studied. Ceriops roxburghiana survived a wide range of NaCl salinity ranging from 100 to 700 mM. The upper limit for the survival of this species to NaCl salinity was 700 mM. Results of the present study indicated that the optimal salt concentration for the overall better performance of the seedlings of Ceriops roxburghiana was 300 mM NaCl.

Background: Although the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has significantly reduced, people still contract this infection and it remains a burden to the health care system. However, medical interventions such as probiotics, and faecal transplants are still being explored and evaluated in a bid to ameliorate this condition. Aim: The aim of this study is to establish quality evidence on the effectiveness and safety of probiotics in the treatment of C. difficile infection in European Countries.

Maxillary defects could be due to multiple reasons such as tumors, trauma and congenital defects. Rehabilitating such defects can be difficult at times as it encounters problems like inadequate retention, loss of lips and cheek fullness, poor appearance and psychologic disturbance to the patient. This case illustrates an acquired maxillary defect and the aim of this case report was to describe the prosthetic management of a patient who had undergone surgery for ameloblastoma of the maxilla.

Background: Cephalic and facial index is an important parameter on facial skeletal; specifically used for gender determination. Materials and Methods: The permission to conduct the study was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee. The total of 400 participants comprising of 200 males and 200 females were assessed after complying with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The cranial length, width, facial height and facial breadth were measured by using standard spreading calliper. The collected data was statistically analyzed by using paired ‘t’ test and spearman’s correlation.

Introduction: Patients with gross haematuria have higher incidence of (30 percent) urothelial cancer. Currently recommended investigations for haematuria evaluation are CT scan, urine cytology, Cystoscopy. Virtual endoscopy (VE) is a 3D computer rendering technique with the possibility of interactive intraluminal navigation within the bladder simulating a conventional endoscopy. Aim and Objective: To Compare Virtual Endoscopy (VE) and Trans-abdominal ultrasound with Conventional Cystoscopy (CC), in the detection of bladder tumors in patients with haematuria.

Drugs that are safe and effective for use by the general public without a prescription are defined as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. These drugs are often located on shelves in pharmacies with easy access by patients, but may also be located in non-pharmacy outlets, such as grocery stores, convenience marts and large discount retailers Or we can say that the OTC drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

Background: Lymph nodes are among the commonly aspirated organs for diagnostic purposes. With the simple procedure of FNAC, most of the inflammatory, reactive and neoplastic conditions can be diagnosed without biopsy and biopsies are usually done in inconclusive cases or sometimes in the case of malignancies in the lymph node. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed with superficial lymphadenopathy were included in the study. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed and diagnosis made on cytomorphological pattern.

We report here a case of geographic tongue associated with chronic stress in a 60 year old male patient. He noticed the change in colour on tongue and the patches were also changing their positions. Mild burning sensation was reported and for curing this topical anesthetics were given.

In Unani medicine liver occupies prime importance and has been mentioned as the seat of humour production. Any derangement in the functioning of liver will certainly effect the functioning of whole body. A number of single and polyherbal formulations are being used in the management of hepatic disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Arq Murakab Mussafi Khoon (AMMK) in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We conducted a case series with five diagnosed treatment naïve cases of CHC.

Objective: Surgical outcomes of perianal fístula has a significant rate of post-operative complications such as prolonged hospitalization, pain during post operative period, high chances of recurrence and anal incontinence. We aimed to conduct this retrospective study to determine the efficacy of Glove rubber as seton in the treatment of fistula-in-ano to minimize the risk factors. We documented our experience in managing High and Complex fistulas with Glove Rubber as Seton.

Calcium hydroxide is one of the most effective, biocompatible, alkaline substance that has been in use by endodontists around the world since almost a century. It is also considered as the material of choice by many clinicians. This case series of six cases (5 males and 1 female aging 32 to 66 years), describes a successful management of periapical lesions with intraoral draining sinus by intentionally extruding premixed non setting paste of calcium hydroxide. The patients were reviewed after 1 week of application and the canals were obturated after 2 weeks followed by 1 year follow up.

It is estimated that in dental atraumatic surgery in general, studies of synthesis and meta-analysis (n = 269), Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (n = 35) and decision analysis (n = 23) represent nearly 27% of all studies. Most of the selected studies was developed in the USA, Netherlands and the UK. These three countries and 15 journals were responsible for almost 50% of all publications. The other papers were published in other journals and 61 originated from 32 other countries, including Brazil.

Rehabilitation with implants, prostheses basically have two retention arrangements, for screw or cement. There are several important factors to achieving success in implantology that can influence decisively in choosing the type of detention, such as occlusion, aesthetic crown and soft tissue, passive adaptation, cost and ease of manufacture of the prosthesis. The aim of this study was to discuss the advantages and disadvantages between the two types of prosthetic implant, or concreted and bolted.

We report a case of multiple insulinomas in a 32 year-old male and their appearances on dual phase multidetector computed tomography with a review of literature regarding imaging characteristics of insulinomas.

Background and Aim: The standard chemoradiotherapy (CRT) protocol in head and neck cancers (HNC) consists of three cycles of high-dose cisplatin every three weeks. This study compared the acute toxicity profiles of these two concomitant CRT protocols in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: 89 locally advanced head and neck cancers (HNC) patients’ candidate for CRT randomly assigned into two groups. Forty-seven patients to arm A (40 mg/m2 weekly cisplatin) and 42 patients to arm B (100mg/m2 triweekly cisplatin).

Background: It is a randomized prospective clinical study to determine the functional outcome of trans-tibial and anteromedial portal techniques in ACL reconstruction. The contribution of the present study to the literature would be to confirm or refute an actual clinical advantage of the technically difficult anteromedial portal technique over the easier, more popular and well established trans-tibial technique.

Background: Idiopathic clubfoot is a congenital deformity with incidence of 1-2 per 1000 live births. Various techniques both surgical and non surgical are mentioned in literature for treatment of CTEV. Ponseti method is a relatively new technique with success rate of upto 94% reported in numerous studies. Current trend in treatment of this condition has shifted from extensive surgical release to conservative techniques like Ponseti method. Objectives: We evaluated the difficulties and complications encountered during the Ponseti method for the treatment of Congenital Idiopathic Clubfoot.

Background: The prevalence of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the countries of Central and South America was estimated at 26.4 million people and considered for 40 million in 2030. The DM have also increased in children and young people in the last 30 years, especially the D1. About 210,000 young people around 20 years of age have diabetes. This represents 0.26% of the total number of individuals in this age group. About 1 in every 400 to 500 children and adolescents has DM.

Background: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the world. The only treatment available for corneal blindness is cornea transplantation. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement. This is actually due to the inadequate numbers of corneas collected. Medical students can be involved in the motivation of patients and relatives to pledge their eyes for cornea donation. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness and perception of medical students towards cornea donation in Saudi Arabia.

14 Road transportation which includes the use ofmotor vehicles and bicycles provides benefits both to nations and to individuals by facilitating the movement of goods and people and services (WHO, 2009. The use of the motor vehicle as a means of transportation of people is increasingly popular across the world. A WHO report cited Westernized countries as examples that saw a rise in the ownership of motor vehicles from 23% in 1987 to 63% in 2001 (WHO, 2006).

Introduction: Maxillofacial materials are used to replace missing facial parts which have been lost through disease or trauma. They are usually comprised of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomers. Methods: The study was conducted using commercially available silicone elastomer used for the fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis and UV shielding Titanium di-oxide nano- oxide particles. Various amounts of TiO2 nano-oxide particles were added to the silicone elastomer: 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%.

Background: Since the mid-1990s, there has been an evolution in surgical practice from traditional open approaches to minimally invasive means of treating operative lesions. Aim and Objectives: This study is carried out to study rate & indication of conversion to open surgery in pyonephrosis using retroperitonel and trans peritoneal laproscopic nephrectomy.

Background and Objectives: The epidemiological study was conducted to determine the distribution, determinance and economic impact of human dog bite cases in Union Territory Puducherry, India. The total population of puducherry is estimated around 1,244,264 in 2015. Materials and Methods: There are 39 Primary Health centers in the UT Puducherry (15 Urban & 24 Rural).

Pyogenic granuloma is one of inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This lesions is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low grade irritation, injury, hormonal factor. Gingival changes in pregnancy were described as early as 1898, even before knowledge about hormonal changes was available Pregnancy tumor is a benign hyperplastic gingival lesion occurring during pregnancy. It is indistinguishable from pyogenic granuloma arising in non pregnant females or males 1,2.

Multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is an increasingly difficult problem in India. Carbapenems have been the grounding of drug treatment for serious infections caused by these pathogens and also the carbapenems resistant increasing in other side. Vegetables are known as source of contamination with K. pneumoniae. Raw vegetables are usually consumed in salads and other dishes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and characterization of K.

All physical activities have an associated risk of orofacial injuries due to falls, collisions, and contact with hard surfaces. Lateral luxation is the displacement of the tooth in a direction other than axial, which is accompanied by comminution or fracture of the alveolar socket. The aim of this report is to present a case of a 40 year old female patient that was referred to the department of Conservative dentistry & endodontics after sustaining a cow hit that led to lateral luxation of the maxillary left permanent central incisor.

Background: Progressive residual alveolar ridge resorption is one of the main causes of loss of stability and retention of complete denture. The severity of bone loss is a serious clinical condition facing the aging population. Resorption of residual alveolar bone is further accelerated by uncontrolled diabetes. So the present study was conducted to compare the bone heights of residual alveolar bone in edentulous patients between diabetes and non- diabetes and also to correlate with the HbA1C level of diabetes.

Objectives: To analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic Odontology among 307 dental practitioners of western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by means of a questionnaire from a cross sectional sample of 307 dental practitioners of Western Maharashtra. Results: 100% dental practitioners maintained dental records in some form, but ironically only 7 % of them maintained complete dental records. 93% of them were aware of the significance of maintaining records in forensic identification.

Odontogenic myxomas arebenign neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with a characteristic histologic appearance, often associated with locally aggressive & infiltrative fashion. Odontogenic myxomas represent 1% to 17.7% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxoma commonly occurs in the second and third decade, and the mandible involved more commonly than the maxilla. They are believed to be derived from primitive mesenchymal portion of developing tooth germ as an inductive effect of nests of Odontogenic epithelium on mesenchymal tissue or as a direct myxomatous change of fibrous tissue.

Background: Endoscopic examination is the gold standard for diagnosing esophageal varices (EV). However, endoscopy is invasive, painful and costly.The aim of this study was to find a noninvasive method to predict the presence of varices. Methods: The study included 50 cirrhotic subjects. Clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic, endoscopic data were obtained.

Background: Prognosis of a traumatised tooth is primarily dependant on the integrity of the PDL which can be ensured by stabilization of the luxated tooth. Flexible splints provide both physiologic tooth movement and stabilization as required for a good prognosis. Aim: To evaluate flexibility of four splint systems – Group I-GC Everstick NET splint, Group II -Resin splint, Group III -Wire-composite splint and Group IV -Rectangular stainless steel arch wire.

In planning orthodontic cases that include extractions as an alternative to solve the problem of negative space discrepancy, the critical decision is to determine which teeth will be extracted. Several aspects must be considered, such as periodontal health, orthodontic mechanics, functional and esthetic alterations, and treatment stability.

The construction work represents a major unorganized sector and involves large number of manual labour. Predominantly upper extremity intensive tasks at construction sites are repetitively performed monotask which are more hazardous than multitask. This study aimed to evaluate task specific cardiac strain among workers associated with painting, stone cutting, manual piling, carpenting, plastering, plumbing which involve upper extremity intensive activity. Working Heart Rate (WHR), recovery rate pattern and Working Oral Temperature (WOT) were measured to determine the heaviness of the job.

Febrile Neutropenia is a common and dreaded complication in children treated for malignancy. Current multi-modality aggressive treatments of malignancy affects body’s immune system through various pathways and render the patient susceptible to infection by various infectious agents. Apart from infection there are other causes of fever in patients with malignancy (tumor itself, drug and blood product infusion related). But suspicion of bacterial infection in febrile episode and early institution of antibiotic therapy is of paramount importance for overall survival of the patient.

“Triphala” is among the most common formulas used in Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine. This preparation is composed of three equal proportion of herbal fruits: Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthusemblica, and Terminalia belerica.Triphala has been proven to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal actions. It is also said to possess antihistamine, anti inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, blood pressure lowering, cholesterol lowering, digestive, diuretic, and laxative properties.

The present research aimed to study the effect of therapeutic play techniques in the management of anger and aggression in children with specific learning disorder. Two main objectives were framed. The primary objective was to find out the differences in anger and aggression management in SLD children before and after the implementation of therapeutic play technique intervention.

CBCT is a recent technology using low dose of X- ray in comparison to CT and have high spatial resolution which gives image high contrasting structures. Evidence-based guidelines on how and when to use of CBCT have been developed by a Multidisciplinary team consisting of dentists, dental radiologists, medical physicists and dental specialists. Provisional guidelines were developed in 2009 (SEDENTEXCT 2009) and Final guidelines in 2011which were again reviewed in 2012.

Objective: To investigate the gender impact on serum IGF-1, Vit. D and other clinical parameters in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and compare between the studied parameters before and after treatment. Design: Thirty Iraqi newly diagnosed patients with MS and follow them after one month of treatment (Beta interferon inj. I inj./week) and compare the results with 20 healthy control. Serum IGF-1, Vit.D, S.GOT, S.GPT, Total Cholestrol and Uric acid were measured.

Background of the study: School health services are an economical and powerful means of raising standard of community health, especially for the future generations. School is considered as a best setting for the positive health and prevention of diseases, awakening health consciousness in which the child grows and develops. Objective: This study was conducted to compare pre-test and post-test knowledge and practices score of control and experimental group.

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a benign disease showing inflammatory response which occurs in minor salivary glands mimicking a malignant lesion both clinically as well as histopathologically. The lesion occurs due to vascular ischemia caused by trauma. We present a case of necrotizing sialometaplasia in a 80 years old male patient, who reported with a complaint of pain in posterior maxilla.

Aims: To present and review a rare case of metastatic choriocarcinoma in the dorsolumbar spine. Methods: A 21-year-old woman presented with complains of acute sudden onset paraplegia since 15 days with past history of uterine dilatation and curettage before 1 month for abnormal products in uterus and vaginal bleeding and laparotomy for uterine perforation before 20 days. No report of biopsy was available.

Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is a tumour belonging to a group which presents classically with small blue round cells.42 year old female patient presented to us with complaints of painless swelling in the left groin for the past 9 months .CT abdomen and pelvis revealed left inguinal lymphadenopathy without identifying any primary. Patient underwent excision biopsy and further evaluation with translocation studies revealed it to be PNET, primary could not be identified. It is very rare to see such a case with PNET in lymphnodes with primary being unknown.

The aim of the study was to find out the additional effect of soft tissue mobilisation to subscapularis when given with Maitland mobilisation in adhesive capsulitis patient with subscapularis muscle tightness. Study Design: Experimental pre and post test design between group comparisons. Methodology: A total of 30 subjects, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were randomly divided into two groups from outpatient department of SVNIRTAR after getting their consent. Group 1- Maitland mobilization and active exercises.

It is Physiologic movement of healthy teeth occurs and it varies for each tooth. The movement of the teeth in different segment occur in different direction (Non–rigid connectors for fixed partial dentures, 1973). Tooth movement of divergent direction create stresses that are transferred to the abutment and cause loosing of the prosthesis at the weaker retainer side. In such situation a non-rigid connector, a stress breaking mechanical union of pontic and retainer is recommended.

50 feet were dissected to see the course and branching pattern of dorsalis pedis artery. The following variations of the artery were seen. The dorsalis pedis artery was deviated laterally in 4% of feet. It was continuation of perforating branch of peroneal artery in 4% of feet. Arcuate artery was absent in 40% of feet. In 8% feet the medial tarsal artery was absent. In 12% feet there were two medial tarsal arteries. There were two lateral tarsal arteries in 14% of feet and three lateral tarsal arteries in 8% of feet.

The aim of this work is to investigate the growth performance of Spirulina under different light wavelength. Spirulina mother culture were collected and identified by microscope and it was cultivated using zarrouk’s medium in 6 containers. The containers were covered with various color clothes to adjust the wavelength of the light passed into the container.

In India insecticidal poisoning containing organophosphorous is most commonly seen. Poisoning due to plant yield booster containing nitrobenzene is also on the rise. A 35 year old male patient was admitted with ingestion of plant yield booster (Boom Flower) showed the symptoms and signs of nitrobenzene poisoning with methaemoglobinemia. Timely use of mechanical ventilation and repeated parenteral methylene blue help to save a life.

It is widely accepted that male factor alone accounts for 40% cases of infertility. Careful examination of seminal parameters is an important diagnostic tool to know the possible causes of infertility in males. The present study was aimed at accessing seminal parameters according to WHO Guidelines 2010 to evaluate the seminal patterns in male partner of infertile couples. Total 40 consecutive semen samples from male partners of the infertile couple attending the Outpatient Department over a period of ten months were studied.

Ossifying fibromas (OF) form an array of fibro-osseous lesions of the jaw. These are quite rare and benign tumors which are non-odontogenic in origin. They are commonly seen in the head and neck region. Ossifying fibroma of maxilla is an uncommon entity. We present a case of ossifying fibroma in the posterior maxillary region of a 55 years old female patient with brief discussion of review of literature of the lesion.

Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilaterally symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable. Cherubism is due to autosomal dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3.

Soup is regarded as a ready to use supplementary food-specialized ready to eat food. The experiment was conducted in the research laboratory of the Department of Food Science and Technology, BBAU, Lucknow. Present study explains the nutritive value of value added soup and non- value added soup. The flaxseed is flat and oval with a pointed tip. It is a little larger than a sesame seed and a smooth glossy surface. The seed consists of a hull, endosperm and embryo including the cotyledons. The hull is tough and fibrous. Its colour ranges from pure yellow to deep brown (Nagaraj, 1995).

Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacteria that has a long history in human nutrition. Potential health properties of Spirulina due to its nutritional and therapeutic ingredients are the fields of interests for future research. Early interest in spirulina focused mainly on its rich content of protein, vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, fatty acid spirulina comprises 60-70% protein by dry weight.

Introduction: Hypertension is defined as sustained increase at or above 140 mmHg of Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 90 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure (DBP).Hypertensive nephropathy or renal disease occurs as a result of high blood pressure in hypertensive patient. This disease is characterized by damage to the vasculature of the kidneys as blood pressure increases. Proteinuria is closely associated with hypertension, presumably reflecting the severity of hypertension induced renal damage.

Rivers are vulnerable to eutrophication as a result of increased deposition of nutrients from human activities taking place within watersheds. Uncontrolled release of nutrients into these important freshwater ecosystems can compromise water quality status for domestic consumption and create unfavourable habitat conditions for aquatic biota. This study investigated the seasonal fluctuations in the levels of nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus at various land uses in River Isiukhu, Kenya from January to June 2013.

Nutrient solution aspects such as the electrical conductivity are extremely important in hydroponic systems, with few studies related to that being performed in fertigation of crisphead lettuce at substrates. The aim of this work was to evaluate nutritional and productive aspects of crisphead lettuce, cv. Mauren, submitted to electrical conductivities of nutrient solution fertigated in pots with sand.

Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers, and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced (Anon, 1993).

Soil pH plays an important role in the survival of soil microbes. These effect the soil micro and macronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is a major growth macronutrient in the soil taken up by the plants for growth, development and yield of every crop. Phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) play role in phosphorus nutrition by enhancing its availability into rhizosphere by release from inorganic and organic bound sources in soil through phosphorus solubilisation and mineralisation.

The present work was undertaken to investigate the drinking water quality of Zakho city after adding chlorine (as an efficient disinfectant), and assess the water quality of Little Khabur River (before adding chlorine). Also a systematic study has been carried out to assess the water quality of Zakho city after distribution (at the consumer tap). Water was analyzed during rainy season for 2014 and during all seasons of 2015 to determine its quality using standard methods.

Low temperatures and precipitation in off-season soybean may benefit seed production. This work aimed to evaluate seed quality and initial performance of off-season soybean produced in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiment was performed under completely randomized design and treatments consisted of ten soybean genotypes produced off-season. We evaluated 1000 seeds weight, first count of germination, speed of germination index, seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf area and shoot and root dry matter at the 20 and 30 days after sowing.

Annabhau Sathe a creative writer and activist, depicts the lives of downtrodden, landless labourers, peasants and workers of his times in his short stories. Their sorrows and sufferings, their struggle for existence and their lone protest against the established society. Annabhau Sathe who was deeply influenced by socialistic philosophy strongly advocates it in his writings. The characters portrayed in his short stories, the contemporary society and socio-economic situation of his time is described in realistic way by him. It shows his deep concern as a socialistic philosopher.

Dengue is a viral disease which is spread by a mosquito vector and is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Dengue poses serious health threat to a major portion of population therefore rapid and specific tests are needed to combat the situation. Thus, one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was standardized to detect all the four serotypes of dengue viruses i.e. DENV1 to DENV4. This study was performed on standard strains of dengue viruses. RNA was extracted from these strains and was used to optimize one step RT-PCR.

Twenty six species of Pteridophytes belonging to seventeen families were documented with distribution study was carried out in the forest of Mudigere taluk located in Chikmagalur district of Central Western Ghats. Selaginella monospora Spring. was observed as higher importance value index followed by Adiantum philipense L., Pteris biaurita L., Adiantum concinnum Humbl. & Bonpl. ex Wild. and Tectaria paradoxa (Fee) Sledge. The Shannon’s diversity index value (H1) and Simpson’s diversity (D) values for pteridophytic species in study area showed high diversity and species richness.

The aim of this work was evaluate the water potential, relative water content, and the osmoregulators in young plants of acapu submitted to water déficit. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Federal Rural University of Amazônia, Belém, Brazil, in a period of 9 months. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized in factorial 2x4 (two water conditions: control and drought and four times of evaluation) with 5 repetitions, totaling 40 experimental units.

Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, filamentous or unicellular microorganisms. They are ubiquitous and considered the primary decomposers of dead biomass in the biosphere. Decomposition is a key component of global carbon cycling. Fungi play a central role in plant litter decomposition in forest ecosystems through nutrient cycling and humus formation in soil, because they colonize the lignocellulose matrix in litter, which other organisms are unable to decompose. Litter samples were collected from various sites in Salcete, Goa.

Interspesific F1 hybrids between S. aethiopicum Acc.8971 and S. melongena var. DLP and Acc. 3305 were produced. Yet, recovered crosses were observed to have high percentage of flower abscission and fruit setting was never noted in them. Pollen tube study was conducted to unveil the pre-fertilization barriers causing hybrid sterility and breakdown. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine pre-fertilization barriers. Pre-fertilization barrier in the form of inhibited pollen tube growth was noted.

The scope of current research is to establish the impact of different fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, mono- and diammonium phosphate, liquid nitric fertilizer, urea and compound fertilizer NPK) produced by “Agropolychim” AD on chemical parameters and soil enzymatic activity related to common winter wheat and oilseed rape. Fertilizers are applied before sowing process. The experiment is repeated twice into greenery. Biogenic elements and enzymatic activity estimation is made after soil sampling and during wheat pick up phase and at the end of coleseed’s leaf rosette phase.

The present work was conducted to see the fish fauna of Awangsoi Lake during April, 2015 to September, 2015. The study showed the presence of 31 fish species belonging to 21 genera of 13 families and 5 orders. Puntius species showed the highest yield, followed by Channa punctata, Anabas testudineus, Trichogaster fasciata, T. labiosa, Amblypharyngodon mola, Heteropneustes fossilis etc.

Orchid is a major cut flower grown in Kerala. The present study is an attempt to assess the cost of cultivation and economic viability of orchid cultivation based on the data collected from a sample of 20 growers of Thiruvananthapuram and Ernakulam districts of Kerala. Cost of cultivation using A B C cost concepts showed that cost A or total paid out cost was Rs. 1,25,585. Considering all variable and fixed costs, cost C3 came to Rs. 1,53,868. The average annual returns obtained from a unit of 1000 orchid plants was Rs. 1,06,789.

Background: The smear layer is formed by the rest of dentin and organic material, such as cellular waste vital or necrotic, bacteria and byproducts. It prevents the penetration of medicines intracanais and endodontic sealer in the Dentinal tubules and ramifications of the root canal system. Several techniques have been proposed and rinsing delivery devices to improve the distribution of the solution within the root canal system.

The aim of the study was to determine the toxicity of nitrite in exposure of electrolytes (potassium) to freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Changes in the electrolyte content of fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to sublethal concentration of nitrite for 35 days were presented in Table 1. During subsequent exposure period the potassium level was increased showing a maximum percent increase of 18.61 at the end of 35th day.

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as genes encoding ESBLs. During this study, 1465 different clinical samples were tested in which 1255 (85.66%) samples showed growth of bacteria. Out of 1255 clinical samples, 1157 (92.19%) different strains of bacteria were isolated. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent 25.58% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.65%). Out of 296 E. coli isolates and 158 K. pneumoniae isolates, 247 (83.44%) and 128 (81.01%) isolates were ESBL producers, respectively.

Rivers play a major role in integrating and organizing the landscape, and moulding the ecological setting of a basin. The present investigation was conducted in the remnants of old channel of Jia Bharali named as Mara Bharali at Tezpur in the Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Sampling stations were selected from Solmara Bridge (N-26º41'13.65" and E-92º48'59.32") near Tezpur University, Tezpur to Maithan (N-26º37'05.69" and E-92º49'34.34") where the river meets the river Brahmaputra. The temperature, pH and turbidity of the river water was found to be within the WHO permissible limit.

In present study the adsorption of metal ions on activated carbon of morinda citrifolia has been studied using Atomic adsorption spectroscopy for metal estimation. The influence of various parameters like heavy metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose, pH of the adsrobate and contact time were studied. Langmuir and freundlich isotherms and kinetic modeling were employed to describe adsorption equilibrium. The values showed that morinda citrifolia carbon has a better sorptive potential and could be used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of lead(II) nickel(II) from aqeous solution.

This study was undertaken to assess the level of heavy metals and the extent of pollution in surface water, sediment and fishes of Buriganga River near the discharge point of tannery effluents. Water, sediment and two species of fish samples were collected by typical process. Those Samples were analyzed to determine the heavy metal content by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Accumulation levels in fish were then compared with the concentration levels of fishes collected from the local market.

In the field of research, especially in the logical algebra study of classes of regular semigroup are at most importance. Orthodox semigroups constitutes an important class of regular semigroups. An extension of these concepts was introduced by S. Madhavan on 1978 in his research article "Some results on generalized inverse semigroups” (Madhavan, 1978). A band is a semigroup in which every element is an idempotent. Inverse semigroups constitute the most important and promising classes of semigroups. Such a semigroup is certainly regular.

In this paper, some fixed point theorems are proved in D-metric spaces. The Generalization of fixed point theorems and selfmaps in F-orbitally compete D-metric space which include unique fixed point results in Dolhare (2016), Dhage et al. (2003), Dolhare (?), Dolhare and Bele (2016), generalized fixed point therems in F-orbitally complete D-metric spaces as a special cases.

The main method of optimal control of systems described by Ito-levy processes which is Dynamic programming and Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and which supported by three types of forms with examples.

This manuscript is an update of some important concerns about nitrosyl complexes having the ability to act as nitric oxide releasing compounds under varied circumstances involving ligand, metal and solution properties. In current times seek for efficient and less harmful NO releasing molecules at desirable target and concentration has gained enormity in nitrosyl chemistry.

This manuscript is an update of some important concerns about nitrosyl complexes having the ability to act as nitric oxide releasing compounds under varied circumstances involving ligand, metal and solution properties. In current times seek for efficient and less harmful NO releasing molecules at desirable target and concentration has gained enormity in nitrosyl chemistry.

Due to huge amount of data posted online, decision making process considering opinions play a crucial role in everyone's life. Analysis in the field of making decisions and setting policies has shown that sentiment analysis and Opinion mining lies at the intersection of Question Answering system and Computational Linguistics. World Wide Web has tremendous amount of unstructured data present in web forums, social networking sites and other social platforms as reviews which diverts our study towards mining the opinions on web.

The management of multi-disciplinary infrastructure projects requires monitoring and controlling tools for effective project management. The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is a useful management tool available for project managers to monitor and control multi-disciplinary projects. EVMS measures project performance by comparing the amount of work planned against the amount of work actually carried out and the actual cost incurred.

Radon is a noble gas formed from the natural radioactive decay of uranium (U) and thorium (Th), natural components of the earth‟s crust, which decay to radium (Ra) and then to radon (Rn). The primary sources of indoor radon were identified and the immediate solutions are recommended as the way to reduce its health hazards. The sources include soil, building materials and water. Within the frame work of a simple steady-state analysis of the radon concentration in a model of atypical house, the potential contribution to indoor radon levels from each source is determined.

14membered macrocyclic complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) containing tetraoxo octa aza cyclo hexadecane ligand (L = C6H12N8O4) have been isolated by the template condensation of oxalo dihydrazide and formaldehyde in the presence of corresponding metal chloride and characterized by elemental analysis, UVVisible spectroscopic studies, magnetic moments and conductance measurements. The complexes of the type [M(C6H12N8O4)Cl2] [Where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu] and [M(C6H12N8O4)Cl2]Cl [M=Cr and Fe] are all octahedral in nature.

Photovoltaics (PV) is the fast growing segment among the renewable source of energy owing to the depletion of fossil fuels. But the output of PV module is low. In order to obtain a sufficiently high voltage, a step up dc-dc converter is required. The conventional boost converter experiences switching losses and switching stresses during turn- on and turn-off periods. This paper focuses on the investigation of switched capacitor boost dc-dc converter. The switched capacitor module is selected as it provides high gain, low cost and low fabrication space.

In this paper we have shown that If S is a zero-square and a Right regular semiring. Here 0 is an additive identity, then axa = 0 for all a, x in S and (S, +) is a band.

The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity and elevation. It is valid in regions of steady, incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible. In this paper we discuss the first order differential equations such as linear and Bernoulli equation. From this we get some idea how differential equations are closely associated with physical applications to study real world problems which are described by first order differential equations.

In today’s life everyone is busy in his work, so, most of us give less attention to our children; on the other hand there are some families who are more than enough attentive to their children, which he or she does not like. Most of the parents do not want to know what the interest of their child is and what he or she want to do? They weighted the child with their own aim and continuously questioning him/her about their studies more than required. They want that their child spend 8-10 hours daily for his studies.

Ionophoretic technique has been used to study the equilibria in simple and mixed lig and systems in solutions. For the study of ternary complexes the concentration of Resorcinol was kept constant in the case of Metal-Resorcinol –Tyrosine complex whereas tyrosine concentration is kept constant in case of Metal –Tyrosine –Resorcinol complex while that of secondary ligand tyrosine/Resorcinol is varied.

This work is a study of the behaviour of concrete beams retrofitted with Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites (GFRC), using experiments and Finite element analysis. Experiments are conducted on normal Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams and GFPC retrofitted RC beams. These are tested for Ultimate loads. Further analysis were performed on normal RC beams and GFRC retrofitted RC beams using ANSYS. Comparison of the same was also conducted.

In Ethiopia, Cereal production and marketing are the means of livelihood for millions of small holder households and it constitutes the single largest sub-sector in economy. Out of the total grain crop area, 79.69% (8.7 million hectares) was covered by cereals. Teff and wheat covered up 23.42% (about 2.6 million hectares) and 13.01% (1.4 million hectares) of grain crops area respectively. Agricultural production and productivity is very low and the growth inagricultural output has barely kept pace with human population growth.

In experimental conditions intersex interactions at the American mink involving captive-bred and feral minks were studied. During the breeding season, reaction of female American mink to familiar and unfamiliar males was studied and revealed a female preference for a familiar male and formation of a close relationship between a female and a male. American mink males show aggression to unfamiliar animals of own species, regardless of gender and age, as well as to other species of mustelids.

The receding glaciers, shrinking cover of natural forests, the rapid loss of biodiversity, the falling ground water levels, inter annual variation in rainfall, rising temperature, falling agricultural productivity, point to the destructing health of the ecosystems, not well known in the past. The Mangroves ecosystem on the Kakinada coast is not out of bounds for the same and experienced high rates of deforestation over period of time. Mangroves are a group of salt tolerant plant species, which occur in the tropical and subtropical initial estuary regions.

La ville de Maroua, comme plusieurs villes du septentrion, connait un problème d’emploi. L’activité de lavandier prend de l’ampleur dans la cité régionale à cause du chômage qui est grandissant. Le taux de chômage dans cette partie du pays est le plus élevé se situant à 56% (ECAM, 2012). Dans un contexte de sous-industrialisation, la ville de Maroua en tant que capitale régionale n’affiche pas fière allure du fait de manque de complexe industriel pour absorber le nombre élevé de ruraux qui y arrivent, à la recherche de l’emploi.

This article is a study on Employee Engagement conducted at NTECL, a joint venture of NTPC Ltd., and TANGEDCO at Vallur, Chennai. The main objective of this study is to know employee engagement initiatives and to identify the barriers related to employee’s commitment towards their job at NTECL to engage the employees to work with passion and feel profound connection to their company.

Stress is inevitable in everyday situations. In the current day scenario the concern about stress among college students is imperative. The objectives of the present study was to find the association between stress and academic performance among undergraduate students, also to see the differences in stress experienced between pure science and engineering students. Sample consisted of 656 students from Bangalore city of which 339 were from pure science stream and 317 were from engineering stream. The stressful life events questionnaire- Student form (1990) was administered.

The Indian peninsula in the course of time has faced adverse economic, environmental and social conditions. Nations, businesses and people are modifying their methods to ensure they earn revenues (Profit) and serve the society (People) while doing no or less harm to mother nature (Planet). Therefore, India wholly needs toshift from the current unsustainable path to a new one which will lead it towards a sustainable future. Sustainability with its focus on the three pillars or three Ps i.e.

This paper highlights the impact of Pakistani minority migrants on the rural scenario in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. Nicknamed as ‘The Golden city’, it is situated in the western part of Rajasthan. Lying in the heart of the Thar Desert, it is the largest district of Rajasthan with a population of about 669919 persons. The length of international border attached to Jaisalmer District is 471 km (293 mi). The region is well known for its hard climatic condition. This region has been under turmoil and chaotic political conditions.

Language learning aims at improving understanding competency and language use. Language constitutes an unity, so in learning language should be done in integral way with various learning models. To reach the integral way, it must be considered as follow: (1) widely effective communicative as language learning, (2) language learning situation based on the context, and (3) maximalize the relationship among language ability or competency. Intergral language learning may be done with among language competency and among subjects.

Background: CVD has been designated as the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India, representing a total of 31% of all global deaths. With the growing incidences and presence of CVD in both urban and rural area among male and females, it gets necessary to look into the depth and quote the causes for the growing condition.

The composite subjected to our study is obtained by mixing the clay and the sawdust. The sawdust has an important intrinsic porosity, because of presence of capillaries. Clay is a fine mineral, used as binder. The mixture of these components of nature with very different characteristics, led to a material which properties will be variable according to the voluminal concentrations of each component. Clay is used in the form of fine, with a granulometric size overall lower than 1 mm. It is a clay of the type kaolinic, plastic, containing illite and quartz.

This study aims to assess the level of critical thinking dispositions, attitudes and perceptions in cooperative teaching with mind map among teachers in Negeri Sembilan. This study also examined the relationship between critical thinking disposition, attitude and perception of Special Education teacher in cooperative teaching with mind map. Critical thinking disposition has seven subscales measured by curiosity, open-minded, systematic, accuracy, truth-seeking, self-confidence and maturity.

In any society, rapid change in social, moral, ethical and religious values demand changes in the life style of individuals. Such changes are inevitable and adolescents are most affected by these changes. Moreover, these changes interfere with physical, psychological and social health of adolescents, resulting in exposure, to high risk behavior. There is growing recognition that many adolescents are not sufficiently prepare to deal with the demands of the modern society. Today’s adolescents are exposed to more information and cultural alternatives than earlier period.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors in the decision-making process of Black Acacia forest producers in face of the need to rethink existing practices at the forest-management-unit level, with participation in a Group Certification Project as a possible catalyst of change.

Background: Children Intelligence depends on various factors such as- heredity, Family educational background, occupation of the parents, family income, environment etc. Birth is a natural process but it also has to processes viz. Caesarean and Non-caesarean. But how can delivery mode of the children affect their Intelligence! Aim: To find out the difference in Intelligent level between caesarean and non-caesarean school boys.

Gandhian Technique of conflict resolution was closely related to peace. To him, conflict was an ancient method of setting vital affairs of mankind through the arbitrament of the sword. Out of the two modes of conflict, Gandhi was quit near to the approach of productive conflicts. In this context, conflict resolution was based on truth and non violence rather than competition or use of threat or violence. Gandhian approach of conflict solution is likely to be more democratic.

This study analyzed the relative efficiency in deposit management of Sonali Bank Ltd (SBL) and Pubali Bank Ltd (PBL) for the period 2010 to 2014 concerning with total cash, total liquid assets, total deposit, total assets, total investment, net income, total profit, total operating cost, current deposit, savings deposits and different deposit ratios in the Pabna region of Bangladesh. The Coefficient of Variation (C.V) was applied for measuring stability of deposits and F – test used for showing the significant differences of deposit management for the SBL and PBL.

Insecticide is common pollutants of freshwater ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Fish, Catla catla is an important carp species in Tamil Nadu region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with may accumulate heavy metals. In the present observation, the toxic effects of the pesticide cypermethrin LC50 0.22 ppm on the total RBC, WBC and Hb in the fish, Catla catla were estimated.

An investigation entitled “Genetic Variability and Character association in snake gourd (Trichosanthes Anguina L.)” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India. The characters observed were days to first male and female flower opening, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, flesh thickness, single fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, number of seeds per fruit, Vitamin C and acidity content of fruit.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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