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October 2016

  1. Dr. Om Prakash, Dr. Madhu Ranjan, Dr. Praveen Kumar Rai, Dr. Sankalp Verma and Dr. Eesha and Dr. Marilia Marceliano-Alves

    Radiotherapy is defined as the treatment of malignant (occasionally non malignant) diseases by ionizing radiation. Radiation oncology is the science that deals with the study of tumor biology and application of ionizing radiation in the management of cancers. It is based on the principle that rapidly proliferating cells are more sensitive to ionizing radiation compared to normal cells. This differential cell kill is used for the treatment of tumors. A dose of radiation that is sufficient to kill cancer cells will produce considerable if not permanent damage to the normal tissues. The malignant cells which have a high rate of mitosis are highly susceptible to the action of radiation. However, the normal cells recover but not the malignant tissues. Thus the aim of radiotherapy is to deliver a homogenous dose of radiation to an accurately localized tissue target volume in order to produce tumor control with minimal effect on the surrounding normal structures

  2. Ali Abbas Ozdemir and Murat Altay

    Aim: To investigate possible factors contributing to chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD), efficacy of histopathological evaluation in recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and determinative role of histopathological signs in graft survival. Methods: Data of the recipients who underwent renal transplantation (n=270) 10 years in our department were evaluated. The recipients were evaluated in 3 groups as normal allograft function (NAF) group (n=154) and CAD (n=64) and CAN (n=52) groups. Results: Regarding the allograft survival, the NAF group had the best allograft survival. The frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) positivity was significantly lower in the NAF group. Although not significant, the frequency of HCV differed between the CAN patients with and without glomerulopathy (34% and 23.5%, respectively). According to the 3-year allograft survival, graft loss was observed to be earlier in the patients with transplant glomerulopathy, without a significant difference. The frequency of proteinuria was higher in the CAD and CAN groups than in the NAF group and proteinuria was appeared firstly in the CAN group and then in the CAD and NAF groups. Fibrointimal thickening was present in 17 patients in the CAN group and the graft survival was observed to decrease with an increase in the fibrointimal thickening. In the CAD group, 30 patients had mild fibrosis and 20 had moderate/severe fibrosis. Tubulointerstitial fibrosis was more severe in the patients who received cyclosporine A. Conclusions: CAN after renal transplantation is frequently encountered and the risk of developing CAN increases in the long term after transplantation.

  3. Fernando Ravazzi, Regis Manzini, Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho, Wesley Antonio Galhardo Fornazari and Elias Naim Kassis

    Background: The lack of bone in the alveolar ridge has been a major problem in aesthetic functional recovery in patients who have suffered traumas dentoalveolar, traumatic dental extractions, dental congenital absence pathologies involving the jaws. Thus, the zygomatic implant is an excellent alternative in the dental implant process with bone loss. Still, the zygomatic implant also applies when there is poor bone quality and quantity. Objective: To show through a case report the success of the zygomatic implant compared to the previous failure and graft osseointegration. Case report: Patient MFSS did 2 years ago treatment for placement of dental implants and grafts had already done more than once without success osseointegration. Thus, the conduit was to perform a surgical repair to remove any material in the sinuses and zygoma implants fixation. Results and Discussion: The results presented by the patient of this study showed success in the zygomatic implant, consistently to literature results. Also remained stable in the implant and considerable improvement in quality of life after tracking a year and a half. Conclusion: it was concluded that the patients in this study showed success in the zygomatic implant. Also remained stable in the implant and considerable improvement in quality of life after tracking a year and a half.

  4. Dr. Navurang, S. and Dr. Neelambikai, N.

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous group of metabolic disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Materials and Methods: This is a combined cross sectional and case control study. This study was carried out in the Research laboratory of the department of physiology, Coimbatore medical college, Coimbatore. The approval of the ethical committee was obtained prior to the commencement of the study. A total of 80 subjects were included in the study of which 40 were diabetic patients, both type 1 and type 2 and 40 were control groups. They were of 30 – 70 years of age group. Group I includes 40 controls of age and sex matched healthy individuals. Group II includes 40 diabetic patients. Group II A includes 20 type I diabetic patients. Group II B includes 20 type 2 diabetic patients. Neuroperfect EMG 2000 system and Autoanalyser are the materials used for the study. Pattern–shift visual evoked potential test was performed in a specially equipped electrodiagnostic procedure room. Results: One way ANOVA & Student ‘t’ test were used to assess the statistical significance. The mean value of the P100 latency was significantly delayed in Group II A and Group II B patients as compared to that in Group I subjects. Conclusion: The delay in P100 latency was observed in diabetic patients before the development of overt retinopathty.

  5. Dr. Siddhesh Bandekar, Dr. Ashish Medha, Dr. Suvarna Patil, Dr. Nikhil Sathawane and Dr. Anay Aurangabadkar

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate & compare cleaning ability of two different single file rotary files. Methods: 20 canals of 10 extracted molars were selected. After preparing an access cavity, K-file size #15 was introduced into the root canal and India ink was injected. Twenty samples were randomly divided in to experimental groups in group I (n=10), root canals were prepared with OneShape file; in group II (n=10), WaveOne were used for instrumentation. After clearing, the removal of India ink from cervical, middle, and apical thirds was scored. Results: Thus, clening ability in One shape group is better than group Wave one or the Scores for coronal, middle and apical third of root is better in One shape as compared to wave one (i.e. p<0.01) Conclusions: Cleaning efficiency of OneShape system is better than WaveOne system.

  6. Atta Gitti Allawi

    Aortic Regurgitation [AR] is diastolic flow of blood from aorta to left ventricle. AR could be acute or more commonly chronic. chronic AR could congenital or acquired .it could be due to valve leaflet pathology, aortic wall defect or both. Severe, prolong hypertension can cause aortic root dilatation and consequently lead to AR. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of AR in prolong hypertension i.e. hypertension related aortic regurgitation [HT- related AR] and prognostic significance of AR in hypertensive patients. 430 patients (206 female, 224 male) with history of hypertension for at least 5 years were enrolled in this study, same number of non hypertensive patients of similar age and gender were used as control Patients with AR due to obvious cause are excluded from the study. 2- D color Doppler ECHO study was done for both groups to detect AR in theme. The result showed that patients with hypertension are more prone to develop AR than non –hypertensive patients, and HT-related AR was more common in male than female, and it is related to the duration and severity of hypertension. HT-related AR also associated with other ECHO –bad prognostic criteria of hypertension like left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial enlargement, so we can consider HT-related AR as additional bad prognostic ECHO criteria of hypertension.

  7. Ye Rui-Hai, Yang Jun-Chao, Huang Li, Ai Li-Juan, Wang Zhon-Hai and Wang Zhen

    Respiratory Foreign body Aspiration (FBA) is a suddently life-threatening emergency. But, it is a seldom elaborated in textbooks. The most common site for that is the right low bronchus or its bronchus intermedius as it is more wider, shorter and vertical. Most of the patients are children, and their atypical symptoms often cover the disease. It is required rapidly identify diseases and take measures to prevent potentially fatal complications. The treatment is usually via either endoscopic or surgical extraction. FBA of a river shimp has been reported as a special case in the literature. Because of any eating in a hurry, sudden laughing or coughing at dinner that increas the risk of aspiration. As far as we know, this is the first case report of a 50*15mm river shrimp foreign body that has been successfully cliped by the virtual bronchoscope with foreign body forceps and avoided the need for a thoracotomy in an adult male patient.

  8. Dr. Gokkulakrishnan, S., Dr. Rajaram Abishek Balaji, Dr. Satyabhushan, Dr. Vivek Kannaiyah, Dr. Gunasekaran Manikandan, Dr. J. Benjamin Premkumar, Dr. Meera Thinakaran, Dr. Alex Varghese and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Objectives: Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar in many cases leads to debilitating post-operative complications which are routinely managed with drugs like corticosteroids, NSAID’s and opiods. Unfortunately these drugs carry their share of side effects; hence a natural, effective and safe remedy that lacks undesired side effects is desired. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of various proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, bromelain, rutoside trihydrate and serratiopeptidase) with diclofenac sodium in comparison with diclofenac sodium alone in reducing the postoperative complications like pain, swelling, trismus. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 30 patients randomly selected and divided into 3 groups of 10 patients each. The postoperative complications were recorded and evaluated on 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative days. Results: In group II patients, significant improvement in reduction of pain, trismus and quality of life was seen on 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative days as compared to group I and III. In group III patients’ significant improvement in mouth opening and reduction of pain was observed on 5th and 7th postoperative days however significant improvement on quality of life was seen on 3rd, 5th and 7th postoperative days. Conclusion: In surgical extraction of moderately difficult impacted teeth ; bromelain, trypsin, rutosidetrihydrate with diclofenac sodium was effective in pain control, increased mouth opening and improved quality of life than seratiopeptidase with diclofenac sodium when comparing with diclofenac sodium alone.

  9. Soumya, P. V., Anil Babu, A., Dr. Anoop Kumar and Raju, R.

    Background and Objectives: Strict insulin therapy is necessary for the proper control of blood sugar level in insulin requiring diabetic patients. This leads to elevated complications associated with insulin administration. Insufficient knowledge about insulin leads to preventable complications, adverse patient outcome, and poor glycaemic control. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of patients towards the insulin use, before and after patient counselling. Methods: This is a prospective interventional study conducted in 70 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients on insulin therapy. Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients towards the insulin therapy were assessed using a validated questionnaire at the baseline and reassessed during follow up after 3 months to assess the improvement. Data analysis were done by using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 20. Results & Discussion: Before counselling, the percentage of study population with good level of knowledge was very low (5.7%). It was then improved (81.4%) after patient counselling. Conclusion: An improved knowledge about the proper administration and handling of insulin was observed. The study shows that the clinical pharmacist can play a vital role in disease management and creating awareness regarding the disease and drugs.

  10. Hajjaji, S., Hajjami, H., Boughzella, A. and Cherif, M.

    A metal-free dentistry has long been the dream of all practitioners. However, the inherent fragility, low flexural strength, as well as the low fracture resistance of ceramics were the main obstacles slowing the use of these materials. To overcome this weakness, researchers and manufacturers have developed advanced formulas to prevent the propagation of cracks in the ceramic using mainly yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), commonly known as "zirconia". However, despite their resistance to mechanical tests, zirconia frameworks can still be fragile if their properties are not well studied, and the requirements for handling them are not met. To succeed zirconia frameworks, several requirements need to be known, respected and applied.

  11. Jasmin, K. V., Anil Babu, A., Anil Saleem and Seethadevi, B.

    Background and Objectives: Beta blockers, one of the prescribed classes of cardio vascular medications reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. It is highly necessary for the clinical pharmacist to review and clinically check all prescriptions presented at the wards. This study aims to assess the prescribing pattern of beta blockers in Acute Coronary Syndrome in the study population. Methods: This is a prospective observational study conducted in 108 patients, diagnosed with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Each patient medication profile was reviewed and recorded in the customised data entry form and patient demographic details, prescribing drugs and adverse drug reactions were noted from patients case sheet and patients interview. Patients prescribed with beta blockers will be assessed at the baseline and also at the time of follow up after 2 months. Results and Discussion: 87% were prescribed with Metoprolol and 8.3% were with Bisoprolol and 4.3% were prescribed with Carvedilol . 4.6 % of the patients show brady arrhythmia as the most predominant adverse drug reaction. Conclusion: Most predominant beta blocker prescribed for Acute Coronary Syndrome patients was Metoprolol than Bisoprolol and Carvedilol. Metoprolol was found to have very fewer adverse drug reactions.

  12. Dorota Jasinska and Jerzy Boczon

    A view that Th1/CD4 lymphocytes are responsible for inflammation in multiple sclerosis is very common. However, it was proved that destruction of the axons in the demyelination plaque correlated better with macrophages and CD4 lymphocytes activity than CD8 lymphocytes activity. Macrophages play a key role in all the multiple plaques. They are usually surrounded by lymphocytes and located around the small venous vessels. Macrophages undergo polarization that depends on the activating factors. In autoimmune disorders phenotype M1 of macrophages overbalance in acute phase of inflammation. Stimulation of PRR signaling path inducts M1 to produce inflammatory cytokine like No, ROIs that destroy the tissues, TNF-alfa, IL-beta that activate inflammatory signaling NF-kappaB, as well as IL-12 and IL-23 that induce Th1 response for antigens presented by macrophages. Cytokines with the most important one Il-17 promote inflammatory process. The latest research has pointed to a crucial role for microglia activated through TLRs in polarization of γδ T cells towards neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T cells. We have screened a library of PubMed in order to identify M2 activating substances that could be used as the potential new medications for multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, we found one very promising recent research.

  13. Dr. Karthikeyan Maruthamuthu, Dr. Gokkulakrisnan, Dr. G. Sureshkumar, Dr. Abishek Balaji, Dr. M. Ebenezer and Cirusti, T.

    Several studies have been undertaken thus far which compares the techniques of Inferior alveolar nerve block and Gow Gates mandibular block but a final conclusion on their efficacy is still controversial. This study, having been performed with standardized, accurate criteria, compared both the techniques between different age groups of patients. Thirty patients of age group 15-65 years were divided into group A (15 members) for Gow Gates technique and group B (15 members) for Inferior alveolar nerve block technique. Results were evaluated based on neurosensory testing once every 5, 10 and 15 minutes after anesthetising the tooth. In conclusion, experienced surgical skills are required for the success of the classical Gow-Gates technique. Inferior alveolar nerve block showed promising results in this study.

  14. Ameera, P. M., Shamna Sadan and Dr. Anoop Kumar

    Back ground and Objectives: Antihypertensive drugs Amlodipine and Telmisartan are used to control blood pressure and reduce macro and microvascular complications in diabetic patients with hypertension. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the management of hypertension. Telmisartan is a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor. So this lower the risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure in diabetic patients. Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker. It works to control blood pressure and reduce the number of angina attacks by widening and relaxing blood vessels. The main objective of the study is to evaluate effectiveness of amlodipine and telmisartan in macrovascular (cardiovascular) and microvascular (nephropathic) complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with hypertension. Methods: A prospective, cross sectional study conducted in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertension at general medicine inpatients and outpatients department in a 500 bed tertiary care teaching hospital. After obtaining the consent Patients were categorised into 2 groups, one group treated with Amlodipine (5mg\day) and other group treated with Telmisartan 40(mg\day). Patients are evaluated for the parameter like blood pressure and echocardiograph to detect cardiovascular complication microalbumin and serum creatinine to detect nephropathic complications at baseline and follow up after 6 week. Results and Discussion: A total of 60 patients were evaluated (30 patients in each group), with a predominance of male (51%) in both groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the Amlodipine and Telmisartan group no significant difference in SBP (131mmHg and 127mmHgrespectively.P=0.206), and DBP (86.67mmHg and 82.67mmHg respectively, p=0.076), although the values were slightly lower in Telmisartan group. In the case of serum creatinine, in amlodipine group it about 1.28 and 1.23 in Telmisartan group. Serum creatinine value lower in Telmisartan group, but there is no significant difference (p value about 0.656). After 6 weeks of treatment with Amlodipine microalbumine present in 20% of patients and it present but decreased in 26.7% and it not present in 53.3%patients.in Telmisartan group it not present in 63.3%patients,present but it decreased in 16.7% and present in 20% patients. Telmisartan group has higher reduction in microalbumine compared to that of Amlodipine group. When comparing ECHO of the two groups after 6 weeks of treatment, in Amlodipine group 70% of the patients have complication present but decreased. Complication not present in 30% of patients.in the case Telmisartan group complication not present in 56.7% patients and complication present but decreased in 43.3% patients. Conclusion: The result of the study shows that after 6 weeks of treatment, there is no significant difference between laboratorical parameters in two groups. The result shows the effectiveness of Amlodipine and telmisartan in macrovascular (cardiovascular complication detected from ECHO) and microvascular complication (nephropathy detected by checking microalbuminuria and serum creatinine) are almost same. Telmisartan shows higher reduction in parameters like SBP, DBP, SC and microalbumine compared to Amlodipine group. Amlodipine show higher reduction in uric acid and fasting blood sugar compared to Telmisartan group.

  15. Dr. Rupali Balpande, Dr. Sarvesha Bhondwe and Dr. Vishal Mahajan

    Aim: The aim of this IN VITRO study was to examine and compare the apical micro-leakage of AH PLUS, MTA Fill, ZOE apex sealers in dry and moist root canals by dye penetration method using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 38 extracted teeth with single root canal. Hand protaper files were used for preparation of the canals. Root canals were filled with a single gutta-percha cone, using one of the three sealers, under dry and wet root canal conditions (6 teeth in each group) and one positive control group and one negative control group. Orifices were sealed with glue wax and all root surfaces were covered with nail polish except the positive control group. After ten days in 100% humidity, teeth were placed in methylene blue (pH7), and then were cut in longitudinal axis. Blue color permeability was measured by stereomicroscope in micrometers. Data were analyzed by factorial design. Results: Mean apical micro-leakage was significantly lower in the dry groups (P < 0.001). Minimum and maximum micro-leakage was seen in AH26 and ZOE, respectively. MTA Fillapex did not exhibit a significant difference in apical micro-leakage between dry and moist conditions (P > 0.05). Conclusion: AH26 provided the least apical micro-leakage under dry conditions while ZOE had the highest micro-leakage under moist conditions. MTA Fillapex provided acceptable apical seal regardless of moisture.

  16. Ashish Dande and Rahul Eragula

    The inventions of new technology and the discovery of opportunities have tremendously impacted the world in the 21st century. The thrive to be different and the thrust to prove oneself is increasing among the people with the advancements in this world. There is no person today who can say that he is absolutely good for nothing. Each person is gifted with a unique talent. It is a matter of challenge whether he can discover his innate talent. The talent when nurtured grows into a successful tree that bears fruit evidently satisfying the needs and desires of others. People today are like never before, working to be distinguished by others. This has given the scope for millions of startups come up into the picture. Whether successful or not, people are giving it a try to do something that they are good at. It implies to how one can be contributable to others that these startups mean. The aim of this paper is to emphasize on the importance of startups so as to how they shape of this world.

  17. Dr. Samia Perwaiz Khan, Dr. Muslim Abbas, Dr. FarahJaved and Dr. Fatima Rizvi

    Background: This study was carried out to determine the significance of training undergraduate medical and dental students in prescription writing and to identify the errors in prescription writing and types of drug-drug interactions in a prescription to allow safety of the patients and prevent adverse drug reactions. Methodology: The study was conducted in Pharmacology Department, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi. The participants include 70 MBBS undergraduate students and 50 BDS undergraduate students. In the given prescriptions the students were made to identify errors and drug- drug interaction in given prescriptions pre and post demonstration assessment was done. They were given the task to identify errors (Score 0-8) and drug - drug interactions (Score 0-20) in the given prescriptions and responders and non-responders were marked (pre and post demonstration). Demonstration was given to students regarding errors in prescription writing and drug- drug interactions and again number of prescriptions were shown to them. Scores were recorded and statistical analysis was done by applying paired students t - test. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for medical educator to properly train the juniors (under graduate Medical and Dental College students) to avoid the errors in prescription and drug – drug interactions while writing prescriptions for patients safety and to avoid adverse drug reactions.

  18. Dr. Nilima S. Rajhans, Dr. Swapnil S Jadhav, Dr. Nikesh Moolya, Dr. Nilkanth Mhaske, Dr. Dhanesh Sable and Dr. Nilesh Salunkhe

    Radiographic assessment is a significant tool in evaluating the quantity and the quality of the alveolar bone, locating any anatomical landmarks, and/or detecting pathological lesions. It helps the clinician to visualize and judge the likelihood of executing the proposed treatment plan. In addition to determining bone dimensions accurately, the available technical advancements in radiography have helped improve case design and treatment planning, thus conferring upon clinical results a measure of predictability. This, in turn, has helped the dental team select the proper candidate for implant therapy; implant size and design; surface texture and angulation; and the surgical technique to be utilized for implant placement.

  19. Dr. Vignesswary, A., Dr. Koteeswaran, D. and Dr. Priyanka, S.

    Objectives: To compare the sensitometric properties of Insight (F-SPEED) and Ektaspeed Plus radiographic (E-speed) film which was manually and automatically processed using fresh and depleted chemical solutions. Methods: 8 sets of each type of film were obtained (1set=5films), 4sets being manually processed and 4sets being automatically processed. A total of 80films (40 Ektaspeed Plus and 40 Insight film) were exposed and developed. The first two sets of each film type were developed in fresh chemicals on the first day and the other sets were processed in the same progressively depleted solutions, once a week until the end of experiment within 3weeks. Characteristic curves were constructed to compare the sensitometric properties of the films: contrast, latitude and speed Results: Results showed that insight film is faster than Ektaspeed plus film under both processing conditions, both in fresh and old chemicals. Depletion occurred faster in automatic processing. Radiographic contrast is higher for both the films, when processed automatically in fresh solution. Contrast of manually processed films showed higher contrast in old chemicals. Insight films are more stable interms of latitude. Conclusion: Newer insight film can be preferred as it requires only lesser exposure thereby reducing patient radiation exposure to 20%. Chemical depletion in automatic processing was faster than manual condition.

  20. Joyce Moreira de Souza, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Wellington Alves Mizael da Silva, Caio César Oliveira Pereira, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto de Menezes and Guilherme Malafaia

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands out as a potentially toxic waste-generating activity. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human health and to the environment. The aim of the present studyit to address a literature review in order to identify studies related to the effect ofeffluent exposure on vertebrates by emphasizingthe identification of the so far observed effect types.The main experimental designs were adopted seeking the presentation of an overview on the already performed investigations and the proposition of future research in this field. A systematic literature review was performed through the search for scientific articles in databases such as LILACS- BIREME, MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO, Google Scholar and PubMed. The search comprised studies published from March 1981 to July 2016. Thirty-four (34)articles were analyzed, 58.8% of them assessed the effects of tannery effluents on fish; 2.9%,on amphibians;0%,on reptiles; 2.9%,on birds; and 35.4%,on mammals.The published studies about tannery effluents and their effects on vertebrates were mostly conducted in India and Brazil. With regard to the scientific fields covered by these previous studies, it was observed that several issues/topics were assessed;there waslittle prevalenceof genotoxic, histological, mutagenic, immunological, biochemical and behavioral studies. Accordingly, i) the number of articles involving tannery effluents and their effects on vertebrate animalsremains very small, ii) there is prevalence of studies involving fish and, more recently, mammals, iii) studies involving the reproductive aspects of the species exposed to tannery effluents are rare; iv) further investigations involving tannery effluents are necessary. The exposure of vertebrate organisms must describe the type and composition of the assessed xenobiotic in details in order tohelp adopting methodological procedures in compliance with the local conditions, thus allowing the extrapolation of the experimental data.

  21. Karthika Jayakumar

    Background: Care of patients with tuberculosis starts with a quality assured medical treatment. This has several facets like clinical, radiological & laboratory techniques. The laboratory techniques need to be reliable, rapid, cost effective & reproducible not only for the patients but also for the clinicians, as it will lay down the base for early initiation of suitable treatment & reduce the mortality & morbidity of the diseased person. Objective: To ensure reliable, early detection and cost effective diagnostic technique by comparing two microscopic and cultures. Design: Case control study, with comparative microscopy & cultural techniques. Methodology: 75 willing Patients with their consent were selected from the Departments of Medicine &TBCD.25 HCW were taken as controls. The sputum collected were processed for two different staining, microscopic & culture techniques. These procedures were done as per standard protocol. The stained smear were screened & interpreted as per RNTCP guidelines. Results: Liquid media exhibited growth as early as 10th day, while LJ media had the growth only on the V week. The liquid media half the rate of the solid media.LED microscopic examination was more sensitive than ZN stain. Conclusion: One of the biggest obstacles to the correct diagnosis & efficient management of tuberculosis is the absence of rapid reporting of the bacilli in the given clinical specimen, overcome by the liquid media used in our study.

  22. Dr. Tejas M. Kulkarni, Dr. Kaustubh Tambekar, Dr. Mrinal Shete, Dr. Rakesh Mutha, Dr. Pratik Hande and Dr. Pritesh Gawali

    Adenomatoid odontogenic Tumor (AOT) tumor found to be a rare variety comprising of 3-7% of all odontogenic tumors. The most common location for AOT is anterior maxilla and very often confused with dentigerous cyst having similar radiological presentation. The tumor occurs in two forms central or intraosseous which is more common and peripheral being rare. Treatment of the tumor involves enucleation and curettage. We report a case of young female having AOT in left anterior maxilla with clinical, radiological, histopathological presentation and the management.

  23. Prasanna, S., Sunil Kumar Jada and Karthika Jayakumar

    Hortaea werneckii is a most common cause of tinea nigra transmitted by contact between humans and is an example of phaeoid (dematiaceous)fungi. Tinea nigra is an uncommon superficial fungal infection of horny layer of epidermis characterized by presence of painless brown to black, pigmented, non-scaly, macular patches usually affecting palms (tinea nigra palmaris), occasionally soles (tinea nigra plantaris) and very rarely other parts of body of young adults. Rhodotorula species are common airborne contaminant fungi and are also considered as normal inhabitants of the skin, lungs, urine and feces in humans. Rhodotorula species are considered as an important agent for invasive infection among immunocompromised patients. The main objective of this case report is to present “a rare case of tinea nigra of scalp caused by Hortaea werneckii and Rhodotorula rubra”in an immunocompetent patient residing in a silk city of Kancheepuram.

  24. Dr. Nitin Deora, Dr. Dimpy Kakkar, Dr. Shaveta Kaushal and Dr. Raghav Takkar

    Loss of an eye is a traumatic event which has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Several ocular disorders require surgical intervention that may result in the ocular defect. An ocular prosthesis is fabricated to restore the structural, functional and cosmetic defects created by such conditions. This case report presents the prosthetic management of the ocular defect with a custom made ocular prosthesis.

  25. Sharma Monesh, S., Bondekar Vaishali and Vartak Vikas

    The term ‘Hypodontia’ refers to the developmental absence of one or more teeth, either in primary or permanent or mixed dentition, excluding the third molars. It is the most common craniofacial malformation. If six or more permanent teeth are missing, the term ‘Oligodontia’ is used. Oligodontia creates significant challenges to the clinicians in both diagnosis and management. The ability to address this condition during the early stages of the dentition maximizes the potential for a treatment with functional, esthetic, and stable results. This case report presents prosthodontic management of a case of nonsyndromic Oligodontia with mixed dentition of a 18-year-old male patient. Combination of fixed prosthesis and Removable partial denture with modified swing lock design was used for functional and esthetic rehabilitation of a patient.

  26. Dr. Manjusha Madhusudan Litake, Dr. Sagar S. Bhalerao and Dr. Aditya Narasimhan

    The ureter is a subject to a number of natural variations, and duplex ureter is one of the rare congenital abnormalities affecting the ureter, occurring in around 1% of general population1. We here are reporting a case of a 25 year old gentleman, who had come with complaints of pain on the left flank and LUTS (Lower urinary tract symptoms). Investigations revealed that he had ahydronephrotic left kidney, with the upper pole showing pyonephrosis with suboptimal function. This was associated with a unilateral duplex moiety with complete duplication of ureters on the left side and ectopic insertion of the upper moiety ureter into prostatic urethra. The lower moiety collecting system was hydronephrotic but non obstructing and non refluxing. The patient subsequently underwent aleft sided partial upper pole nephrectomy. Most cases of duplex ureters present in childhood and adolescence, and are usually asymptomatic. This case report emphasizes the need to consider the possibility of such anomalies and their varied spectrum of presentation and the need for screening of such anomalies at an earlier stage.

  27. Dr. Nitin Deora, Dr. T Padmanabhan and Dr. Anandkumr

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of implant support on different retention systems and their load distribution in a Distal Extension Removable partial denture. Materials and Methods: Three hemimandible models with canine to canine teeth were simulated. Model 1: Conventional cast partial denture with I – bar. Model 2: Cast partial denture with extracoronal ball attachment on the distal abutment. Model 3: Cast partial denture with extracoronal ball attachment and after a distal implant placement with healing abutment. Masticatory load of 150 N was applied in the vertical direction along the long axis of the denture teeth. Load was applied on the buccal cusps and central fosse of the premolar and the molars. Results: decrease in the displacement of the distal end of the RPD with the placement of Implant in second molar region for Extra – Coronal Attachment retained RPDs. It showed 10 times reduction in stress concentration in primary abutment after placement of distal Implant in second molar region for the Extra – coronal Attachment retained RPD. Conclusion: Extracoronal retained RPD with a distal implant reduces the stress on the primary abutment and the underlying bone. Denture displacement of the distal extension bases was also recorded to be least of all the models.

  28. Ashish Loomba, Abhishek Dhindsa, Shalini Garg, Damle, S. G., Isha Jatana and Neetu Jain

    Aim: To evaluate influence and impact of custom made local language poster on awareness and knowledge of primary school teachers in Ambala district concerning emergency management regarding dental trauma. Materials and Methods: A cluster randomised study consisting of primary school teachers was carried out in Ambala district, Haryana (India). A cohort group of 100 primary school teachers and physical instructors from 9 government primary schools in Ambala, Haryana participated in study. They were requested to answer an awareness and knowledge assessment questionnaire containing eleven questions about tooth avulsion and its emergency management in first phase. After which a self-explanatory poster showing a sikh boy explaining in Hindi language containing knowledge on tooth avulsion and its emergency management was displayed .The same cohort was made to re answers the same questionnaire again. Results: 22.2% teachers had previous information about tooth avulsion statistically significant improvement in knowledge and awareness was observed after poster presentation. Knowledge that broken tooth fragment can be reattached increased from 16.7% to 51.4%, statistically significant(p value < 0.001).Knowledge on tooth replantation increased significantly from 13.9% to 62.2% , also the knowledge regarding time of reimplantation increased from 28.6% to 66.7%(p value <0.05). Conclusion: graphic Display of educational posters at primary schools in Ambala District for 2 weeks significantly improved level of knowledge on the management of dental trauma. Furthermore educational campaigns on dental trauma must be organized to improve knowledge on emergency management of dental avulsion.

  29. Fatima Rizvi and Syed Mehboob Alam

    Atorvastatin is most effective cholesterol lowering agent. Most recently it was found that apart from their primary actions on HMG-CoA reductase enzyme this can also modulates the immune functions and inflammatory processes by their effects on expression of signaling proteins most importantly Rho, Rac and Ras. Therefore atorvastatin may have beneficiary effects of different inflammatorydiseases and autoimmune diseases. Out of theses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is most common public health problem and its accounts for about 3rd leading cause of death worldwide. The main burden of COPD associated morbidity were due to its systemic complications and frequent exacerbations. Current therapy cannot efficiently decreases its systemic complications. Thus in this research project we evaluating the beneficial effects of Atorvastatin in COPD patients and compare it with standard anti-inflammatory drug which was Budesonide. This shows that Atorvastatin can effectively improve the Spirometric finding, also having positive impact on health related quality of life as assessed by BODE index and SGRQ and effectively decreases the chances of exacerbations. Thus Atorvastatin can becomes the mainstay adjuvant therapy beside of their cardiovascular protective effects in COPD patients by modulating the inflammatory processes.

  30. Dr. Jyotsana, Dr. Jaidev Singh Dhillon, Dr. Harpreet Singh and Dr. Mandeep Kaur

    With the advent of magnification in the field of endodontics increases operator efficiency as well as the success rate. Traditional endodontics was based on feel not sight. Magnification helps the user not only to see more, but to see well. High levels of magnification increase the aggregate amount of visual information available to endodontists for diagnosing and treating dental pathology.

  31. Dr. Sudeshna Ingale, Dr. Sushma Bommanavar, Dr. Rajendra K Baad, Dr. Nupura Vibhute, Dr. Uzma Belgaumi, Dr. Vidya Kadashetti and Dr. Ananya Ghan

    Oral cancers commonly develop in people who consume tobacco in various forms and drink alcohol. They are both independent risk factors, but they have a considerable synergistic effect. Various studies have tried to correlate the role of alcohol alone as a causative factor of oral cancer. But it is difficult to establish principally because alcohol consumption histories are subjective and difficult to verify, alter over time, both with respect to beverage type and quantity, and are frequently confounded by tobacco use. Hence there is a need to develop a more objective way of assessing the chronic intake of alcohol. The mean corpuscular volume or "mean cell volume" (MCV) is a measure of the average red blood cell volume and can be used as an objective indicator of alcohol intake. The aim of the study is to emphasize the role of MCV measurement as a new means of predicting risk for OSCC in Indian population. This is a comparative study in which the MCV is estimated in patients of oral cancer with history of both tobacco and alcohol intake and in patients with history of tobacco and alcohol intake without cancer. This article reviews the role MCV as an objective marker in patients with oral cancer and to find out how effective MCV is in assessing the risk of the disease progression.

  32. Dr. Ajay Bibra, Dr. Pardeep Mahajan, Dr. Megha Mahajan, Dr. Vanita, Dr. Sonam Mahajan, Dr. Manjot Singh and Dr. Gundeep Singh

    HIV-related oral conditions occur in a large proportion of patients, and frequently are misdiagnosed or inadequately treated. Dental expertise is necessary for appropriate management of oral manifestations of HIV infection or AIDS, but many patients do not receive adequate dental care. Common or notable HIV-related oral conditions include xerostomia, candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, periodontal diseases such as linear gingival erythema and necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, human papilloma virus-associated warts, and ulcerative conditions including herpes simplex virus lesions and recurrent aphthous ulcers. This article summarizes a presentation on oral manifestations of HIV disease and its clinical presentation.

  33. Dr. Guruprasad Handal, Dr. Amit Jagtap, Dr. Deepak Kelgandre, Dr. Girish Nazirkar and Dr. Shailendra Singh

    Loss of an eye or a disfigured eye has a far-reaching impact on an individual's psyche. Additionally it affects one's social and professional life. Cosmetic rehabilitation with custom made prosthetic devices gives such individuals professional and social acceptance and alleviates problems. This paper describes prosthetic rehabilitation of a 60-year-old female patient having right ocular defect with a combination of prefabricated and custom made ocular prosthesis. The resultant prosthesis was structurally durable and aesthetically acceptable with satisfactory retention.

  34. Dr. Anupama Masapu, Dr. Anusha Gummadi, Dr. Greeshma M., Dr. Salavadhi Shyam Sunder, Dr. Manikantakumar T. Dr. Ramanarayana Boyapati and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Marfans syndrome is the most common dominant autosomic genetic disorder of the connective tissue. This pathology’s diagnosis is mainly based on physical characteristics. Herein, the authors’ present report of a case of Marfans syndrome in which patient presented with bone loss involving seven teeth which was diagnosed as periodontitis in Marfans syndrome. This case reports confirms the hypothesis that connective tissue disorders increased susceptibility to periodontal breakdown.

  35. Dalya Thamer Ahmad, D.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant relationship between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and the newborn sex ratio and neonatal birth weight. Study Design: A cross sectional study was done on 560 patients , data were collected from private clinics in different areas of Baghdad including Hay Aljameaa and Alharthya from the beginning of 2013 to the end of 2014, all 560 case had single pregnancy ,term births (>=37 weeks and >=2500 grams).Number of male fetuses = 292 and female fetuses = 268. Sex ratios were calculated by dividing the number of male newborns by those of female newborns,sex ratio (for total) =male / female ratio= 292/268 = 1.0895 and calculated for each maternal weight gain group during pregnancy. Results: The percentage of male/total increased with increasing maternal weight gain during pregnancy as with low weight gain < 5 kg the of male/total ratio is (40%) while in those with higher weight gain the ratio reaches (63.15%)in mothers gaining >18.1kg , so male/female ratio increase from (0.67) in those gaining < 5kg to (1.71) in the largest weight gaining group. most of women gaining <5 kg during pregnancy (53.3%)delivered neonates weighting 2.5-3 kg, while the largest % of women gaining =>18.1kg during pregnancy (31.6) (26.3%) delivered neonates weighting 4000 – 4499 and > 4.5 kg respectively. Conclusion: There is significant relationship between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and the newborn sex ratio and neonatal birth weight.pregnant women should advised to gain weight within the recommendation of IOM.

  36. Samia Perwaiz Khan and Dunesh Kumar

    Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a high prevalence in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients; most likely cause is the frequent occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance in T2DM. Weight reduction by diet and exercise is effective in preventing and treating NAFLD in diabetics. Bariatric surgery is recommended in obese patients to reverse NAFLD. There is evidence that drugs used as hypoglycemic agents for T2DM thiazolidinediones (TZDs), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and also preventing or can even treat NAFLD. Screening for progression in fatty liver diseases by LFT and ultrasound is now recommended. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) Conclusion: From the literature search done on pubmed, Medline it was found that Non-Alcohol fatty liver diseases are one of the common complications of type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Early diagnosis and screening can prevent serious complications such as cirrhosis and liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective management by weight loss, exercise and use of the oral hypoglycemic agents such as Sitagliptin has shown to improve NAFLD. FGF21 levels correlate with hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance and is markedly increased in obesity and type II diabetes.

  37. Dr. Aruna Vijay Singh, Salil Kawatra, Dr. Nitin Sapra, Dr. Mansi Khatri and Sukanya Pathak

    Sialolith is one of the most common disorders of salivary glands. It may occur in all salivary glands but is most common in the parotid. This case report presents clinical and radiological diagnosis and uniquely rare management of a Sialolith in the Wharton’s duct by bimanual palpation.

  38. Sushma R., Anand Farias, Sushma Bommanavar, Abhijeet Kore and Shubha Joshi

    Background: Immediate denture is a treatment modality which has many advantages compared to the conventional dentures as well as the implant dentures. But due to unknown reasons this treatment protocol is vanishing from every day dental practice. Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this survey was to understand the awareness and attitude of the patients towards immediate dentures among the local population of Western Maharashtra. Material and Methods: Part 1: Questionnaire survey was conducted involving the Prosthodontists in and around Karad and Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India to know their responses and attitude towards immediate denture treatment protocol. Part 2: Questionnaire survey was conducted among the patients attending the OPD of the Department of Prosthodontics, School Of Dental Sciences to assess the patients’ awareness and attitude of the patients towards this treatment modality. All the data collected was statisticallyanalysed using Rates Ratio and Chi Square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Conclusion: The results of this surveyindicate that the patients were more than willing for immediate dentures if they are well educated and motivated. This survey also concludes that the dental undergraduate students need to be encouraged more and trained in the speciality field, so that the patients who belong to lower strata of economy can benefitted.

  39. Sam Jose and Solomon, S. G.

    Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizens. They are in a continuous process of growth and development. Any alteration in its course lead to developmental disorders of learning. The learning disability plays a significant role as a silent handicap among children. It is estimated that 4-5% of students in school have learning disability. Hence my study is “a study to evaluate the effectiveness of self instructional module regarding learning disabilities of primary school children among primary school teachers Vidya sagar school at Indore, M.P Advanced academy at Indore, M.P. As there are no specific test to identify children with learning disability, health professionals have to rely mainly on teacher’s report for its diagnosis. Previous studies have proved that teacher’s towards such children have great influence towards their recovery.

  40. Kannahi, M. and Santhiya, J.

    In present investigation, B. subtilis and B. cereus was isolated and Identified from the petroleum contaminated site soil and identified by gram’s staining, motility and biochemical tests. After the isolation and identification, biosurfactant production from bacterial organisms was screened using mineral salt medium, by oil spreading, drop collapse and hemolysis test. From the blood agar plates, the biosurfactant producing bacterial culture were obtained and maintained as stock cultures. Organisms were inoculated into the mineral salt broth with petroleum oil, diesel oil, kerosene oil and crude oil as a carbon source for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant was extracted by acid precipitation method. Biosurfactants production was optimized by using different pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources. Emulsification activity of biosurfactant was analyzed. The extracted biosurfactant was characterized by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). B.subtilis was able to produce the biosurfactant using pH (4), temperature (20oC), Carbon source (glucose), nitrogen source (NaNO3). B.cereus was able to produce the biosurfactant by using pH (6), temperature (35oC), carbon source (Starch), nitrogen source (urea). Among this study, Bacillus subtilis produced higher amount of biosurfactant than Bacillus cereus.

  41. Elsayed Amer, Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim, Ola Galal Ali Behairy, Seham Elsayed Ahmad Ali and Shuzan Ali Mohammed

    Background: The etiology of human type 1 diabetes is still largely obscure, but it is recognized that both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in its risk. The aim of the study: To assess the genetic association of BANK1 rs3733197 polymorphisms in a sample of Egyptian children with T1DM and compare it to healthy controls. Methods: We enrolled 100 children;75 children with T1DM and 25 healthy control children matched for age and sex. Children were subjected to: history taking, clinical examination, measuring fasting serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), serum total cholesterol and genotyping of BANK1 Alanine383Thereonine SNP (rs3733197) with real- time PCR allele discrimination. Results: Patients had statistically significant difference regarding allele frequency of BANK 1 (rs3733197) SNP as and it exhibited an increased G allele frequency in diabetic group compared with controls. The allelic association analysis confirmed a significant association with T1DM (OR=2.15, 95% CI = 1.12-4.15), while A allele was decreased in T1DM compared to controls (OR= 0.46, 95% CI = 0.24-0.89). Only the AA genotype of the additive model in the diabetic group was statistically significant decreased as compared with the control group (p=0.022, OR=0.26 and 95% CI = 0.08-0.86). No statistically significant difference regarding other genotype distribution could be detected. Also, there was no statistically significant association between genotypes and alleles of BANK1 rs3733197 SNP with any of the clinical or laboratory data of the study.

  42. Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb, Eiman Salah Eldin, Jihad Hasab Elrasoul and Saad Mohamed Hussein Ayoub

    In Sudanese traditional medicine Acacia seyal is a very important plant, it has valuable uses in cosmetic and for treating of many diseases and infections. The pleasantly fragrant stem fumigate bath, known as Dokhan, is used for cosmetic and medicinal purpose, mainly for the treatment of vaginal and urinary tract infections. Searching for new sources of naturally occurring antioxidants and antimicrobial become of interest, due to the carcinogenic effect of synthetic antioxidants, and resistance of antimicrobial agents by microorganisms. The present study represents the first attempt to investigate the content and chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the dry distillate of A. seyal stem. The brown dry distillate (4.0 %v/w) was prepared using dry distillation method. The antioxidant activity assayed by using DPPH radical scavenging was found to be 94±0.01% compared to propylgallate, standard antioxidant agent 90±0.01. The results of antimicrobial using disc diffusion techniques showed remarkable activity with inhibition zone range of 15-25mm. The constituents of the oily dry distillate investigated by GC-MS technique showed detection of one hundred and twenty two compounds. The main constituents identified are Solerone (7.27%), Furfural (7.15%), Catechol (7.11%), Syringol (5.56%), Allo-Inositol (4.86%), Mequinol (4.81%), Furfuralcohol (3.35%), 3-Methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (3.24%), Phenol (2.73%), Homovanillyl alcohol (2.56%) and 3-Cresol (2.11%).

  43. Pankaj Verma, Sumit Verma, Punj Prakash Mishra, Priya Singh and NehaMaheshwari

    Objectives: The present study was carried out with an aim to detect correlation of CIMT with mortality in acute ischemic stroke. Methods: After ethical considerations, this prospective observational study was conducted on 200 patients of acute ischenic stroke. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was based on the clinical profile and confirmed by CT / MRI as defined by ASA/AHA. Results: Among the 200 patients studied age of patients with acute ischemic stroke ranged from 45-78 years with a mean age of 61.18±7.59 years. Majority of patients were in 51-70 years of age (n=43; 86%). CIMT values of left side ranged from 0.05cm to 0.10cm with a mean value of 0.074±0.012. At right side, CIMT values ranged from 0.06cm to 0.12cm with a mean value of 0.077±0.017. Average CIMT value ranged from 0.055cm to 0.11cm with a mean value of 0.075±0.013. After one month, a total of 44 (22%) patients showed improvement, 52(26%) showed survival without change in status. A total of 56 (28%) were lost to follow up and a total of 48 (24%) expired. Conclusion- Carotid intima media thickness in acute ischemic stroke patients did not provide any useful information with respect to outcome (short term mortality).

  44. Vinit Patil, Nilesh Kumar, Rajendra Baad, Nupura Vibhute, Uzma Belgaumi, Vidya Kadashetti and Sushma Bommanavar

    Oral cancer is serious and growing problem in many parts of the globe. Squamous cell carcinoma comprises more than 90% of all oral cancers. The etiology is multifactorial. The current case highlights the importance of assessing tooth mobility or other signs of periodontal diseases in an otherwise healthy mouth should be regarded as suspicious and further correlating such cases with thorough habit history, clinical and radiographic examination. This would avoid the chance of misdiagnosis and help in early treatment of the lesion.

  45. Prakash, J. V. S., Dhanasekaran, D. and Suresh Bhalaji, S.

    Objectives: To find out the efficacy of multi-parametric MRI as a noninvasive diagnostic investigation in carcinoma prostate and its correlation with Gleason scoring among men with PSA levels between 4 to 10 ng/ml and with normal digital rectal examination. Methods: A prospective study was done in Institute of Urology, MMC, Chennai between September 2015 to April 2016. 25 male patients who presented with obstructive LUTS with PSA 4-10 ng/ml and a normal DRE were included in the study. Patients with active UTI, prostatitis, initial presentation as AUR, nodular prostate on DRE, claustrophobia or metal implants were excluded from study. All patients were subjected to 13 core TRUS guided biopsy and multi-parametricMRI. Results: The age of the patients in the current study ranged from 51 to 81 years, with a mean age of 66.76 ± 7.8 years. 9 patients (36%) were positive for malignancy in multi-parametric MRI while 8 patients (32%) were positive for malignancy in TRUS biopsy. The multi-parametric MRI based PIRADS score had a sensitivity of around 100% and a specificity of 94.12% compared to the TRUS biopsy. According to the classification of multi-parametric-MRI based PIRADS score, about 24% of the patients had highly suspicious malignancy and about 12% had a probably malignant lesion while 16% of the patients had indeterminate lesions. There was also a positive linear correlation between PIRADS score & Gleason score and also PIRADS score &PSA levels. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that multi-parametric MRI of prostate for patients with grey zone PSA and normal DRE is an invaluable, non-invasive and feasible option to detect carcinoma prostate with a high sensitivity and specificity besides high predictive values and can help in identifying patients in need of biopsy. It can be also helpful in performing targeted biopsy and in characterizing the extent &aggressiveness of the prostate cancer.

  46. Narendra Nath Singh, Naheela Rasheed and Abdul Rasheed Ansari

    The habit of chewing areca nut has been reported since ancient times.It has been used as food, medicine, social and religious purposes, as described in Sanskrit manuscripts. The harmful effects of chronic chewing of areca nut have been well established, however, not much is documented regarding the advantages of chewing areca nut. The study was done to review the various possible favourable effects of chewing Areca on the oral and general health.Structured scientific review and meta-analysis of scientific publications from past 10 years was done from various books & journals in the central library & NML and various search engines like PubMed, Wiley, Google Scholar,Science Direct and EBSCO host. It was mentioned in Charaka and Sushruta Samhitas (75 AD to 300 AD), practice of chewing of betel leaves was commonafter meals. Areca is used as a medicine for digestive and dental health, also used in Ayurvedic medicine to facilitate bowel movements and reduce intestinal worms. Survey of literature revealed its various medicinal properties like antibacterial, antioxidant, anticariogenic, antimicrobial, anti- inflammatory, anti-melanogenesis, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective etc. Extensive informations from literature review indicates that Areca catechu has a broad spectrum of pharmacological effects. More research should be undertaken to determine its efficacy against several diseases on man with respect to other natural products and modern drugs.

  47. Dr. Prachi Bhatia, Dr. S. V. Bhide, Dr. Ajay Sabne and Dr. Abhijit Patil

    Rehabilitation of a patient who has suffered from trauma is a challenging task for the oral surgeon and the Prosthodontist. A multidisciplinary approach is required to rehabilitate the patient so as to enable function and esthestics. Use of a fixed removable option for long span endentulous spaces using precision attachments is a viable prosthetic option for patients who have suffered trauma due to road traffic accidents. This case report describes the rehabilitation of a young patient who lost his front teeth in a road traffic accident and replacement of the missing teeth was done using extra-coronal Rhein 83 attachments.

  48. Abu Bakar Siddiq, Masood Umer, Riaz Ahmed Sheikh, Khalil Ahmed Gill, Neeta Maheshwary, Ahson Siddiqi, Adnan Anwar and Muhammad Athar Khan

    Objective: This survey intends to know the frequency of chronic low back pain and the line of management used by the doctors for managing chronic low back pain. Methods: This was a descriptive and cross sectional study with non-probability convenient sampling. This survey was carried out at different centers across Pakistan from May to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were the doctors who have potential to see more patients of low back pain including general physicians, orthopedician and neurologists. Incomplete Performa were excluded. SPSS version 20.0 was used for data analysis. Results: A significant number of low back pain were presented in this cohort of doctors. First priority in treatment of Chronic Low back pain considered was efficacy 147 (73.5%) of drug. Remaining 17% considered combination of patient compliance, rapid mode of action and efficacy as priority. Most common reason for discontinuation of pain medicine was gastrointestinal disturbance with all different toxicity. First line drug for managing Low back pain in adult was diclofenac sodium and potassium (109 responses) and second choice of drug was gabapentin (91responses).First line of treatment of refractory cases was combination therapy and neuroanalgesic notably gabapentin. Conclusion:The frequency of chronic low back pain presenting to the selected cohort is much higher in this survey. Gabapentin is used as the first line therapy for refractory cases of chronic low back pain. Gabapentin is also found Superior than many other drugs in terms of efficacy. It also carries least side effects.

  49. Ashwini B Prasad, Prachi Mital, Deepak Raisingani, Harshit Srivastava, Rachit Mathur and Aastha Srivastava

    Abnormalities in the root canal anatomy are commonly occurring phenomenon. A thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy and its variations is necessary for successful completion of the endodontic treatment. Mandibular Premolars are known for having an aberrant anatomy. Mandibular first Premolars have high flare-up and highest failure rates because of extreme variations in root canal morphology. The incidence of two roots in mandibular first premolar is quite rare (1.8%).This case report presents a relatively uncommon clinical case of mandibular first and second premolar with bifurcated roots. Careful interpretation of the preoperative radiograph, close clinical inspection of the floor of the chamber and proper modification of access opening are essential for a successful treatment outcome.

  50. Pankaj Verma, Sumit Verma, Punj Prakash Mishra, Priya Singh, Neha Maheshwari and ShrutiJagirdar

    Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. We conducted a retrospective study know the role of prophylactic platelet transfusion and its misuse in dengue patients. A total of 110 dengue patients who have been platelet transfused were taken in the study. A total of 311 platelet concentrates were transfused, while 70 units of FFP were infused to 41 patients with DHF or DSS. Out of a total of 311 platelet concentrate 131(42.11%) units were prophylacticaly transfused to DF patients who did not manifest bleeding and they were considered as inappropriate platelet transfusion. The reason for platelet transfusion are not based on medical rationale, but as a result of an intense social pressure on the treating physicians by the patients and their relatives. More reasearh is require to address the role of prophylactic platelet transfusion in dengue fever.

  51. Dr. Srinivas, R., Dr. VikramSimha, B., Dr. Sandhya, Y., Dr. Ramya, M., Dr. Krishna Mohan, K. and Dr. Vinathi Reddy

    Introduction: Tobacco use kills about five to six million people annually worldwide, accounting for about 20 percent of all adult male deaths and five percent of adult female deaths, over age 30. On current smoking patterns, annual tobacco deaths will rise to about eight to ten million by 2030.Tobacco use is a medical addictive condition, once addicted most smokers find it difficult to quit even when they develop smoking related diseases. Aim: The present study was done to determine the prevalence, knowledge about ill effects of tobacco use and willingness to quit tobacco habit among spinning mill workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional pretested questionnaire study was conducted among 743 spinning mill workers selected by stratified random sampling. Demographic data relating to age, gender, socioeconomic status, experience of working in spinning mills, place of birth, and duration of stay in the study area for migrant workers were collected. Results: The study population constituted 628 (84.5%) males and 115 (15.5%) females. Of the 743 spinning mill workers, 616 had a self-reported habit of tobacco use with a prevalence of 82.9%. Of these 616 participants with the habit of tobacco, 153 (24.8%) were only smokers, 218 (35.4%) were only tobacco chewers, and 245 (39.8%) had both the habits. Though majority of participants in the present study were aware of the negative impact of tobacco use on general health of an individual, most of them were ignorant on the ill effects of tobacco on oral health. Conclusion: Most of the respondents had favourable attitude towards quitting tobacco usage and social concern was the main predictor of quitting tobacco usage.

  52. Ahmad Al Nashar, Yazen T Dhafer and Ali Alsarkal

    Purpose: The present study is designed to evaluate the marginal bone loss after immediate implant placement in mandibular molar region with autogenous versus synthetic hydroxyapatite graft. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult patients with an mandibular molar is indicated for extraction were included in this study. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group I, received immediate implants augmented with autogenous bone graft and group II, received immediate implants augmented with synthetic hydroxyapatite graft. Implant success, plaque index PI, and bleeding index BI, and marginal bone loss MBL were evaluated. Results: All the implants were successfully osseointegrated over 18 months. The results of the present study showed that at 18 months the mean values of MBL were 1.15±0.14 in group I, 1.20±0.14 in group II, there were no statistical differences between the test and control group regarding, BI, PI, and MBL through follow- up periods. Conclusion: Autogenous and synthetic Hydroxyapatite graft could be used effectively with immediate placement of dental implants into Fresh Extraction sockets in mandibular molar region.

  53. Tasnim Ahsan, Rukhshanda Jabeen, Uzma Erum and Danish Khowaja

    Objective: To determine frequency, demographics, laboratory parameters and disease severity in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients with a diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis, at the ‘Rheumatology Clinic’ of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from February 2004 to February 2014. Detailed history, examination, laboratory investigations and treatment regimen were recorded in a pre-designed structured proforma. The demographic characteristics, deformities, extra-articular features, associated co-morbidities and disease severity were studied. Results: A total of 458 patients with the diagnosis of RA, were registered in our ‘Rheumatology Clinic’ during this period. Among these, 365(79.7%) were females and 93(20.3%) were males. The mean age of patients was reported to be 36.9±11.93 years, while the mean duration of joint pain was 3.49±2.1 years. Treatment regimen included mono-therapy in 131 (28.6%), dual therapy regimen in 221 (48.3%) and triple DMARDs therapy in 11 (2.40%) patients. DMARDs alone were used in 221 (48.3%), while 134 (29.3%) patients received DMARDs with maintenance dose steroids. Extra-articular manifestations were reported in 178 (38.86%) patients. Commonest co-morbidity was hypertension in 38(8.3%) patients. Additionally, out of the 287 patients who could be tested, 211 (73.5%) patients had vitamin-D deficiency as well. Conclusion: RA constitutes a significant rheumatological disease burden in our population. The demographic features and pattern of joint involvement is similar to the west, but a considerably younger population is affected in our region. The reason for this early disease occurrence needs to be explored. Vitamin-D deficiency may be a trigger in RA pathogenesis.

  54. Rajendra Baad, Uzma Belgaumi, Nupura Vibhute, Keshava Abbayya, Vidya Kadashetti and Sushma Bommanavar

    Dental implants have been a successful treatment alternative for restoring missing teeth. However, treatment is not always successful, as evidenced by reports reviewing the reasons for implant failures/complications. The aim of the present article is to discuss the less often seen, grey aspects of dental implants, like some of their local and systemic complications.

  55. Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Betty Mónica Velázquez Sarabia, Carolina De Vecchi Escalante, Iriani Caramón Lara, Luis Augusto López Uribe and Alexis Jardiel Chi Chi

    Objectives: To identify the incidence and risk factors of neonatal sepsis in patients born in the General Hospital of Specialties Dr. Javier Buenfil Osorio, during the period from January 2013 to December 2015. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective study, observational, descriptive; the record of 106 newborns diagnosed with sepsis were reviewed. We excluded 15 were included in the data collection, diagnosis of early and late neonatal sepsis, maternal age, number of gestation, prenatal care, premature birth, diagnosis of UTI diagnosis of chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membrane (s RPM ), sex product, invasive procedures, product weight and route of obtaining the product. Results: Of the 1401 patients obtained alive, 191 obtained diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and an incidence of 6.49% of early neonatal sepsis was obtained. The main risk factor associated with early neonatal sepsis has been the way of obtaining caesarean with 52.74%, the low birth weight with 32.96% and multiparity an incidence of 34.06% and there were no significant differences between sexes as the man / femalerelationship was 1.02. However if a significant importance in the delivery / caesarean relationship was obtained0.89. There was only one death recorded. Conclusions: The main risk factors associated with early neonatal sepsis are obtained via caesarean section, low birth weight and multiparity, male sex was the most affected but with no significant differences, the IVU, PROM, maternal age less to 18 years and the lack of prenatal care they had similar incidence. Only one late neonatal sepsis and death was obtained. I do not chorioamnionitis data was obtained.

  56. Dr. T. Devaki, Dr. B. Vikram simha, Dr. M. Ramya, Dr. R. Srinivas, Dr. Y. Sandhya and Dr. Y. Suresh Chand

    Introduction: Needle sticks and sharp injuries (NSSI) are identified as one of the occupational hazards in health care workers. NSSI increase risk of spread of diseases like HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C. Sharp injuries are a major source of HCV infection among health care workers (HCWS), accounting for 40% of HCV infections. Certain groups of individuals are at greater risk than others because of their nature of work. Numerous studies have found nurses to be the commonest group of health care workers in experiencing needle stick injuries due to their limited clinical experience. The purpose of this study is to know their knowledge and practices regarding needle stick injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a nursing college in Guntur city in August 2016. Study population constituting II,III, final year students. Self administered pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The study population constitutes of 70 males and 268 female students form a nursing college in Guntur city. Mean age of the population was 20.5 years. Vaccination of which only 57.8%in final year, 56.5% in IIIyear and 56.6% in IIyear had carried out Anti HBs antibody check up. Knowledge about disease transmitted by NSIs was satisfactory. Though 56% had suffered Needle stick injury (NSIs), 88.7% HCWs know about universal precaution guidelines. Conclusion: Nurses are at high risk of needle stick injuries from syringes and equipment relative to the other health care workers. There is an urgent need for strengthening skills, developing newer competencies and broadening our knowledge in occupational health and safety.

  57. Dr. Mohammad Danish, Dr. Mohammad Kaleem Ansari, Dr. Syed Sayeed Ahmed and Dr. Gulam Sarwar Hashmi

    The most common malignancy affecting the world population is the skin malignancy. Although melanoma only account for the 5% of the total cutaneous malignancy, the death related to it encompasses 75% of total skin cancer related deaths. It is very rare in oral cavity with only 0.5% of all oral malignancies. In this article we have presented two cases of extensive palatal discolouration with exophytic growth. These cases provide an extensive information about the pigmented lesion of the oral cavity which should be submitted for biopsy to exclude malignancy. Wefound onlytwo lesions in six years that’s proves the rarity of this lesion.

  58. Betty Sarabia Alcocer, Betty Mónica Velázquez Sarabia, Ana Rosa Can Valle, Luz Virginia Pacheco Quijano, Manuel Enrique Minet Alatorre, Ana Guadalupe Pereyra Cen, Jorge Ramiro Yerves Flores and Leidy Mariyenia Uc Chan

    Colles fracture is the most common fracture in women middle-aged and elderly as can be seen, the variety of treatments used for resolution highlighting: the conservative surgical technique (percutaneous brads included in the cast) and management. These aspects determined conducting an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study, where 60 cases were reviewed. Of these, 30 were treated with surgical intervention and 30 with conservative management to establish the most effective, considering the variables of morphology, mobility and pain of the affected upper extremity. The study showed that the surgical method obtained a higher rate of excellent and good results in all the variables analyzed against the conservative method, as well as a lower rate of regular and bad results, concluding that the difference in benefit cost is minimal and best results are obtained.

  59. Dr. Tapan Biswas

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem in tropical countries. Clinical manifestations range from a nonspecific viral syndrome to a severe fatal hemorrhagic disease. Menorrhagia as the sole presentation in dengue among the women is very rare. We report two adult women who presented with high fever, generalized bodyache with severe menstrual bleeding without any history of amenorrhea or any previous menstrual abnormality. Dengue was suspected because of thrombocytopenia and epidemic of dengue in West Bengal. In dengue epidemic area, dengue should be considered as a probable eitiological causes of menorrhagia. We have confirmed these case by NS1Ag, Dengue IgM antibody, IgG antibody and Low platelate count in their blood.

  60. Buhroo, Z. I., Malik, M. A., Ganai, N. A., Kamili, A. S. and Bhat, B. A.

    Twelve bivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori L. genotypes viz., SKAU-R-1, SKAU-R-6, SKUAST-28, SKUAST-31, CSR2, CSR4, CSR18, CSR19, NB4D2, SH6, DUN6 and DUN22 were studied for their performance during spring and summer seasons of 2012 and 2013. The data generated in respect of different traits was pooled separately and analyzed statistically. The results revealed that during spring, significantly higher estimates for larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio and filament length were registered by SKAU-R-1. However, during summer significantly higher estimates for larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio and filament length were recorded for SKAU-R-6. Significantly highest yield by number was recorded for SKAU-R-1 during both the seasons. The results of the study revealed that SKUAR-1 and SKUAR-6, performed significantly higher for all the traits under study in both spring and summer seasons. The study also revealed that irrespective of seasons the values for these traits were marginally higher in spring than summer season. Thus, SKUAR-1 and SKUAR-6 have potential to be used in future breeding programmes to boost bivoltine silk production under temperate climatic conditions of Kashmir.

  61. Dr. Rishav Singh, Dr. Mukesh Kumar and Dr. Sankalp Verma

    Aim: The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of nitrous oxide and oxygen inhalation sedation for pain control during inferior alveolar nerve block administration in children. Design: In this randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group study, 40 children in the age group of 7-10 years divided into 2 groups: GroupA (Nitrous oxide sedation) and Group B (oxygen). Pain perception for local anesthesia was assessed using face, legs, activity, cry, consolability scale. Children’s behaviour was assessed using Frankl ratings, depth of sedation using Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. The vital signs and oxygen saturation were recorded. Results: There was a statistically significant lower pain reaction in nitrous oxide group during administration of nerve block (P < 0.01). Improvement in the behavior of the children belonging to nitrous oxide group during and after the procedure as compared to the oxygen group (P < 0.01) was also observed. Conclusion: Nitrous oxide inhalation produces adequate sedation with vital signs within normal limits and treatments successfully completed.

  62. Archana and Jaitly, A. K.

    Forty-three species of fungi were isolated from woods in Sundarban mangrove forest, India. The most frequently isolated species were members of Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Mucor and Pestalotiopsis. Species of Acremonium, Neosartorya and Cladosporium were rare, and no members of the Basidiomycotina were found. Few commonly encountered fungal isolates were tested for their wood decay ability by weight loss method in Czapek- Dox medium. The tested isolates showed soft rot of wood in laboratory tests. Chaetomium funicolum was found to cause 46 % weight loss being the most active in this regard. The rate of decomposition increased until about 45th day of incubation, it decrease thereafter.

  63. Neha Arya and Dr. R. Vasantha

    Movement of people from rural areas to urban areas is very common in India. Migration has significant effects on both of the rural and urban areas as it involves the composition of societies living in these areas. This paper gives an idea about the consequences of rural out migration on the agriculture, women empowerment, biodiversity, food security and nutritional security of the rural people. It was found in the study that migration affects on agriculture was opined by the migrants low (71.67%), on women empowerment was medium (61.67%), on biodiversity was low (80%), the rural people felt often food security (75.83%) and they had medium nutritional security (65.84%).

  64. Daniela Meira, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Mauricio Ferrari, Tiago Olivoto, Carine Meier and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    The relationships between characteres are established through correlation coeficientes of path analysis, wich provides understanding of cause and effect directs and indirects on the main variable. Itaimed to determine the direct and indirect phenotypic effects of the agronomically important characters related to grain yield of soybean with indeterminate growth habit and genetic dissimilarity between genotypes. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria, at Frederico Westphalen – RS Campus, in 2013/2014 crop. The experimental design was randomized block with ten genotypes of soybean (FPS Paranapanema RR, BMX Classe RR, FPS Solimões RR, BMX Potência RR, BMX Força RR, BMX Energia RR, BMX Turbo RR, FPS Iguaçu RR, BMX Tornado RR, BMX Alvo RR), organized in three repetitions. It was evaluated yield components. The data were subjected to analysis of phenotypic path analysis, and the significant variables were subject to genetic dissimilarity analysis the method of Mahalanobis, through the UPGMA clustering method, and relative contribution of morphological characters in dissimilarity for method of Singh. The path analysis reveals for the characters thousand grain weight and length of branches direct effects with correlation coefficient of magnitude higher to grain yield, reveals through the length of internode significant indirect effects. The method of Singh reveals that the characters number of branches and nodes in the branches largest contribution to distinguish between genotypes. The Mahalanobis distance reveals formation of three groups.

  65. Henrique Urtassum Ludvig, Igor Brandão and Rafael Longhi

    Many studies have been developed on the mammalian target of rapamycin: mTOR. mTOR is a threonine/kinase protein with major role in cellular growth signaling, regardless the tissue organism. In this study it was shown that mTOR is responsible for signaling both positively and negatively cell growth. In this review we see that the stimulus mTOR pathway allows health benefits, working in protein synthesis, cell growth, immunology, satiety and depression. Studies show that this threonine/kinase protein can be stimulated by various factors such as leucine, high-intensity exercise, omega 3, insulin and phosphatidic acid. Among the biochemical mediators involved in the activation of mTOR, Akt, p70 P13K and P6K1 are the most correlated. On the other hands, there are other studies showing detriments with stimulation of mTOR, as in some types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, aging muscle cells and fat tissue formation. However, as the theme covers various topics such as cell anabolism and immunology, it seems to be relevant continuity in research so that we can better understand the biochemical and physiological mechanisms of stimulation of mTOR. Thus, in a not so distant future, we may think of setting up specific cellular therapies, stimulating or inhibiting the mTOR pathway of the patient.

  66. Jesus, L. M. and Costa, G. B.

    Odontogenic This study aimed to assess the impact of warming up to 5 °C in air temperature in Santarém-PA region and other meteorological variables, such effect of climate change highlighted by IPCC (2007) using a biosphere-atmosphere interaction model (SiB2), using LBA data and calibration of the Biosphere-Atmosphere SiB2 interaction model proposed by Llopart (2009), in order to infer possible changes on soybeans and maize productivity in the region due to these changes. The study showed that the SiB2 model calibrated to the Tapajos National Forest can simulate real future scenarios for the region. The simulations enabled to realize that the changes in the scenarios will have a negative effect on soybean yield in the region when analyze the limiting factors. As for the maize, future scenarios don’t present a major risk of production losses, given the physiologic and anatomical characteristics of the culture.

  67. Abba Maimouna, Clautilde Megueni, Dieudonné Nwaga, Fabrice Wassouni, Bernard Aloys Nkongmeneck and Tanyi Kingsley Manchang

    Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM) were isolated in NBRIP medium containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P source, from roots and rhizospheric soils of Zea mays collected in three localities (Bini, Mbang-boum, Borongo) of the Vina Division of Adamawa Region (Ngaoundéré, Cameroon). Ability of these PSM to solubilize phosphate was tested in modified nutrient agar medium, on 4 inorganic P forms: Ca3(PO4)2, AlPO4.H2O, FePO4.2H2O and vivianite (Phosphate Rock) as natural phosphate source. At least 117 isolates were obtained from roots and soils samples. To conduct test in Reyes basal liquid media, 20 preselected isolates showing excellent solubilizing results in solid medium were selected. Isolates BGL12 (from Borongo soil), BNL (from Bini soil) and RBNBL5 (from Mbang-boum root) successfully solubilize 3 types of phosphate out of 4 used. At the end of the solubilizing process; low pH (pH 4.5) instead of pH 7 in the initial media, revealed the release of organic acid in those media. The isolates RBNBL5, BGL12 and BNL boosted the phosphorus uptake of Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor L. Moench when growth in pot with rock phosphate (vivianite). Increase of the leaves number, the height, the dry biomass and the phosphorus content of these plants was noticed 42 days after planting.

  68. Ningappa Kirasur and Indira, P.

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) is more susceptible to internal tipburn a calcium related physiological disorder, especially under protected conditions. Being a genotype specific disorder, the present experiment was carried out inside rainshelter with seven cabbage F1 hybrids and three levels of calcium foliar applications (0%, 0.5% and 1.5%). The interaction effects of calcium treatments were also observed. There was a significant difference among the genotypes with respect to number of wrapping leaves, non-wrapping leaves, stalk length, gross head weight, net head weight, head breadth and yield per plot. Different levels of Ca foliar application and interaction effect also exhibited non-significant difference. However calcium foliar application can minimize the internal tipburn incidence. All the genotypes were resistant to internal tipburn except the F1 hybrid NS 43(G1).Internal tipburn symptoms were noticed only in the plots sprayed with 1.5% CaNO3 while control treatments and plots with 0.5% CaNO3 foliar spray did not exhibited tipburn symptoms.

  69. Geison Rodrigo Aisenberg, Davi Silva Dalberto, Felipe Koch, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Vinicius Jardel Szareski, Maicon Nardino, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Pedó, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde, Dirceu Agostinetto

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of pre-emergent herbicide doses on the physiology of white clover seeds and the seedlings growth. The herbicides tested were atrazine, s-metolachlor and diclosulam and the application was performed in doses of 0 %, 50 %, 100 % and 200 % of the maximum registered dose of each product. Two tests were performed. The first one was carried out in laboratory, where germination, first germination count and germination speed index were evaluated. In the second test, performed in greenhouse conditions, the emergence and the length of shoots and roots of white clover seedlings were analyzed. In the test performed in laboratory, the most severe damages were caused by the use of s-metolachlor, resulting in reductions in the total germination, first germination count and germination speed index. In the experiment performed in a greenhouse, all herbicides reduced the growth of white clover seedlings; however, the application of atrazine caused most of the negative effects, reducing the emergence and the length of shoots and roots of the seedlings. The herbicides atrazine, s-metolachlor and diclosulam negatively affected the physiological performance of white clover seeds, as well as the seedling growth of this species.

  70. Mary Sheela J, Margaret Muthurathinam and Pugazhendhi, A.

    Marine organisms play a crucial role in almost all biogeochemical processes that sustain the biosphere, and provide a variety of products (goods) and functions (services) which are essential to humankind’s well-being. The ink gland of Loligo duvauceli consist of melanin granules in a viscous colourless medium. As the ink gland extracts is inspiring new idea for drug development this study focuses on the formulation of gel using ink of Indian squid Loligo duvauceli. The antimicrobial activity of ink gland extract was examined using Agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Mucor.sp, Rhizopus.sp and Microsporum gypseum. For topical treatment of skin infections, a wide variety of vehicle ranging from solids, semisolids and liquid preparations is available to clinicians and patients. Within the major group of semisolid preparations, the use of transparent gels has expanded both in cosmetics and in pharmaceutical preparations. The gel was prepared using the dried ink gland extract from the Indian squid Loligo duvauceli and Carbapol-940(1%), propylene glycol 400, ethanol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, EDTA, tri-ethanolamine and distilled water. The experiments was carriedout using ten (Each 5 for gel and cream) adult male Wister rats weighing about 150-200 kg to test for the skin irritation. The area on the back of each rat was shaved prior to the experiment. The shaved areas of skin of each rat was used for the topical application of developed gel.

  71. Blessing Chidinma Obuna, Dr. Catherine Hayes and Dr. John Fulton

    Aim –The aim of the study was to systematically analyse contributory factors influencing levels of alcohol misuse among adolescents in the United Kingdom and subsequently identifying those which were most common, the wider determinants associated with these factors and how best to translate the findings of the study into meaningful information that can potentially be applied in public health interventions and practice. Methods - A systematic literature review was undertaken to provide a lens of interpretation and analysis for the extant literature on adolescent alcohol misuse in the UK.The review was systematically guided, using a meta-synthesis approach, maintaining robust scientific research approaches which aligned and framed the resultant outcomes (Seuring and Gold, 2012). An initial protocol was developed, incorporating a detailed explanation of all iterative stages of the research, which provided a degree of conceptual rigor. Findings – In terms of thematic analysis the most salient factors influencing alcohol misuse among adolescent identified were: Direct Environment, Personal Characteristics and Social Context. Research limitations/implications – This was a study limited to 100 women from a specific region in Nigeria – further research is necessary to ascertain the generalisability of the study to a wider population. Practical implications –This study has provided an insight into the qualitative literature that examines factors influencing alcohol misuse amongst adolescents in the UK. It can clearly be identified that there is a strong association between family relationships and the potential for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Family interventions therapy can therefore be advocated as a mechanism of improving communication between parents and their children where the need to discuss alcohol consumption is apparent.

  72. Sandhya Vijayasarathy and Jhinuk Chatterjee

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remain a promising class of anti-cancer drug targets with an ability to reverse abnormal epigenetic states associated with cancer. HDAC6, a subtype of HDAC, functions at the crossroads between atleast two cell signalling pathways involving ubiquitination and lysine acetylation. Over expression of this enzyme is associated with tumorigenesis and cell survival, other than promoting metastasis in cancer cells. In this study, a comparative quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analyses has been performed on HDAC6 inhibitors for predicting their inhibitory activity using two-dimensional and three-dimensional QSAR models. 2D QSAR models were built using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Principal Component Regression (PCR) besides Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) methods, in addition to a 3D QSAR model which was developed using k-Nearest Neighbor Molecular Field Analysis (kNN-MFA). Among all the developed models, multiple linear regression (MLR) model performed better with the correlation coefficient r2 = 0.7381 and cross-validated squared correlation coefficient q2 = 0.6449 with external predictive ability of pred_r2 = 0.5107. Thus, the information rendered by these QSAR models may lead to a better understanding of structural requirements of this class of compounds against cancer in addition to paving the way for design of new and potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

  73. Priyanka Prajapati, Alka Singh and Parag Jadhav

    The paper focuses on landscaping of urban and rural environments through the use of locally adapted species. The research is embarked upon with a view that the loss of local vegetation and replacement with exotic landscaping is commonly recognized as a threat to biodiversity values and results in increased demand for water and nutrients (i.e. fertilizers). Discovered in the process, are the challenges and opportunities for the protection and enhancement of local natural resources. There is also increasing pressure being placed on local government to undertake activities in a sustainable way to preserve and enhance the natural amenity of their areas.

  74. AntônioMichael Pereira Bertino, Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante, Francisco Thiago Coelho Bezerra, Francisco Vanies da Silva Sá, Núbia Marisa Fereira, Evandro Franklin de Mesquita, José Thiago Aires Souza and Geovani Soares de Lima

    The okra crop stands out as a viable alternative for family farmers in regions of semi-arid climate, due to its acceptance in the market and for being rich in vitamins, fibers and minerals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the gas exchanges of okra under water depths, soil cover and phosphate fertilization, in an experiment carried out in the municipality of Catolé do Rocha-Paraíba, Brazil, in the period from November 2014 to April 2015. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme, referring to two irrigation depths (100 and 50% of crop evapotranspiration – ETc), with and without soil cover, with and without phosphate fertilization, with four replicates. Gas exchanges were determined in the flowering stage through the CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency. There is positive influence of phosphate fertilization and soil cover on the gas exchanges of okra plants under different conditions of water availability in the soil. Phosphate fertilization and soil cover mitigate the effects of water stress on okra plants and, when associated, increase the photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency of the plants.

  75. Maicon Nardino, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Mauricio Ferrari, Tiago Olivoto, Vinicius Jardel Szareski, Gabriel BaraldiVolpi, Giordano Gelain Conte, Tiago Corazza da Rosa, Willian Silva Barros and Velci Queiróz

    The plant breeding has been constantly working with the search for increasing agricultural productivity of many crops, targeting a system with higher productivity per area, due to the increasing world population, as well as foods with a higher content of nutrients. In this scenario, the corn crop stands out due to its direct contributions manufatured or processed foods as well as being the base of the feed chain. The advance in grain yield was very significant, this fact is due to the efficiency of the breeders and also the new tools being developed and serve to support the art and science of plant breeding. This literature review was developed in order to report the importance of improving the types of corn hybrids, driving methods, genotype x environment interaction, advantages and disadvantages of growing hybrids and future prospects of plant breeding.Is literature review was conducted from March to July 2016 in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Federal University of Pelotas.

  76. Pradhan Biswajit, Kundu Sritama and Kundagrami Sabyasachi

    In the present investigation hybridization has been employed for the development of some submergence tolerant high yielding lines. Fifty diverse paddy genotypes were screened for submergence tolerance in low land submerged field condition at Calcutta University Experimental Farm, Baruipur, West Bengal, India in 2010 where water level was more than 50 cm at least for two weeks in the vegetative stage of crop growth. Four submergence tolerant genotypes namely Mahananda, Nagalmuda, Purnendu, Lakshmikajal and one susceptible genotypes namely Sonom were taken for the crossing programme and Mahananda x Nagalmuda, Nagalmuda x Purnendu, Lakshmikajal x Purnendu and Mahananda x Sonom crosses were made in 2011. The parents were selected on the basis of seed yield/plant. Crossing success varied from 6.25-8.33%. The F1 seeds were grown in the kharif season of the 2012 under submergence condition. Some promising plants were selected from F1. They were referred as F2 lines. The F2 lines were sown in the kharif season of 2013 in three replications at submergence prone areas of Calcutta University Experimental Farm, Baruipur, West Bengal, India, in which water level was more than 50 cm at least for 14 days. Total of seven F2 individual were selected from the four different cross. Six individuals produced very high seed yield per plant than their respective control. Two individual in particular derived from the cross of Mahananda and Nagalmuda appear to be most outstanding because of their high seed yield performances. So these selections have an outstanding scope to introduce as submergence tolerant lines in future breeding programme under low land submergence prone field area of West Bengal and Eastern India.

  77. Eddyman W. Ferial

    This research aims to identify and analysis of microscopic spermatozoa quality from infertile patient before and after take a supplements from Anadara granosa L. Semen sample were taken from infertile patients at the Prodia Laboratory, Makassar, Indonesia. The clamp sample were collected from Pannikiang Island, District of Barru, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Data analysis applied T-test in order to know the concentration, motility and viability of sperm quality from infertility patients. The results show that placebo administration of 2 capsule per day significantly improved the microscopic characteristic of the concentration, motility and viability of the sperm.

  78. José Amilton Santos Júnior, Hans Raj Gheyi, Nildo da Silva Dias and Alexandre Pereira de Bakker

    The expansion of oilseed cultivation under semiarid conditions is related to the use of alternative water and efficient fertilization management. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the growth and flowering of sunflower (EMBRAPA 122-V2000) irrigated with treated domestic effluent under different doses of boron (B). Hence, this study tested the application of five B doses (0 - control, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg kg-1 applied as basal dose in the form of boric acid) in plants irrigated with two types of water (treated domestic effluent and public-supply water). These treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design, analyzed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with three replicates, totaling 30 experimental units. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and regression analysis for the quantitative factor and test of Tukey for the qualitative factor at 0.05 probability level. It was found that the interaction between boron doses and type of water had an influence on stem diameter in all stages of the cycle until flowering; the beginning of flowering, number of petals and capitulum internal diameter were not influenced by boron doses or types of water used in irrigation; however, the plants showed a maximum external diameter of the capitulum under the dose of 1 mg kg-1 of boron, applied as basal fertilization, regardless of the type of water used in irrigation.

  79. Poonam Rani and Bimla Dhanda

    This multicultural twin study examined the structure and sources of individual differences in agreeableness. This study assessed cultural influences on the agreeableness component of the personality. A pair of 90 twins in the age group of 3-6 years from five cultural zones of state Haryana was taken. The data were analyzed for agreeableness culture wise and yield new insight into the trait. The results revealed that there was a significant cultural difference in agreeableness trait of personality in monozygotic twins. The respondents of Ahirwal zone had better personality traits against their counterparts.

  80. Caroline Ribeiro Tunes, Átila Reis da Silva, Debora Portella Bis, Augustus CaeserFranke Portella, Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior and Gessiel Newton Scheidt

    Industries dairy, like most other agricultural industries, generates large flows of wastewater resistant, characterized by high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand concentrations (COD). Dairy effluent are considered a major contributor to the pollution caused by these industries. The objective of this work was to study the UASB(UpflowAnaerobicSludgeBlanket)for the treatment of dairy products and biogas effluent.The efficiency of type UASB reactors from the organic loading rate of 6 kg COD m-3 d-3 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 11.8 was studied and its performance was evaluated by monitoring the pH, COD, alkalinity ratio FOS / TAC and biogas production. It was observed COD removal efficiency of 71.3%. The pH of the reactor was observed between 7.0 and 7.3 and the value of FOS / TAC between 0.129 and 0.152. The average biogas production was observed in 85.8 liters per day, and the specific volume of biogas from 0.46 to 0.71 U / g COD per day. The methane content of the biogas produced, observed maximum and minimum value of 56.6% and 40.0%, respectively.

  81. Mekala, J. and Rajan, M. R.

    The present study deals with the green synthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract and their antimicrobial effects on pathogens. The plant extracts plays a vital role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environment friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. The current study focused on morphology and size of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Hyptis suaveolens aqueous leaf extract. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Further, as-formed CuO Nps exhibit significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial strains namely Gram −ve Escherichia coli and Gram +ve bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans. The green synthesized CuO NPs are cost-effective, biogenic molecules with the capability to serve as antimicrobial agents against fish bacterial pathogens.

  82. Evayline M. Nkirigacha, Jasper K. Imungi and Michael W. Okoth

    This study was designed as baseline for an intervention to assess the effect supplementation of urban agriculture by production of traditional leafy vegetables on the dietary intake of protein, energy, vitamin A, iron and zinc, and the nutritional status of mothers of 0 to 3 months postpartum. Lactating mothers are likely to be nutritionally vulnerable and their low food intake and the poor nutrition is likely to negatively impact on the nutrition of the weaning children, especially during the period of exclusive breastfeeding. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 260 of the lactating mothers living in Mwanamukia peri-urban area in the eastern Nairobi County. Using the local administration, the population of such mothers was enumerated and from the population, the sample was randomly selected. Then using structured and pre-tested questionnaire information was collected on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics. A subsample of 53 mothers was randomly selected from the main sample and this was used to determine the dietary intake of protein, energy, vitamin A, iron and zinc in a 24-hour recall, and the nutrition status of the mothers. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 for descriptive data and Pearson correlation was used to determine associations. Results indicate that majority of the respondents fell within the age range of 36 – 40 years. On education, 44.6% had attained primary, while 16.8% had attained secondary. The household size ranged from 6 - 12 with average of 6 persons. The study further showed that majority of the respondents was from the lower socio-economic category. Most respondents had a high diverse diet, however dietary intake of vitamin A, iron and zinc were low, indicating unmet nutritional requirements. The nutritional status as determined by the BMI of majority of the respondents was underweight.

  83. Hamza Bensaci, Lakhdar Sekhri, Mohamed Khaled Bachki, Halima Benkina and Abdelali Atmani

    The present work is aimed mainly to investigate and compare the antibacterial activities of methanol, diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts of Aristida pungens Desf. leaves, and their synergic effect with some standard antibiotics on Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus using well diffusion method. Results for antibacterial activity as obtained with Aristida pungens Desf plant revealed that the three different extracts tested showed weak bacterial activity against all the bacteria tested (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of all extracts to each of the standard antimicrobics, CZ, VA, and CN on the bacteria tested (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus) showed either indifference or antagonism effects except the synergic effect of methanol extract on Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli with VA decreased respectively the area diffusion of bacteria from 100% to 99%. The results partially do not justify the claimed uses of the selected plant in the traditional system of medicine to treat various infectious diseases caused by the microbes. Further chemical and pharmacological investigations may be carried out to isolate and identify the chemical constituents in order to justify the claimed uses such as the treatment of anemia in the natural herbal treatments (folk medicine).

  84. Plamena Yankova, Pavlina Naskova, Bojka Malcheva and Dragomir Plamenov

    The present experimental work is set as a vessel experiment in a non-heated greenhouse of department „Plant Production“, Technical University – Varna. There are used three biological products – Extrasol, Herbagreen, Life Bat Guano and one mineral fertilizer – NPK. It is followed the impact of the fertilizers on the microbiological activity, as there is analyzed and the content of macroelements in the soil. From the carried out analyses is established that the biological fertilizers leave the soil well stocked with nitrogen, movable phosphates and absorbable potassium, as highest results are reported at usage of Extrasol. In the composition of the microbocenosis prevailing are the non-spore forming bacteria, and least are the micromycetes. The activity of the microorganisms is highest at usage of a combination of mineral (NPK) and biological fertilizer (Herbagreen). At combination of Extrasol and Herbagreen is reported the weakest development of microorganisms, but at the expense of this the mineralization coefficient is highest.

  85. Augusto Matias de Oliveira, Wéverson Lima Fonseca, Elaine Heberle, Alan Mario Zuffo, Tiago de Oliveira Sousa, Fernandes Antonio de Almeida, Wéverton José Lima Fonseca, Iabe Raycar Pereira Maciel, Norberto Matias de Oliveira Neto and Leandro de Oliveira G

    The use of organic substrates of own formulation for seedlings production can be a viable alternative for producers by reducing costs and facilitating access. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early development of neem seedlings (Azadirachta indica) in different organic substrates. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design, in a 4x5 factorial, with factors consisted of four organic sources (decomposed stem of the moriche palm [paú de buriti], earthworm humus, goat and poultry manure) in five proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of source mixed with soil) with ten replications. At 30 days after the emergence, plant height; number of sheets; leaf area; dry mass of shoots; and length, volume and root dry matter were evaluated. The early development of the seedlings was better on the substrates with decomposed stem of the moriche palm [paú de buriti] and poultry manure, especially in the proportions of 50 and 75% of mixed source with soil, promoting better vegetative growth.

  86. Raghavendra S.Kulkarni

    Gonadotropic cells are distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary in Notopterus notopterus. Histochemical and electronmicroscopic techniques are applied for the present study. The PPD of pituitary gland in zero age group fish has very little number of gonadotropes. The cells are undifferentiated with indistinct boundaries. They markedly increased in number in one year aged fish, since the gonads of this age group fish shows advanced stages of growth. The gonodotropes that largely occupy the medial aspect of the PPD increased numerically as the gonads mature and become major cell type before spawning in two age group fish. The electronmicroscopic studies reveals that, they appear oval or elongated containing a few large granules and many small lucent secretory granules and based on this two GTH cell type could be identified in the PPD containing different types of secretory granules. The differentiation and presence of two types of gonadotropes needs further verification in the fish N. notopterus.

  87. Bajad, P. N. and Pardeshi, A. B.

    The saponin containing pod extracts of Acacia concinna were tested for their effect on egg laying, adult emergence from grains and mortality of the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. The Callosobruchus chinensis L. is the most widespread and a dreadful pests infesting gram, cowpea, beans, lentil and other pulses. The female lay eggs on the seed surface and after hatching larva bores the seed and consumes the seed cotyledons. Among different methanol and ethanol extracts of plant materials, eggs laid on seeds, adult emergence from seeds were reduced and mortality of adults exposed to treated seeds were found after 96 hrs. and the higher concentration of plant material were highly effective against Callosobruchus chinensis. The number of eggs laid and the adults emerged from seeds of Phaseolus aconitifolius treated with ethanolic extract of saponin containing pod extracts of Acacia concinna were 38 and 21 in 3 mg. of concentration while seeds treated with methanol extract were 49 and 29 in 3 mg. respectively. In the present study ethanol extract of plant material were effective as bio insecticidal property to control pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis.

  88. Yamuna Shanker

    Biodiesel has established itself as a precisely sufficient alternative fuel for diesel engines. Generators are vital equipment of industry and have a wide usage area in agriculture. Furthermore engine performance and emissions of electric generators gain importance due to their indoor applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance and smoke results of Bombax pentandrum and Cassia siamea biodiesel utilization in diesel engine. The smoke opacity test was conducted using 20% blends of biodiesel with Single cylinder, four stroke, air cooled, indirect injection diesel engine, and generator performance tests were performed using 10% blends in a 7.5 KVA (6KW) electrical generator. Consecutive tests on Diesel fuel, B20 and B10 blends of Bombax pentandrum and Cassia siamea methyl ester were conducted, and the results were compared with each other. When compared to Diesel fuel, both utilizations showed improved results on engine performance and emissions. According to the result obtained, Bombax pentandrum and Cassia siamea seed oil originated biodiesel can be utilized as a blend component during generator applications in rural areas and indoor applications.

  89. Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Mauricio Ferrari, Daniela Meira, Etiane Skrebsky Quadros, 1Kassiana Kehl, Tiago Pedó, Paulo Dejalma Zimmer, Velci Queiróz de Souza and Tiag

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different doses of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in dual-purpose wheat seeds, and their answers on morphological traits, when measured in different evaluation periods. The experiment was conducted at 2013 crop year, in the experimental field of the Federal University of Santa Maria Campus Frederico Westphalen – RS, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block in a factorial design, two dual-purpose wheat genotypes x five doses of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate x four periods of evaluation, with four replications. Analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction among dual-purpose wheat genotypes x doses of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate x evaluation periods for leaf area and root diameter. It was observed interaction among dual-purpose wheat genotypes x evaluation periods of traits number of fertile tillers, plant height, tillers diameter and chlorophyll content. There was no interaction for root length. The dual-purpose wheat genotypes have differential behavior among themselves and evaluation periods, when the seeds subjected to the application of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate mutagen agent. Increasing doses of Ethyl Methane Sulfonate agent reveals variability for leaf area, root diameter, number of fertile tillers, tillers diameter and chlorophyll content; however, it has a negative effect on the length of the main root.

  90. Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Ivan Ricardo Caralho, Maicon Nardino, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Mauricio Ferrari, Ronei Gaviraghi, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Cleiton Antônio Warths and Velci Queiróz de Souza

    The objective of this study was to infer on yield performance through linear associations of traits and identify the genetic variation of soybean genotypes through canonical variables. The experiment was carried out during the 2013/2014 agricultural year in a randomized block design arranged in four replications. The following genotypes were utilized: NS 5445 IPRO, NS 6211 RR, TEC 6029 IPRO, TECS 13/03 RR, 6458 RSF IPRO, DON MARIO 5.8i, 6160RSF IPRO, DON MARIO 5.9i, CD 2611 IPRO, CD 2585 RR, and TMG 7161 RR. Genotypes 6160RSF IPRO, NS 5445 IPRO, and 6458RSF IPRO presented the greatest grain yield values, demonstrating potential use for cultivation in lowlands in Rio Grande do Sul. The traits grain weight of ten plants, number of pods in the main stem, number of pods in the branches, number of pods with one, two, and three grains have positive linear correlations with grain yield. The genotypes were clustered according to their genetic basis and maturation cycle, canonical variables explained 85.05% of existent genetic variation, and four genotype groups were formed.

  91. Rania Souli, Dhouibi Leila, Patrice Berçot, El Mustafa Rezrazi and Ezzeddine Triki

    The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in an aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of different amounts of extract of Nigella Sativa seeds. The previous work we proved that presence of this mixture in the solution decreases the corrosion current density. Long term immersion showed that lower amounts are more efficient than higher ones. And the inhibitor layer is more stable for smaller amount after 19 hours of immersion. The surface examination and analyses confirm that a layer is formed on the metal surface.

  92. Meena Kumari, Bisht, H. C. S. and Dharmendra Rathore

    The paper deals with some biological aspects of Macrobrachium hendersodayanum a fresh water commercially important crustacean which is highly preferred by the consumers locally at river Jagbuda in village Melaghat, tehsil Khatima (790 45’ E Long. and 290 0’ N Lat.) of district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. The successful culturing of animal requires a basic understanding of its key biological processes. About 200 specimens of this species were collected monthly between August 2013 to July 2014 and studied with particular refrence to size composition, distribution, identification, morphology, reproductive biology and food and feeding habits. This study revealed that it was not a continuous breeder and showed only one breeding peak periods in a year before onset of monsoon. Males were larger than the female. But female sexually matures faster than males. More than 60 % berried females were found in the total length ranged between 5.2-6.5 cm The largest male (carapace length=2.0-2.2cm) with strongest chelate legs showed its dominance over recessive and non breeding males. Both male and female attained maturity at the age of about 4-6 months after hatching. It has omnivorous feeding habit. It was observed that diatoms, algae, crustaceans and other plant materials were its most preferred food.

  93. Krishnakumare, B. and Niranjan, S.

    Availability of organic input and output is critical for the improvement of organic farming in the country. Development of efficient marketing system is the need of the hour for strengthening the organic production in India. This paper made a humble attempt for understanding the consumer attitudetowards organic food product in Tirupur District, Tamilnadu. The results concluded that most of the consumer especially in urban people prefer organic food product. The major reasonfor thepurchase of organic food product washealth and lack of trust and non-availability was the reason for non-purchase of organic food product. Attitude towards organic food product was positive in case of organic respondents.

  94. Gustavo Henrique Demari, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Maicon Nardino, Vinícius Jardel Szareski, Andrêssa Cristina Datsch Demari, Alan Junior de Pelegrin, Tamires da Silva Martins, Nathan Lobler dos Santos, Francine Lautenchleger, Tiago Pedó, Velci Queiróz de S

    Wheat grains have excelente bromatological quality, having high protein concentration. The increasing consumption of poultry meat is important for the economy, mainly in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The poultry industry generates high amount of waste, which can be used as fertilizer due to the concentration of nutrients and emerge as an alternative organic fertilizer for crops. The poultry litter can be characterized as waste composed by sawdust, wood shavings, rice hulls, poultry waste, feathers, ration residues, among others. However, the nitrogen must be supplied in optimum quantity and timing to ensure that the plant can express its maximum yield potential. Thus, the phenological stage that the plant is located is the indicator of the moment of nitrogen application. It is known that the various sources used to supply the nutritional demand of culture, express high added value, thus the use of poultry litter becomes an economic and environmentally sustainable alternative. The most practical definition for poultry litter is the material used to form the warehouse floor of the farms, composed of rice straw, grass hay, corn cobs, sawdust, wood shavings, feathers and ration residues. Among the nutrients, nitrogen is essential for wheat, because it increases the growth and development of the culture, having direct influence on the quality and quantity of grain. The use of poultry litter becomes an alternative to the producer, due to the need for material disposal, as well as the utilization of nutrient concentrations of compounds, that provide nutrients necessary for plant development.

  95. Raquel Stefanello, Luciane Almeri Tabaldi and Luiz Augusto Salles das Neves

    As a result of human activity, the contamination of water, soil and seeds by potentially toxic metals, such as aluminum (Al), is an obstacle to agriculture. The aim of this study was to verify how onion seeds tolerate aluminum during germination and initial seedling growth. Seeds were placed on paper soaked in an aqueous solution of aluminum chloride at concentrations of zero, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mg L-1. The parameters evaluated were germination percentage, first count, and total length, shoot length, root length and dry mass of seedlings. Concentrations above 45 mg L-1 caused a reduction in the total length and root length of the seedlings onion, but did not influence the germination percentage of the seeds. Based on the results, it can be concluded that onion seeds are moderately tolerant to Al levels tested in this study.

  96. Fakhra Soomro, Riffat Sultana and Muhammad Saeed Wagan

    Trilophidia annulata is one of the most important agricultural pests in the low lying grasslands. It feeds on a wide range of crops but is primarily graminivorous. It’s all developmental stages cause damage to varieties of crops but their immature seem most destructive. During the present study immatures of T. annulata was discussed. It passes through 5th nymphal instars in male and 6th in female. All the morphological differences were shown through illustration and photographs. It was noted that there is significant difference in the head, pronotum and wing pads of different nymphal stages. Color pigmentation is also unique and prominent feature in these developmental stages. Still now this, parameter was untouched. Present study is being carried out for the first time.

  97. Mohan Lal, Riffat Sultana and Muhammad Saeed Wagan

    An extensive survey of Thar has been made during the year 2015 to 2016, in the result of this a total of 943 specimens were captured and sorted out into 25 species. Majority of specimens belong to Acrididae followed by Pyrgomorphidae while only single species i-e Dericorys tibialis (Pallas, 1773) of Dericorythidae was come in collection. Specimens were captured from different habitats that include sandy, rocky, grassy and cultivated crops. This study will be fruitful for up gradation of checklist of caeliferans fauna of Thar Desert.

  98. Shintu, P. V., Radhakrishnan, V. V. and Mohanan, K. V.

    Maranta arundinacea commonly known as the West Indian arrowroot is a perennial rhizomatous herb cultivated widely in tropical countries for its starchy rhizomes. The edible tuberous rhizomes are rich in starch and are also a commercial source of fine grade starch used often in weaning foods and biscuits. The starch is reported to have medicinal uses and is an important ingredient in the preparation of barium meals and tablets. The plant which grows under shade is generally resistant to pests and pathogens. Traditionally the tuberous rhizomes are used in the treatment of diarrhea. Being an important crop with underexplored and underexploited genetic potential, knowledge of the genetic control of its agronomic characters is one of the major steps towards the improvement of the genetic stock of this crop. Hence an experiment was carried out to analyze the genetic control of the major agronomic characters in Maranta arundinacea. Six growth characters and eight yield characters were studied and all of them showed continuous distribution indicating polygenic control. Among the growth characters, leaf breadth and leaf area showed accumulation of higher number of dominant alleles. In the case of yield characters, diameter of primary fingers and yield per plant showed maximum accumulation of dominant alleles as revealed by the frequency distribution of the variables. The other characters showed a symmetric distribution of different combinations of alleles or accumulation of recessive alleles in their gene pool. The study indicates the essentiality of selection of better phenotypes and genotypes with higher number of dominant contributing alleles to develop superior varieties.

  99. Parveen, M. and Subramani, A.

    In the present study Vigna mungo plants were raised under different concentrations of zinc (5, 10, 25, 50 & 100 mgl-1). One set of seeds were irrigated with distilled water which served as control (0 mgl-1). Vigna mungo seeds were equispacealy placed in Petri plates lined with filter paper. They were irrigated periodically with various concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50 & 100 mgl-1). Five replicates were maintained for each concentrations including control. The number of seeds germinated were counted and recorded daily. On the 10th day after sowing five seedlings were taken in random to record various seedling growth parameters like shoot length, root length and dry weight of seedlings. The seedlings were used for the analysis of various biochemical constituents like photosynthetic pigments, protein, total sugars and amino acids. There was a gradual decline in all the growth parameters and biochemical constituents with progressive increase in zinc concentration.

  100. Jakka Mastan, B. N., Srinivas, M. V., Basaveswara Rao and Tentu. Nageswara Rao

    Laboratory persistence studies were performed in water at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 using bispyribac-sodium 40% SC (w/v) formulation at the rates of T0 – Untreated Control, 1.0 (T1) and 2.0 (T2) µg/mL. The different pH Waters samples have been kept under sunlight. The sampling occasions are Acidic water: 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50 days for acidic water (pH 4.0), basic and Neutral water: 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 70 and 90 days Samples collected on different occasions were analysed for Bispyribac-sodium content by a validated HPLC method. The average percent recovery for Bispyribac-sodium was 86.33% ± 1.74, 87.50% ± 1.20 and 89.0% ± 1.23 at 0.05 µg/mL and 91.33% ± 1.33, 93.0% ± 1.67 and 94.83% ± 1.82 at 0.5 µg/mL fortification level for acidic, neutral and basic water respectively. The method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) 0.05 µg/mL. The DT50 (Half Life) of bispyribac-sodium calculated by regression analysis from the dissipation data.

  101. Chinmay Karanjkar, Vedant Salvi, Manjusha Mishra and Lipika Mahajan

    Internet access has been gaining popularity over the years for various purposes but there are some rural areas which are still not verse with Internet Technology. This paper emphasizes on introducing WiMAX technology as a heterogeneous network along with the in place technology for internet access such as WiFi and infrastructure based networks. Detailed implementation of WiMAX technology over the current existing network has been depicted. This paper also proposes an e-education program for digital empowerment of the citizenresiding in rural areas through WiMAX technology.

  102. Ravi Chinapaga, Harshitha, G., Bal Raju, M. and Subhash Chandra, N.

    In graphs like social networks, Semantic Web and biological networks, every vertex has high information, which can be design by a set of tokens or elements. In this paper, we are studying about. Retrieving similarity set using sub graph approach, which gives subgraph that is structurally isomorphic to the query. Here we apply the apriori algorithm to find sub transaction set for actual transaction set in with each item get separated depending upon the category they are, which accomplish the frequent item set with its dynamic weight. In this we design a lightweight signature for both query vertices and data vertices. Structure-based pruning, which accomplishment the individual features of both (dynamic) weighted set similarity. We design an efficient algorithm to perform sub graph matching based on the dominating set of query graph.

  103. Srivastava, U. C., Srivastava, M. P. and Gaurav, S.

    Density functional theory (DFT) is currently the method of choice for first principles studies of crystalline materials, which depict fundamental issues of structure and properties of various phases of zirconia. But Lattice dynamics is one of the method by help of it the complete structure properties can be analyzed .So due to availability of experimental data author has motivated for the theoretical lattice dynamical study for ZrO2.In present communication is focused on theoretical study of structure analysis of ZrO2, with particular emphasis on vibrational phonon properties by use of van der Waals three-body force shell model (VTBFSM). Present model includes van der Waals interactions (VWI) and three-body interactions (TBI) in the frame work of both ion polarizable rigid shell model (RSM).The available Density functional theory (DFT) was used to optimize the crystal structure of ZrO2thereafter studied about the thermodynamic properties, dispersion relation and density of state (DOS) at the temperature of 300K and 1100Kcalculated by use of present theoretical model (VTBFSM) and Phonon-VASP software. The model predictions are found to be in reasonable for complete harmonic dynamical behavior of the crystals and well agreement with their experimental reported results (Togo et al., 2008; Tojo et al., 1999; Luo et al., 2009).

  104. M. H. Muddebihal and Nawazoddin U. Patel

    For any graph G=( V,E ), the Line graph L(G) of a graph G is a graph whose set of vertices is the union of the set of edges of G in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding edges of G are adjacent. A dominating set D of a graph L(G) is a strong Line dominating set if every vertex in 〈V[L(G) ]-D〉 is strongly dominated by at least one vertex in D. Strong Line domination number 〖 γ〗_(SL ) (G) of G is the minimum cardinality of strong Line dominating set of G. In this paper, we study graph theoretic properties of 〖 γ〗_(SL ) (G) and many bounds were obtain in terms of elements of G and its relationship with other domination parameters were found.

  105. Alexander G. Bordón, Andrea N. Pila, Maria J. Jorge, Lilian C. Jorge, Mariela I. Profeta, Jorge M. Romero and Nelly L. Jorge

    The thermal decomposition of diphenyl diperoxide (DFT) and dibutanal diperoxide (DPG) were investigated over the temperature range 130 to 166°C. They were found to be first order with a high degree of conversion (60%). Arrhenius parameters were calculated: activation energy, 108 kJ mol-1 and pre-exponential factor, 6.5 109 s-1 for DFT and 80.8 kJ mol-1 and pre-exponential factor, 1.8 109 s-1 for DPG. The principle decomposition products were aldehyde (about 1.9 mole per mole DFT and 2.0 mole per mole DPG) and oxygen molecule. All observations were interpreted in terms of decomposition pathways initiated by O-O homolysis. The corresponding activation parameters for the reaction of DFT in methanol (ΔH0# = 103.8 ± 3.3 kJ mol-1; ΔS0# = -69.9 ± 7.5 J mol-1 K-1; ΔG0# = 133.1 ± 3.3 kJ mol-1) were compared with values obtained for PDG thermolysis in the same solvents (ΔH0# = 75.4 ± 2.9 kJ mol-1; ΔS0# = -189.2 ± 2.5 J mol-1 K-1; ΔG0# = 157.4 ± 2.9 kJ mol-1). Furthermore, the pertinent substituent effect on the peroxidic bond strength of those molecules in solution was evaluated.

  106. Amritha Ajeej, Joseph V Thanikal, Narayanan, C. M. and Hatem Yazidi

    The objective of the study is to determine the characteristics of three different substrates-sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants, waste grown algae and the waste paper from the waste bins - and the influence of these characteristics on biogas production when they are added in a batch reactor under the anaerobic digestion. Integration of sewage sludge with waste paper and algae in anaerobic co-digestion has a great advantage on the treatment of sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment plants (WWTP). The study assess the bio methane potential and kinetics of biodegradability of the substrates before they are added for a co digestion. The bio-methane potential study shows that the three substrates are biodegradable and can complement each other if used in co-digestion. From the degradation study it is found that degradation kinetics of the sludge is almost 50% faster than the waste paper and 33% faster than the algae.

  107. Richa Chauhan, Singh, H. S. and Rohitash Singh Shekhawat

    Several studies have been investigated in the superconducting materials such as critical magnetic field, magnetic field, critical temperature etc. Here, we will discuss the empirical relation between critical magnetic field and temperature for superconductors. Till today, this empirical relation was obtained on the basis of experimental data of superconducting materials. Therefore, we are deriving this empirical relation theoretically by the use of the concept of BCS theory, thermodynamics and magnetic properties for superconductors.

  108. Indu Saxena, Anoop Mishra, Vijay Kumar, Sadhana Gautam and Jaya Tripathi

    Some major modifications have been introduced in the modified version of Magnetic Float Densitometer; change in the design of float, it had a depression (concave shape) at the upper part, ferrite core inside the solid cylinder concentric to coils and cylinder itself is used, electrical circuitry has been changed into auto circuit. These modifications improved the working easier.

  109. Prof. Jotsna S. Saindane

    This research paper discusses the different applications of 3D printing in various industries. Imagine a 3D printer printing whatever your child or you want to print. Right from printing the parts for your child’s game, printing synthetic parts of organs such as kidney, windpipe, lungs, a customized meal, to printing parts of an aircraft, everything is possible.

  110. Hula.M. Salih

    In this paper, we introduce a new classes of functions by using generalized#pre-closed sets and generalized #pre-open sets called strongly contrα- generalized #pre-continuous, strongly - generalized #pre-continuous function, contrα- generalized #pre-irresolute and almost contrα - generalized #pre-continuous function in topological spaces .Relationships between a new types of contrα - generalized #pre-continuous are established and we study some of basic properties.

  111. Hariprakash, B.

    This is the idea in which we can analyse our eye power by our own android device. In this idea we use the sensors and the device which are used by the eye specialist. The main device which is used by the eye specialist auto refractor. The project makes the auto refractor machine in to small integrated part by using the instrumentation and control concepts and MATLAB concepts. We can make the auto refractor inbuilt in the android phone as small equipment and by using the camera module in the phone we can make our eye to focus in the camera and then the device which is inbuilt in the android sense our eye power exactly and the power of our eyes (short sight or long sight or nil power)and it functions by getting our eye biometric scan, the analyses is done here.

  112. Santiago Nieto Martin and María Luisa Sevillano García

    In this article, I attempt to show the characteristics of the education system in Lithuania, doing so based on the educational performance revealed in different countries through the PISA 2006 Report. I describe the characteristics obtained by carrying out a comparison with other countries in the world, and I clearly define the benefits through four models that define the educational systems of the world to address their heterogeneity.

  113. Sunil Kumar, Chauniyal, D. D. and Surajit Dutta

    Morphometric analysis is a measurement and quantitative description of any drainage basin. It is understand to the nature of the different landforms and structure in given area. Morphometric analysis of a watershed provides a quantitative description of the drainage system, which is an important aspect of the characterization of watersheds (Strahler, 1964). Morphometric analysis includes three parameters-linear, areal and relief aspects of a drainage basin through the general description about the particular area like as physiological feature, geological structure and development of the landform characteristics. In this paper, the study area is a part of the greater Himalaya and resulted landform topography and terrain feature of the three natural processes like as glacial, peri-glacial and fluvial. Rupin drainage basin and its tributaries created such as various type landform and landscape development and hydraulic action of the study area. In the present morphometric analysis of the Rupin Basin has been carried out with the help of the remote sensing and GIS techniques. It has also given to the result and impact of tectonic to the morphometry of Rupin drainage basin.

  114. Kiya Adare Tadesse and Sharma, P. D.

    There is an enormous potential for the production of cotton in Ethiopia, given the suitable agro-ecological conditions in certain regions. However, with small area and low productivity, the country has insignificant gains from its cotton production. Soil-related constraints could be one of the factors for low cotton productivity. Presently, little information is available to farmers and extension workers on different aspects of soil management in the cotton growing areas of Ethiopia, in general, and Arba Minch Zuria Woreda in particular. To substantiate the information, 30 composite surface soil samples representing different sites in three kebeles (ZeyseElgo, Genta Kanchama, Shelle Mella) of woreda, were analysed for different physico-chemical properties. The texture of soils varied from silty loam to silty clay loam, the bulk density from 1.25 to 1.55 Mg m-3 and porosity from 39.2 to 47.9 %. While the soils of Genta Kanchama were moderately alkaline (pH 8.2), the soils of ZeyseElgo and Shelle Mella were strongly alkaline (pH 8.9 and 9.1). The soils of Genta Kanchama and Shelle Mellakebeles with EC of 4.5 and 9.0 dSm-1, respectively were affected by soil salinity. All soils had very high concentrations of exchangeable Ca and Mg, contributing almost fully to the total base saturation. The CEC of soils varying from 38 to 55.10 cmol(+) kg-1 was high. The organic carbon content of 1.2 to 1.7 % was low to medium. The total N status of the soils was medium with its content varying from 0.13 – 0.19%. The available P of 12.7 to 47.0 mg kg-1 was medium to high. With high exchangeable K, all the kebele soils were adequately supplied with potassium. The contents of available micronutrients viz., Fe, Mn and Cu were sufficiently high in all the soils. The concentration of Zn was, however, at a critical level. For sustained cotton production in the area, the soil management would include control measures for the salinity-affected soils and addition of nitrogenous and zinc fertilizers and organic manure on all the soils.

  115. Girma Kebede Aredo and Mulu Geta

    The objectives of this study were to examine the actual implementations of active learning in Wonji secondary school, grade nine English classes in focus. The research design of the study was mixed, both qualitative and quantitative. The study was conducted in grade nine students of Wonji secondary and Wonji Gefferssa Secondary schools. Data were collected from 180 male and 201 female students; systematic random sampling technique was employed to choose the sample students from 278 male and 323 female students. Among 1202 students of grade 9, only 33% were selected. All English teachers, 4 of grade 9, the supervisor and the directors were included through purposive sampling technique. The data were collected using observations, open ended and close ended questionnaires, and semi structured interviews. The students’ questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data collected through observations and interview were analyzed qualitatively, describing what were obtained from the class observations and teachers’ response of interview, and interpreting what were really assessed in the classroom. Conclusions show that group and pair discussions and information exchange are not frequently practiced. Students’ participation is very less; nevertheless, lecture method of instructional approach dominated the class. The teachers give more attention to a few students who they think are cleverer than others, and yet, the middle scorers and under achievers were nearly neglected. The teaching-learning systems in grade nine English classes were dominated by traditional approach. Thus, active learning was given little attention. This in turn, hampers the students’ problem solving capacity, and leaves the students dependent learners. The findings also indicate that lack of professional support, students’ little experience in active learning and lecture method of instruction were found to be the major factors that affect the implementation of active learning in the language classes. Thus, based on the findings of the study, recommendations were forwarded to alleviate the aforementioned problems in the schools under the study.

  116. Pr. Opadou KOUDOU, Dr. Koko LucieN’GORAN and ANOH Yoboua Diane

    This study focuses on violent criminality experienced by buyers and sellers. Three objectives the structure: identify crimes against sellers and buyers; identify the factors that underlie these crimes; assess the impact of these crimes on sellers and buyers. Desk research, questionnaire and interview were used as data collection tools. The results of the survey indicate that stakeholders (buyers and sellers) in the market are victims of physical assaults, robberies and homicides. Hoarding of goods on the site, the lack of formal control, circulation of firearms and bad land commercial site are the major risk factors. In terms of prevention, the study proposes situational prevention and psychosocial support for victims.

  117. Dr. Charulata Londhe

    Terrorism is the great threat faced by the whole world. Metropolitan cities are under serious threats of terrorist attacks globally. The strategy of terrorist activities to imply maximum damage to country is to attack citizens and business or economic centers of big and metro cities. Recent evidences of 9/11 attack of World Trade Center (2001), Mumbai attack of 26/11 (2008), Nice attack (2016) in Paris prove the assumption. Terrorism and terrorist activities across world like suicidal attacks, bomb blast, random firing, use of vehicles for terror attacks like trucks, planes and threats of bio-weapons and nuclear weapons are few ‘T-VUCA’ factors which are completely non-business related factors. Such terrorist activities affect the businesses in drastic ways and in severe manner experiencing losses of money, men (employee and customers), asset, business and business process, market faith and reputation etc. and develop crisis alerts as well as challenges the business continuity for long time. The paper develops a case study of 26/11 attacks of Mumbai, India in 2008 and tries to see how Terrorism creates VUCA (T-VUCA).

  118. Dike Lotanna, Okeke Goodfaith and Mbah Stella, I.

    This research work examined the effect of monetary incentives on workers’ performance with particular reference to selected firms in Anambra state. This research work became necessary following incessant conflict in the organization as a result of the incentive scheme. Relevant literature relating to the monetary incentives and workers performance were reviewed. The firms selected for the study was drawn from the three senatorial districts of Anambra state. The population used for the study was 1019; a sample size of 287 using taro Yamane formulae which was considered adequate for the study. The principal instrument for collection of primary data was the questionnaire which was structured in five point likert scale. A content validity approach was adopted. The test retest method was used for the reliability test. The result gave a reliability coefficient of 73% which indicated an acceptable degree of consistency. Data collected were presented in tables using frequency and percentages. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses and T-test for test of significance at 0.05 was adopted to equally estimate for the significance of the coefficient and to ascertain whether the claim of the null or alternative hypothesis would still remain valid after the test. The result shows that there is a significant relationship between monetary incentives and workers performance. The study therefore recommended that incentives preferences of employees should be considered in the distribution of reward types to deserving employees for maximum employee performance.

  119. Mithra, J. and Baskaran, R.

    Soil is a major part of the natural environment, alongside air and water and it’s vital to the existence of life on the planet. Investigation of soil series and its village wise distribution, crops grown and capability in Thanjavur Taluk on the basis of the data derived from the Soil Survey Department.

  120. Doren Ruayah Herman

    This article discusses the use of the Measurement Model using the First Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) for the constructs validity and reliability and item indicators developed by the researcher. There are 31 items indicators and represented by 10 constructs built in this study. Ten of these constructs are the religion factor, culture, the needs of Sexuality and Health Education curriculum, the role of parents/guardians, and the role of schools, teachers' beliefs, teachers’ awareness, cognitive readiness, affective (emotional) readiness, and behavior readiness. After testing the CFA with the Common Method Bias (CMB), a better model is produced, the standard error (S.E) and the critical ratio (C.R.) were significant (P = .001). The factor loadings are eligible at ≥ 0.70 per relations latent variables and indicator variables. This test is available to produce the better corresponding measurement model. This First Order CFA (Measurement Model) is fit with the data surveyed; χ2df = 1.946 (< 0.5), RMR = 0.238 (≤ 0.08), CFI = 0.965 (> 0.90), TLI = 0.954 (> 0.90), NFI = 0.930 (> 0.90), PCFI = 0.747 (> 0.50) and RMSEA = 0.057 (< 0.80). The Second Order CFA is also fit with the data surveyed; χ2df = 2.695 (< 0.5), RMR = 0.305 (≤ 0.80), CFI = 0.926 (> 0.90), TLI = 0.918 (> 0.90), NFI = 0.887 (> 0.90), PCFI = 0.838 (>0.50) and RMSEA = 0.077 (< 0.80). In addition, it was found that both of the Measurement Models of Sexuality and Health Education Teachers’ Readiness have the Convergent and Discriminant validity that comply with the main requirements of CFA. C.R. ≥ 0.70, AVE ≥ 0.50, and the constructs reliability are α ≥ 0.70. The latent variables were also a factor predictor for the 31 items indicators. The findings of this study were found to be eligible for the empirical-theoretical (Social-Cognitive, Psychodynamic and Sexual-Health theory) and statistical analysis of SEM. Thus, the ten factors discussed should be considered in determining the teachers’ readiness on the implementation of Sexuality and Health Education to students with learning disabilities in special education schools in Sabah.

  121. Ngerem, Eucharia Iheoma and Iheanacho, Stephen Chigbo

    This paper examined holistic education for sustainable education on graduates’ functionality in our contemporary society. Two research questions guided the study. The population comprised of 6,000 lecturers in two universities in Abia State namely; Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike (MOUAU) and Abia State University Uturu (ABSU). The sample size of 600 lecturers was selected through the stratified proportionate randomly sampling technique. The researchers developed a well-structured questionnaire titled holistic education for sustainable education on graduates’ functionality in our contemporary society (HEPSEGFCSQ) to obtain data from the respondents. The questionnaire consisted of 14 item statements. Mean was used in analyzing the data for the study. The findings from this study identified the approaches of holistic education for sustainable education which are Academic discipline-based education, Civic education, Environmental education, Entrepreneurship education and so on. It also revealed the influences of such approaches for graduates’ functionality in our contemporary society, thus, Academic discipline-based education is the departmentalization of knowledge within a unique profession (occupation). Civic education helps graduates with moral values (ethics); Citizenship education (politics) and contemporary issues help in good political practice; Entrepreneurship education equips graduates with entrepreneurial skills development and management competencies needed to excel optimally in all academic discipline-based education and so on. The paper recommended among others that; holistic education nurtures the broad development of the students and focuses on their intellectual, emotional, social, physical, creative or intuitive, aesthetic and spiritual potentials. Implementing holistic education in schools requires the development of a shared vision, goals and objectives of the government, educationists and students.

  122. Abrorjon Anvarovich Otajonov

    In article are analyzed aspects of clearing from the criminal liability of the accomplices of a crime in connection with rendering by them of assistance in revealing and disclosing of the organized group or criminal formation and their members.

  123. Eko Murdiyanto, Soemanto, R. B., Mahendra Wijaya and Sarah Rum Handayani Pinta

    Corporate social responsibility programs in the capital strengthening for farmers having the different orientation that is owned by the farmers. Farmers put more the social culture rather than the economic culture. This condition often leads an obstacle in the capital strengthening program. Thus it needs to be done the fund management by the farmers in order to make the capital strengthening program runs well. This research is done utilizing the descriptive qualitative approach with a case study on snake fruit farmers of Salam-Trumpon, Sleman Regency. This regency manages the CSR programs of PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk Community Development Sub Area Yogyakarta. The gathering data method was utilizing observation, interview and Focus Group Discussion. The result of the research showed that the management of corporate social responsibility programs could be done well by Duri Kencana farmers group. The important factor that led to success of this program is that this farmers' group holding to the local wisdom as farmers who live near Merapi mountain. Local wisdom with an open minded attitude towards the new culture and be able to keep their own culture run well.

  124. Aman Gilani and Rahul Eragula

    It is to the credibility of the human behavior that products are under a constant diversification process to meet the ever changing desires of people. The world is instilled with so many variations among its demographics that there is hardly any product that has the scope to reign in a constant form throughout the global market. It is not quite convincing to the artist to change his masterpiece for others but to be able to sell it, a little color must be added here and there to portray an appealing desire of the consumer. The very thought of expanding the idea to let the tastes and preferences of the consumers plug in is the absolute key to success, although it wouldn't be so embraced by the person behind the idea of the product. The practicality of gaining the global market lies within the stretchability of the business to adapt its product to the various demographic sectors. The sole objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of product adaptation in various markets to be a market leader in the international business.

  125. Dr. Shamsuddin

    There are some tariff and non tariff barriers to regulate the trade in goods. The tariffs and trade barriers effects on businesses, consumers and the government in form of price of goods, competition among producers and revenue for government. In the short run, higher prices for goods can decrease use by individual consumers and by businesses. During this time period, businesses will profit and the government will perceive an increase in revenue from taxes. In the long term, businesses may perceive a turn down in efficiency due to a lack of competition, and may also perceive a reduction in profits due to the materialization of substitutes for their products. For the government, the long-term effect of subsidies is an increase in the demand for public services, since increased prices, especially in foodstuffs, leave less disposable income. Here in this article the basic concept of tariffs and non tariffs barriers in trade, it’s various kinds and affect on price of goods of these barriers is gently explained.

  126. TITO Albert, WABI Sakariyaou Alabi, HOUNGA Antoine and et ATTIKLEME Kossivi

    The expansion of HIV/ADS pandemic all over the world during these last years has weaken havoc creating within families a great number of orphans. Benin has not been on the fringes of this realty a real problem which has not stopped creating orphans and vulnerable children. Jean Pierre Pages’s Theory (1993) has served us as a model of analysis soas to build a field example controversy through a consideration of opinions of one another on the subject. The information that we have received have led us to formulate the hypothesis according to which « the support to the psychosocial taking charge of orphansand vulnerable children by the ministry in the charge of the family is well appreciated by the receivers ». In order to check that hypothesis, we have conducted our surveys by three target groups. The obtained results have supported our hypothesis by bringing out that the supports constitute for the children and the parents the solutions to the difficulties that they encounter and the improvement of their situation.

  127. Pinki Rani, Dr. B. Dhanda and Reetu Devi

    Personality refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviours consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. In the present study for comparing the personality traits of secondary school students of single-sex schools and co-educational schools a sample of 160 students was selected from different school of Hisar district. In the study personality was dependent variable and school type was independent variable. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) by Raymond B. Cattell was used to assess the personality. Result reflects that personality came out to be highly significant as the value obtained t (16.36 and 6.16) was larger than the table value with df 78 at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. Hence, this may be interpreted to mean that there was significance difference in the mean score of personality of rural and urban groups of students. Personality came out to be highly significant as the value obtained t (15.31 and 10.09) was more than the table value with df 78 at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance. Hence, this may be interpreted to mean that there was significance difference in the mean score of personality of rural and urban groups of students.

  128. Prakash Yalavatti

    In this paper, some fixed point theorems are proved in D-metric spaces. The Generalization of fixed point theorems and selfmaps in F-orbitally compete D-metric space which include unique fixed point results in Dolhare (2016), Dhage et al. (2003), Dolhare (?), Dolhare and Bele (2016), generalized fixed point therems in F-orbitally complete D-metric spaces as a special cases.

  129. Samer Hatem Raddad

    Human settlements provide a special focus for most human activity, and therefore also strongly impact on the local land cover, water quality, and biodiversity. Set-up a development strategy and providing policy-relevant guidance therefore requires a detailed and accurate evidence base documenting the spatial distribution of populations, settlements and their inter-connectivity. Location of human settlements is determined by local amenities, economic factors, and communications. Political transformations and instability conditions are among the most important factors affecting social, economic, and environmental aspects of the world, especially in the countries and regions which witnessed wars and political problems.The Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) have witnessed many political transformations and events since the occupation by the Israeli Army of the Palestinian Land in 1967. Analyzing the spatial patterns of settlements can contribute to greater understanding of land use changes, ecological processes, and cultures. The impact of the Geopolitical factor on the human settlement pattern and their communication received little attention. Therefore, this study aims to explore the distribution of Palestinian settlements and their communication in Jerusalem district under the political crisis such the popular uprising. This study adapted quantitative methods that including descriptive and cartographic approaches in the Geographic Information System (GIS) environment for addressing the primary and secondary data. Geovisualization and geoprocessing process, especially, map overlapping analysis between different thematic maps to present distribution of human settlements and the geopolitical factors. Geopolitical factors which including Israeli settlements, segregation wall, and military checkpoints impacted negatively on Palestinian settlements and their inter-connectivity in Jerusalem District under the political crisis such the popular uprising. These factors led to convert the Palestinian communities into islands in the Israeli colony ocean in Jerusalem district and isolate the Palestinian communities from each to other especially, under the political crisis. This effort will contribute in the urban planning, scientific field and the body of knowledge, especially, in the association between urban planning and political science fields. Palestinian need to transition from reaction status into the action status and play more significant role in the game by preparing an alternative plan and scenarios to meet the Israeli process in general and especially under political crisis and future popular uprisings Therefore, Palestinian policy makers, urban and regional planners, and researchers need to pay more planning and research efforts to help the Palestinian communities meet their needs under the political crisis and wars.

  130. Teresa de Jesús Cárdenas Gándara and Gustavo Román Carrasco Flores

    Along with technological changes the teaching-learning process has also evolved, with the use of information technology (IT) a huge step has been given in distance education, creating a new term: e-learning, online education or distributed education. New technologies make us develop new teaching methods which could be able to operate on the Internet. These methods require new: teaching materials, pedagogical proposals and roles developed through instructional design; by using this, activities oriented to the accomplishment of objectives of specific learning are planned. The function of instructional design is organizing and structuring courses looking for the applicability of contents and theoretical practical accordance, as well as teaching-learning strategies. Through this, educational abilities are generated in a dynamic manner renewing the teaching praxis; this is, utilizing technology such as electronic boards, generating new pedagogical models (based also in the use of the diversity of technological tools) that conduct to an open field of knowledge.

  131. Pallavi Mahajan

    The conventional system of justice delivery is deeply flawed; as a result of which there is a backlog of pending cases in the Indian Courts. The judicial infrastructure is inadequate and is on the verge of a collapse. The question of delays in the Indian legal system has been the subject of a number of research initiatives. However, these reforms have not been able to keep pace with the growing pendency. The reason is that reformers have focused on the factors traditionally blamed for the delay without paying any heed to political-economic analysis. Marrying the conventional wisdom with the pragmatic approach, the author has concluded an imperative innovative mechanism to cater to the needs of the society.

  132. Dr. Saro j Kumar Singh

    Co-operative banks are contributing the constituent part in the India’s banking and financial system. The role of cooperatives in urban areas has been increased in a sufficient part now a days due to increase of primary co-operatives there but there main role of financing the rural areas is also goes on increasing. The co-operative banks origin can be drawn out in the 1904 when the efforts are made to open financial concerns based on cooperation’s principles for solving the peculiar problems of Indian Economic Environment. The rural areas are imposing the main effect on the co-operative banks. The rural area requires funds for two reasons viz. Working capital through short terms needs and agriculture and other bearing activities through long run requirements. The agricultural and other than agricultural processes in the rural areas is typically seasonal. The households required credit to work seasonal activities in earning and expenditure. A co-operative movement plays a major role in development of social and economic environment in India. But Govt. of India has not provided a good support to the cooperatives due to which many problems has been faced by them. Thus, an attempt has been made to elaborate the problems and the relative perspective of co-operative banks in the Indian Economy.

  133. Mozhgan Heidari and Dr. Mahmud Rezaei

    As a branch of organic architecture or the architecture inspired by nature, animal architecture has been considered as one of the common architectural design methods. The main goal of this paper is to determine the position of this architecture among architectural methods and the way these methods overlap. The research concludes that animal architecture has remarkable similarities with some design methods specifically the methods known as analogy, metaphor, biomorphic and organi-tech. Moreover, it may identify formal anatomical analogy between animals (bodies or habitats) and architectural projects. Furthermore, animals, as animate and motile natural phenomena, may also provide ecological analogies in architectural design which produce more applicable and conceptual solutions. Those, therefore; function more than mere visual images in design thinking.

  134. Mohan Kumar, M. S., Vijo Jose Vellakottil and Anand, R.

    Liquidity is playing major role to meet the short term obligations on time for the business. Automobile industry required large amount of investment. For getting this requirement creditworthiness and profitability of the company plays a crucial role in the process of decision making of the shareholders. This paper is making attempt to examine the liquidity, profitability of Ashok Leyland and financial health using Altman’s Z-score test. The study based on secondary data collected from annual report of Ashok Leyland during the period 2011-12 to 2015-16. The study reveals that the liquidity position of Ashok Leyland was below the traditional standard and profitability ratio shows a positive sign, but it varies frequently during the study period. There is a positive correlation between liquidity ratios and some profitability ratios, but NPR, EPS and RONW shows a negative sign. The calculated z – score values are showing healthy zone during the study period, but company must take proper measure to increase the performance using available resources.

  135. Anithalakshmi, T. and Dr. Manickkavasakam, N.

    Microfinance through Self Help Group (SHGs) has been documented worldwide as the modern tool to combat poverty and for rural development. Self-help group is a method of organizing to poor people and the marginalized to come mutually to solve their individual problem. All the group members should be encouraged to do business also to develop their skills and talents by participating in various training programs. SHGs have witnessed a lot of new dimensions for the successful running and carrying out of new process.

  136. Aashish Kumar Yadav and Sheetal Yadav

    This paper is a take on how the Federal Reserve’s actions not only affect the United States but also a series of other economies related through trade. It is an era of globalisation where one or the other country is connected. It has given rise to situations where things are likely to follow a ripple effect. This paper will focus mainly on the kind of effects the Fed’s decision have on other economies and what all those economies do in order to minimize the damage and maximise the benefit of it.

  137. Dr. Suresh Lal, B.

    Background: The paper focuses an account of the origin, history and migration of the Banjara tribe. Banjaras have a unique culture of their own and spread all over the country. They give priority to community life, community values and have collective property resources for common use. Objectives: To study the origin and historical background of Banjaras, to analysis the various connotation on Banjaras and their migration, to focus the significance of the Banjara culture in the present day scenario and to suggest appropriate measures to restore their culture for future generation. Results: This paper provides historical evidences from the ancient period to present day scenario in India. It attempts to list out different connotation and terminology used for the same community in different parts of India and their migration to South India and Telangana. It intended to examine critically on various theories and stories connected to Banjaras and their origin and migration to south India.

  138. Dr. Suresh Lal, B.

    Marriage of girls less than 18 years is a fundamental violation of their human rights including their sexual and reproductive health. It is also a threat to the prosperity and stability of countries. As per the study it was found that poverty is one of the major factors underpinning child marriage. 50% of the respondents belong to economic poor communities, 60% are adopted nuclear families system. 50% are illiterates and 25% have studied below 8thStd. 80% of the respondent’s occupation is agricultural labour and farmer.More than 90% married girls are not earning even Rs11000/- per annum. Most of them are getting less than Rs 900/-per month. This pathetic situation is clearly visible in economic conditions of the married girls. 95% respondents who had got child marriage were not involved in decision making process of their family affairs. It observed that these married girls are getting many problems with regards to domestic violence, maternal mortality, child mortality, physical and sexual abuses in the study areas of Warangal district.

  139. Prof. Naik, N. T. K. and Dr. Mansoor Rahman, S.

    The paper focus India farmers’ income is raising at the rate of 1.5 percent and their expenditure is increasing at the rate of 4 percent. Nearly half of the Indian farmers are in debt trap. In the state of Andhra Pradesh 82 percent of farmers are under debt trap and a great number of suicide cases are coming from Andhra Pradesh. This is the fate of Indian agriculture in the globalization era. It is being argued that since India enjoy a comparative advantage in agricultural production; the liberal trade will benefit the Indian farmers by way of raising the output, employment and thereby gross national income. But Indian agriculture is now in a state of total neglect. Already liberalization process resulted in large scale rural unemployment, starvation deaths and suicidal deaths. Nearly 80 million hectares, out of the country's net sown area of around 143 million hectares, lack irrigation facilities and, hence, rely wholly on rain water for crop growth. Over 85 per cent of the pulses and coarse cereals, more than 75 per cent of the oilseeds and nearly 65 per cent of cotton are produced from such lands. The crop yields are quiet low. The paper emphasizes the climate change impacts on agriculture in general and Rayalaseema in particular.

  140. Dr. T. Manikandan and D. Elumalai

    In the present investigation, the effect of different concentrations of NaCl on growth and development, organic constituent of Ceriops roxburghiana, a dicotyledonous halophyte has been studied. Ceriops roxburghiana survived a wide range of NaCl salinity ranging from 100 to 700 mM. The upper limit for the survival of this species to NaCl salinity was 700 mM. Results of the present study indicated that the optimal salt concentration for the overall better performance of the seedlings of Ceriops roxburghiana was 300 mM NaCl. Since the growth and development of this species were improved in the presence of NaCl and it could tolerate high concentration of Cl- in the cell sap, it could be designated as “facultative halophyte”. The growth parameters such as shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight increased with increasing salinity upto 300 mM NaCl.

  141. Stella Bohr, Dr. Catherine Hayes and Dr. Praveen Bhugra

    Background: Although the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has significantly reduced, people still contract this infection and it remains a burden to the health care system. However, medical interventions such as probiotics, and faecal transplants are still being explored and evaluated in a bid to ameliorate this condition. Aim: The aim of this study is to establish quality evidence on the effectiveness and safety of probiotics in the treatment of C. difficile infection in European Countries. Method: A systematic search for articles and journal literature published between 2010 and 2015, relevant to this research study was conducted on: COCHRANE LIBRARY, DISCOVER, EMBASE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, MEDLINE, MESH, PUBMED, SCIENCE CITATION INDEX and SCIENCE DIRECT from June, 2015 – August, 2015. Included studies were randomised control trials and case studies assessing probiotics and Faecal Microbial Transplant (F.M.T.) in the prevention and treatment of CDI Result: 7 studies were reviewed. 4 examined the effectiveness of faecal microbial transplant (F.M.T.) in the treatment of CDI In a population experiencing recurrence while 3 assessed the effectiveness of one or more probiotic strains in the treatment/ prevention of CDI All studies demonstrated that either of these treatment options is effective in the management of CDI however, 2 studies that showed that specific probiotics such as Sacchromyces bourladii or a multi-strain probiotic is not effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (C.D.A.D.). All reviewed studies suggested that the adverse effects associated with probiotics and F.M.T are mild in severity. Conclusion: Probiotics including F.M.T, appear: to be effective in the treatment and prevention of CDI, particularly after a short regimen of antibiotic/ bowel lavage. There are limited clinical trials on these treatment measures perhaps as a result of the plunge in the incidence of CDI However, more studies are required to boost the available evidence.

  142. Dr. Ketaki Chougule and Dr. Arti Wadkar

    Maxillary defects could be due to multiple reasons such as tumors, trauma and congenital defects. Rehabilitating such defects can be difficult at times as it encounters problems like inadequate retention, loss of lips and cheek fullness, poor appearance and psychologic disturbance to the patient. This case illustrates an acquired maxillary defect and the aim of this case report was to describe the prosthetic management of a patient who had undergone surgery for ameloblastoma of the maxilla. The maxillofacial prosthodontist faces a challenge to restore the functions, aesthetics as well as the speech of the patient. In this case a cast partial prosthesis was fabricated by carefully identifying the problems in hand and reconstructing the lost tissues. This method was time saving and beneficial to the patient.

  143. Dr. Rao Naman Rajeshkumar, Dr. Chandramani B. More and Dr. Shahil Patel

    Background: Cephalic and facial index is an important parameter on facial skeletal; specifically used for gender determination. Materials and Methods: The permission to conduct the study was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee. The total of 400 participants comprising of 200 males and 200 females were assessed after complying with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The cranial length, width, facial height and facial breadth were measured by using standard spreading calliper. The collected data was statistically analyzed by using paired ‘t’ test and spearman’s correlation. Results: The mean cephalic index in both, male and female participants was 76.47+ 2.225. In female and male participants, 164 & 156 had Mesocephalic, 29 & 35 had Dolicocephalic, and 7& 9 had Brachycephalic respectively. The value of spearman correlation with skeletal malocclusion and cephalic index was 0.637; with dental malocclusion and cephalic index was 0.697, which was highly significant (p= 0.000. Similarly, the spearman correlation with the skeletal malocclusion and cephalic index was 0.653; with the dental malocclusion and facial index was 0.735. Conclusion: The correlation of cephalic and facial index with different skeletal and dental malocclusion was positive and confirmed the gender determination.

  144. Chengalvarayan Gopal

    Introduction: Patients with gross haematuria have higher incidence of (30 percent) urothelial cancer. Currently recommended investigations for haematuria evaluation are CT scan, urine cytology, Cystoscopy. Virtual endoscopy (VE) is a 3D computer rendering technique with the possibility of interactive intraluminal navigation within the bladder simulating a conventional endoscopy. Aim and Objective: To Compare Virtual Endoscopy (VE) and Trans-abdominal ultrasound with Conventional Cystoscopy (CC), in the detection of bladder tumors in patients with haematuria. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted from November 2007 to January 2010 in our institute of urology. All patients with haematuria were evaluated and those having a bladder tumor included in the study. Initially few patients with tumors more than 6 cm were included in the study, but later tumors less than 5 cm only were studied. Observation and Results: Totally 106 patients were evaluated. Of these 54 patients were included in the study as they had a bladder tumor detected by cystoscopy and/or Ultrasonography and/ or Virtual cystoscopy or there were no tumor. Of the 54 patients in the study 38 (70.4 %) were males and 16 (29. 6 %) females. Most of the tumors were located in the anterior wall (18 / 51) and the posterior wall (13 / 51). Most of the tumors were papillary (82. 4 %) type, probably as we included small sized tumors in the study. Virtual cystoscopy has a high sensitivity, 92.16 % and 100 % sensitivity to tumors more than 1 cm. But this is still inferior to conventional cystoscopy. Conclusion: Despite the obvious benefits of virtual cystoscopy in terms of less invasiveness and more comfort to the patient, it has several limitations. These include, 1. Low detection rate for lesions smaller than 1 cm 2. Not able to detect CIS. Inferior to conventional cystoscopy in detecting bladder lesions. So Virtual cystoscopy cannot replace conventional cystoscopy. It may have a place in the evaluation of patients with haematuria in stricture disease and surgically poor risk patients.

  145. Shweta Ojha

    Drugs that are safe and effective for use by the general public without a prescription are defined as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. These drugs are often located on shelves in pharmacies with easy access by patients, but may also be located in non-pharmacy outlets, such as grocery stores, convenience marts and large discount retailers Or we can say that the OTC drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription. This paper describes the role of OTC drugs. Reveals the molecular compositions and focuses the impact of these drugs in human body. Highlights the major health problems which are cured by OTC drugs.

  146. Dr. Rukhsana Akhter, Dr. Bushra Rashid Sahaf, Dr. Nazia Qayoom, Dr. Shaista Mushtaq, Dr. Saymah Rashid and Dr. Ruby Reshi

    Background: Lymph nodes are among the commonly aspirated organs for diagnostic purposes. With the simple procedure of FNAC, most of the inflammatory, reactive and neoplastic conditions can be diagnosed without biopsy and biopsies are usually done in inconclusive cases or sometimes in the case of malignancies in the lymph node. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed with superficial lymphadenopathy were included in the study. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed and diagnosis made on cytomorphological pattern. The diagnosis was compared with the histopathological diagnosis whereever available. Results: This study included total of 740 cases with age range from 15 months to 85 years. About 78.3% were diagnosis as benign and 21.6% as malignant. Reactive lymphadenopathy was the most frequent diagnosis making up 61.4% of the cases. Tubercular lymphadenopathy was seen in 8.5% of cases with a female preponderance. Malignant lymphadenopathy was seen in 21.6% cases with metastatic tumors (68.7%) being more common than the primary lymphomas (30%). Histopathological correlation was done in 157 cases. Conclusion: FNAC is a simple, safe, inexpensive and quick diagnostic procedure. Reactive lymph node is common cause of lymphadenopathy followed by malignant cause and Tuberculosis.

  147. Dr. Esha Singh, Dr. Kashish Chakraborty and Dr. Cheena Singh

    We report here a case of geographic tongue associated with chronic stress in a 60 year old male patient. He noticed the change in colour on tongue and the patches were also changing their positions. Mild burning sensation was reported and for curing this topical anesthetics were given.

  148. Mohammad Akhtar Siddiqui and Amjad Waheed Yousuf

    In Unani medicine liver occupies prime importance and has been mentioned as the seat of humour production. Any derangement in the functioning of liver will certainly effect the functioning of whole body. A number of single and polyherbal formulations are being used in the management of hepatic disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Arq Murakab Mussafi Khoon (AMMK) in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We conducted a case series with five diagnosed treatment naïve cases of CHC. The diagnosis was reconfirmed by standard diagnostic procedures including Anti HCV antibody and HCV (RNA) quantitative. The constituents of AMMK possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immunomodulatory activity. Viral response was evaluated on the basis of Early Viral Response (EVR) after 12 weeks of treatment. Out of 5 patients partial EVR was observed in 2 patients, although the other 3 patients did show marked reduction in viral load but could not qualify for partial EVR, as the reduction in viral number was less than 2 log. We concluded that AMMK may have a therapeutic effect in CHC but further large scale randomized controlled trials should be carried out.

  149. Dr. Ravi Kumar, H., Dr. Saikalyan Guptha Achuta and Dr. Sunil Kumar, S. R.

    Objective: Surgical outcomes of perianal fístula has a significant rate of post-operative complications such as prolonged hospitalization, pain during post operative period, high chances of recurrence and anal incontinence. We aimed to conduct this retrospective study to determine the efficacy of Glove rubber as seton in the treatment of fistula-in-ano to minimize the risk factors. We documented our experience in managing High and Complex fistulas with Glove Rubber as Seton. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 60 patients of fistula-in-ano treated with Glove Rubber as Seton. All 60 patients were documented from 2008 to 2014 at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre. Out of 60 cases 08 were High and 52 were Complex fistula. Surgical outcome of patients treated by Glove Rubber seton for anal fistulas were analyzed. Follow-up was made for 03 years to record fistula recurrence, anal incontinence and duration of complete wound healing. Results: The study involved 60 patients of mean age 34 years (range 20 to 60 years). Complete healing had occurred in all the patients (100%) within 4 to 6 weeks. Among 60 cases none of the patients developed recurrent fistula or incontinence. Conclusion: Treatment of fistula-in-ano with Glove Rubber is associated with least complication rate. It can therefore be recommended as the standard treatment for High and Complex Fistulae.

  150. Dr. Akhil K Garg, Dr. Ekta Garg, Dr. Shweta Bali and Dr. Dildeep Bali

    Calcium hydroxide is one of the most effective, biocompatible, alkaline substance that has been in use by endodontists around the world since almost a century. It is also considered as the material of choice by many clinicians. This case series of six cases (5 males and 1 female aging 32 to 66 years), describes a successful management of periapical lesions with intraoral draining sinus by intentionally extruding premixed non setting paste of calcium hydroxide. The patients were reviewed after 1 week of application and the canals were obturated after 2 weeks followed by 1 year follow up. The presented case reports revealed almost complete healing of the sinus tract within first 2 weeks of application of calcium hydroxide and at 1 year follow up, it was observed that the peri-apical lesion had disappeared radiographically and no recurrence of draining sinus had been reported. The extrusion of calcium hydroxide turned out to be a boon to the cases and had no detrimental effect.

  151. Ricardo Perez Martinez, FrancielliLuchetti Beatta, Carlos Daniel Rodrigues Worman, TaylaneSoffenerBerlanga de Araújo, Elias Naim Kassis and Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho

    It is estimated that in dental atraumatic surgery in general, studies of synthesis and meta-analysis (n = 269), Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (n = 35) and decision analysis (n = 23) represent nearly 27% of all studies. Most of the selected studies was developed in the USA, Netherlands and the UK. These three countries and 15 journals were responsible for almost 50% of all publications. The other papers were published in other journals and 61 originated from 32 other countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to demonstrate through literature review and case developments and consequent importance of improved techniques for atraumatic surgery in dentistry. It was hypothesized that there were statistically significant results on progress in an attempt to minimize the trauma. So, since the most basic extraction techniques were created and developed, have been various attempts to minimize the effort of professional, decreasing surgical time and minimize bleeding and inflammation, swelling, pain and bruising that can affect patients in trans and postoperative periods. Thus, one must seek the maximum preservation of the integrity of the soft tissue (and papillae range and inserted free gingiva) adjacent to abutment areas; preservation of the alveolar ridge bone level. Based on the histological concept in which living tissues are formed by cells joined by thin elastic tissue and nerve, capillaries fibrils, lymphatic and blood vessels. Disruption of these cells by surgical trauma promotes the release of enzymes that retard healing. For this reason one should minimize surgical trauma. We conclude that the world and in Brazil have been several attempts to minimize the effort of professional, decreasing surgical time and minimize bleeding and inflammation, swelling, pain and bruising that can affect patients. Thus, one should seek the maximum preservation of the integrity of the soft tissues adjacent to prosthetic spaces and the preservation of the alveolar ridge bone level to achieve the minimization of surgical trauma.

  152. Rayana Fátima Barbosa de Queiroz, Izabela Nunes Soares Bezerra, Bárbara Paula Silveira Cunha, Elias NaimKassis and Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho

    Rehabilitation with implants, prostheses basically have two retention arrangements, for screw or cement. There are several important factors to achieving success in implantology that can influence decisively in choosing the type of detention, such as occlusion, aesthetic crown and soft tissue, passive adaptation, cost and ease of manufacture of the prosthesis. The aim of this study was to discuss the advantages and disadvantages between the two types of prosthetic implant, or concreted and bolted. It was concluded that both cemented prosthesis as the screw can be properly used according to the clinical situation presented. There is no evidence to support, in general, a retaining mechanism over the other.

  153. Saket Nigam, Namrata Nigam and Hira Lal

    We report a case of multiple insulinomas in a 32 year-old male and their appearances on dual phase multidetector computed tomography with a review of literature regarding imaging characteristics of insulinomas.

  154. Hodjatollah Shahbazian, Shole Arvandi, Sayed Mohammad Hosseini, Sasan Razmjoo, Ali Bagheri, Maedeh Barahman and Somaye Barihi

    Background and Aim: The standard chemoradiotherapy (CRT) protocol in head and neck cancers (HNC) consists of three cycles of high-dose cisplatin every three weeks. This study compared the acute toxicity profiles of these two concomitant CRT protocols in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: 89 locally advanced head and neck cancers (HNC) patients’ candidate for CRT randomly assigned into two groups. Forty-seven patients to arm A (40 mg/m2 weekly cisplatin) and 42 patients to arm B (100mg/m2 triweekly cisplatin). According to National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Version 4.0, weekly assessment and grading of acute toxicities were done. Result: Our results did not show any statistically significant difference between the rate of treatment interruption and acute hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity profiles of the two schedules of cisplatin administration. Only there was a trend of more grade≥3 mucositis in the weekly cisplatin arm, but the difference was not significance. Conclusion: in terms of acute treatment toxicity the weekly administration of cisplatin concomitant with RT has the similar objective result with the triweekly schedule. However, because we did not assess the locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) in this trial, thus, we cannot suggest that weekly cisplatin CRT can be the alternative protocol for the standard triweekly schedule.

  155. Dr. Sudeep Date, Dr. Sandip Patil, Dr. Nishant Gaokar, Dr. Vaibhav Koli, Dr. Mihir Solanki and Dr. Prashant Pandey

    Background: It is a randomized prospective clinical study to determine the functional outcome of trans-tibial and anteromedial portal techniques in ACL reconstruction. The contribution of the present study to the literature would be to confirm or refute an actual clinical advantage of the technically difficult anteromedial portal technique over the easier, more popular and well established trans-tibial technique. Materials and Methods: A minimum of 60 patients with ACL tears and undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstructive surgery from a period within May 2013 to December 2014 were studied by using a standard Proforma and clinical evaluation pre and post op by an independent observer. A detailed clinical examination was done. Patients were interviewed with respect to subjective symptoms like joint stability, pain, impact on their professional life. Conclusion: After analyzing the results of our study it was concluded 1. Arthroscopic ACL Reconstruction using transtibial and transportal techniques of femoral tunneling are both effective modalities of treatment in patients with ACL deficient knees 2. The transportal technique gives superior results in terms of knee IKDC, Lysholm and Pain on VAS scores. 3. The transportal technique has a better functional outcome than the transtibial technique.

  156. Badoo, A. R., Mohammad Yaseen, Shiekh Ajaz Rafeeq and Syed Baasit Shafi Shah

    Background: Idiopathic clubfoot is a congenital deformity with incidence of 1-2 per 1000 live births. Various techniques both surgical and non surgical are mentioned in literature for treatment of CTEV. Ponseti method is a relatively new technique with success rate of upto 94% reported in numerous studies. Current trend in treatment of this condition has shifted from extensive surgical release to conservative techniques like Ponseti method. Objectives: We evaluated the difficulties and complications encountered during the Ponseti method for the treatment of Congenital Idiopathic Clubfoot. We also searched answers to many commonly asked questions about clubfoot. We also watched our mistakes and tried to correct them over a period of time. Methods and Results: The study was conducted on 79 patients with 123 idiopathic clubfeet. All our patients were less than six months of age. We followed these patients for a period of 2 years and noted the difficulties and complications encountered during the Ponseti treatment and post-tenotomy bracing of these clubfeet. We noticed various difficulties and complications during ponseti treatment. Difficulties we encountered were from difficulty in palpating talar head during manipulation, difficulty in getting 60-70 degree abduction and many more. Complications we encountered were sliping of plaster cast to cutting of peroneal artry during tenotmy. Conclusion: The Ponseti method has become the gold standard for the initial treatment of the clubfoot. There are not many studies which show the difficulties and complications associated with this method of treatment. With ever increasing number of clubffoot patients being treated by the ponseti method, there is a need to ponder into the complications associated with this method of treatment.

  157. Gabriela Marques Lemos, Bruna Vasconcelos Figueredo, Suzana Guimarães Floriano, Ana Paula Bernardes da Rosa Maluf Abbud, Carlos Alberto Costa Neves Buchala, Patrícia Garani Fernandes and Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho

    Background: The prevalence of Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the countries of Central and South America was estimated at 26.4 million people and considered for 40 million in 2030. The DM have also increased in children and young people in the last 30 years, especially the D1. About 210,000 young people around 20 years of age have diabetes. This represents 0.26% of the total number of individuals in this age group. About 1 in every 400 to 500 children and adolescents has DM. Objective: Was to make a presentation on the findings of the literary influence of diabetes mellitus on periodontal diseases. Discussion: The major oral diabetic patient complications include xerostomia, bacterial, viral and fungal infections, delayed wound healing, incidence of caries, gingivitis and periodontal disease, periapical abscess and symptoms of burning mouth. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases that is growing increasingly in the world and we surgeons dentist, had to know better this pathology. Knowing the signs and symptoms is essential to help our patients in the treatment of this disease and preventing complications during dental procedures performed.

  158. Nizar M. Al-Hibshi, Reem A. Alasiri, Anfal Y. Nawawi, ShaikhahAlhassan, Amani N. Alsubaie, Hisham A. Essa, Fatimah H. Alyahya and Dhoha O. Alamoudi

    Background: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the world. The only treatment available for corneal blindness is cornea transplantation. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement. This is actually due to the inadequate numbers of corneas collected. Medical students can be involved in the motivation of patients and relatives to pledge their eyes for cornea donation. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the awareness and perception of medical students towards cornea donation in Saudi Arabia. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 543 undergraduate medical students during the period of 24 January to 12 February 2016. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to obtain data using a pretested self-administered questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Result: Almost all (99.2%) students had heard about eye donation but only 17.7% of students knew that cornea is the only part can be donated of the eye. 3.1% of students knew that the ideal time of collecting corneas from donors is within 6 hours of donors’ death. The main source of information on cornea donation was mass media among 41% of students. No students have ever pledge for cornea donation. Lack of awareness (68.5%) and Objection by family members (19.9%) were the main reasons for not pledging. About 74.2% students were willing to donate their corneas to save vision of people in need. Conclusion: our results showed that majority of medical students have low or no knowledge on cornea donation. There were many gaps identified in their knowledge which can be bridged only by building awareness programs and campaigns to clear their misconceptions and week knowledge about cornea donation

  159. Komu, S. and Njeru, D.

    14 Road transportation which includes the use ofmotor vehicles and bicycles provides benefits both to nations and to individuals by facilitating the movement of goods and people and services (WHO, 2009. The use of the motor vehicle as a means of transportation of people is increasingly popular across the world. A WHO report cited Westernized countries as examples that saw a rise in the ownership of motor vehicles from 23% in 1987 to 63% in 2001 (WHO, 2006). In Kenya, A report by the National Road Safety Commission (NRSC) indicated that 59 deaths were recorded from publicmotor vehicle accidents in 2008.This study sought to underpin factors that contribute to road traffic accidents among public transport vehicles. The study was conducted at Nauru town which is 157km South East of Nairobi the capital of Kenya in Africa The study adopted a cross section research design. The researcher used random sampling to select the study. Research instruments included structured self-administered questionnaires and also checklists.Data was cleaned, code, analyzed and managed by use of SPSS. The study showed that 69.3% or the accidents were due to pot holes.Other causes of road accidents included human factor, weather, and the condition of the motor vehicles. The study concluded that many roads in Nakuru are not in standard shape. Not all roads are marked and many also do not have designated crossing points.

  160. Dr. Shailendra Singh, Dr. Girish Nazirkar, Dr. Bikash Pattanaik, Dr. Trupti Haralkar, Dr. Akhilesh Nikam and Dr. Snehal Mane

    Introduction: Maxillofacial materials are used to replace missing facial parts which have been lost through disease or trauma. They are usually comprised of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomers. Methods: The study was conducted using commercially available silicone elastomer used for the fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis and UV shielding Titanium di-oxide nano- oxide particles. Various amounts of TiO2 nano-oxide particles were added to the silicone elastomer: 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%. A total of six experimental groups were created by combining silicone elastomer (Cosmesil M511) with Ti O2nano- oxide particles. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software Version 20. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for any significant difference between the mean values of the materials tested. Post- test (Tukey post hoc) was used to determine whether the mean value of any particular material differed significantly from another specified material, while considering all the data. Result: Mean (SD) change values of tensile strength for Control Group, 0.5% TiO2, 1% TiO2, 1.5% TiO2, 2% TiO2, 2.5% TiO2, 3% TiO2 was 3.7576 ±.06807, 3.8280± .09558, 4.0610± .06883,4.4210± .05078, 4.7865± .04694, 5.0245± .04264, 4.0984±.06753, 4.2824± .45293 respectively. The Change in Tear Strengthwas for Control group, TIO21, TIO22, TIO23, TIO24, TIO25, TIO26 was 3.5002 ± .05726, 4.2855 ± .07651, 4.6525± .07911, 5.6763 ± .11152, 6.0038 ± .08204, 6.2561 ± .09440, 5.0689 ± .10089respectively. Change in Tear Strengthwas for Control group, TIO21,TIO22, TIO23, TIO24, TIO25, TIO26 was 528.8000± 6.03324, 518.5000± 4.92725, 500.6000± 10.52193, 476.7000± 4.66786, 459.8000± 7.40570, 442.4000± 5.46097, 420.2000± 6.25033respectively The Change in Tear Strengthwas for Control group, TIO21TIO22, TIO23, TIO24, TIO25, TIO26 was 34.8700 ± .40291, 35.8000± .64118, 37.0300± .75137, 38.1700± .35292, 40.0900± .43321, 41.5200± .44672, 41.6900± .28067 Respectively and these observed differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the use of tulle for the reinforcement of maxillofacial silicone elastomer provided the latter with improved mechanical properties, especially in terms of tear resistance. However, these results should be further supported with more clinical studies.

  161. Milind Patil and Ashvin Kankotiya

    Background: Since the mid-1990s, there has been an evolution in surgical practice from traditional open approaches to minimally invasive means of treating operative lesions. Aim and Objectives: This study is carried out to study rate & indication of conversion to open surgery in pyonephrosis using retroperitonel and trans peritoneal laproscopic nephrectomy. Methods: This study was retrospective study done in Department of Urology Baroda Medical College & SSG Hospital, vadodara.We performed a retrospective review of a maintained database of 219 consecutive laparoscopic simple nephrectomies done for pyonephrosis between July 2001 to February 2015. Results: In study transperitoneal route using four ports was used in 165 (75.3%) while retroperitoneal access using three was used in 54(24.6%) patients. In our study total 163 (74.4%) had PCN (percutaneous nephrostomy) in situ, 79.3% in lap transperitoneal group and 59.2% in lap retro peritoneal group. 27(12.3%) patients required conversion to open surgery. Adhesion 13(5.9%) and bleeding 9(4.1%) were the main factors for conversion, while 2 (0.9%) patients required conversion due to bowel injury and limited space in 3(1.3%) patients. Conversion rate was 12.1 % (20/165) for transperitoneal procedures while 12.9 % (7/54) for retroperitoneal approach. Laparoscopic approach requires proper placement of ports for meticulous surgical dissection. Preoperative plain and CECT help in identifying renal hilar anatomy as well as the relationship with the surrounding structures. Conclusion: In our study, retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy has to be considered equal to transperitoneal laproscopic nephrectomy in terms of conversion to open surgery.

  162. Vijayan, C., Ajay Kumar, V. J., Bhattacharya, A. and Leonal Rabins

    Background and Objectives: The epidemiological study was conducted to determine the distribution, determinance and economic impact of human dog bite cases in Union Territory Puducherry, India. The total population of puducherry is estimated around 1,244,264 in 2015. Materials and Methods: There are 39 Primary Health centers in the UT Puducherry (15 Urban & 24 Rural). This retrospective study was based on data from 12 Urban PHCs of Puducherry region, during the year 2015 and it collected data were analyzed considering age, sex, animal species, part of body bitten, vaccination regimen etc. In these study man-days exposure and also man-days lost were also calculated. Results: In the year of study, a total of 3635 human dog bite cases were recorded. Out of 3635 bite cases 61.62 per cent were males and 38.38 per cent were females. Among different age groups 35.50 per cent, 28.61 per cent, 24.00 per cent and 11.89 per cent of cases belonged to middle age, old age, children and teenagers, respectively. Most of the human bites were due to dogs (96.20 per cent). Among dog bites 84.00 per cent were due to stray dogs and 16.00 per cent was pet dogs. This was followed by cats (3. 25 per cent) and monkeys (0.55). In most of the people were bitten on legs (86.5 per cent), followed by hands (13.00 per cent) and other body parts (0.50). All the victims were treated by inactivated diploid cell anti rabies vaccine and no anti rabies serum was used. Based on the observation nearly 30.12 per cent of the victims did not complete their full course of vaccination regimen. Maximum numbers of cases were reported during the month of October to December (27.37 per cent). While estimating the man-days of exposure to the animal bites in Puducherry is projected to 2921 per one million of population in one year (29 per 10,000 populations). In cost analysis, estimated cost of ARV alone can be projected as Rs.26, 89,900 for the reported cases alone, approximately treatment expenditure was Rs.3, 63,500, miscellaneous cost was assessed as Rs. 9,08,750 and Man-days lost based on 5 days on each cases is causing a loss of Rs. 1,52,67,000. The total estimated lose for UT taking in to consider only cases reported in Puducherry government PHCs is Rs. 4,34,37,050. The study clearly shows amount of money lost on human dog bite cases is around 2.0% of the total money spent on the public health welfare in Puducherry. Conclusion: By effective stray dog control and by licensing of pet dogs in an area were loss can be reduced and that money can be used effectively by other development activities.

  163. Dr. Arivaruliyar, Dr. Maragathavalli, G. and Dr. Sangeetha, P.

    Pyogenic granuloma is one of inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This lesions is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low grade irritation, injury, hormonal factor. Gingival changes in pregnancy were described as early as 1898, even before knowledge about hormonal changes was available Pregnancy tumor is a benign hyperplastic gingival lesion occurring during pregnancy. It is indistinguishable from pyogenic granuloma arising in non pregnant females or males 1,2. Objective: This systematic review, analyses the prevalence of oral pyogenic granuloma in pregnant women and to determine particularly in which trimester they are common. Materials and Methods: Articles on oral pyogenic granuloma in pregnant women published in English language were thoroughly searched in pubmed, mesh, science direct database, Manual searching was also done with preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. The characteristics like the mean prevalence frequencies of pyogenic granuloma in pregnant women were analysed. Results: The search methodology used in this review revealed 687 publications of which 6 articles were included and the remaining 547 articles were excluded from the review. In 6 studies reviewed, the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma in pregnant females is 2.15% - 3.70% .But data in these studies were inadequate to derive the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and the trimester of pregnancy in which they are frequent. Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma is seen to be more common in pregnancy next to periodontitis. The increase in hormone concentrations, exposed to local irritants favours the development of pyogenic granuloma. With increasing evidence of periodontal infection in association with pre term birth, further rigorous research is needed to determine any relation in pregnancy tumour with pre term birth.

  164. Leonal Rabins, S., Bhattacharya, A., Ajay Kumar, V.J. and Vijayan, C.

    Multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is an increasingly difficult problem in India. Carbapenems have been the grounding of drug treatment for serious infections caused by these pathogens and also the carbapenems resistant increasing in other side. Vegetables are known as source of contamination with K. pneumoniae. Raw vegetables are usually consumed in salads and other dishes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and characterization of K. pneumoniae in raw vegetables marketed in Puducherry and 100 commonly used salad vegetables (tomato, carrot and cucumber) were collected. Antimicrobial resistance profile, Metallo-beta-lactamases detection, modified Hodge’s test for carbapenemase, Minimum inhibitory concentration for colistin in resistant isolates, and biofilm production on congo red agar were done. A total of 15 antibiotics were tested. Sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim, norfloxacin and chloramphenicol was displayed 100.0% sensitivity. Ampicillin, Cephalothin, Ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline was produced resistance 34.3%, 45.7%, 66.0% and 22.5%, respectively. About 40.2% isolates were resistant to meropenem, 41.0% to imipenem and 10% were resistant to colistin. None of them were Metallo-beta-lactamases producers. Six isolates showed Modified Hodge’s test positive with dissimilar clonal types. All the isolates (100.0%) were produced biofilm on modified congo red agar.

  165. Dr. Naveen Kumar Gupta, Dr. Rana K Varghese, Dr. Neha Agrawal, Dr. Monisha Tiwari, Dr. Aastha Shukla, Dr. Ashutosh Shandilya, Dr. Nivedita Sahu, Dr. Ankita Hirwani, Dr. Divya Sharma and Dr. Naina Agrawal

    All physical activities have an associated risk of orofacial injuries due to falls, collisions, and contact with hard surfaces. Lateral luxation is the displacement of the tooth in a direction other than axial, which is accompanied by comminution or fracture of the alveolar socket. The aim of this report is to present a case of a 40 year old female patient that was referred to the department of Conservative dentistry & endodontics after sustaining a cow hit that led to lateral luxation of the maxillary left permanent central incisor. Repositioning of the luxated tooth into its original anatomic positionand splinting with ligature wire and composite resin was performed .Root canal treatment was initiated within a week after splinting using Calcium Hydroxide as intracanal medicament & final obturation was performed after 15 days. Patient was asymptomatic with the tooth showing no signs of resorption.

  166. Dr. Jayarekha Tadiparthi and Dr. Sujatha, D.

    Background: Progressive residual alveolar ridge resorption is one of the main causes of loss of stability and retention of complete denture. The severity of bone loss is a serious clinical condition facing the aging population. Resorption of residual alveolar bone is further accelerated by uncontrolled diabetes. So the present study was conducted to compare the bone heights of residual alveolar bone in edentulous patients between diabetes and non- diabetes and also to correlate with the HbA1C level of diabetes. Materials and Methods: 25 Apparently healthy (non-diabetic) and 25 diabetic edentulous age and sex matched subjects were recruited in the present study with a mean age of 61-65 years. Resorption of the maxillary and mandibular residual alveolar ridges were assessed in digital panoramic radiographs. Measurements were performed using Romexis software. The amount of resorption was calculated and correlated to gender, age and duration of edentulousness. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (V17.0). Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Our results showed that residual ridge resorption was higher in females (52%) when compared to males (48%). Diabetics had significantly (p<0.05) more residual alveolar bone resorption in right and left Mandibular premolar, Maxillary premolar and molar regions. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in Gonial angle between the groups. A significant correlation was found between HbA1C level and residual ridge resorption. A weak positive correlation (r=+1) was observed between duration of edentulism and resorption of residual alveolar ridge. Conclusion: Completely edentulous, women in particular, are at more risk to have ridge resorption than non-diabetic subjects. Reduced mandibular height is directly related to years of edentulousness with greater amount of resorption among diabetics.

  167. Rajendra Baad

    Objectives: To analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic Odontology among 307 dental practitioners of western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by means of a questionnaire from a cross sectional sample of 307 dental practitioners of Western Maharashtra. Results: 100% dental practitioners maintained dental records in some form, but ironically only 7 % of them maintained complete dental records. 93% of them were aware of the significance of maintaining records in forensic identification. Only 13% were aware that both parent counseling and child guidance referral clinic were essential in dealing with such victims while 14% dental practitioners were unaware of what their role is in identification of cases with child abuse. 26% dental practitioners used both eruption sequence and radiographs methods for age estimation. 51% dental practitioners were aware that DNA fingerprinting was the most sensitive method for forensic identification. 25% dental practitioners were unaware of the bite marks pattern of teeth. 89% dental practitioners did not have any formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. 37% dental practitioners were not aware that they could testify as an expert witness in the court of law. 73% dental practitioners did not use identification code numbers on prosthetic devices and dental implants. Only11% maintained the identification code number records. 42% dental practitioners used the FDI system, 34 % used universal system and 24% used the Zsigmondy/Palmer method while maintaining dental records. 65% dental practitioners reported their inability for age and gender identification in cases of mass disasters. Conclusion: Our study revealed that dental practitioners from this region have adequate knowledge of forensic odontology, but lack of formal training, inadequate forensic laboratories, poor attitude and lack of interest was prevalent.

  168. Varsha, V. K., Niranjan, K. C., Amsavardini Tayyar, Kumar, G. S. and Hallikeri, K.

    Odontogenic myxomas arebenign neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with a characteristic histologic appearance, often associated with locally aggressive & infiltrative fashion. Odontogenic myxomas represent 1% to 17.7% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontogenic myxoma commonly occurs in the second and third decade, and the mandible involved more commonly than the maxilla. They are believed to be derived from primitive mesenchymal portion of developing tooth germ as an inductive effect of nests of Odontogenic epithelium on mesenchymal tissue or as a direct myxomatous change of fibrous tissue. Characteristic histopathological feature are loosely arranged spindle cells to stellate cells with lightly eosinophilic cytoplasm in a mucoid rich, intercellular matrix. An occasional active odontogenic islands or inactive islands are found infrequently but probably represents residual rests rather than a integral part of neoplasm. Radiographically most of the multilocular myxomas are expansile & greater than 4 cms where as unilocular tend to be smaller in diameter & presents as fine, bony trabaculae within its interior structure expressing a 'tennis racket' appearance. Only 5% of myxomas are associated with unerupted tooth. Herein, we are presenting three case reports of odontogenic myxomas occurring in second decade of life in mandible.

  169. Taher El-Zanaty, Mona Hegazy, Heba Sedrak, Mervat Naguib and Mohammed Abdelkader Morad

    Background: Endoscopic examination is the gold standard for diagnosing esophageal varices (EV). However, endoscopy is invasive, painful and costly.The aim of this study was to find a noninvasive method to predict the presence of varices. Methods: The study included 50 cirrhotic subjects. Clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic, endoscopic data were obtained. A new noninvasive scoring system was postulated and a novel index included 7parameters namely platelet count, serum albumin, prothrombin concentration, right lobe of the liver diameter, portal vein diameter, splenic diameter and ascites was obtained. The scoring system was obtained by giving points to each variable. Results: The relationship between the presence of esophageal varices and the parameters representing the variceal index was established. It was detected that at the cutoff value (score 12) specificity was 100% and sensitivity was 70% in prediction of esophageal varices. Conclusion: The proposed variceal index could be a reliable tool to predict the presence of varices instead of a single parameter.

  170. Dr. Mali Shikha, Dr. Singla Shilpy, Dr. Sharma Arun and Dr. Thakur Ruchi

    Background: Prognosis of a traumatised tooth is primarily dependant on the integrity of the PDL which can be ensured by stabilization of the luxated tooth. Flexible splints provide both physiologic tooth movement and stabilization as required for a good prognosis. Aim: To evaluate flexibility of four splint systems – Group I-GC Everstick NET splint, Group II -Resin splint, Group III -Wire-composite splint and Group IV -Rectangular stainless steel arch wire. Design: Maxillary resin casts were used where all the teeth were fixed apart from Maxillary right central incisors which were inserted in a non-rigid fashion so as to simulate luxated tooth. To simulate the form and characteristics of the periodontal ligament, polyvinyl siloxane was placed at apical level and around the root of Maxillary right central incisor. The load was applied and two stress analysis test (0 and 50 N directed longitudinally and 45 N directed obliquely) were performed using a universal testing machine. The stress required to displace and linear displacement were evaluated. Results: Maximum displacement seen with wire composite group while everstick group shows the slightly ideal displacement which is required for healing of traumatized teeth. Conclusion: Stainless Steel splint should be replaced with everstick splint as high aesthetics can be achieved which is prime concern in pediatric patients.

  171. Dr. Jaldeep C. Dave, Dr. Prabhuraj B. Kambalyal, Dr. Rituraj Sharma, Dr. Mukundi Dhaduk and Dr. Ravindra Chaudhary

    In planning orthodontic cases that include extractions as an alternative to solve the problem of negative space discrepancy, the critical decision is to determine which teeth will be extracted. Several aspects must be considered, such as periodontal health, orthodontic mechanics, functional and esthetic alterations, and treatment stability. Premolar extractions are the most common, but there are situations in which atypical extractions facilitate mechanics, preserve periodontal health and favor maintenance of the facial profile, which tends to unfavorably change due to facial changes with age. The extraction of a lower incisor in the most ectopic position and with compromised periodontium was the alternative of choice for this treatment, which restored function, providing improved periodontal health, maintained facial esthetics and allowed finishing with a stable and balanced occlusion.

  172. Prasenjit Saha, Bibaswan Basu, Koumi Dutta and Devashish Sen

    The construction work represents a major unorganized sector and involves large number of manual labour. Predominantly upper extremity intensive tasks at construction sites are repetitively performed monotask which are more hazardous than multitask. This study aimed to evaluate task specific cardiac strain among workers associated with painting, stone cutting, manual piling, carpenting, plastering, plumbing which involve upper extremity intensive activity. Working Heart Rate (WHR), recovery rate pattern and Working Oral Temperature (WOT) were measured to determine the heaviness of the job. Net Cardiac Costs (NCC), Percent of Heart Rate Reserve (% HRR) were also considered to assess the work load. Thermal stress was evaluated by using Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index. The mean values of WHR for all the tasks were higher than the optimum value. The mean values of WHR, NCC and %HRR were highest in painting followed by carpenting and manual piling. The recovery was unsatisfactory for all the tasks. Appreciable rise in WOT was observed in all the tasks especially in painting, stone cutting and manual piling. Mean WBGT was higher than the recommended range. Job rotation, proper work rest cycle may help the worker to reduce cardiac strain and improve the quality of life.

  173. Dr. Debasree Guha, Dr. Ritam Joarder, Dr. Shatanik Sarkar and Dr. Malay Kumar Dasgupta

    Febrile Neutropenia is a common and dreaded complication in children treated for malignancy. Current multi-modality aggressive treatments of malignancy affects body’s immune system through various pathways and render the patient susceptible to infection by various infectious agents. Apart from infection there are other causes of fever in patients with malignancy (tumor itself, drug and blood product infusion related). But suspicion of bacterial infection in febrile episode and early institution of antibiotic therapy is of paramount importance for overall survival of the patient. Along with this it is crucial to monitor the response to antibiotic therapy. For both this purposes, we need a good diagnostic and predictive inflammatory marker. C-ReactiveProtein is a cheap and widely available inflammatory marker is under investigation in this study to detect infection and monitor response to antibiotic therapy.

  174. Dr. Kuldeep Singh Rana, Dr. Poonam Tomar Rana, Dr. Sanjeev Tyagi, Dr. Sudheer Hongal and Dr. Mukta Nigam

    “Triphala” is among the most common formulas used in Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine. This preparation is composed of three equal proportion of herbal fruits: Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthusemblica, and Terminalia belerica.Triphala has been proven to have antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal actions. It is also said to possess antihistamine, anti inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, blood pressure lowering, cholesterol lowering, digestive, diuretic, and laxative properties. Chlorhexidine, a cationic bisbiguanide with a very broad antimicrobial spectrum is the most widely used over the counter mouth rinse. The major advantage of chlorhexidine over most other compounds lies in its substantivity. However; chlorhexidine has several side effects, such as Staining and taste alteration, which limit its long term use. Therefore, chlorhexidine is used as a positive control in many clinical trials of new mouth rinse formulations and is considered the gold standard. The aim of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of triphala and chlorhexidine mouth rinse against dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and microbial growth.

  175. Vinaya Vincent and Sherin P. Antony

    The present research aimed to study the effect of therapeutic play techniques in the management of anger and aggression in children with specific learning disorder. Two main objectives were framed. The primary objective was to find out the differences in anger and aggression management in SLD children before and after the implementation of therapeutic play technique intervention. Secondly it was to compare the differences between SLD children who have received therapeutic play technique intervention and children who have not received therapeutic play technique intervention in the management of anger and aggression. The sample selected for the study was 30 SLD children.An experimental design was used. 15 LD children who have anger and aggression was selected through proper screening to participate in the intervention program based on therapeutic play techniques. Another group consisting 15 LD children who were also having anger and aggression behaviours formed control group. The intervention program was implemented in the experimental group whereas control group did not receive intervention program.in order to evaluate the effect of intervention pre and post assessment results of experimental, control groups were compared.According to the results it was seen that in experimental group there is is a significant difference in anger and aggression on SLD children before and after intervention which was assessed by the teachers.

  176. Dr. Sandhya Jain and Dr. Neetu Sharma

    CBCT is a recent technology using low dose of X- ray in comparison to CT and have high spatial resolution which gives image high contrasting structures. Evidence-based guidelines on how and when to use of CBCT have been developed by a Multidisciplinary team consisting of dentists, dental radiologists, medical physicists and dental specialists. Provisional guidelines were developed in 2009 (SEDENTEXCT 2009) and Final guidelines in 2011which were again reviewed in 2012.

  177. Fadwa Ghassan, Dr. Sarwer Jamal Al-Bajalan and Dr.Thamer Mutlag Jasim

    Objective: To investigate the gender impact on serum IGF-1, Vit. D and other clinical parameters in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and compare between the studied parameters before and after treatment. Design: Thirty Iraqi newly diagnosed patients with MS and follow them after one month of treatment (Beta interferon inj. I inj./week) and compare the results with 20 healthy control. Serum IGF-1, Vit.D, S.GOT, S.GPT, Total Cholestrol and Uric acid were measured. Results: In MS patients, The serum IGF-1 demonstrated a lowest level in the female subjects of control [9.50 ng/dl], while it showed an increased level in male [10.22 ng/dl] , but with similar levels (p> 0.05), The mean of IGF-1 also shown no significant difference between female and male MS patients in pre or post-treatment groups [33.7o vs. 37.46 , 19.22 vs. 21.50 respectively].Similar Vitamin D serum levels( 7.59 and 7.39 ng/ml, respectively) in the two groups of pre-treatment patients (Male and Female), and therefore, no significant difference. In contrast, the controls demonstrated a gradual increase of Vit D. serum level (27.83 and 30.77ng/ml, respectively) in the male and female groups, Such difference was not significant (P ≥ 0.05). In the post-treatment patients also, was no significant difference between male and female patients (11.27 vs. 10.99 ng/ml).Neither SGOT nor SGPT showed a significant variation between the two groups of pre-treatment MS patients for male and for female, although a similar level of SGPT was observed in the control groups for male and female respectively, and the post treatment group of MS patients also not observed and difference between male and female (29.92 vs. 30.17, respectively). No significant difference in uric acid serum level (p≥ 0.05) between male and female groups in pre-treatment patients (4.3 and 4.42 mg/dl, respectively). As well as, in post-treatment MS patient, no significant difference was observed between male and female groups (4.92 and 4.72 mg/dl, respectively). The healthy control group show that the uric acid serum level in male (4.41 md/dl) and in female (4.47 mg/dl) and there was no significant difference between them. There was no significant difference in total cholestrol serum level (p≥ 0.05) between male and female groups in pre-treatment patients (175.38 and 181.94 mg/dl, respectively). As well as, in post-treatment MS patients there was no significant difference was observed between male and female groups (170.92 and 170.0 mg/dl, respectively).The control group show that the total cholesterol serum level in male (160.5 md/dl) and in female (177.14 mg/dl) and there was no significant difference between them. Conclusions: The observed increase in IGF-I in patients treated with IFN-beta being of most significance as a potential therapeutic biomarker.MS, occur more frequently in women. Emerging technologies might provide novel methods with the potential to further dissect the genetic and immunological mechanisms causing the observed differences between women and men with MS.

  178. Ms. Simarjot Kaur, Mrs. Meenakshi and Dr. Namita Budhiraja

    Background of the study: School health services are an economical and powerful means of raising standard of community health, especially for the future generations. School is considered as a best setting for the positive health and prevention of diseases, awakening health consciousness in which the child grows and develops. Objective: This study was conducted to compare pre-test and post-test knowledge and practices score of control and experimental group. Methodology: A quasi-experimental design was used to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and practices of oral hygiene among children at selected schools of Ludhiana city, Punjab. The sample of the study was children of 6th standard and sample size was 100. Structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge and observational check list to assess the practices was used for data collection. Data was collected by self report and observational method and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: In control group pre-test knowledge score was (11.64) and post- test knowledge score was (12.12), pre-test practices score was (3.00) and post- test practices score was (3.02). The difference between pre-test and post test mean knowledge and practice score were statistically non- significant. In experimental group pre-test mean knowledge score was 9.96 and post- test knowledge score was 21.5, pre-test mean practices score was 2.54 and post- test practices score was 8.68. The difference between pre-test and post –test mean knowledge and practice score were highly significant p=0.001. It was concluded that structured teaching had impact on knowledge and practices regarding oral hygiene in school children. Conclusion: The study findings implied that the implementation of structured teaching programme has a vital role in improving the knowledge and practices of the children regarding oral hygiene.

  179. Dr. Pradkhshana Vijay, Dr. Nilesh Pardhe and Dr. Manas Bajpai

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a benign disease showing inflammatory response which occurs in minor salivary glands mimicking a malignant lesion both clinically as well as histopathologically. The lesion occurs due to vascular ischemia caused by trauma. We present a case of necrotizing sialometaplasia in a 80 years old male patient, who reported with a complaint of pain in posterior maxilla.

  180. Dr. Milan K Senjaliya

    Aims: To present and review a rare case of metastatic choriocarcinoma in the dorsolumbar spine. Methods: A 21-year-old woman presented with complains of acute sudden onset paraplegia since 15 days with past history of uterine dilatation and curettage before 1 month for abnormal products in uterus and vaginal bleeding and laparotomy for uterine perforation before 20 days. No report of biopsy was available. Dorsolumbar magnetic resonance examinations revealed epidural lesion at the level from D5 to L1 on posterior and right lateral side which was hypointense on T1 weighted image, hyperintense on T2 weighted image and shows post contrast enhancement with compression of spinal cord. Patient was operated for D5 to L1 laminotomy and biopsy from that lesion which was very vascular. Results: Biopsy report revealed infiltration of invasive hydatidiform mole. Serum level of βHCG was 242958 miu/ml. Patient was further investigated for contrast enhanced computer tomography of thorax and abdomen showed nodular metastasis of lung with pleural effusion and ascites. Despite of chemotherapy and radiotherapy patient has paraplegia at present. Conclusion: We have reported a rare case of dorsolumbar epidural metastasis and pulmonary metastasis of choriocarcinoma. Choriocarcinoma is a highly anaplastic malignancy derived from trophoblastic cells characterized by the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG) and early hematogenous metastasis. However, metastatic choriocarcinoma in the spine is extremely rare. Very few cases of metastasis in lumbar and/or sacral vertebra have been reported. Chemotherapy is treatment of choice for metastatic choriocarcinoma.

  181. Dr. Sathish Christopher and Dr. Vijay Ganesh, M.

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is a tumour belonging to a group which presents classically with small blue round cells.42 year old female patient presented to us with complaints of painless swelling in the left groin for the past 9 months .CT abdomen and pelvis revealed left inguinal lymphadenopathy without identifying any primary. Patient underwent excision biopsy and further evaluation with translocation studies revealed it to be PNET, primary could not be identified. It is very rare to see such a case with PNET in lymphnodes with primary being unknown.

  182. Rajesh, S., Monalisa Pattnaik and Dr. Patitapaban Mohanty

    The aim of the study was to find out the additional effect of soft tissue mobilisation to subscapularis when given with Maitland mobilisation in adhesive capsulitis patient with subscapularis muscle tightness. Study Design: Experimental pre and post test design between group comparisons. Methodology: A total of 30 subjects, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were randomly divided into two groups from outpatient department of SVNIRTAR after getting their consent. Group 1- Maitland mobilization and active exercises. Group 2- Maitland mobilization with soft tissue mobilization, stretching of subscapularis and active exercise. The intervention was for 3 weeks, treatment was given 5 day/ week. The dependant variables are Range of motion of glenohumeral joint and Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI). Conclusion: Patient with primary adhesive capsulitis are benefited by end range rhythmic oscillatory Maitland’s mobilisation techniques. However addition of soft tissue mobilisation to subscapularis improves glenohumeral external rotation range of motion and function to a greater extent than only Maitland’s mobilisation technique.

  183. Dr. Subashani and Dr. Sunil Dhaded

    It is Physiologic movement of healthy teeth occurs and it varies for each tooth. The movement of the teeth in different segment occur in different direction (Non–rigid connectors for fixed partial dentures, 1973). Tooth movement of divergent direction create stresses that are transferred to the abutment and cause loosing of the prosthesis at the weaker retainer side. In such situation a non-rigid connector, a stress breaking mechanical union of pontic and retainer is recommended. The non- rigid connectors in pier abutment cases allows shear stresses to transfer to the supporting bone and permit the abutment to move independently. Thus this clinical report describes the restoration of intermediate abutment with semi precision attachment.

  184. Dr. Preeti Awari and Dr. Vatsalaswamy, P.

    50 feet were dissected to see the course and branching pattern of dorsalis pedis artery. The following variations of the artery were seen. The dorsalis pedis artery was deviated laterally in 4% of feet. It was continuation of perforating branch of peroneal artery in 4% of feet. Arcuate artery was absent in 40% of feet. In 8% feet the medial tarsal artery was absent. In 12% feet there were two medial tarsal arteries. There were two lateral tarsal arteries in 14% of feet and three lateral tarsal arteries in 8% of feet. Knowledge of these variations can help the radiologists in diagnosing peripheral vascular diseases by colour Doppler. Awareness about the arterial variations in the foot can help microvascular surgeons to do infrapopliteal interventions in critical limb ishaemia and also in reconstructive surgeries.

  185. Sangeetha, B., Muthumari, J. and Rajeswari, P.

    The aim of this work is to investigate the growth performance of Spirulina under different light wavelength. Spirulina mother culture were collected and identified by microscope and it was cultivated using zarrouk’s medium in 6 containers. The containers were covered with various color clothes to adjust the wavelength of the light passed into the container. The growth performance of Spirulina was studied at 10th day, 20th day, and 30th day by checking the various parameters such as microscopic observation, the amount of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Total Chlorophyll, Total Carotenoids, and Phycocyanin. In commercial production units, the cultivation ponds should be made, in order to screen the specific wavelength of light.

  186. Anil Joshi, Sunita Patil, Harshal Ingle, Kiran Mane, Sitaram Sabne, Sadhna Shahi, Vishal Mitkari and Pranali Patil

    In India insecticidal poisoning containing organophosphorous is most commonly seen. Poisoning due to plant yield booster containing nitrobenzene is also on the rise. A 35 year old male patient was admitted with ingestion of plant yield booster (Boom Flower) showed the symptoms and signs of nitrobenzene poisoning with methaemoglobinemia. Timely use of mechanical ventilation and repeated parenteral methylene blue help to save a life.

  187. Dr. Kurdukar M.D., Dr. Parkhe A. M., Dr. Pandit G. A. and Dr. Khiste, J. A.

    It is widely accepted that male factor alone accounts for 40% cases of infertility. Careful examination of seminal parameters is an important diagnostic tool to know the possible causes of infertility in males. The present study was aimed at accessing seminal parameters according to WHO Guidelines 2010 to evaluate the seminal patterns in male partner of infertile couples. Total 40 consecutive semen samples from male partners of the infertile couple attending the Outpatient Department over a period of ten months were studied. Semen was collected by conventional method and analysis was done manually for volume, viscosity, sperm concentration, motility, vitality and sperm morphology as per WHO Guidelines 2010. Maximum number of infertile males were found in the age group of 30-39 years (55%). Mean age was found to be 31.1 years. Semen analysis was normal in 55% of cases. The dominant abnormality found was oligozoospermia (30%) followed by asthenozoospermia (27.5%). Azoospermia was found in 10% of cases. Abnormal results of semen analysis serve as significant contributory factor in male infertility. It still stands as the most fundamental test which is non-invasive, cost effective and fairly reliable. However more tests, follow up and elaborate studies are required to establish the diagnosis of infertility.

  188. Pradkhshana Vijay and Dr. Nilesh Pardhe

    Ossifying fibromas (OF) form an array of fibro-osseous lesions of the jaw. These are quite rare and benign tumors which are non-odontogenic in origin. They are commonly seen in the head and neck region. Ossifying fibroma of maxilla is an uncommon entity. We present a case of ossifying fibroma in the posterior maxillary region of a 55 years old female patient with brief discussion of review of literature of the lesion.

  189. Sugunakar Raju

    Cherubism is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by bilaterally symmetric fibro-osseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. Affected children appear normal at birth. Swelling of the jaws usually appears between 2 and 7 years of age, after which, lesions proliferate and increase in size until puberty. The lesions subsequently begin to regress, fill with bone and remodel until age 30, when they are frequently not detectable. Cherubism is due to autosomal dominant mutations in the SH3BP2 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. The lesions seen in Cherubism are painless and more or less symmetrical. Frequently, Cherubism is accompanied by dental arch and tooth eruption abnormalities with rare extra gnathic skeletal involvement. The rounded face, due to jaw hypertrophy and upward gaze with exposure of the sclera below the pupil gives a reminder of cherubs depicted in Renaissance paintings. This paper reports a case of non-familial cherubism with its clinical, radiological, histopathological features along with treatment aspects.

  190. Vashistha Monika and Mishra Sunita

    Soup is regarded as a ready to use supplementary food-specialized ready to eat food. The experiment was conducted in the research laboratory of the Department of Food Science and Technology, BBAU, Lucknow. Present study explains the nutritive value of value added soup and non- value added soup. The flaxseed is flat and oval with a pointed tip. It is a little larger than a sesame seed and a smooth glossy surface. The seed consists of a hull, endosperm and embryo including the cotyledons. The hull is tough and fibrous. Its colour ranges from pure yellow to deep brown (Nagaraj, 1995). As a basic food worldwide, soup has come to take on significance beyond more nutrition. Flaxseed and soyabean are used in value added soup can therefore be used as a weapon against cardiovascular disease, its high in protein, carbohydrate and dietary fiber. This review highlights the potential of ‘flax seed’ as a ‘neutraceutical’ and its role as a protective and therapeutic medicinal food. The value added soup is developed by taking flaxseed, soyabean flour, corn flour, carrot, peas, and coriander leaves in different sample(T1,T2) and value added soup are prepared. Sensory evaluation done by panellist of 5 members, and they most accepted sample T2 containing flaxseed. The nutritional analysis the all the nutrient content was assessed in laboratory, in this amount protein and carbohydrate are increased and moisture content decreased. After development the nutrient quality of value added soup is increased protein value from to 29.90. fat from to 24.13gm, one important factor moisture percentage decreased and reach the label of 4.76%, so shelf life is increased. The value added soup is rich in carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. So it is good for cardiovascular patient.

  191. Sonam Kushwaha

    Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacteria that has a long history in human nutrition. Potential health properties of Spirulina due to its nutritional and therapeutic ingredients are the fields of interests for future research. Early interest in spirulina focused mainly on its rich content of protein, vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, fatty acid spirulina comprises 60-70% protein by dry weight. The spirulina used in the production of cookies by some addition percentages zero,5,10 and 15%.Data of sensory evaluation results showed that the adding spirulina by ratio zero had lower score for most properties compared to other taste. In the overall sensory scores fist sample were higher among the other ingredient compositions. The intension was to incorporate 5 % possible quantity of spirulina mixture in the making of cookies to get good taste. It was observed that sensory scores given by the panel judges aged 30-40 yrs. people for all sensory attributes i.e. it changes from for color and it was obtained by incorporation of spirulina in it

  192. Basant Joshi, Dr. Sangeeta Singh and Dr. Suman Pandey

    Introduction: Hypertension is defined as sustained increase at or above 140 mmHg of Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 90 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure (DBP).Hypertensive nephropathy or renal disease occurs as a result of high blood pressure in hypertensive patient. This disease is characterized by damage to the vasculature of the kidneys as blood pressure increases. Proteinuria is closely associated with hypertension, presumably reflecting the severity of hypertension induced renal damage. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were A study of serum urea, creatinine and proteinuria in hypertensive patients. Material & Methods: Total 118 Hypertensive patients, of age group 25-55 years were included in this study. Detailed history was taken and renal function tests were done in all the patients. Results:-In the present study, Serum urea (p<0.01) and creatinine (p<0.01) levels were found to be significantly higher in cases as compared to those normal subjects. In hypertensive patients with renal failure, significant correlation was found between SBP and level of serum urea (correlation coefficient -0.4). Conclusion: Proteinuria with high BP is an indicator of declining kidney function. It is simple,accurate, and convenient measurement which is not only quatitative, but also semiquantitative as it can predict the total amount of protein loss through kidneys.It is a good replacement for tedious, time consuming 24 h urine protein estimation, especially in countries like India where hospitals cannot cope up with a large number of in-patients. We can also use other parameters as random urine albumin-creatinine ratio for the prediction of significant proteinuria in HTN patients.

  193. Zedekiah Odira Onyando, Henry B.O. Lung’ayia, Charles K. Kigen and William A. Shivoga

    Rivers are vulnerable to eutrophication as a result of increased deposition of nutrients from human activities taking place within watersheds. Uncontrolled release of nutrients into these important freshwater ecosystems can compromise water quality status for domestic consumption and create unfavourable habitat conditions for aquatic biota. This study investigated the seasonal fluctuations in the levels of nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus at various land uses in River Isiukhu, Kenya from January to June 2013. Land use significantly impacted on phosphate-phosphorus (F=11.1, p<0.05) and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (F=13.7, p<0.05). The forest land use recorded the lowest concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (2.24 Mg L-1) and phosphate-phosphorus (0.07 Mg L-1) while the mixed agricultural land use recorded the highest level of the two nutrients i.e. (5.7 Mg L-1) and (0.2 Mg L-1) respectively. Nutrient concentrations increased in river sections with high intensity of human activities and increased destruction of the riparian vegetation. The concentrations of the two nutrients studied varied with the changes in the amount of rainfall received in the watershed. The lowest concentrations of the two nutrients were observed in February 2013 when only 32.5 mm of rainfall was received while the highest concentrations occurred in April at the peak of the rainy season. Spearman rank order correlation revealed positive correlations between the amount of rainfall and the concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. From this study, it is recommended that there is need to regulate the nature of human activities taking place in the riparian areas due to the potential impact of these activities on nutrient levels.

  194. João Pedro Silvestre, Renan Ribeiro Barzan, Hector Augusto Sandoval Contreras, Thadeu Rodrigues de Melo, Luiz Henrique Campos de Almeida, Gustavo Adolfo de Freitas Fregonezi and Hideaki Wilson Takahashi

    Nutrient solution aspects such as the electrical conductivity are extremely important in hydroponic systems, with few studies related to that being performed in fertigation of crisphead lettuce at substrates. The aim of this work was to evaluate nutritional and productive aspects of crisphead lettuce, cv. Mauren, submitted to electrical conductivities of nutrient solution fertigated in pots with sand. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Agrarian Sciences Center of the Londrina State University (UEL), Londrina, PR, using a randomized block design with five treatments (0,8; 1,3; 1,8; 2,3 and 2,8 dS m-1 at nutrient solution) and five replications. It was evaluated the total mass of fresh matter (TMFM) and the total mass of dry matter (TMDM) of shoots, as well as the concentrations of macronutrients. The data were submitted to ANOVA and, when significant, were adjusted to regression models. The increase of the electrical conductivity at nutrient solution did not influence both TMFM and TMDM, providing response only for phosphorus (quadratic) and potassium (positive linear) concentration at shoots, which were, as the other nutrients, near to the sufficiency range.

  195. Dr. Ratna Roy

    Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers, and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced (Anon, 1993). We know that pollution is a human problem because it is a relatively recent development in the planet's history: before the 19th century Industrial Revolution, people lived more in harmony with their immediate environment. As industrialization has spread around the globe, so the problem of pollution has spread with it. When Earth's population was much smaller, no one believed pollution would ever present a serious problem (Biswajit Raj, 2001). Today, with around 7 billion people on the planet, it has become apparent that there are limits. Pollution is one of the signs that humans have exceeded those limits. The pollution that passes directly into water from factories and cities can be reduced through treatment at source before it is discharged. It is harder to reduce the varied forms of pollution that are carried indirectly, by runoff, from a number of widely spread non-point sources, into freshwater (Handa, 1994). In general, it takes much longer to clean up polluted water bodies than for pollution to occur in the first place, and there is thus a need to focus on protecting (C.G.W.M. 1990) water resources. In many cases, clean-up takes more than 10 years. Although underground water is less easily polluted than water above ground, cleaning it once it is polluted takes longer and is more difficult and expensive. Ways are being found to assess where and how underground water is most vulnerable to pollution (Sampat, 2001). Ground water is less susceptible to bacterial pollution than surface water because the soil and rocks through which ground water flows screen out most of the bacteria. But freedom from bacterial pollution alone does not mean that the water is fit to drink. Many unseen dissolved mineral and organic constituents are present in ground water in various concentrations. Most are harmless or even beneficial; though occurring infrequently, others are harmful, and a few may be highly toxic (Chowdhury and Chandra, 1987; Heavy Metal Poisioning, 2016). Naturally occurring contaminants are present in the rocks and sediments. As groundwater flows through sediments, metals such as iron and manganese are dissolved and may later be found in high concentrations in the water. Industrial discharges, urban activities, agriculture, groundwater pumpage, and disposal of waste all can affect groundwater quality. Pesticides and fertilizers applied to crops can accumulate and migrate to the water table (Badmus, 2001). In recent years, the growth of industry, technology, population, and water use has increased the stress upon both our land and water resources. Locally, the quality of ground water has been degraded. Municipal and industrial wastes and chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides not properly contained have entered the soil, infiltrated some aquifers, and degraded the ground-water quality. Other pollution problems include sewer leakage, faulty septic-tank operation, and landfill leachates.

  196. Deepmala Pathak and Koul, K. K.

    Soil pH plays an important role in the survival of soil microbes. These effect the soil micro and macronutrients. Phosphorus (P) is a major growth macronutrient in the soil taken up by the plants for growth, development and yield of every crop. Phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) play role in phosphorus nutrition by enhancing its availability into rhizosphere by release from inorganic and organic bound sources in soil through phosphorus solubilisation and mineralisation. In the present study a comparative assessment has been made on the Pikovskaya agar medium (PVK) containing methyl red, methyl red orange and bromophenol blue. These are used for observing the differential phosphate solubilising activity of phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) in the potato growing soil. The study revealed higher number of PSB forms revealed in PVK containing methyl red followed simultaneously by PVK containing bromophenol blue and methyl red orange respectively.

  197. Kamil M. Yousif, Najmaldin E. Hassan and Sagvan A.M. Ali

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the drinking water quality of Zakho city after adding chlorine (as an efficient disinfectant), and assess the water quality of Little Khabur River (before adding chlorine). Also a systematic study has been carried out to assess the water quality of Zakho city after distribution (at the consumer tap). Water was analyzed during rainy season for 2014 and during all seasons of 2015 to determine its quality using standard methods. The aim was to find how the addition of chlorine could affect the physical and chemical properties of water for Zakho city. Quantification of chlorine residual, pH, turbidity, etc. was performed. Each physico-chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, COD, BOD, total alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, etc.) was compared with the standard desirable limit of that parameter in river water (or drinking water) as prescribed by WHO. pH generally ranged from 7.02 to 7.30; conductivity fluctuated from 359 to 374 μS/cm; turbidity varied from 0.34 to 2.79 NTU; and TDS values were found to be ranging between 180 and 187 mg/l. Chlorine normally added to public water supplies to kill disease-causing bacteria that the water or its transport pipes might contain. The value of total chlorine was found to be 0.86 to1.7 mg/l.

  198. Gustavo Zimmer, Felipe Koch, Ivan Ricardo Carvalho, Vinicius Jardel Szareski, Gustavo Henrique Demari, Maicon Nardino, Diego Nicolau Follmann, Velci Queiróz de Souza, Tiago Zanatta Aumonde and Tiago Pedó

    Low temperatures and precipitation in off-season soybean may benefit seed production. This work aimed to evaluate seed quality and initial performance of off-season soybean produced in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The experiment was performed under completely randomized design and treatments consisted of ten soybean genotypes produced off-season. We evaluated 1000 seeds weight, first count of germination, speed of germination index, seedling emergence, speed of emergence index, leaf area and shoot and root dry matter at the 20 and 30 days after sowing. Under off-season cultivation, FPS Iguaçu RR presented the greater value for 1000 seeds weight. BMX Turbo RR performed better for first count of germination, seedling emergence and speed of emergence index, along with FPS Iguaçu RR for seedling emergence. BMX Alvo RR had presented greater speed of germination index. FPS Iguaçu RR presented better performance for leaf area and shoot and root dry matter in both dates. BMX Classe RR presented the lower value for 1000 seeds weight and BMX Tornado RR, BMX Potência RR and FPS Solimões RR for first count of germination. For the speed of germination index, FPS Paranapanema RR and FPS Solimões RR were inferior to the others. BMX Potência RR had the lowest seedling emergence and BMX Tornado RR the lowest values for speed of emergence index, leaf area and shoot dry matter at the 20 and 30 days after sowing, along with BMX Potência RR for shoot dry matter at the 20 days and BMX Classe RR at the 30 days.

  199. Dr. Sunil Shankar Bhise

    Annabhau Sathe a creative writer and activist, depicts the lives of downtrodden, landless labourers, peasants and workers of his times in his short stories. Their sorrows and sufferings, their struggle for existence and their lone protest against the established society. Annabhau Sathe who was deeply influenced by socialistic philosophy strongly advocates it in his writings. The characters portrayed in his short stories, the contemporary society and socio-economic situation of his time is described in realistic way by him. It shows his deep concern as a socialistic philosopher. In his short stories like 'Sawala', 'Dole', 'Pirajichi Bhangad', 'Kombadi Chor' communist philosophy is reflected. Principles of this philosophy - fraternity, liberty and equality are clearly depicted in these stories.

  200. Sulochana Kaushik, Vikrant Sharma, Dhruva Chaudhary, Sanjeev Nanda, Jaya Parkash Yadav and Samander Kaushik

    Dengue is a viral disease which is spread by a mosquito vector and is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Dengue poses serious health threat to a major portion of population therefore rapid and specific tests are needed to combat the situation. Thus, one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was standardized to detect all the four serotypes of dengue viruses i.e. DENV1 to DENV4. This study was performed on standard strains of dengue viruses. RNA was extracted from these strains and was used to optimize one step RT-PCR. This assay was able to detect all the four serotypes of dengue virus.

  201. Parashurama, T. R., Deepa, J. and Prakash Kariyajjanavar

    Twenty six species of Pteridophytes belonging to seventeen families were documented with distribution study was carried out in the forest of Mudigere taluk located in Chikmagalur district of Central Western Ghats. Selaginella monospora Spring. was observed as higher importance value index followed by Adiantum philipense L., Pteris biaurita L., Adiantum concinnum Humbl. & Bonpl. ex Wild. and Tectaria paradoxa (Fee) Sledge. The Shannon’s diversity index value (H1) and Simpson’s diversity (D) values for pteridophytic species in study area showed high diversity and species richness.

  202. Joze Melisa Nunes de FREITAS, Roberto CezarLoboda COSTA, CândidoFerreirade OLIVEIRA NETO, Diocléa Almeida Seabra SILVA, Susana Silva CONCEIÇÃO, Ricardo Shigueru OKUMURA, Ismael José Matos VIÉGAS, Kerolém Pricila Souza CARDOSO, Jackeline Araújo Mota SIQUE

    The aim of this work was evaluate the water potential, relative water content, and the osmoregulators in young plants of acapu submitted to water déficit. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Federal Rural University of Amazônia, Belém, Brazil, in a period of 9 months. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized in factorial 2x4 (two water conditions: control and drought and four times of evaluation) with 5 repetitions, totaling 40 experimental units. The imposition of water deficit was obtained by suspension of irrigation in 30 days time, with first time (zero days of drought), time 2 (10 days), time 3 (20 days) and the time 4 (30 days). In these plants, was verified a reduction in water potential and RWC in the leaf, in the end of the experiment. The drought induced the increase in carbohydrate content, as well as in sucrose, proline and glycine betaine concentrations on leaves and also in the roots. The lack of water caused a reduction of starch in both organs studied. The accumulation of these osmorregulators in response to drought provided a decrease in water potential in these plants, reducing the effects of stress on the relative water content in the leaf.

  203. Amisha Shirodker Pednekar, Akshata Kudcherkar, Deepika Shet Verenkar, Nidhi R. Tallur and Rutuja Lotliker

    Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, filamentous or unicellular microorganisms. They are ubiquitous and considered the primary decomposers of dead biomass in the biosphere. Decomposition is a key component of global carbon cycling. Fungi play a central role in plant litter decomposition in forest ecosystems through nutrient cycling and humus formation in soil, because they colonize the lignocellulose matrix in litter, which other organisms are unable to decompose. Litter samples were collected from various sites in Salcete, Goa. Macro-fungi maintained in moist chambers and leaf litter were inoculated in sterile petri-plates having PDA media. Colony and microscopic studies of the isolated pure cultures was then done. The litter fungi isolated were Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp., Mucor sp., Cheilymenia fimicola, Mycena acicula, Schizophyllum commune, Marasmius haematocephalus and Ganoderma sp.

  204. Khris June L Callano

    Interspesific F1 hybrids between S. aethiopicum Acc.8971 and S. melongena var. DLP and Acc. 3305 were produced. Yet, recovered crosses were observed to have high percentage of flower abscission and fruit setting was never noted in them. Pollen tube study was conducted to unveil the pre-fertilization barriers causing hybrid sterility and breakdown. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine pre-fertilization barriers. Pre-fertilization barrier in the form of inhibited pollen tube growth was noted.

  205. Bojka Malcheva, Pavlina Naskova, Dragomir Plamenov and Yordan Iliev

    The scope of current research is to establish the impact of different fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, mono- and diammonium phosphate, liquid nitric fertilizer, urea and compound fertilizer NPK) produced by “Agropolychim” AD on chemical parameters and soil enzymatic activity related to common winter wheat and oilseed rape. Fertilizers are applied before sowing process. The experiment is repeated twice into greenery. Biogenic elements and enzymatic activity estimation is made after soil sampling and during wheat pick up phase and at the end of coleseed’s leaf rosette phase. Results show that the highest total nitrogen volumes in wheat samples are detected when fertilization with DAP is made, and in the cases with coleseed – the highest total nitrogen content is estimated when liquid nitrogen fertilizer UAN is applied. Total phosphorous content in both cases is highest when fertilization with DAP is done. Recorded content of total potassium in wheat and coleseed samples is highest in cases when compound fertilizer NPK is applied. It has been established higher content of these three macronutrient elements in case of wheat experiment. This fact proves coleseed’s larger needs of nutrient elements even in the early phase of culture development. Used fertilizers enhance the enzyme soil activity. The values for catalase and cellulase activity are higher with fertilized soils samples compared with control base case - soil sample without fertigation. Application of Ammonium nitrate and NPK increases catalase activity. In case of DAP application, in contrary, the activity of this enzyme is decreased as well as with wheat and coleseed. It has been estimated that cellulase activity is around 19% higher when fertilizers are applied compared with base case of non-treated soil with fertilizers. The best result for cellulase activity value is achieved with UAN application in both cases – wheat and coleseed. Tested chemical and enzymatic parameters can be used as specific chemical and biochemical markers for estimation of fertilized soils.

  206. Huidrom Puinyabati, Maibam Shomorendra and Devashish Kar

    The present work was conducted to see the fish fauna of Awangsoi Lake during April, 2015 to September, 2015. The study showed the presence of 31 fish species belonging to 21 genera of 13 families and 5 orders. Puntius species showed the highest yield, followed by Channa punctata, Anabas testudineus, Trichogaster fasciata, T. labiosa, Amblypharyngodon mola, Heteropneustes fossilis etc.

  207. Aiswarya Mohanan

    Orchid is a major cut flower grown in Kerala. The present study is an attempt to assess the cost of cultivation and economic viability of orchid cultivation based on the data collected from a sample of 20 growers of Thiruvananthapuram and Ernakulam districts of Kerala. Cost of cultivation using A B C cost concepts showed that cost A or total paid out cost was Rs. 1,25,585. Considering all variable and fixed costs, cost C3 came to Rs. 1,53,868. The average annual returns obtained from a unit of 1000 orchid plants was Rs. 1,06,789. Based on pay-back period, benefit cost ratio, net present worth and internal rate of return, orchid cultivation practiced by growers in the study area was found to be an economically viable proposition.

  208. Lucas Gonzaga de Carvalho Sousa, Letícia Marini, Suelen Reis Teixeira, Taylane Soffener Berlanga de Araújo, PatríciaGarani Fernandes, Andreia Borges Scriboni, Simone Andreia Gubolin, Carlos Alberto Costa Neves Buchala, Elias Naim Kassis and Idiberto José

    Background: The smear layer is formed by the rest of dentin and organic material, such as cellular waste vital or necrotic, bacteria and byproducts. It prevents the penetration of medicines intracanais and endodontic sealer in the Dentinal tubules and ramifications of the root canal system. Several techniques have been proposed and rinsing delivery devices to improve the distribution of the solution within the root canal system. The objective of this work was to compare the conventional irrigation technique the technique of passive ultrasonic irrigation for removal of debris tubules and smear layer. It was concluded that ultrasound enhances passive irrigation solution irrigating action decreasing the amount of dirt from the root canal system. Conclusion: The passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the conventional ultrasonic irrigation and irrigation in the removal of debris and smear layer from root canals. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is not able to remove all the "debris" from the root canal but when used, significantly enhances cleaning of the root canal system.

  209. Dr. Thangam, Y

    The aim of the study was to determine the toxicity of nitrite in exposure of electrolytes (potassium) to freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Changes in the electrolyte content of fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to sublethal concentration of nitrite for 35 days were presented in Table 1. During subsequent exposure period the potassium level was increased showing a maximum percent increase of 18.61 at the end of 35th day. There were significant (P< 0.05) variation among the treatments (F1, 40= 3322.20; P< 0.05), period (F 4, 40= 249.37; P< 0.05) and their interactions (F 4, 40= 84.72; P< 0.05).

  210. Durgesh D. Wasnik and Tumane, P. M.

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as genes encoding ESBLs. During this study, 1465 different clinical samples were tested in which 1255 (85.66%) samples showed growth of bacteria. Out of 1255 clinical samples, 1157 (92.19%) different strains of bacteria were isolated. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent 25.58% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.65%). Out of 296 E. coli isolates and 158 K. pneumoniae isolates, 247 (83.44%) and 128 (81.01%) isolates were ESBL producers, respectively. For testing with getotyping of isolates by Multiplex PCR detection using TEM, SHV, CTX-M genes, among the isolates harbouring single ESBL gene (61.53%), blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M were present in 42.30%, 19.23% and 11.53% strains of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. The 22 strains of E. coli and 16 strains of K. Pneumoniae had a single ESBL gene, although TEM and SHV types of ESBL were frequently found in E. coli (12/6) and K. pneumoniae (10/4), respectively. Two or more genes for ESBL were present in 14 (26.92%) of the 52 ESBL typeable isolates, blaTEM + blaSHV being the most common combination (9.61%), followed by blaTEM + blaCTX-M and bla SHV + blaCTX-M (5.76%). One strains of both E. coli and K. pneumoniae harbour 3 genes for ESBL. The majority of strains harboured two or more ESBL genes and the most common phenotypes were TEM, SHV and CTX-M. Identification of the genes is necessary for the surveillance of their transmission in hospitals.

  211. Abhijit Das and Subhajit Biswas

    Rivers play a major role in integrating and organizing the landscape, and moulding the ecological setting of a basin. The present investigation was conducted in the remnants of old channel of Jia Bharali named as Mara Bharali at Tezpur in the Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Sampling stations were selected from Solmara Bridge (N-26º41'13.65" and E-92º48'59.32") near Tezpur University, Tezpur to Maithan (N-26º37'05.69" and E-92º49'34.34") where the river meets the river Brahmaputra. The temperature, pH and turbidity of the river water was found to be within the WHO permissible limit. However, Site-II, III and IV showed higher turbidity above permissible limits. During the post monsoon the TDS ranged between 700 – 1800 mg/L whereas during the winter the value was found to be between 600 – 1500 mg/L which was above the WHO permissible limit. DO values depleted in winter and was found to range between 1.8 – 4.2 mg/L. Free CO2 value was found to be maximum during monsoon at site II (Mara Bharali Bridge) at 57.2 mg/L. A total of 06 (six) molluscan species were recorded from the sampling sites during the period of study which indicates that productivity of the river is moderately rich. The molluscan community was represented by two classes, viz., Bivalvia and Gastropoda of which 01 species was Bivalvia and 05 species were Gastropoda.

  212. Subramani, P. and Mary Pamila, A.

    In present study the adsorption of metal ions on activated carbon of morinda citrifolia has been studied using Atomic adsorption spectroscopy for metal estimation. The influence of various parameters like heavy metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose, pH of the adsrobate and contact time were studied. Langmuir and freundlich isotherms and kinetic modeling were employed to describe adsorption equilibrium. The values showed that morinda citrifolia carbon has a better sorptive potential and could be used as low cost adsorbents for the removal of lead(II) nickel(II) from aqeous solution.

  213. Khairul Bashar, Jahan Sadia Afroze, Md. Farhad Ali, Ashiqur Rahaman, Md. Razib Hosen and Md. Sakhawat Hossain

    This study was undertaken to assess the level of heavy metals and the extent of pollution in surface water, sediment and fishes of Buriganga River near the discharge point of tannery effluents. Water, sediment and two species of fish samples were collected by typical process. Those Samples were analyzed to determine the heavy metal content by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Accumulation levels in fish were then compared with the concentration levels of fishes collected from the local market. In Heteropneustes fossilis (Stinging catfish) average bioaccumulations of Cr, Pb, Cd, and Zn were varied from 437.85 to 8.4 mg/kg, 26.3 mg/kg to Below Detection Limit (BDL), 2.75 to 0.05 mg/kg and 338.5 to 29.7 mg/kg in dry weight respectively. While in Channa punctata (Spotted snakehead) average bioaccumulations of Cr, Pb, Cd, and Zn were varied from 81.05 to 1.35 mg/kg, 27.75 to 1.6 mg/kg, 2.9 to 0.4 mg/kg and 244 to 67 mg/kg in dry weight respectively. Mean concentration of metals in sediments were; Cr-271.6, Pb-16.02, Cd-0.43 and Zn-54 mg/kg in dry weight and in water these levels were Cr-0.285, Pb-0.056, Cd-0.002 and Zn-0.757 mg/L. Amongst the Heavy metals Cr recorded the highest concentration in the head of H. fossilis with a value of 437.85 mg/kg and Cd recorded the lowest in water with a value of 0.002 mg/L. This study was intended to evaluate the effects of tannery effluents on aquatic life and water quality at the discharged point of tannery effluents. Cr content which mainly comes from the tannery effluents was found excessively high in the Fishes of Buriganga River than that of Local Market in this study. These findings indicate a major threat to human health as the concentration of heavy metals was higher than the WHO approved standard level.

  214. Dr. G. Hariprakash

    In the field of research, especially in the logical algebra study of classes of regular semigroup are at most importance. Orthodox semigroups constitutes an important class of regular semigroups. An extension of these concepts was introduced by S. Madhavan on 1978 in his research article "Some results on generalized inverse semigroups” (Madhavan, 1978). A band is a semigroup in which every element is an idempotent. Inverse semigroups constitute the most important and promising classes of semigroups. Such a semigroup is certainly regular. But every regular semigroup need not be an inverse semigroup. If in a regular semigroup, any two idempotents commute, then it is an inverse semigroup. A regular semigroup in which idempotents form a semigroup is called an orthodox semigroup. In this study many results of pre algebra have extended the boarder framework of fuzzy setting. Following the formulation of Green's Fuzzy relations in the work "A study of fuzzy congruence on Green's fuzzy relations" (Hariprakash, 2016) here in this paper, the concept and results of orthodox semigroups are characterized using fuzzy properties. A general theory of logical algebra of fuzzy sets was introduced by Zadeh (Zadeh, 1965). In the paper 'A fuzzy approach to complete Upper Semilattice and complete lower semilattice" discussed the concept of fuzzy congruences relation on a semigroup (Hariprakash, 2016). During the course of this work the study concentrated in special classes of Green’s fuzzy relations. It endeavours to find out a classes (quotient classes) of Green’s Fuzzy Relations as a Fuzzy Orthodox Semigroup and called Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroup. Finally four lammas in Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroup are established.With the help of these lammas the study concludes by finding out a theorem stating a necessary and sufficient condition for quotient classes of regular semigroup to be a Green’s Fuzzy Orthodox semigroup. In particular this work establishes Fuzzy Green's Fuzzy classes is an orthodox semigroup when the semigroup is a fuzzy congruence Green's Fuzzy antisimple orthodox semigroup.

  215. Uttam.P.Dolhare

    In this paper, some fixed point theorems are proved in D-metric spaces. The Generalization of fixed point theorems and selfmaps in F-orbitally compete D-metric space which include unique fixed point results in Dolhare (2016), Dhage et al. (2003), Dolhare (?), Dolhare and Bele (2016), generalized fixed point therems in F-orbitally complete D-metric spaces as a special cases.

  216. Sameer Qasim Hasan and Gaeth Ali Salum

    The main method of optimal control of systems described by Ito-levy processes which is Dynamic programming and Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and which supported by three types of forms with examples.

  217. Jan Mohammad Mir, Neeta Jain and Maurya, R. C.

    This manuscript is an update of some important concerns about nitrosyl complexes having the ability to act as nitric oxide releasing compounds under varied circumstances involving ligand, metal and solution properties. In current times seek for efficient and less harmful NO releasing molecules at desirable target and concentration has gained enormity in nitrosyl chemistry. Iron, ruthenium and manganese nitrosyls have been investigated to a considerable extent to disentangle their electronic transition (excitation) under visible light to act as NO donor without harming healthy cells of a target. There are many evidences supporting the NO-lability to be increased if amino acids are used as complexing ligands, design of reduction centre close to an NO grouping and development of porphyrin system based nitrosyl complexes. From the overall survey it may be concluded that desirable properties of such scaffolds need to be evaluated further to well suit with biological milieu.

  218. Jan Mohammad Mir, Neeta Jain and Maurya, R. C.

    This manuscript is an update of some important concerns about nitrosyl complexes having the ability to act as nitric oxide releasing compounds under varied circumstances involving ligand, metal and solution properties. In current times seek for efficient and less harmful NO releasing molecules at desirable target and concentration has gained enormity in nitrosyl chemistry. Iron, ruthenium and manganese nitrosyls have been investigated to a considerable extent to disentangle their electronic transition (excitation) under visible light to act as NO donor without harming healthy cells of a target. There are many evidences supporting the NO-lability to be increased if amino acids are used as complexing ligands, design of reduction centre close to an NO grouping and development of porphyrin system based nitrosyl complexes. From the overall survey it may be concluded that desirable properties of such scaffolds need to be evaluated further to well suit with biological milieu.

  219. Swati Ambasta

    Due to huge amount of data posted online, decision making process considering opinions play a crucial role in everyone's life. Analysis in the field of making decisions and setting policies has shown that sentiment analysis and Opinion mining lies at the intersection of Question Answering system and Computational Linguistics. World Wide Web has tremendous amount of unstructured data present in web forums, social networking sites and other social platforms as reviews which diverts our study towards mining the opinions on web. Our research work focuses on extracting tweets, classifying them into positive, negative and neutral category and finally providing a recommendation as whether to buy or reject a product. Classification system is been proposed by using twitter data using Naive Bayes algorithm and accuracy of the evaluation strategies by has been evaluated. Review data is collected for various product domains from micro blogging sites like twitter, face book.

  220. Kumar Avinav

    The management of multi-disciplinary infrastructure projects requires monitoring and controlling tools for effective project management. The Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is a useful management tool available for project managers to monitor and control multi-disciplinary projects. EVMS measures project performance by comparing the amount of work planned against the amount of work actually carried out and the actual cost incurred. EVMS combines the work scope, schedule and the cost elements of a project and facilitates the integrated reporting of a project’s progress and cost status.1 Government departmental executing agency considers physical percentage and financial progress of a job as a management and controlling tool .In cases where the difference between financial and physical percentage progress exceeds certain prefixed limit, then financial expenditure pertaining to that job is prohibited. This control is exercised with an intention that whatever expenditure has been incurred for mobilization of resources has to be culminated in physical progress. This paper discuss the applicability of EVMS as an effective tool for the government departmental executing agency and only monitoring physical and financial progress is not sufficient as management and controlling tool.

  221. Chali Yadeta

    Radon is a noble gas formed from the natural radioactive decay of uranium (U) and thorium (Th), natural components of the earth‟s crust, which decay to radium (Ra) and then to radon (Rn). The primary sources of indoor radon were identified and the immediate solutions are recommended as the way to reduce its health hazards. The sources include soil, building materials and water. Within the frame work of a simple steady-state analysis of the radon concentration in a model of atypical house, the potential contribution to indoor radon levels from each source is determined. The purpose of this paper is to examine the significant sources of indoor radon as well as its primary path ways into the indoor environment. The health effects of radon on humans were traced and it is the second cause for human lung cancer next to smoking. While an exact modeling of indoor radon levels is not possible, the simple analysis presented here may be used to determine the potential contribution of each source to the total average radon concentration in a house building. This information is particularly valuable in assigning logical priorities for the development of radon control measures and devices which will be both practical and effective in houses to minimize the radon concentration and its effect.

  222. Avinash Kumar, Neeraj Kumar, Kuldeep Singh and Kushmander Singh

    14membered macrocyclic complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) containing tetraoxo octa aza cyclo hexadecane ligand (L = C6H12N8O4) have been isolated by the template condensation of oxalo dihydrazide and formaldehyde in the presence of corresponding metal chloride and characterized by elemental analysis, UVVisible spectroscopic studies, magnetic moments and conductance measurements. The complexes of the type [M(C6H12N8O4)Cl2] [Where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cu] and [M(C6H12N8O4)Cl2]Cl [M=Cr and Fe] are all octahedral in nature.

  223. Nivedhitha, T., Sahithya, S., Vaishnavi, G. and Dr. Seyezhai, R.

    Photovoltaics (PV) is the fast growing segment among the renewable source of energy owing to the depletion of fossil fuels. But the output of PV module is low. In order to obtain a sufficiently high voltage, a step up dc-dc converter is required. The conventional boost converter experiences switching losses and switching stresses during turn- on and turn-off periods. This paper focuses on the investigation of switched capacitor boost dc-dc converter. The switched capacitor module is selected as it provides high gain, low cost and low fabrication space. Simulation studies are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK. A PV panel is used as input to the converter. In order to extract maximum power from the panel, an MPPT algorithm is also used. The resultant module is analyzed and the performance parameters are determined. The simulation results are verified by developing a prototype of the proposed SC

  224. Amala, M.

    In this paper we have shown that If S is a zero-square and a Right regular semiring. Here 0 is an additive identity, then axa = 0 for all a, x in S and (S, +) is a band.

  225. Thavamani, J. P.

    The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity and elevation. It is valid in regions of steady, incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible. In this paper we discuss the first order differential equations such as linear and Bernoulli equation. From this we get some idea how differential equations are closely associated with physical applications to study real world problems which are described by first order differential equations. We introduce the equation of continuity and conservation of fluid flow, from which we derive Bernoulli equation.

  226. Sangeeta Singh and Prof. Pradeep Pant

    In today’s life everyone is busy in his work, so, most of us give less attention to our children; on the other hand there are some families who are more than enough attentive to their children, which he or she does not like. Most of the parents do not want to know what the interest of their child is and what he or she want to do? They weighted the child with their own aim and continuously questioning him/her about their studies more than required. They want that their child spend 8-10 hours daily for his studies. If the child is doing some creative work such as drawing and making something, parents starts abusing him and start saying to pay attention to his/her studies. In some of the families the environment of their home is not good; means there is frequent quarrell between the parents. This gives the bad psychologist effect on his mind. When this happens regularly the child get depressed and in last try to end his/her life. So this is the essential duty of the parents and the school , where the child spends 8 hours daily to look insight the child and give him proper counseling if there is some problem with the child.

  227. Dr. Syeda Sameena Aziz and Hafeeza Shamoona

    Ionophoretic technique has been used to study the equilibria in simple and mixed lig and systems in solutions. For the study of ternary complexes the concentration of Resorcinol was kept constant in the case of Metal-Resorcinol –Tyrosine complex whereas tyrosine concentration is kept constant in case of Metal –Tyrosine –Resorcinol complex while that of secondary ligand tyrosine/Resorcinol is varied. The stability constant of Co(II)-Resorcinol, Co(II)-Tyrosine (1:1), Co(II)-Tyrosine (1:2), Co(II)-Resorcinol-Tyrosine and Co(II)-Tyrosine-Resorcinol complexes have been found to be 1012.96, 1016.21, 10 9.60, 108.20 and 106.54 respectively at 0.1M (HClO4) and 250C.

  228. Mr. Prashant Kumar, R., Mrs. Sree Ranjani, R., Ms. Rishika Venu Alvee and Mr. Bhargav, G. S. M.

    This work is a study of the behaviour of concrete beams retrofitted with Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites (GFRC), using experiments and Finite element analysis. Experiments are conducted on normal Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams and GFPC retrofitted RC beams. These are tested for Ultimate loads. Further analysis were performed on normal RC beams and GFRC retrofitted RC beams using ANSYS. Comparison of the same was also conducted.

  229. Tadele Melaku Challa and Dr. D. Ashalatha

    In Ethiopia, Cereal production and marketing are the means of livelihood for millions of small holder households and it constitutes the single largest sub-sector in economy. Out of the total grain crop area, 79.69% (8.7 million hectares) was covered by cereals. Teff and wheat covered up 23.42% (about 2.6 million hectares) and 13.01% (1.4 million hectares) of grain crops area respectively. Agricultural production and productivity is very low and the growth inagricultural output has barely kept pace with human population growth. Supply of agricultural crop in the study area is subjected to seasonal variation where surplus supply at harvest is the main feature. There is lack of sufficient studies which tries to look into the determinants of their supply in Dendi district. This study helps in the understanding of determinants of teff and wheat supply in the district. For the purpose of this study, Dendi district was selected purposively. In the second stage, out of the 48 rural PAs of Dendi district , 4 PAs each for teff and wheat were selected randomly by using simple random sampling technique. From the available 23 Teff producing PAs, three were selected randomly. From these 23PAs, 80 HHs of Teff producers and 80 HHs of wheat producers were selected randomly. Data were collected: Two types of analysis, namely descriptive and econometric analysis are used for analyzing the data collected from farmers and traders in the study area. Eleven explanatory variables were hypothesized to determine the household level marketable supply of Teff and Wheat. Among these variables, only five variables namely (quantity produced, age and market access, experience and price) were found to be significant while (education, quantity produced and extension access) were found significant for Wheat. The quantity of Teff and Wheat produced at the farm level affected marketable supply of Teff and Wheat positively and significantly. Introduction of improved varieties, application of chemical fertilizers, using of modern technologies, controlling disease and pest practices should be promoted to increase production. Education has improved the producing household’s ability to acquire new idea in relation to market information and improved production, which in turn enhanced productivity and thereby increased marketable supply of Teff and Wheat. Therefore, there is a great need to make information available to farmers at the right time.

  230. Natalia V. Kiseleva

    In experimental conditions intersex interactions at the American mink involving captive-bred and feral minks were studied. During the breeding season, reaction of female American mink to familiar and unfamiliar males was studied and revealed a female preference for a familiar male and formation of a close relationship between a female and a male. American mink males show aggression to unfamiliar animals of own species, regardless of gender and age, as well as to other species of mustelids. The degree of aggression in males of the American mink is much depending on their origin and individual recognition. Aggression of wild males of the American mink is the reason for infanticide and intraguild predation.

  231. Phanindra Kumar, T., Murthy, D. S. R., Madhava Rao, V., Rajesh, J. and Ramesh, P.

    The receding glaciers, shrinking cover of natural forests, the rapid loss of biodiversity, the falling ground water levels, inter annual variation in rainfall, rising temperature, falling agricultural productivity, point to the destructing health of the ecosystems, not well known in the past. The Mangroves ecosystem on the Kakinada coast is not out of bounds for the same and experienced high rates of deforestation over period of time. Mangroves are a group of salt tolerant plant species, which occur in the tropical and subtropical initial estuary regions. Mangroves constitute a dynamic ecosystem with a complex association of both floral and faunal species of terrestrial and aquatic systems and the vegetation in this forest is of evergreen type. Mangrove forests, types of coastal ecosystems in tropical zone, play an important role not only for material of biogeochemical cycle but also for human demand and economic activities including aquaculture, fishing as well as improving local living standard. They perform many protective, productive and economic functions. Mangrove forests near estuarine areas act as a barrier against cyclones and mitigate their effects. They prevent storm water from entering the mainland and prevent soil erosion along the coastal areas. Mangrove wetlands serve as spawning and nursery grounds for many economically important estuarine/marine fishes and shellfishes; their impact on ecology is equally significant: they harbour many resident and migratory birds. Though the mangrove ecosystem is highly productive and has multiple uses, mangroves suffered serious neglect till very recently. They are undergoing widespread degradation due to a combination of physical, biological, anthropogenic and social factors. Human-induced stresses and factors - such as unscientific management practices, changes in water quality, soil salinity, diversion of fresh water upstream, and conversion of mangrove wetlands for aquaculture, salt pans and other land use practices - have reduced mangrove vegetation. Mangrove wetlands have also been degraded by indiscriminate destruction of mangrove resources and clear-felling of mangrove forest. Mangroves. It is being envisaged judicious and realistic land cover and land use change data in conservation planning, accurate and efficient techniques to detect mangroves ecosystem change from multi-temporal satellite imagery are desired for conservation optimally. In view of this scenario, a study was taken up in Kakinada coast, primarily to study changes in mangrove ecosystem, vegetation type, density and extent, analyze the extent of deforestation, identify the changes in density of vegetation and to understand the temporal changes. The study assessed the impact of various measures taken up to prevent, principally between 1996 to 2010. After geometric and atmospheric corrections, the satellite imageries were subsetted and subjected to hybrid classification in to 100 classes, grouped in to ten classes for calculating the aerial extent. NDVI was used to identify the changes in density of vegetation and the change matrix identified the variations in the land cover over period of time. DGPS was used for marking critical locations The mangrove distribution was made from investigation in situ or analyzing from remotely sensing images and GIS techniques .Monitoring the locations and distributions of Mangroves changes is important for establishing links between policy decisions, regulatory actions and subsequent land use activities. Planning plays a key role in the management of making best use of limited resources. Integrated use of GIS, Remote Sensing and Image processing technologies enable us to cope with the objectives of change detection.

  232. Basile Paul Messi Eloundou

    La ville de Maroua, comme plusieurs villes du septentrion, connait un problème d’emploi. L’activité de lavandier prend de l’ampleur dans la cité régionale à cause du chômage qui est grandissant. Le taux de chômage dans cette partie du pays est le plus élevé se situant à 56% (ECAM, 2012). Dans un contexte de sous-industrialisation, la ville de Maroua en tant que capitale régionale n’affiche pas fière allure du fait de manque de complexe industriel pour absorber le nombre élevé de ruraux qui y arrivent, à la recherche de l’emploi. Cette recherche traite d’un problème qui est récurrent dans toutes les villes sahéliennes situées à l’intérieur du pays. Le manque de voies de communication modernes reliant l’intérieur à la côte est un problème crucial pour la création des industries de pointe et pourvoyeuses d’emplois pour résorber le chômage. C’est l’un des grands foyers de peuplement du Cameroun. Cependant cette région est confrontée à un réel problème de création d’emploi. L’objectif de cette contribution est de comprendre les difficultés d’emplois dans cette région dans une perspective de réduction du chômage. Il s’agit de comprendre pourquoi les populations sont attirées par ce type de métier la où l’eau est rare. La méthodologie de ce travail consiste en un recensement des blanchisseurs de la ville de Maroua et une collecte des données sur leur statut socio-économique, culturel et sur les risques encourus dans l’exercice de cette activité. Les résultats de cette recherche vont permettre de connaître le niveau de vie des personnes qui exercent ce type d’activité. Les raisons pour lesquelles elles ont embrassé cette forme de débrouillardise, les risques encourus par les usagers et les pratiquants de cette activité.

  233. Agasthian Ponnambalam

    This article is a study on Employee Engagement conducted at NTECL, a joint venture of NTPC Ltd., and TANGEDCO at Vallur, Chennai. The main objective of this study is to know employee engagement initiatives and to identify the barriers related to employee’s commitment towards their job at NTECL to engage the employees to work with passion and feel profound connection to their company.

  234. Veena, N.

    Stress is inevitable in everyday situations. In the current day scenario the concern about stress among college students is imperative. The objectives of the present study was to find the association between stress and academic performance among undergraduate students, also to see the differences in stress experienced between pure science and engineering students. Sample consisted of 656 students from Bangalore city of which 339 were from pure science stream and 317 were from engineering stream. The stressful life events questionnaire- Student form (1990) was administered. The results indicated that Good academic performers 37% experienced high stress levels and 42% experienced low stress levels. Poor academic performers experienced 14% High stress levels and 8% had low stress levels, indicating that there was an association between stress and academic performance (X2= 15.07, P=.000). It was also evident that there was a significant difference in stress experienced between pure science and engineering students.

  235. Mudasir Raja and Prof. Shabir Ahmad Bhat

    The Indian peninsula in the course of time has faced adverse economic, environmental and social conditions. Nations, businesses and people are modifying their methods to ensure they earn revenues (Profit) and serve the society (People) while doing no or less harm to mother nature (Planet). Therefore, India wholly needs toshift from the current unsustainable path to a new one which will lead it towards a sustainable future. Sustainability with its focus on the three pillars or three Ps i.e. Profit, Planet and People will enable the country to make sure it grows economically while protecting the environment and ensuring social justice. The three Ps when in unison create complementary values to each other. The questions of What, Why, Who, Where, When and How vis-à-vis sustainable India need answer. This paper aims to answer the questions of What?, Why?, Who?, Where?, When? with special emphasis on How? vis-à-vis sustainable India in the light of the available bodies of knowledge. Furthermore, successful cases and examples from within India and the globe are used to demonstrate lessons as to how it can efficaciously be made sustainable in every domain.

  236. Kuldeep Vaishnav and Dr. Monika Kannan

    This paper highlights the impact of Pakistani minority migrants on the rural scenario in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. Nicknamed as ‘The Golden city’, it is situated in the western part of Rajasthan. Lying in the heart of the Thar Desert, it is the largest district of Rajasthan with a population of about 669919 persons. The length of international border attached to Jaisalmer District is 471 km (293 mi). The region is well known for its hard climatic condition. This region has been under turmoil and chaotic political conditions. After the war of 1965 and 1971 many Pakistani Hindu minority migrants have migrated to the western parts of the nation settling specially near the Radcliff Line. Research indicates that in Jaisalmer, the rural population percentage is 86.71%. Jaisalmer, Sam and Sankdathese are three panchayat samitee here. Survey reveals that the pakistani migrants in Jaisalmer have mainly settled in Nachana. Transport nagar, Gaffur Bhatta and Shree Mohangarh are the three main locality of migrants here. Though tourism is a major industry and the key attraction in Jaisalmer still, the rural population of the area suffers due to unemployment and illiteracy mainly. Many rural people are involved in illegal activities like drug smuggling, illegal migration or work as spy etc. Recently Jaisalmer police had caught some people working as a Pakistani agents, leaking confidential information to Pak army. This may be a big risk to our nation’s security. The ‘Ujas’ and ‘Seemantlok Sangtan’ are working for developing and supporting the migrants here also making efforts for getting Indian citizenship.

  237. Haerun Ana

    Language learning aims at improving understanding competency and language use. Language constitutes an unity, so in learning language should be done in integral way with various learning models. To reach the integral way, it must be considered as follow: (1) widely effective communicative as language learning, (2) language learning situation based on the context, and (3) maximalize the relationship among language ability or competency. Intergral language learning may be done with among language competency and among subjects.

  238. Dayal Bhawana and Singh Neetu

    Background: CVD has been designated as the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India, representing a total of 31% of all global deaths. With the growing incidences and presence of CVD in both urban and rural area among male and females, it gets necessary to look into the depth and quote the causes for the growing condition. This study was performed to assess the level of knowledge among early adulthood on signs and symptoms, Risk factors, physical activity, morbidity pattern and addiction related to CVD Methods: A descriptive cross sectional survey was performed using a pretested self administered questionnaire on 250 purposively selected adult respondents, Frequency, mean and SD was used to assess the level of knowledge. Results: The response rate was 100%. The knwoeldge of respondents on signs and symptoms, RFs and morbidity Pattern was very low where 60% could not identify Diabetes mellitus as one of the RF, along with high blood pressure and high cholesterol(55.2 and 50.8%). the most common identified symptom was chest pain (71.60) but other symptoms such as dyspnoea (49.20%), sudden numbness or weakness of the arm , face or leg (72.80%),loss of balance or coordination (71.60%) were least identified or not at all known by the study subjects. The majority of respondents were students yet they were unaware of the normal range of HDL (92%), LDL (92.4%) apart from this they were not even aware of the normal range for Blood pressure and Sugar (60.4% and 77.6). In this study, 39.6% assumed that there was no relationship between exercise and heart health while 54 % believed that brisk walking is not good enough. Conclusion: This is the first study in Lucknow region based on knowledge associated with CVD among early adulthood. The present study reports that the adults have comparatively low knowledge related to CVD, which can be associated with increased risk and worsened condition of the participants in future. The participants had a fair enough knowledge on smoking and alcohol but the associated risk factors, sign and symptoms of CVD was quite poor . There is an urgent need to enrol the participants into educational interventions to bring about the change in the perception and knowledge of individuals.

  239. Ouattara S., Serifou M. A., Kouadio K. C., Assande A. A., Kouakou C. H., Emeruwa E. and Pasres

    The composite subjected to our study is obtained by mixing the clay and the sawdust. The sawdust has an important intrinsic porosity, because of presence of capillaries. Clay is a fine mineral, used as binder. The mixture of these components of nature with very different characteristics, led to a material which properties will be variable according to the voluminal concentrations of each component. Clay is used in the form of fine, with a granulometric size overall lower than 1 mm. It is a clay of the type kaolinic, plastic, containing illite and quartz. The sawdust, being used as reinforcement material, is used in its natural form (without treatment). It is presented mainly in granular and powdery forms, but it also contains short fibers. The results of the study show the water absorption coefficient of bricks drops when one of them incorporates 5 to 15% sawdust; it increases beyond 15%. These results also show that the bricks containing the clay and the sawdust have evaporation rates and withdrawal lower than those of bricks without sawdust. Moreover, after 4 days of total immersion of bricks, the results show that the composites clay-sawdust of wood is more resistant to water compared to the bricks without sawdust which dissolve completely. All these results make it possible to conclude that the sawdust influences indeed absorption rate, drying process and the conduct in the water of compressed ground bricks reinforced with the sawdust.

  240. Suresh Kumar a/l Kuppusamy, Tajularipin Sulaiman and Umi Kalthom Abdul Manaf

    This study aims to assess the level of critical thinking dispositions, attitudes and perceptions in cooperative teaching with mind map among teachers in Negeri Sembilan. This study also examined the relationship between critical thinking disposition, attitude and perception of Special Education teacher in cooperative teaching with mind map. Critical thinking disposition has seven subscales measured by curiosity, open-minded, systematic, accuracy, truth-seeking, self-confidence and maturity. Special education teacher attitudes in cooperative teaching with mind map has three subscales namely cognitive, affective and behavioural. Special Education teachers in cooperative teaching with mind map has three subscales which are interpersonal relationships, motivation, support and guidance in their studies lessons. A total of 190 primary school of Special Education teachers in Negeri Sembilan have been selected using proportional sampling method. The instrument is based on previous research instrument and modifications made to the item so that it's relevant to the current study. Raw data obtained were analysed using SPSS. The descriptive analysis showed that the respondents have a level of critical thinking dispositions (M = 2.99, SD = 0.160), attitude in cooperative teaching with mind map (M = 2.96, SD = 0.194) and the perception of the cooperative teaching with mind map (M = 3.00, SD = 0.240) were moderate. The inference analysis showed novice teachers have a significantly higher critical thinking dispositions and attitudes of cooperative teaching with mind map compared with experienced teachers. For the gender, no significant differences between male and female teachers to construct critical thinking dispositions, attitudes and perceptions of cooperative teaching with mind map. The findings shows there is a significant positive relationship between critical thinking disposition and attitude (r = .443, p <.01) and perception (r = .442, p <.01) among Special Education teacher. This study suggested that the critical thinking disposition of teachers should be given special attention in order to improve the effectiveness of teaching to their Special Education student. Special Education teachers should also be exposed to the latest teaching methods so that student achievement can be improved.

  241. Dr. Sreekumar, V. N.

    In any society, rapid change in social, moral, ethical and religious values demand changes in the life style of individuals. Such changes are inevitable and adolescents are most affected by these changes. Moreover, these changes interfere with physical, psychological and social health of adolescents, resulting in exposure, to high risk behavior. There is growing recognition that many adolescents are not sufficiently prepare to deal with the demands of the modern society. Today’s adolescents are exposed to more information and cultural alternatives than earlier period. To overcome such difficult, the adolescent need to acquire life skills.It is known that there remains a significant gap between adolescents having accurate information and its translation into behavior. Skill development is a key to facilitate this process of transforming information into healthy behaviour. Many studies prove that life education improves desired behaviors among adolescents and also proved to be effectives in the prevention of substance abuse (Botvin et al., 1984; 1980; Pentz, 1983); adolescents pregnancy (Zabin et al., 1986), the promotion of intelligence Gnzalez, 1990), the prevention of bullying (Olweues 1990); improved teacher-student relationship (Parsons et al., 1988); improved academic performance (Weisberg et al., 1989), improved school attendance (Zabin et al., 1986); stress reduction (Ravindran 20100; improved self-esteem, self-confidence, social adjustment, emotional adjustment, empathy (Bharath and Kishore, 2010; Yadav and Iqbal, 2009); and improved problem solving skills and communication skills.

  242. Keitiline R. Viacava and Eugenio A. Pedrozo

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify motivational factors in the decision-making process of Black Acacia forest producers in face of the need to rethink existing practices at the forest-management-unit level, with participation in a Group Certification Project as a possible catalyst of change. Design/methodology/approach: Using a systemic approach and having complexity as a background, this paper was based on Post-normal Science (qualitative) and made operational through the application of the Methodology for the Analysis of the Self-Organizing Holarchic Open System - SOHO Systems. Findings: The results showed that decisions were based primarily on the maximization of economic results but also included efforts unrelated to this, such as an interest of maintaining family tradition. When the main motivational factor (price-prize) was associated with other factors, such as family tradition, then the aggregate effects of the group certification project varied, dividing the producers into subgroups. The results also revealed that social interactions among producers were effective in gathering qualified information but did not ensure certification. Practical implications: In conclusion, social interactions that favor the acquisition of qualified information and the formation of smaller coalitions between producers should be encouraged, but motivational differences must be managed in order to promote certification. Originality/value: The present study is the first to examine motivational factors in the decision-making process of Black Acacia forests in Brazil. The unique contribution of this study is to show how attitudes taken from producers and stakeholders can be integrated to provide qualified information for sustainable forest management.

  243. Ratan Mandal, Bijay Kumar Bhagat, Dr. Sudarsan Biswas and Dr. Kallol Chaterjee

    Background: Children Intelligence depends on various factors such as- heredity, Family educational background, occupation of the parents, family income, environment etc. Birth is a natural process but it also has to processes viz. Caesarean and Non-caesarean. But how can delivery mode of the children affect their Intelligence! Aim: To find out the difference in Intelligent level between caesarean and non-caesarean school boys. Materials & Methods: Total 240 subjects (120 Caesarean and 120 Non- Caesarean) of class IX- X-level school boys were selected from five different schools located at Birbhum and Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ‘G.C. Ahuja Intelligence questionnaire’ were used to measure Intelligence. This questionnaire composed of total 135 questions and eight different types of test (classification, analogies, reasoning, vocabulary, comprehension, series and best answer). The data for Intelligence were calculated by using descriptive statistics and “t” test and level of significance was set on 0.05 level. Results: There is a significant difference exists on Intelligence level between caesarean and non-caesarean boys. The calculated “t” value (2.372) are higher than tabulated “t” 0.05(238) value (1.97). The Mean and Standard deviation of Caesarean and Non-caesarean boys Intelligence level has been found 96.96± 17.00 and 90.40 ± 25.06. Conclusion: Caesarean boys posses higher Intelligence level than Non-Caesarean boys.

  244. Uday Pratap Singh

    Gandhian Technique of conflict resolution was closely related to peace. To him, conflict was an ancient method of setting vital affairs of mankind through the arbitrament of the sword. Out of the two modes of conflict, Gandhi was quit near to the approach of productive conflicts. In this context, conflict resolution was based on truth and non violence rather than competition or use of threat or violence. Gandhian approach of conflict solution is likely to be more democratic. Thus, the author has examined the Gandhian approach of conflict resolution and search for a new paradigm become important in understanding Gandhi's method of conflict resolution.

  245. Md. Yahia Bapari, Md. Al-Fahad Bhuiyan and Md. Monjurul Islam

    This study analyzed the relative efficiency in deposit management of Sonali Bank Ltd (SBL) and Pubali Bank Ltd (PBL) for the period 2010 to 2014 concerning with total cash, total liquid assets, total deposit, total assets, total investment, net income, total profit, total operating cost, current deposit, savings deposits and different deposit ratios in the Pabna region of Bangladesh. The Coefficient of Variation (C.V) was applied for measuring stability of deposits and F – test used for showing the significant differences of deposit management for the SBL and PBL. Results showed that the SBL and PBL were significantly different in deposit management and there was no noteworthy difference in the current deposit management and investment to deposit ratio of the banks. It also found that the SBL deposit management is more efficient than that of the PBL in the study area. Finally, some valuable suggestions were made for the better performance in deposit management of the both banks.

  246. Thirumavalavan, R. and Ganesan, J.

    Insecticide is common pollutants of freshwater ecosystems where they induce adverse effects on the aquatic biota. Fish, Catla catla is an important carp species in Tamil Nadu region having good nutritional values. Fishes living in close association with may accumulate heavy metals. In the present observation, the toxic effects of the pesticide cypermethrin LC50 0.22 ppm on the total RBC, WBC and Hb in the fish, Catla catla were estimated. Sublethal concentrations of insecticide cypermethrin on (10% and 30% sublethal concentrations) showed a decreasing trend in the RBC and Hb compared to controls and the WBC analysis revealed a significant increased compared to control for a period of 5, 10 and 15 days exposures. The results indicated the toxic nature of the insecticide cypermethrin.

  247. Rajkumar, M., Karuppaiah, P., Sureshkumar R. and Sendhilnathan, R.

    An investigation entitled “Genetic Variability and Character association in snake gourd (Trichosanthes Anguina L.)” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India. The characters observed were days to first male and female flower opening, number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, flesh thickness, single fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, number of seeds per fruit, Vitamin C and acidity content of fruit. The results revealed that the genotype G27 followed by G2, G29, G5 and G12 expressed the maximum fruit yield per plant. High PCV, GCV and genetic advance as per cent of mean were observed among the genotypes for most of the traits studied except days to first male flower opening and acidity content of fruit. Based on the per se performance with specific trait and genetic divergence from different clusters, six genotypes namely P1–Hessaraghatta local (Bangalore, Karnataka), P2–Ottanchathiram local (Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu), P3–IC-212484, NBPGR, Trichur, P4–Michaelpalayam local (Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu), P5–PKM–1 (mutant variety, HC&RI, TNAU, Periyakulam), P6–Vellayani local (Kerala) were selected for crossing.

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