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November 2019

  1. Essam El-Din Abdel-Azim Zayed, Abdel-Fattah Morsi Said and Ahmed Ali Abdel-Rahman

    Background: Acute appendicitis remains the commonest cause of acute abdomen in teenagers requiring surgical intervention. Most patients presenting late in the course of acute appendicitis are complicated by the development of an inflammatory mass in right iliac fossa. This inflammatory mass is composed of the inflamed appendix, omentum and bowel loops. Aim of the work: Evaluate the outcome of emergency surgery versus conservative management in patients with complicated appendicitis with appendicular mass. Patient and Methods: A prospective study was accomplished for 60 patients who were suspected provisionally to have appendicular mass, and attended to the emergency department of Al-Azhar University Hospitals, in Cairo, Egypt, during the period from January 20/2019 to October 20/2019.The patients were divided randomly in two groups, each containing (30).In Group I : early surgical exploration was done by open appendicectomy operative procedure within 24 hrs of admission. Pre- operative preparation was done by keeping the patients nothing per mouth, giving adequate parenteral fluids to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, antibiotics and analgesics. Drains were kept in a few cases which were removed after 48hrs and sutures were removed on the 10th post-operative day. Most of the operated patients had uneventful recovery.Post-operative period was monitored; intake output charts and vital charts were maintained .In Group II : conservative approach with Ochsner Sherren Regime was adopted followed by interval appendectomy 6-8 weeks later. Results: There was statistically significant difference between study groups in the operative findings (p<0.001).There was statistical insignificant difference between groups in operative problems (p=0.683).There was statistical significant difference between the study groups as regards complications (p=0.021) with more complications occurring in the group of patients treated by Ochsner Sherren regimen followed by interval appendicectomy and hence these patients had more morbidity. Conclusion: Early appendicectomy obviates the need for a second admission andprovides curative treatment during the index admission whereby minimizing total expenses.Early appendicectomy may also avoid the consequences of the misdiagnosis and mistreatment of other surgical pathologies.Early appendicectomy in appendicular mass is safe owing to the improvements in surgical skills and better post-operative care.

  2. Teketel Girma Gindose

    Varieties of wide organic and inorganic pollutants especially pesticides, poisonous metals, and dyes are introduced in to the water system from various sources such as: industrial effluents, agricultural runoff and chemical spills. The new treatment methods (Photocatalytic degradation method) are necessary for the removal of persistent dye chemicals or converting them into harmless compounds in water. The photocatalytic technique with metal oxide semi conductors has become one of the most promising methods for waste water treatment. In particular, ZnO has attracted much attention with respect to the degradation of various pollutants due to its being relatively cheap, stable, high photocatalysis, non-toxicity, and wide band gap. One of the main problems associated with the feasibility and viability of ZnO Semiconductor photocatalytic oxidation is: Recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes in the semiconductor and high band gap energy (>3.0 eV) that requires radiation in the UV range for electron excitation from VB to CB. To overcome this problem it can be achieved by: doping transition metal, quantum dot photosensitization, carbon nano structure and improving the catalytic efficiency of the semiconductor photocatalyst by minimizes the electron-hole recombination. The factors affect photocatalytic degradation and synthesis methods for nanocomposites were summarized. For example Ternary system of Fe2O3-ZnO-MnO2, to improve the photocatalytic activity of wide band gap photocatalysts was discussed. But the difficulties in recycling and preconcentration restricted the utilization of finer nanoparticles. To overcome this limitation, the nanoparticles have been supposed to be fixed on the inert supports such as zeolite for practical applications in order to improve the recovery efficiency of photocatalysts.

  3. Dr. Tharani Devi, N., Dr. Janci Rani, P.R., Kaarthik Krishna N. and Shiam Sunder, S.

    Certain plants, intentionally grown in gardens and other cultivated settings are termed as “weeds”. Certain weeds have very good potential nutrients which are essential for human needs. Some plants were still considered as leafy vegetables in certain tribal and rural areas with or without the nutritional knowledge behind it. In this study, five such edible weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Coccinia grandis, Acalypha indica, Boerhavia diffusa and Digera Arvensis were selected and analyzed for key nutrients like Vitamin C, Calcium, Phosphorous, Iron and Fiber. In general, elemental contents were found in varying amounts with different ranges. Many of these elements are bio-available in natural form in combination with organic constituents and are easily assimilated by human bodies.

  4. Adebayo, G. B., Balogun, B. B., Shaibu, S. E., Jamiu, W., Etim, E. U., Oleh F., Efiong, N. E. and Ogboo B. S.

    This study focuses on the comparative adsorption of xylene from aqueous media onto cassava peel activated carbon (CPAC) and rice husk activated carbon (RHAC). Ash content, bulk density, iodine number, moisture content, pH, point of zero charge, and % carbon yield of the prepared CPAC and RHAC were reported. To evaluate the removal of xylene, adsorption activities of CPAC and RHAC were monitored under different experimental conditions: adsorbent dose, contact time, pH as well as initial xylene concentration. The adsorption capacity and kinetics depended on the properties of the activated carbons, the adsorbate and the prevailing adsorption milieu while the equilibrium and rate of adsorption were adequately interpreted by Langmuir and pseudo-first-order models respectively. Batch adsorption kinetic experiments revealed that the adsorption of xylene onto CPAC and RHAC involved fast and slow processes. At optimal conditions of 8 mg/L xylene in contact with 0.1 g of adsorbents for 150 min at pH 7.5, the quantity of xylene adsorbed onto RHAC and CPAC were 46.7 mg/g and 53.3 mg/g in that order. Thermodynamic study showed the adsorption process of xylene onto CPAC and RHAC to be non-spontaneous but ΔH was negative.

  5. Sisay Gedamu and Abebe Dires

    Background: Diabetes health belief scale was developed to measure attitudes about diabetes self care which could help to explain compliance with prescribed medical regimens. The degree to which patients follow advice as self-care behaviours is determined by health belief of diabetes. Objective: To assess diabetes health beliefs of type 2 adult diabetic patients attending chronic follow up units of Dessie referral hospital. Method: Cross-sectional study design was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2018 in Dessie referral hospital diabetic chronic follow up units. Systematic random sampling was a method to select a total of 278 type 2 diabetic patients by using patient registration book as a sampling frame. Data was collected by interview. Epidata 3.1 and SPSS version 23 software were applied for data entry and analysis respectively. Tables and graphs were used to present descriptive analysis. A bivariate logistic regression analysis was done to see the crude association between independent and outcome variables. After that multiple logistic regression model was done by selecting only variables with P-value <0.2 in bivariate analysis. Significant statically association were considered based on adjusted odd ratio included in 95% confidence interval at P-value less than 0.05. Results: Among respondents 43.5% had low aggregate diabetes health belief and the rest 56.5% had high diabetes health belief. From those variables which were entered to multivariate analysis model marital status, attended a diabetic education, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit and perceived barrier were found to be significantly statistical associated with aggregate diabetes health belief. Conclusion and recommendations: Diabetes health beliefs of patients were not adequate so that there is a need to improve diabetes health beliefs of patients. Attention should be given towards diabetes health belief by Dessie referral hospital administrators, health care professionals, diabetic associations and researchers.

  6. Mahyudanil, Bajamal A.H., Sembiring R.J. and Dharmajaya, R.

    Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) consists of two processes primary injury and secondary injury. Secondary injury in TBI involves many factor of molecular and cellular responses to the primary impact. All of these factors culminate in cellular dysfunction and cell death via necrotic and more apoptotic. These downstream molecular and cellular processes in the secondary injury are the focus of many pre-clinical and clinical therapeutic studies. The spatiotemporal distribution of S-100B, IL-6, AQP4 productions in secondary injury are some key marker of acute feature after TBI pathophysiology. By examining changes of this protein in these processes, we can expect to identify novel approaches to TBI intervention. Hypotheticly, posttraumatic suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and an increase in cytokine-mediated peripheral aromatase activity, leading to an imbalance in sex steroid estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels, have been interest for precise understanding of that mechanisms involved. We treatment analyzed serum biomarkers (S100-B, IL-6, AQP4) as part of a randomize placebo-controlled of progesterone in patients with severe TBI (sTBI), and analyzed the long-term predictive value of these biomarkers on the dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score at 3 months. Method: This study was part of a prospective, outcome-assessor–and statistician-blinded, randomized, placebo- controlled trial of progesterone. The population age 15 – 60 years patients with severe TBI (sTBI), (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 4–8, who presented at our care trauma center, Central Hospital Dr Sutomo Surabaya within 24 hours after injury. We obtained approval from institutional ethics committee prior to the trial. Of 40 patients with sTBI, we serially analyzed 3 serum biomarkers S-100B, AQP4, and IL-6. We analyzed the long-term predictive value of serum biomarkers on dichotomized GOS score of 3 months. The serum levels of S-100B, IL-6, AQP4 were determined using a sandwich ELISA technique. The samples for the determination of these biomarkers were taken at the day I (24 hours), immediately after randomization and before Progesterone given intramuscular 1 mg/kgBW single dose, and then day IV (96 hours) later. Using IBM SPSS Statistic software version 22, analysis for 24 hours, 96 hours, and average serum biomarkers stratified according to outcome (The dichotomized GOS) was performed. Results: The serum levels S-100B, AQP4 and IL-6 were across the dichotomized GOS groups at 3 months in both groups. GOS 3 months maked two category: Poor outcome (label 1) for GOS score 1 – 3 and good outcome (label 2) for GOS 4 – 5. Binary logistic regression result showed all value biomarker significant model to prediction the GOS dichotomy. Analysis to prediction from good outcome to poor outcome (to right axis direction) we have the simulation equation. unfav. = X good - X poor. In the control group: S100B was increase, AQP4 was decrease and IL-6 no change. To analysis effect of progesterone as intervention group we found S-100B was extremely high increased that means progesterone indirectly can reduce neuronal injury. AQP4 and IL-S was decrease compare to control, that mean possibly progesterone have effect modulating up regulation in AQP 4 to inhibit neuroinflamation. Conclusion: Serial monitoring of S-100B, IL-6 and AQP4 serum levels could aid in prognostication in patients with sTBI. S-100B is the best good accuracy for predict outcome. Progesterone have an effect in change of S-100B serum level expression that involve in neuronal injury, and the process of cerebral edema (modulating AQP4 link to IL-6). However, in this study Progesterone had no benefit in overall clinical outcome (GOS dichotomy 3 months).

  7. Fitri Rokhmalia, Pratiwi Hermiyanti and Rachmaniyah

    Waste in each area is very various and depends on total of public areas and residence in the area. Reasearchaimsto analyze the influence of water level against heating value of organic waste at temporary waste. This research was analytical and observational design. Meanwhile, data analysis in this research utilized Linear Regression. The results showed that the average of water level in organic waste at temporary waste disposal was 15,84%. The average of heating value of organic waste at temporary waste disposal was 2362,62 kkal/kg. Moreover, the analysis result which utilized statistic test showed that the significance of heating value of organic waste was p=0,239.

  8. Miss. Upasana Kulkarni Dr. Abhijit Diwate, Dr. Arijit Kumar Das and Dr. Rohan Kharde

    Background: Head and neck cancer are emerging as a major health problem. The management of head and neck cancers involves a variety of options like surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or targeted/immunotherapy & palliative care. Radiation Therapy is the most common form of treatment in operated as well as non- operated cases. The various side effects of radiation therapy involve xerostomia, fatigue, skin changes/reactions, dysphagia, damage to the nerve, muscle, tendons and ligaments which causes conditions like dropped neck syndrome, muscle atrophy, etc. The aim of the study was to find the effect of radiation therapy in conjunction with chemotherapy on neck and shoulder muscles in head and neck cancer patients. Methods: It was a pilot study & 4 samples were taken. Range of Motion & Manual Muscle Testing were administered on patients and the result were analysed. Results: The study found that there was an incidence of neck muscle weakness among patients receiving radiation therapy with chemotherapy for head and neck cancer with the mean of Grade 4 of Manual Muscle Testing. Also, there was incidence of shoulder muscle weakness in one of the patients with the mean of 4.75. Due to a smaller number of subjects, the effect of on shoulder muscles couldn’t be clearly found out. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is an effect of radiation therapyin conjunctionwith chemotherapy on both neck and shoulder muscles in head and neck cancer patients. Thus, physiotherapy intervention is necessary to maintain the mobility & strength of neck and shoulder in such patients.

  9. Gitanjali Devi

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are potential biocontrol agent against many economically important crop pests. Combining the use of biological control agent with chemical insecticide in IPM programme leads to reduced the environmental risk as well as management costs. The author review different aspects of compatibility or interaction of insecticide with EPNs which will show promise to contain pest infestation in agriculture.

  10. Aarthi Viswanathan, Avinash Thumallapalli, Arun Kumar, Nuthan Kumar, Ramesh C., Aruna Kumari, B.S. and Appaji, L.

    Background: The outcome in pediatric cancers have significantly increased in the last few decades. Early diagnosis and risk directed therapy have been the cornerstone for success. However high treatment related mortality and deaths due to progressive disease in low middle income countries still prevail affecting the overall survival. We have analysed the hospital deaths in our pediatric oncology department for the years 2010-2017 to assess the treatment related mortality, factors affecting the same and have devised strategies to address these issues. Methods: All 4051 children registered between the years 2010-2017 were included. Data regarding their diagnosis and metastatic status was collected. About 375 deaths were documented in the hospital during these 8 years. Retrospective data was collected from the medical records department from the death files. Data about age, gender, primary diagnosis, phase of therapy, response to treatment, disease status and cause of death were analysed. Results: About 375 deaths were documented in hospital. There was a male predominance noted. Leukemia contributed to 64.8% of deaths. Treatment related mortality was significantly higher in the leukemia group contributing 32.1% compared to 13.6% in Solid tumor group. Advanced/progressive disease was the most common cause of death in solid tumor group, 71.9%. About 35.4% of children had presented at advanced disease state and 18.9% were metastatic at presentation. Metastatic disease at presentation was a significant risk factor for mortality (p=0.00001), while age (p=0.11) or gender (p=0.58) were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Analysis of mortality statistics is essential for growth of every pediatric oncology department. It provides information regarding status of supportive care and also the optimization of therapy intensification strategies to strike balance between treatment related toxicity and adequate treatment dosage. strengthening of peripheral health support and blood bank facilities in combination with antibiotic policies shall help in minimizing early deaths in children diagnosed with cancer.

  11. Manisha R. Survase and Santosh D. Taware

    Medicinal plants are known to be used for centuries which are still being used for their health benefits and are a valuable source for bioprospecting endophytes. These days medicinal plants are exploited for the isolation of plant-derived drugs as they are effective and have relatively less or no side effect, due to which medicinal plants are getting exhausted. Endophytes are ubiquitous organisms found in plant bodies that constitute an important component of microbial diversity. Endophytic fungi reside in the host plant without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Endophytes are gaining attention as a subject for research, medicinal, agricultural potential and application in plant pathology due to their benefits for the host plant in defense and development. The review reveals the importance of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants as a source of bioactive and chemically novel compounds.

  12. Rumana Farooqui, Aarthi, E., and Ashlesha, P.

    Nuts are nutrient-dense supplying a wide range of essential amino acids, MUFA and PUFA. Oats contains a good source of proteins, fibre and minerals. The amount of oats used for human consumption has increased progressively, the fact health effects of oats benefit mainly on the total dietary fibre and B- glucan content a cholesterol-lowering chemical. Commercially available biscuits are mostly deficient in ALA and dietary fibre. Refined ingredient usage makes biscuits deprive of grain components that are protective of health. Hence under the light of present information, an innovative oats and nut biscuits were prepared using refined wheat flour, butter, and sugar along with three variations containing oats (15g) and nuts (5g,10g and 15g). The product was standardized and subjected to sensory evaluation and variation II and III was accepted by the majority of the panellist. Statistical analysis was done using a t-test, the results found to be insignificant in comparison to the basic with the variation I, variation II and variation III. The biscuits were also subjected to nutrient analysis to analyse protein, fat and fibre. Standardized methods were used for nutrient analysis. The nutrient analysis showed an increase in protein and fibre content of the oats biscuits enriched with nuts. The product developed contains good amounts of nutrients which help in meeting nutritional requirements of all age groups. (KeyWords: B-Glucan- Cholesterol-lowering, MUFA, PUFA and ALA).

  13. Julizar Idris, Abdul Hakim, Sarwono and Bambang Santoso Haryono

    The purpose of writing this article is to analyze and describe the political process of the preparation of the Oil and Gas Law in the Republic of Indonesia House of Representatives methodology in this study using a qualitative approach research results suggest that the political process in policy formulation occurs from the stages of planning, preparation and discussion and involves many actors from the executive, legislative and judicial, which has an impact on the slowness of the policy formulation process, as a result of different views and different objectives of each actor towards the substance of the policy to be formulated.

  14. Hossam A. Tork, Prof. Dr. Amr F. Elgohary, Ph.D and Prof. Khaled M. Dewidar, Ph.D

    Background: The ideas and designing process of train stations had evolved to follow the several philosophies of design-led elements, such as: highlighting the cultural development of the surrounding community, space division for several activities and uses, axes planning for human gathering and the quality of the prevailing economic activity in it and divide the assembly elements and its distribution, and also keep up with the rapid evolution in rail transport technology. Since their inception, train stations has been represented as gates; a symbol of the crossing to the other centres of cultures, and multi-cultural and economic opportunities, so that the station has become the optimized expressive image for the entrance to the city, and to visualise the form of urbanization and economic activity and social community within the urban or rural areas. Objectives: The paper aims to examine new visual elements that are not constrained by the traditional art styles that highlight several visual elements that help in providing a distinctive identity to station buildings, reflecting new ideas and themes, and also offer a new experience to the stations’ users. Methods: The methodology of the discussion is an analysis for case studies; for the purpose of obtaining enough results that should provide conclusions for the assumptions about the design: reviewing each item, and its effect on the expressive language to the station building. Results: Image-based elements in the current era have developed beyond the traditional orders and themes of the visual representations in the beginning of the 20th century.

  15. Benkhayat Aouatif and Mohamed Tkiouat IFE-Lab

    Both information technology IT and Business leaders are continually looking for methods and practices to align their IT and business strategies. Alignment seems to become more important for companies to survive in a competitive and evaluative market. Literature proposes several models, but it never takes into consideration the complex characteristics of this strategic alignment, which undergoes the interventions of several agents. This paper proposes a new approach of strategic alignment based on complex systems and analyses agent influencing this alignment.

  16. Lema Abate and Megersa Tadesse

    Pneumonia is number one largest infectious cause of death in children worldwide, kills about 2,500 children every day. It is most prevalent in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia pneumonia is a leading single disease killing under-five children. The aim of this study was to examine the risk factors of time to death of under-five pneumonia patients in Tercha General Hospital. Retrospective study was conducted by taking 281 under-five pneumonia patients. The Nonparametric method, semiparametric or Cox PH model and parametric survival models were used to examine the survival rate of under-five pneumonia patients. The results of this study revealed that out of 281 participants in the study 16.73% were died and 83.27% were alive at the end of the study. Based on AIC value the Weibull model is selected as the good model to fit pneumonia dataset compared to candidate models. The findings of this study implied that Sex, residence, Season of Diagnosis, Comorbidity, Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM), Patient refer status and Patient to Nurse ratio (PNR) were major factors related to survival time of under-five pneumonia patients. The patients from urban and patients admitted to hospital when patient nurse ratio (PNR) was small were prolong timing death of under-five pneumonia patients, while Spring and summer season, comorbidity and Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) were shorten timing of death of under-five pneumonia patients. The concerned body should work on the identified factors to decrease the death of under-five pneumoniapatients.

  17. Jaisankar, R., Parvatha Varshini, K.S. and Narayamoorthy, S.

    The survival data are often censored in nature and hence semi-parametric or nonparametric methods are mostly used for estimating the survival or hazard functions and also for making other types of analysis. It is to be noted that the life-times of several natural phenomena are continuous in nature, not the precise numbers and hence denoting the life-times as precise may be absurd. Viertl (2009) has shown that life times are more or less fuzzy. In this research paper, a procedure for Generalized Nelson-Aalen Estimator is introduced on the basis of fuzzy survival times. Examples are given to substantiate the proposed method.

  18. Mah Alima Esther TRAORE (PhD student), Wendkuuni Florencia DJIGMA (PhD), Marius Ayaovi SETOR (PhD student), Théodora Mahoukèdè ZOHONCON(MD, PhD), Dorcas OBIRI-YEBOA (MD, PhD), Abdoul Karim OUATTARA (PhD), Pegdwendé Abel SORGHO (PhD), Prosper BADO (PhD s

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection alone is not enough to induce malignant transformation due to viral clearance. Genetic factors could play a very important role in the progression. Genes such as cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) could affect the progression of cervical lesions. The objectives of this study were to screen HPV-positive women and to determine CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms in human papillomavirus infections in West African women. Methods: For this study, a total of 1215 samples taken from endocervical cells, were collected. The women came from 5 countries in West Africa. These samples were analyzed by multiplexed real-time PCR to search for fourteen high-risk HPV genotypes (HR-HPV). The mono-nucleotide polymorphism MspI was determined using the RFLP PCR technique. Results: Of the 1215 swab specimens, 367 (30.28 %) were HPV positive and 848 (69.80 %) HPV negative. High-risk characterized genotypes were in descending order: HPV 66 (12.81 %), HPV 59 (10.85 %), HPV 52 (10.68 %), HPV 51 (9.25 %), HPV 45 ( 7.83 %), HPV 39 (6.94 %), HPV 56 (6.05 %), HPV 35 (5.87 %), HPV 58 (5.87 %), HPV 18 (5.52 %) , HPV 31 (3.38 %), HPV 33 (2.49 %), HPV 16 (2.14 %). This study also revealed the presence of the CYP1A1 genotype in women with HR-HPV infection. It also showed a decrease in the frequency of CC genotype in women with HR-HPV infection (3.45 %) compared with controls (7.28 %). Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of HPV 66, HPV 35 and HPV 59. The prevalence of HPV 18 and HPV 16 are among the lowest in this study. However, the results of the research demonstrated that the rs4646903 mutation of the CYP1A1 gene was not statistically related to a risk of acquiring HPV infection in the West African population.

  19. Jitender Kumar

    The significance of studying the job satisfaction of librarians has been made discussion in the present study. The study concentrates on a comparison of the job satisfaction among LIS Professionals in Bhiwani and Ch. Dadri District. Data were collected by means of the structured Questionnaire. A total of 50 questionnaires distributed and were collected and analysed as per the objectives of the study. The result shows that library professionals working in these institutions were slightly satisfied with their nature of work; they were dissatisfied with supervision, benefits, promotion, and revision of service structure, promotion policies and improvement.

  20. Dereje Haile Mamo

    The purpose of this study was to analyze proverbs that represent women positively among the Arsi Oromo. The proverbs used for the study were 15 theme-relevant proverbs collected by interviewing systematically selected 10 elders, focus group discussion and by analyzing documents. Qualitative research design was used to conduct this study. Women were positively represented in the selected proverbs as: wise, protectors of men, glory of men and as a pillar of their home. Based on these findings, awareness creation trainings should be given to activate the use of proverbs having positive images towards women in the society. Arsi Oromo families should also encourage their children to the use of positive proverbs that reflect gender equality in the society.

  21. Dereje Haile Mamo

    The purpose of this study was to analyze proverbs that represent women negatively among the Arsi Oromo. The proverbs used for the study were 15 theme-relevant proverbs collected by interviewing systematically selected 10 elders, focus group discussion and by analyzing documents. Qualitative research design was used to conduct this study. Women were negatively represented in the proverbs as: weak, as the causes of conflict, and evil. They were also represented negatively as unreliable, properties of men, ignorant and as sex objects. Based on these findings, awareness creation trainings should be given to demotivate the use of proverbs having negative images towards women. Arsi Oromo families have to encourage their children to use proverbs that reflect gender equality, and the society, at large, should totally avoid the use of proverbs that reflect outdated negative perception of femininity in their overall ways of life.

  22. Moin Khan and Ateeque Ahmad

    The crop combination regionalization is a method to examine the cropping pattern of an area. In this process, the existing cropping pattern is analysed and the best combination of crops is proposed for the highest productivity in that area. The combination of crops in an area is influenced by numerous physical and human factors. This study has been carried out on Kheri district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Secondary data has been used gathered from the District Statistical Magazines. The ranking of specific crops is estimated by percentage method. Doi’s method has been applied to examine the crop combinations in the different blocks. A comparative analysis of two different agricultural years was presented. The findings show that Sugarcane is the main crop in the district and occupying as the first rank in most of the blocks. However, wheat and rice are other crops occupying second and third positions in different blocks. Oilseed, pulses, maize, fodder, and vegetables are other minor crops of the district. According to Doi’s technique, most of the blocks are experiencing three crop combinations, only one block having monoculture and two blocks featuring two crop combinations in 2016-17. Moreover, in the year 2006-07, all the blocks experiencing three crop combinations in the district.

  23. Alaykumar N Mehta, Palak Sapra and Prof. Himanshu A. Pandya

    Majority of our country still depend upon the agriculture for the food but due to climate change a major area of our land is getting affected by the change in soil, air, temperature and rainfall. While these factors make changes in our crop productions and duration for them. This paper tells about the soil analysis of kharicut canal on the surrounding agriculture and evaluates the effects of these crops that grow in this region on cattle and human health. The use of chemical fertilizers & dumping of effluents from industries that affect the water and ultimately soil is also explained by analyzing the pH of samples and their electrical conductivity, turbidity and other compounds that are present in the water.

  24. Numan S. Ali and Raad S. Madhloom

    Researches dealing with female criminality are not only limited, but often present contradictory findings It is widely accepted that substantial proportion of crime by women is associated with mental disorder. In general it would appear that women are more law abiding than men. Aims: The study was designed to determine socio-demographic data, type of crime and type of mental illness among all female offenders referred to forensic psychiatric committee for psychiatric evaluation. Subject & Method: The study sample consisted of (51) female offender in AL- Rashad mental Hospital during the period from 1st Oct. 1998 to 30th of Jun. 1999. Results: The female offenders were interviewed according to semistructured interview questionnaire (SSIQ) based on DSM-IV The age range of patients was (22-59) year, mean was (36.5 y +/-10.07). (51%) of the sample were within the age of (30-39) year, (33%) of them were single and (88 % ) were house wives (33 %) were illiterate (70% ) were from urban area. Vagrancy was the commonest offence among mentally abnormal female offender. Schizophrenia was the commonest disease among them (80 %). Majority of them had no history of previous referral to Forensic psychiatric committee (67%). Majority of them had history of previous admission to psychiatric hospital(53%). Murderers were characterised by low education, house wife, married, & their age in mid thirties and were diagnosed as schizophrenic. The results of this study was compared with studies in this country and other parts of the world. Conclusions: 1-All of the female offenders who were referred for psychiatric evaluation were found to be mentally ill except for one and the most frequent mental illness was schizophrenic . 2-The type of crimes committed by those females were vagrancy (45%), followed by delinquent Antisocial behavior (20%), and murders (11%). 3-Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis among mentally abnormal female offender i.e. (80% ) followed by mental subnormality (6%). 4-One-third of the sample were single, followed by the divorced who constituted (29% ) while the widows were least represented among the sample (12% ). 5-One-third of the sample (33%) have previous history of convictions. 6-Majority of female offender (70%) were compulsorily detained at hospital for treatment. While only (13% ) were discharged for family care. Recommendation and Suggestion: 1-Establishing a mental health act in Iraq is more than necessary. 2- Any offender carry a mere suspicion of mental disturbance should be referred to Regional psychiatrist for psychiatric evaluations. 3-There should be some sort of cooperation and liaison between forensic psychiatric services and the courts.4-Mentally ill female offender who are admitted to the mental hospital (forensic ward) should have close observation and follow up by hospital and community to prevent relapse and committing another offence. 5-A semi structural interview according to DSM-IV which used in this research need to be reevaluated again to determine its reliability and validity.

  25. Mahendra Kumar, Devendra Saini, Sudarshan Gothwal, Vineet Sharma and Raj Kamal Jenaw

    Background: Nasogastric intubation was in routine use after abdominal surgeries for the last many years. During the few years, better concepts of peri-operative fluid management, early postoperative mobilisation and good pain control have changed the whole scenario of postoperative course of patients on surgical floor. These changes have raised many questions on routine use of postoperative nasogastric decompression after small bowel anastomosis. Methods: A hospital based randomised comparative interventional study conducted at Surgery Department, SMS Medical College which included elective GI surgery from March 2013 to December 2014. Results: A total of 281 patients were included in the study, Almost 50% cases were allocated to each study group (group 1 - with routine NG tube and group 2 - selective NG tube). When we statistically compare the post operative clinical parameters in both groups, we find that the time taken for return of bowel sounds (3.08 vs 2.43 days), passage of flatus (3.30 vs 2.75 days) and motion (4.53 vs 3.85 days), mobilisation of patients (2.46 vs 1.16 days) and the duration of hospital stay (6.73 vs 5.89 days); all are significantly less in study group 2 in which the policy of selective insertion of NG tube was undertaken.

  26. Dr Kislay Kant

    Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common reasons for emergency admissions in surgical practice Cholecystectomy is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones disease Traditionally acute cholecystitis is treated conservatively followed by delayed laproscopic cholecystectomy after 6-8weeks A recent meta analysis of various randomised trials of early vs delayed LC for AC showed early surgery to have similar operative complications rates but reduced overall length of hospital stay Acute phase laproscopic cholecystectomy is recommended because of fewer complications, less hospital stay and lesser morbidity

  27. Haidar N., Hussein and Muthana A. Jabar Abdulla

    Background: Drowning is a main universal community health problem. In Medico- Legal practice the autopsy diagnosis of drowning presents one of the major problems especially when there is delay in recovering the victim from water. This study concentrates on gathering the autopsy findings with the electrolytes changes between the right and left ventricles to reach more accurate diagnosis of drowning. Objective: To determine the diagnostic features of drowning depending on the autopsy findings enforced by changes in electrolytes concenteration(Specially Chloride) between the right and left ventricle. Methods: This study was performed at Medico-legal Directorate (MLD) in Baghdad for (12) month’ s within the period from 1/1/2018 - 31/12/2018. Full proper autopsy including external and internal examination of the body for all cases was performed, after obtaining complete medico-legal history, in addition to determination of Chloride levels difference between the blood of right and left venricle of the heart to determine the cause of the death as due to drowning. Results: The study included (60) cases, (52) male and (8) female with their ages ranged between (15-44years old) for male , while ages ranged between (1- 44years old) for females . Drowning is causes of death in all cases. Among the most important results of this study is the presence of froth around the nose and in air passage, emphysema quorum in almost all cases of drowning. there was a difference in the concentration of chloride between the right and left sides of the heart that difference is less than 25 mg /100ml. Conclusion: Drowning is the 10th cause of violent deaths in Baghdad. Corrugation and froth are the most common autopsy finding. Differnce in chloride concentration between the right and left ventricles adds an other important point in the diagnosis ogf drowning toghether with the autopsy findings.

  28. Nilesh Mote, Nilu Singh Nandalal Toshniwal, Shubhangi Mani and Vishal Dhanjani

    The orthodontic tooth movement occurs by an inflammatory process involving osteoclasts, osteoblasts, neuropeptides, cytokines and alterations in innervation and local vascularization. Bone remodelling activity can be regulated either by local factors, such as the applied forces, or by systemic factors, such as drugs, hormones and vitamins. Following review article is to discuss the effects of drugs and systemic factors capable of affecting bone metabolism and influencing the orthodontic tooth movement during the entire treatment phase. The NSAIDS, bisphosphonates and sex hormones can reduce the tooth movement, while the corticosteroids, relaxin, thyroid hormones, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D can increase the rate of tooth movement. Thus, it is necessary to know patient’s history of medical and other conditions which he is on medication for, which might or might not affect tooth movement necessary for successful orthodontic treatment.

  29. Mohammed M. J. Alqahtani

    Social cognition and social information are the most notable of human creativities. Social cognition is unlike many regular aspects of teaching subjects, as it requires more natural social interaction to be learned. On the other hand, the Theory of Mind (ToM) has demonstrated that a child’s ability to understand people's mental states develops around the age of five or six, the time when children begin to go to preschool. To the author’s knowledge, no study in Saudi Arabia has examined ToM among preschool students. Children (n=64) with normal developmental progression at preschools were requested to be evaluated by their parents. Social cognition was evaluated by parents using the Empathy Questionnaire. The ToM test serves as a framework for understanding and then training ToM. The Arabic adaptation version of ToM was used. A group of thirty three (33) children participated in the ToM treatment program and (31)children in a no-treatment control group. Within twelve weeks of ToM interventions, a meaningful improvement was reported in the ToM group’s performance on some false belief tasks and no improvement was noted in the control group. The improvement of the social cognition was mainly demonstrated on a parents’ Empathy Questionnaire for the ToM treatment program. Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests that it is possible to improve ToM skills and empathy skills through training among normal development preschool children. Regardless of specific school programs like peer tutoring or collaborative learning, ToM improvement has implications for preschool children’s skills to think critically and to build their self-concept. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers are provided with an easy curriculum for teaching children ToM skills.

  30. Dr. Murali Krishna, E. and Dr. Shanthi, M.

    Background: Soft tissue includes supportive connective tissue of various organs and other nonepithelial, extra skeletal structures. Soft tissue includes the fibrous tissue, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and smooth muscle tissue, peripheral nervous tissue and vascular endothelial tissue.Objectives: To study the incidence of soft tissue tumors in our institute. To study the clinicopathological correlation of soft tissue tumors with respect to incidence of age, sex, site distribution & histopathological types of soft tissue neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Vijayanagar Institute of Medical Sciences, Ballari, Karnataka. The study evaluated all the soft tissue tumors received between January 2017 to june 2018. Method of statistics used was descriptive analysis. All the specimens were fixed in formalin and processed through paraffin wax embedding method. Sections were cut at 5 micrometer thickness and stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain. All tumors were examined under light microscope and classified as per WHO classification. Result: Out of 98 cases of soft tissue tumors, 90.8% were benign, 3.06% were intermediate and 6.12% were malignant. Male to female ratio was 1.04:1. Most common sites were extremities (64.2%) followed by head and neck (21.4%).Of all benign lesions, the commonest was lipoma (37.7%) followed by hemangioma (22.4%). Other benign tumors include fibroblastic (3.06%), fibro-histiocytic (2.04%) and pericytic tumors (1.02%). Intermediate grade soft tissue tumors include 2 cases (2.04%) of well differentiated liposarcoma and 1 case (1.02%) inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Malignant tumors were pleomorphic liposarcoma (1.02%), fibrosarcoma (2.04%), monophasic synovial sarcoma (1.02%) and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (2.04%). Conclusion: Benign soft tissue tumors outnumbered malignant tumors. A thorough clinical history, gross, and light microscopic evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections are fundamental aspects in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. The clinicopathological evaluation is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms.

  31. Sisay Gedamu and Abebe Dires

    Background: Health information obtained from different sources has an impact on diabetes patient health care outcomes. Time to time there is a growing concern over the quality of health information sources used by diabetic patients. The degree to which diabetes patients follow advice as self-care behaviours determined by the source of information they got through various methods. Objective: To asses type 2 adult diabetic patients source of information on chronic follow up units of Dessie referral hospital. Method: Cross-sectional study design was conducted in diabetic chronic follow up units of Dessie referral hospital from May 1 to 30, 2018. Systematic random sampling method was used to select participants by using patient registration book as a sampling frame and the first study subjects was selected by lottery method. Data was collected by interviewer administered questionnaire. Epidata 3.1 and SPSS version 23 software were applied for data entry and analysis respectively. Results: Among respondents 89.5% of them source of information about diabetes was medical staffs, 18.5% from media and the remaining 18.5% from friend/family. Among respondents 45.7% would like to access information’s about diabetes mellitus through handouts/leaflet, 25.0% through video/tapes, 29.3% through both handouts/leaflets and video/tapes and 11.4% through education during appointment. Conclusion: In this study the role of media and friends/family were low to aware diabetes mellitus patients so that attention should be given by Ethiopian broadcast corporations, health care professionals and diabetic associations. Source of information should be given for diabetic patients in the form of leaflet and videos.

  32. Dr. Ilyas Abdul Aziz, Dr. Varun Byrappa, Dr. Ramachandra Prabhu H.D. Dr. Keerthi Raj, Dr. Preethi, R. Gandhi and Dr. Harish .T. J.

    Aims and Objective: To compare 4 score and Glasgow coma scale as prognostic marker for disability in patients with altered neurological status. To assess the interrater reliability of 4 score and Glasgow coma scale. Introduction: Assessing impaired consciousness in the medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) is very difficult. To asses the abnormal consciousness ,GCS. Is the major scoring system, but is not designed to capture distinct details of the neurologic examination its reliability in predicting patients outcome is unsatisfactory, especially with regard to the verbal component. It was also found that the reliability of the GCS increases with the experience of its users and that user inexperience is associated with a high rate of errors. A new coma scale, the Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score is based on the minimum of tests necessary to assess a patient with altered consciousnessin the emergency department. it includes much important information that is not assessed by the GCS, like measurement of brainstem reflexes; a broad spectrum of motor responses; and the presence of abnormal breath rhythms and a respiratory drive. Methods: In this prospective study done between January 2019 and may 2019, a total of 40 patients were included. All study patients had both these assessed independently by resident doctor and a nurse at the time of admission and on day 1 of admission. Patients were at the time of discharge to assess quality of life using MODIFIED RANKIN SCORE [MRS]. MRS 3 or less was considered as favorable outcome and scores 4-6 considered as unfavorable outcome. Ability of the maximum Delta [difference between highest and lowest score] and lowest score of GCS and four score to predict unfavorable neurological outcome were compared. Results: A strong agreement using Cronbachs alpha (0.94 and 0.96) was found between doctors and nurses for both GCS and FOUR score at time of admission and on day 1 respectively for all patients. Interrater reliability for FOUR score and GCS was (respectively 0.98and 0.97), Both scores were comparable in predicting neurological outcome. Conclusion: In this study FOUR score and GCS were comparable in their inter rater reliability and prognostic value. Both scores were comparable in assessing the disability in patients with altered neurological status but the neurologic details incorporated in the FOUR score makes it more useful in management and triage of patients.

  33. Yadav D., Shastry V.G.R. and Kole T.

    Readmissions in the Emergency Department (ED) are multifaceted. In our earlier research1, we found that poorly managed transitions during discharge were the cause of avoidable readmission. Thus, pre-discharge interventions focusing on discharge planning, medication reconciliation, and scheduling a follow up visit prior to departure from the ED were incorporated in practice and studied in this phase of study. For the same, a template of discharge summary was introduced in the electronic health record (EHR) – CPRS in early 2015 which included summary of current ED visit, details of medications and follow up appointment, and was mandated to be co-signed by the Consultant on the shift to ensure cent percent compliance. Thereafter, data was collected from 1st January through 31st December 2016 prospectively and readmissions within 72 hours of index ED registrations were categorized exclusively and hierarchically into: (1) Avoidable readmissions- (1a) Readmissions due to inadequate care, (1b) Readmissions due to poorly managed transitions during discharge; (2) Unavoidable readmissions- (2a) Readmissions due to complications, (2b) Readmissions due to recurrences; (3) Unrelated readmissions (different body systems); (4) Other planned readmissions; (5) Readmissions after LAMA (Leaving Against Medical Advice). It was found that the readmission rate within 72 hours of index ED registration had fallen from 2.46% in the year 2013 – 14 to 1.66%. Furthermore, avoidable short term ED readmission category witnessed a reduction by two and half folds from 36% to 15.70%, from 2013 to 2016. Also, a reduction by a tenth was noted in readmissions due to inadequate care and poorly managed transitions during discharge from the ED. Our analysis suggests that smoothening the transit during discharges by bridging the gap and sustaining the quality of care between hospital and home can promisingly improve patient outcome.

  34. Rajni Thakur and Anjana Tiwari

    Background: Rostral and Proscopic dimensions are always influenced by age, sex race(tribe). We were Students selected those parents and grandparents that are tribe. Rostral and Proscopic measurements and indices are used to find out different shapes of Rostral and Proscopic. It is very useful for all upcoming Anatomists, forensic scientists, plastic surgeons, physical anthropologists. We were calculated rostralproscoic indices, rostral length, rostral breadth, rostral index, proscopic length, proscopic breadth, proscopic index. We excluded all students those had any history or features of rostralproscopic anomaly, proscopic trauma or surgeries on the proscopic or rostral. Aim: To evaluate the rostral index and proscopic index by anthropometric measurement in tribal school going children’s. Materials and Methods: Present research was selected at random 400 healthy school going tribal students of age 9 – 15 years and anthropometric measured done by using spreading, sliding caliper. Result: In tribal student dominant type of Rostral shape are Ultra Brachycephalic and the mean Rostral index is 84, in Male is 83 and in Female is 86, the mean Rostral length in Male is 21 cm, in Female is 23 cm and the mean Rostral breadth in Male is 19 cm, in Female is 20 cm. Dominant type of Proscopic shape are Leptoproscopic proscopic (long proscopic) and the mean Proscopic index is 84, in Male is 84 and in Female is 85, the mean Proscopic length in Male and Female is 17 cm and the mean Proscopic breadth in Male and Female is 20 cm. Conclusion: Predominant rostral type in males was Brachycephalic (short headed), and in female was Ultra Brachycephalic, Predominant proscopic type in males was Euryproscopic proscopic (Broad proscopic) and in female was Leptoproscopic proscopic (long proscopic). The research has established that male and female have same mean morphological proscopic height and breadth.

  35. Aruna, P. and Kalaivani, S.

    Introduction: Illness or symptoms of an illness are a common human experience. Most of the signs and symptoms of an illness perceived or identified by the population are attended or treated by the ill people themselves. The most widely self-medicated substances are over-the-counter drugs used to treat common health issues at home, as well as dietary supplements. Aims: To assess the self-medication practices among patients attending Medicine OPD, JIPMER and to identify the association between practice of self-medication with selected demographic and clinical variables. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive survey method was conducted among 244 patients attending Medicine OPD, JIPMER, Puducherry for 3 days. In this study, structured self- administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: Among the 147 patients taking self-medication, 67(45.57%) have taken self-medication for aches and pains and 57(38.77%) have used self-medication for more than one ailment. Among all participants 30(20.4%) have experienced side effects while taking self- medication and among them the most of them 12(40%) had nausea and vomiting and 13(43.3%) of them have stopped taking the medication following an adverse reaction. Conclusion: The study revealed that prevalence of self-medication was high among study population. Majority of respondents practiced self-medication for minor ailments and to get quick relief.

  36. Dr. Vijaya, D., Dr. Jaya Swathi, K. and Dr. Jayaprasad, H.V.

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diseases seen in the community. Aim of the present study is to find out etiological agents and their antibiotic susceptibility, causing urinary tract infections at Vasavi Hospital Bangalore. A total of 810 (278 males and 532 were females) clinically suspected cases of urinary tract infection attending the OPD of Vasavi Hospital Bangalore formed the study group. This is a retrospective study from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019 (7 months). The age ranged from 1 to 75 years. Out of 810 (278 males, 532 females) cases, 164 (20.25%) were culture positive and 646 (79.75%) showed no growth. Among culture positive, 104(63.41%) were females and 60 (36.59%), males. Among the isolates, 144(87.8%) belonged to family Enterobacteriaceae, 12 (7.32%) Enterococci and 8 (4.88%) were non fermenters. Esch.coli (69.51%) was the predominant pathogen among the isolates. Antibiogram of enterobacteriaceae in the present study showed that Nitrofurantoin (84.03%) can be considered as the choice for treating uncomplicated UTI .

  37. Dr. Shambhavi and Dr. Kritika Bansal

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases have become the main threat these days and the main reason of cardiovascular diseases are related to our adoption of sedentary lifestyle including diet, physical activity, stress, consumption of alcohol and smoking. Its quite essential to see that those who will be the healers for many in future are to what extent leading a healthy life in their present. Objectives: 1. To assess the awareness and attitude of medical students towards cardiovascular disease.2. To find to association between gender and lifestyle risk factors Material &Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical graduates of a medical college in Gurugram. Self -Administered Questionnaire was used to collect information regarding their knowledge and attitude towards the risk factors of Cardiovascular diseases like their diet, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity. The data was compiled in Excel sheet and analyzed by Epi-Info version 7 software. Results: Out of 244 medical students, 112(45.90%) were males and 132(54.09%) were females. 124(50.81%) of students had an intake of 1-2 fruits/day while 15.16% students had daily junk food intake and 19.67% regularly consumed carbonated drinks.64.34% had the habit of getting stressed easily while majority of them (73.36%) were taking proper sleep. The body mass index of more than half of them were in normal range. Only 2.04% students were smoking on regular basis and only 6.96% had alcohol more than 2 times a week. Conclusion: Although being doctors we are aware of good and bad but still its rarely instigated in our lifestyles. These students should also be counselled and motivated to adopt a better life so that they stay far away from developing the disease when they grow up.

  38. Dereje Haile Mamo

    The objective of this study is to examine and analyze the positive representations of women in the Bible. The study analyzed the Bible by using theories from feminism and hermeneutic interpretations. The researcher used the Bible as a document. Qualitative research design was used for the study. This is because it was believed to be suitable to interpret and thematically elucidate the existing gender related issues in the Bible. Textual analyses were chosen as a method of analyzing the verses in the Bible. The result shows that in the selected verses women were representedpositively unlike religious preaching’s. The result revealed that it is at odds with most of the teachings in Ethiopian churches that usually represented women negatively. Based on this result, the study recommends a balanced representation of women to be incorporated in the teaching of Ethiopian Churches towards women.

  39. Mohamed H.N. Ali, M.Sc., Salwa F. Abd Al-Majeed, Ph.D., Mohammed A.M. Sarhan, Ph.D. and Ahmed Foud, Ph.D.

    Shoulder complaints are consistent with impingement in certain occupations. The biceps tendon act as a depressor of the humeral head. Excessive superior head migration contributes to reduced subacromial space. Strong positive relationship was found between the reduction of AHD narrowing and functional improvement following rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long head of biceps (LHB) strengthening exercises in improving acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) patients. Twenty five shoulder impingement syndrome patients were recruited for this study. They were divided into two groups; biceps group (N=14, 8 males, 6 females), and non-biceps group (N=11, 6 males, 5 females). AHD was measured for all patients using ultrasonography at shoulder adduction and abduction. The results showed that there were no significant difference (P>0.06) in AHD at shoulder adduction and abduction posttest between groups. However, this difference was close to significance at abduction (i.e. p =0.06). These results may have future implication in improving patients pain and function.

  40. Zeynee Bilka Mohammed and Dr. Demissie Dalelo Hankebo

    Instructional leadership is essential for the academic success of any schooling situation. The purpose this study was to evaluate the instructional leadership practices employed in the primary schools of Siltie Zone, Ethiopia. Descriptive survey research design was used to conduct the research. Mixed research method was used to collect and analyze data concurrently, and triangulate results side by side. In a year 2018, a total of 228 primary schools are operating in the zone, off these, 74 primary schools were selected as target population by clustering them based on ecological conditions of the zone. Finally, 19 primary schools were selected as a sample via multistage sampling technique. From these 19 primary schools: 92 teachers were selected by simple random sample technique, and 19 school principals and 19 vice principals were also selected by availability sampling technique. In addition, 4 primary schools’ supervisors and 4 Woredas (District) heads were engaged in the study. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect data. Data was analysed by calculating mean, standard deviations P-value and t-test. Data collected by interview was narrated and triangulated with result obtained from questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed that all the three instructional leadership dimensions; defining and communicating school mission; managing curriculum and instruction and promoting a positive school learning climate were not effectively applied in the primary schools Siltie Zone, Ethiopia. The study concluded that instructional leaders in the primary schools were not effectively implementing Instructional Leadership Dimensions to improve instructional practices so as to maintain better learning for students and establish effective schools. Finally, it was recommended that tailored and continuous trainings, workshops and experiences sharing events should be organized and commenced by the respective district and zonal education officials to build the instructional leadership capacities of school leaders.

  41. Dr. Demissie Dalelo Hankebo

    Efficient and effective material management system in place is vital for realization of the university’s core objectives, namely, teaching and learning, research and community engagement. The major purpose of the was to identify how well educational materials management activities, namely, procurement, purchasing, storage, inventories, distribution and utilization were facilitating the flow of educational materials in the Wolaita Sodo university and suggest feasible strategies to improve the system. Observation and interview were data collecting instruments employed in the study. The participants were 2 Quality Officers, 12 Quality Coordinators, 6 experts from (Internal Audit Office, Estate and Facility Management Directorate, and Procurement Directorate) and 15storekeepers from main stores andsub-stores of the university. Data was analysed by narrating the numerical descriptions items to depict the actual flow of educational materials in the university. The findings ofthe study revealed that educational materials and facilities like classrooms conditions, staff offices, laboratories and computer labs and stationaries were inadequate for the provision of quality education, research and community engagement services in the university. Further, the study concluded that educational materials management and utilization practices in Wolaita Sodo University was inefficient and ineffective that demands urgent interventions from all respective officials. Hence, it was suggested that the material management system should be carried out collaborative with all the respective stakeholders who have roles in the flow of materials in the university. More specifically, much attentions ahead should be given for activities like procurement, purchasing, distribution and storage system. Besides, the university must exhaust the existing potentials and continuously enforce the proper execution of decentralized clustered financial management system.

  42. Aruna P., Dr. Lakshmi Ramamoorthy and Dr. Durga Prasad Rath

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the most important cause of non - communicable disease deaths.According to WHO statistics, cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of deaths in the world.In every open heart surgery, there is the risk of complications specific to the disease and surgery being performed, in addition to the general risks related to surgery and anesthesia. Both CABG & valvular surgeries are performed to improve functional capability and quality of life. Aim: To assess the physical outcome and its determinants of patients undergoing Coronary artery bypass graft and valvular surgeries. Methods: In this prospective observational study, 40 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft or valvular surgery were selected through consecutive sampling method from August 2018 to February 2018. The tools used for data collection were numerical rating scale to assess postoperative pain, performance check list for using incentive spirometry and subject data sheet. Results: The complications observed in CABG group were bleeding 2 (11.8%) and re-exploration 1 (5.9%), cognitive impairment 2 (11.8%) and graft site infection 1 (2.5%). Major complications observed in valve group were bleeding 3 (13%) and re-exploration 2 (8.7%), atrial fibrillation (52.2%), acute kidney injury 1 (4.3%), pericardial effusion 1 (4.3%). There was an improvement in NYHA functional class postoperatively where 88.5% of participants were in NYHA grade I. The determinants of outcome of CABG surgery were age more than 65 years (p < 0.017), NYHA grade II & III (p < 0.052), triple vessel disease (p<0.033), and high BMI (p<0.46). The determinants of outcome after valve surgery include female gender (0.008), NYHA grade III & IV (p < 0.026), mitral valve replacement (p<0.054), and history of previous cardiac operation (p<0.001). Conclusion: Coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgeries improve the quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease.

  43. Onyeme, A.A., Price, A. D. F. and Edum-Fotwe, F.

    This study aims to establish a strategic approach for enhancing quality of life in rural settings through effective healthcare delivery. Society constantly strives to improve the social determinants that impact quality of life. This article identifies and examines key social determinants that influence the lifestyle and quality of life of people in the rural settings of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, and their access to health services. It also presents approaches for enhancing healthcare delivery. The methods used to achieve these objectives were literature review, questionnaire survey, interviews and direct observation. A questionnaire survey was distributed between August 2016 and July 2017 within seven selected states in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Out of the 1500 questionnaires distributed, 1300 were completed and returned. Informal interviews were also conducted across respondents from the public and health sector within Bayelsa State. To establish a satisfactory guide, socio determinants (e.g. essential amenities, job opportunities, security and level of literacy) in rural settings, which differ from those in urban areas, were observed and measured. Most of the respondents acknowledged that the identified determinants significantly influence quality of life and wellbeing of people due to their impact on the economic growth of the communities and healthcare delivery, as observed from further analysis. These findings form the basis for the developed guide. However, the actual results from the execution of these strategies remain a function of government action.

  44. Nikhil Uncertain

    By viewing the contents you agree to the Terms and Conditions. All punishments subject to jurisdiction at Ranchi 834001. All protocols are valid. Statement - A number should always be represented as: A+-Ni , where A is magnitude of real part, N is magnitude of imaginary part, i is the imaginary iota symbol. The angle Tan^-1(N/A) is calculated with sign to obtain phase. There is always a tendency towards the number 0 +- 0i i.e. neither leading nor lagging phase. It is not possible to convert all Imaginary part of a number into real number. A conversion always occurs between A to N vice versa i.e. N to A.

  45. Sanath Divakara, Sema Singhe, D.M. and Surangi, H.A.K.N.S.

    SMEs development has become an imperative to the economic development of countries having a major share in GDP. A booming trend on researching the constraints of SME development is everywhere in the world. Hence the study focused on searching a firm root in the development of SMEs followed to a systematic process of categorization of constraints and identification of strategies to revitalize the SMEs. The study identified prevailing constraints on SME development referring to the previous reports and research articles. The roots of the constraints were examined properly and categories under the intrapreneurial orientation. Strategic renewal, innovation and corporate venturing are the fundamental dimensions of the intrapreneurship orientation. Intrapreneur is entrepreneur within the organization hence development of intrapreneurship enable the development of SMEs. The study explored the concentration of findings and contribution to the intrapreneurship development. SMEs are entrepreneurial centered businesses hence intrapreneurship plays a silent role within the SME business. The study explain how important the development of intrapreneurship within SME sector and the contribution of intrapreneurship to the growth of SMEs.

  46. Dr. Preeti Awari

    Hernia is the protrusion of the abdominal contents through some weakness in anterior abdominal wall. The indirect inguinal hernia is one of the most common form of hernia and most of the time congenital in origin. Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both the testes do not descend in the scrotum. The incidence of unilateral cryptorchidism is 3% of boys at the birth and 1% of boys at the age of three months. During routine dissection the author found a left sided indirect inguinal hernia with cryptorchidism in a male cadaver. On the right side the testis was at its normal location.

  47. Dr. Preeti Awari

    Introduction: Thyroid gland, brownish red and highly vascular endocrine gland, is placed anteriorly in the neck, extending from 5th cervical to 2nd thoracic vertebra. In present case the isthmus of thyroid gland was absent. It’s a developmental anomaly of thyroid gland. Observations: The two lobes of thyroid gland were separate from each other. There was agenesis of thyroid isthmus. Discussion: The agenesis of thyroid isthmus is the complete and congenital absence of the thyroid isthmus. The absence of isthmus can be associated with other types of dysorganogenesis, such as the absence of a lobe or the presence of ectopic thyroid tissue autonomous thyroid nodule ; thyroiditis; primary carcinoma; neoplastic metastases; and infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis Knowledge regarding thyroid anomalies as agenesis of isthmus of thyroid gland can help the surgeon for surgical interventions.

  48. Graziano Giorgio Maria, Paolo Antonino Buffone and Antonino Graziano

    Introduction: Appendicular mucocele is a rare disease and constitutes 0.2-0.3% of surgically excised appendicitis, more frequently in females (3: 1) and with an average age of 55 (2.4 , 6.12). We distinguish four subtypes characterized with non-specific clinical manifestations. The study proposes, through clinical observation, a focus on the current diagnostic and therapeutic orientation of the pathology. Materials and Methods: From January 2017 to December 2019 consulted the database of the AOU "G Rodolico" University of Catania Department of medical surgical and specialist sciences II 4 patients were treated of which 3 female cases and one sex case male with an average age of 38 (range 41-35) years with appendicular mucocele. the clinical symptomatology was characterized by constipation, asthenia, malaise, rapid weight loss and anemia with abdominal pain arising on average, increasing in localization on the right quadrants with ipsilateral lumbar irradiation. The preoperative diagnosis was difficult. Results: Blood tests were found to be normal, in particular neoplastic markers, with the exception of CEA> 50 in cistoadenocarcinoma. The surgery showed the presence of a voluminous appendicular mucocele with a maximum diameter of 12 cm and a transverse diameter of 8 cm, without evidence of regional lymphadenomegaly or infiltration of neighboring organs; an appendectomy was performed with complete exeresis of the cystic formation. Discussion: The mucocele of the appendix is characterized by the slow accumulation of mucinous material inside its lumen, and includes a heterogeneous group of lesions ranging from the simple accumulation of mucoid material to mucosal hyperplasia, to the cystadenoma up to the cystadenocarcinoma, with an incidence of approximately 0.4% of all cancers of the appendix. ). In the cases described by us, the diagnosis was placed, as often happens, in the suspicion of a subacute appendix. The histological examination showed the presence of a proliferation of epithelial cells with abundant mucin-like material (fig3). The laparoscopic approach is preferred to the laparotomic approach to minimize the risks of bowel rupture and dissemination in the peritoneal cavity of mucus-secreting epithelial cells (1, 11, 12). In the case in which the approach in videolaparoscopy is chosen, the appendix can be enclosed in an endo-bag or in a glove in order to prevent the escape of mucus or the rupture of the neoplasm and of the viscus (2). between the mucocele and a concomitant gastroenteric tumor; the mucosa hyperplasia and the appendicular cystadenoma are in fact considered as the hyperplastic polyp of the large intestine, with the possibility of developing areas of dysplasia with a high degree of malignancy. Conclusion: Although it is a rare disease, the appendicular mucocele must be taken into consideration when facing an appendicular mass, in order to be able to implement during the intervention the precautions aimed at minimizing the risk of dissemination of mucosal epithelial cells in the peritoneal cavity and therefore onset of pseudomixoma peritoneal.

  49. Edilmar P. Masuhay

    This study explored the use of projective techniques to uncover the students’ learning preferences, shortcomings in the course, their transformative experiences and their resulting performance by construction and completion. Students were tasked to construct their action research participants' demographic profile, survey questionnaire, action research proposal, letter protocol to conduct a survey, letter to participants, documentation on the survey conducted, presentation of written research, publication, and their personal projection after two years. Results showed that instead of the usual big-group-in-one-classroom setting, the majority of the respondents prefer to study alone wherein learning-by-doing method of teaching is found highly preferred. Further, common reasons why these students are having difficulties and sometimes failed with the course were financial instability, health problems, on-the-job training, and conflict of class-OJT schedules. Nevertheless, the use of the projective technique facilitated the honing of skills needed to pass the course while maintaining freedom and comfort. The progress of the students is apparent in their completion of the tasks shown in the provided checklist. The methods, materials and tools, and, the results of this study could be used in addressing student learning difficulties, in preparing the teachers’ teaching approaches, and in helping school administrators in managing the teaching environment.

  50. Masarat Jehan, Mohd Saleem Itoo and Reyaz Ahmad khan

    Background: A positive relation between high fat diet and obesity is well documented. The amount of total energy required by an organism derived from each component of diet affects the weight. But if the total calories in diet of an experimental animal is constant (isocaloric) irrespective of its constituents, it is least likely to increase the weight of these animals. The present study was done to observe the effects of isocaloric diet with different percentage of the constituent components on the weight of Albino rats. Methods: The present study was done for a period of 24 weeks. Thirty male albino rats taken for this study were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C with 10 rats in each group. Group A rats served as control and were fed on low fat diet consisting of chow containing 2.5 percent of fat. Group B rats were fed on isocaloric but high fat diet (30% of total calories were derived from animal fat). Group C rats were fed on high caloric high fat diet. The mean weight of these animals was taken at the beginning and at the end of this study. Results: The mean weight of animals fed on isoclaoric diet irrespective of its components was same. The animals fed on high fat high calorie diet gained more weight. Conclusions: The results of this study show that isocaloric diet irrespective of its components (high fat verses low fat) does not affect the weight of Albino rats. It is the total number of calories irrespective of dietary components that results in weight gain of Albino rats.

  51. Pratita Devi Pukhrambam, Bhuvanesh Raj and Kh. Ranjana Devi

    Background: Onychomycosis is a commonly encountered superficial fungal infection. Beside causative dermatophytes and yeasts, present data shows that non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi can also be the potential cause of this ungual disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the causative agents of onychomycosis in patients attending dermatology OPD of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A mycological study of onychomycosis was undertaken in 881 patients suspected to have fungal nail infection by their clinical appearance referred from the Dermatology OPD, January 2016 to July 2018 and processed in the Department of Microbiology RIMS. Direct microscopy of the nail clippings in 10% KOH followed by culture in SDA and DTM was performed to identify the causative agent. Results: Direct microscopy of the nail clippings in 10% KOH was positive in 318 (35%) and culture was positive in 592 (67.1%) cases. Out of the samples cultured, dermatophytes were grown in 166 (28.04%), non – dermatophytes moulds grown in 331 (55.9%), yeast and yeast like grown in 73 (10.8%) and mixed isolates grown in 22 (3.7%) Among the dermatophytes Trichophyton spp. was found to be commonest etiological agent followed by Microsporum spp. Among the non – dermatophyte moulds Aspergillus spp. was the most prevalent species followed by Penicillium spp. Conclusions: In the previous study done during the period from January 2013 to December 2015 in RIMS Imphal, among the dermatophytes Trichophyton spp. was the commonest followed by Epidermophyton species. Among non-dermatophytes Aspergillus species was the commonest followed by Fusarium species that caused onychomycosis. The prevalence of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis was more than the dermatophytic onychomycosis. Here in this comparative study the change in the trend of onychomycosis is not very significant. Hence the trend of onychomycosis by dermatophytes and Non-dermatophytes remains the same in RIMS Hospital.

  52. Gelfeto Gelassa

    The main objective of this study was to assess micro level risk factors for food insecurity and identify coping mechanisms in Dale woreda. About 150 sampled households were selected for the study. The result from sampled households revealed that 38.7 and 61.3 percents were found food insecure and food secure respectively. The main risk factors for food insecurity perceived by households in study area were found to be erratic rainfall, food and input price rise, drought, shortage of income, lack of off-farm activities, land shortage, population pressure, poor saving practices, lack of credit, poor fertility of land and soil erosion. The main coping mechanisms employed by households during food insecurity in the study area were diversifying livelihood strategies, reducing diversity and frequency of meals, reducing size of meals, decreasing social event, selling of firewood and charcoal, petty trading and sale of livestock. Eating immature enset, selling and renting immature crops in the field and engaging oneself socially undermined jobs also were the other indigenous practices in the study area. Based on the regression result, household size, livestock holding, input use, input price, off-farm activities and perception of fertility of land were found to be major factors determining food security status, number of perceived risk factors for food insecurity and number of food insecurity coping mechanisms at household level in the study area.

  53. Dr. Toshniwal, N.G., Dr. Shubhangi Mani, Dr. Nilesh Mote, Dr. Vishal Dhanjani and Dr. Somit Das

    Self-ligating brackets have been gaining popularity over the past several decades. Although the self-ligating edgewise bracket was introduced to orthodontists 75 years ago, recent advances in bracket technology have resulted in a number of new selfligating bracket ‘‘systems’’ and greater interest in their use. Much of this interest is in response to information comparing the benefits of self-ligating systems with conventional edgewise brackets. Often, this information comes from marketing materials and non refereed sources claiming that self-ligating bracket systems provide superior treatment efficiency and efficacy. Various advantages for these systems have been claimed. The current situation regarding self-ligating brackets is reviewed. Recent developments, clinical advantages, and remaining imperfections are described. The evidence regarding treatment efficiency is reviewed. Self-ligating brackets have reached a stage of design and production control, where the advantages are significantly greater than the remaining imperfections.

  54. Manjari Chaudhary

    Background: Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS) has increased amount of information that can be obtained during examination of the cervical lymph nodes. Vascularity of the lymph node helps in diagnosing the cause of lymphadenopathy as vascularity is directly related to the actual pathology such as oral cancer. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between vascularity of lymph nodes and lymph node size on Color Doppler Ultrasound images of the patients with oral cancer. Material and Methods: 30 subjects taken from the cancer hospital with the age range of 20 to 75 years. CDUS evaluation of the cervical lymph nodes was performed on every patient. The vascular index defined as the number of pixels in the flow signals divided by the number of pixels in the whole lymph node, presented as a percentage. The number of isolated flow signal units in the lymph node parenchyma was counted by using Adobe Photoshop CS5 extended version. Isolated flow signal units of <3 pixels were excluded as noise signals. The scattering index defined as the number of isolated flow signal units in the lymph node parenchyma. The following lymph node size classification was considered for this study i.e. Group 1, 4-5.9 mm; Group 2, 6-7.9 mm; Group 3, 8-9.9 mm; and Group 4, ≥10 mm (median diameter, 12 mm; range, 10-27 mm). Results: Pair-wise comparison of mean Vascular Index between Lymph Node size classifications and mean Scattering Index between Lymph Node size classifications was done. There was a statistically significant difference seen in the values of Vascular Index between all Lymph Node (LN) classification (p<0.05) with the highest value with Group 1, followed by Group 2 then Group 3 and least with Group 4 and there was a statistically highly significant difference in the mean Scattering Index (SI) with various LN classification (p<0.01) with the highest value with Group 4, followed by Group 3 then Group 2 and least with Group 1. Conclusions: The metastatic lymph node size increases, the Vascular Index (VI) of metastatic lymph nodes decreases. Lymph node size of metastatic lymph nodes has an indirect relationship with the Vascular Index (VI). Thus, an increase in the vascular index was considered to be a useful Doppler ultrasound finding for detecting metastasis in small lymph nodes Thus, the CDUS could provide a potential means of visualizing and sampling suspicious carcinoma lesions in high-risk populations.

  55. Valerie B. Bazie, Theodora M. Zohoncon, Tani Sagna, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Florencia W. Djigmaand Jacques Simpore

    Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in Burkina Faso because every yearthe burkinabè population continue to bear a heavy burden. Malaria infection depends on the parasite's ability to interact with the host's red blood cells for its development. In population living in malaria endemic areas, sickle cell trait (HbAS, HbAC and HbCC) is considered to be a factor in malaria resistance. The present study aims to assess the involvement of sickle cell hemoglobin S and C in the protection against asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Burkina Faso. Methodology: The study population consisted of 182 participants. A volume of 4 ml of venous blood was collected from each participant and referred to CERBA for the determination of parasitaemia, hemogram, blood group/rhesus and hemoglobin electrophoresis. Results: The age group of the study population was distributed as follows: less than 5 years (45.6%), 5 to 15 years (4.4%) and more than 15 years (50.0%). Homozygous AA (73.08%) individuals had a parasitaemia> 1000 trp/µL while heterozygotes AS (7.14%) had a parasitaemia <1000trp/µL, 100% of SC had a parasitaemia<1000 trp/µL as well as 30.30% of AC. The most common blood groups were O + (46.15%) and B + (24.72%). Conclusion: The low prevalence of parasitaemia observed in individuals with sickle cell traits (HbAS, HbAC and HbCC) and major sickle cell syndrome (HbSC) would confirm the hypothesis of protection against asymptomatic malaria infection in Burkina Faso.

  56. Dr. Varsha Zanvar and Ms. Madhuri Revanwar

    Present study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 600 elderly population residing in urban (200), rural (200) and tribal area (200) of Nanded district of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state, India. out of total elderly subjects 279 male and 321 were female. Anthropometric status of selected elderly was determined by recording height (cm.), weight (kg.), hip circumference (cm.), waist circumference (cm.) and body mass index was calculated using values of height and weight. On the basis of BMI, selected subjects were categorised under different grades of undernutrition. Daily food intake of each selected elderly was recorded with the help of two days dietary recall method and weighment method. By using food consumption table of ICMR (Gopalan et al., 2004) the nutrient intake of the elderly was calculated. Food and nutrient intake of the elderly was compared with the balanced diet and ICMR recommended dietary allowances (ICMR 2012) to find out the percent adequacy in consumption. Result revealed that, the height and weight of elderly ranged from 147.01±6.01 to 164.72±17.01 and 42.55±10.00 to 63.69±8.68. Tribal elderly male and female exhibited very low values than urban and rural elderly male and female. More percent of female were belonging to either underweight or overweight. The mean intake of cereals (229.15±77.67 gm.), pulses (29.48±14.33 gm.), green leafy vegetables (18.45±30.36 gm.), roots and tubers (36.91±34.61 gm.), milk and milk products (63.53±61.53 gm.) and sugar and jaggery (16.75±8.09 gm.) was more by elderly male than female. Percent adequacy of all food stuffs was found higher in elderly male than female. Statistically significant difference was noted for almost all nutrients intake between male and female elderly except iron, fat and vitamin c. However, among elderly male and female highest percent adequacy was noted for fat and phosphorus. Other nutrients reported 40 to 63 percent adequacy among male and 34 to 63 percent among female.

  57. Ahmed A. M. NASR, sileem Ahmed sileem and Ahmed Soliman

    Background: Pre-eclampsia has significant impacts on maternal and fetal health. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality in both developed and developing countries. Early prediction of the disease would help in determining those patients who were more likely to benefit from interventional measures. Objective: to evaluate association of some serum biomarkers (calcium, creatinine, and uric acid) to severe pre-eclampsia. Patients and methods: 50 apparently healthy primigravidae of attendants of antenatal care clinic of the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Al-Azhar University, Assiut- Egypt, during the period from January 2019 till July 2019 were recruited for the study, 25 normal pregnant women as controls (group I) and 25 pregnant women who developed severe pre eclampsia (group II) later during follow up . The blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum calcium, creatinine and uric acid level during booking visit and repeated later in third trimester or when suspicious signs or symptoms developed during ANC visits. Results: serum calcium levels was significantly lower (7.93± 0.12mg/dl vs. 8.76 ± 0.22 mg/dl, p <0.05 for severe pre-eclampsia and control groups respectively), serum uric acid were significantly higher (7.42± 1.35mg/dl vs. 5.12 ± 1.34mg/dl, p < 0.001 for both groups respectively), serum creatinine was statistically non significant between both groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: hypocalcaemia and hyperurecimia were associated with pre-eclampsia and might be attributed to the development and progression of the disease. Recommendation: Low serum Ca and elevated uric acid levels can be used as early predictors for severe preeclampsia

  58. Danboya Emmanuel, Tchobsala and Ibrahima Adamou

    The study of the spatial evolution of forest galleries in the humid savannah of Adamaoua-Cameroun was conducted between 2013 and 2017 in all five departments of the region and aimed to see the dynamic evolution of the gallery surfaces. In comparison with other types of land use (savannah, shrubby savannah, habitation, etc.). For this, a socioeconomic survey was conducted to have the perception of local residents on the evolution of plant density. A diachronic study with acquisition of satellite images was conducted. The socio-economic survey showed that 50.71% of respondents believe that there has been an increase in the density of ligneous trees in the last ten years. However, opinions are divided between the five departments of the Adamaoua region. Satellite images have shown that the forest galleries of Adamaoua are the most attacked ecosystems compared to savannah and shrub savannah. Between 1986 and 2006, the forest galleries lost 8.94% of their area, an area of 5694.86 km2. Between 2006 and 2016, the Adamaoua forest galleries lost once again 3.75% of their area, or 2376Km2. The forecast has shown that by 2037, the forest galleries of the region will lose 4752.08 km2 of their area if nothing is done. This degradation led to a considerable reduction in the surface area of 101.92 km2 of large waters between 1986 and 2006. However, the increase in the savannah area of an additional 407 km2 (2006 to 2016) would have made it possible to increase the surface area 184.73 km2.

  59. Dr. Nilam U. Sathe, Dr. Shampa Mishra, Dr. Swapnal Sawarkar and Dr. Swapna Patil

    Introduction: External auditory canal cholesteatoma is a rare condition. We are reporting a rare case of primary auditory canal cholesteatoma causing facial canal erosion with mastoid tip involvement and jugular vein thrombophlebitis. Case Report: We are presenting two cases 75years and 50 years female who presented to us with unilateral otorrhoea with hearing loss. Otomicroscopy revealed external canal wall cholesteatoma with intact Tympanic membrane. High resolution CT scan confirmed the findings of otomicroscopy and also revealed further extensive disease and erosion of fallopian canal and bone over jugular bulb. Both the patients were posted for mastoidectomy surgery & cholesteatoma was removed in toto without any complications. Conclusion: The rare occurrence of external auditory canal cholesteatoma makes it difficult to establish its incidence rates. However its possibility should be kept in mind while treating patients with Otorroea and presenting as otitis externa cases. High resolution CT scan is an important diagnostic tool for external canal wall choesteatoma. Prompt surgical intervention is the key to successful outcome with less morbidity and mortality in extensive external canal wall cholesteatoma.

  60. Yadav Dolly, Bulusu Radhika

    Burnout is a multidimensional, psychological syndrome resulting from long – term stress during one’s career [Lin, 2019]. Burnout amongst healthcare professionals is characterized by various degrees of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment ( Maslach, 1996). Emergency physicians (EPs) experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians (Lu, 2015). Medscape national physician burnout, depression and suicide report 2019 estimates prevalence of burnout amongst emergency physicians to be 48% (https://www.medscape.com/slideshow/2019-lifestyle-burnout-depression-601...). Although the detrimental consequences of burnout on clinician well-being and patient care are widely documented, burnout continues to be endemic in the health system [Chunming et al., 2015]. Symptoms of burnout are prevalent from the outset of medical training, with multi-institutional studies indicating that at least 50% of medical students may meet burnout criteria at some point during their studies [Chunming et al., 2015].

  61. Dr. Dolly C Yadav, Dr. VGR Shastry, Dr. Kole and Ms. Sushma Arya

    Emergency departments manage a variety of patients at their most vulnerable time. Among the interventions undertaken for stabilizing the patient, endotracheal intubation is fundamental. Being an academic emergency department, the Medeor institute of emergency medicine (MIEM) undertook an audit to study the elements of endotracheal intubations at MIEM. Therefore, all patients requiring endotracheal intubations at MIEM were included prospectively over a period of seven months. A total of 70 endotracheal intubations were undertaken at MIEM during this period of which only 4 were in pediatric age group. Over three fourths of all of the endotracheal intubations were performed by emergency residents - post graduation year 2, under supervision of emergency consultants. Moreover, the commonest cause of securing airway was due to poor Glasgow Coma Scale. It was observed that the first pass success rate of all endotracheal intubations at MIEM was 93%. About a fifth of these were difficult airways, ascertained using LEMON (≥ 1) and/or Cormack Lehane grading (≥ 2) and the first pass success rate in difficult airway was 67%. Additionally, the rest of the endotracheal intubations were successful in the second attempt. In conclusion, although very few patients presenting to MIEM required endotracheal intubation, the first pass success rate of difficult airway could be improved by video laryngoscope which is now available at MIEM.

  62. Dr. Dolly C Yadav, Dr. VGR Shastry and Dr. Tamorish Kole

    Emergency departments (ED) care for patients with a diversity of requirements that decide their disposition and revisit to the ED. Furthermore, readmissions to the hospital are often used as a quality indicator. However, caution must used since readmissions are complex in nature and only the avoidable readmission need to be dealt with improvements. Thus, we undertook an audit at the Medeor Institute of Emergency Department (MIEM) to gauge the readmissions within 72 hours. Therefore, all patients presenting to the ED within 72 hours of their admission to the hospital were prospectively included from June through September 2019. Each of these patients were further categorized hierarchically and exclusively into 5 categories as: (I) Avoidable readmissions – (IA) readmissions due to inadequate care/misdiagnosis, (IB) readmission due to poorly managed transitions during discharges; (II) Unavoidable readmission – (IIA) readmissions due to complication/disease progression, (IIB) readmission due to recurrence of symptoms; (III) Unrelated readmission (different organ system involvement); (IV) Readmission due to planned procedure or admission; and (V) Readmission after leaving against medical advice (LAMA). This categorization was based on our earlier study2. It was observed that the short term readmission rate at MIEM was 0.48%. A fifth of these readmissions were avoidable. Moreover, one (6.7%) patient returned to the ED due to poorly managed transitions during discharges due to poor understanding of instruction to return to ED, while two (13.3%) patients received inadequate care as a result of misdiagnosis. Hence, ED discharge summary with written discharge instructions, in addition to verbal explanation, and mandatory co-signature of every ED initial assessment by Emergency Consultant are introduced to address these lacunae.

  63. Dr. Sabiyata Khajuria and Dr. Anubhav Khajuria

    Background: Dental caries is considered as the most common chronic disease of childhood that interferes with normal nutrition intake, speech, and daily routine activities. Dental caries afflict humans of all ages with the highest priority risk group being schoolchildren. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim to assess the prevalence of dental caries among 6-8 year old school-going children of Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: 400 study subjects were selected based on simple random sampling technique Demographic information such as name, age, gender, and class was collected followed by clinical examination for dental caries using DMFT/dmft index. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses have been carried out. Chi-square test was used to analyse gender differences and mean DMFT/dmft index scores. Results: The study sample comprised of 400 school children with 247 males and 153 were females. The DMFT scores ranged from 0-6, with the mean DMFT score of 2.491.10 with the prevalence of decayed teeth being more in males. Conclusions: Dental caries were found both in primary dentition and permanent dentition. The study reveals that dental caries still remains as a major oral health problem among school children.

  64. Dr. Sanjay Jain and Dr. Nadeem Ahmad

    Background: Dengue an important emerging mosquito-borne disease worldwide, is transmitted primarily by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. In recent times, there has been a surge in number of dengue cases creating a burden on the already stressed health infrastructure. Objectives: This study was done to assess & analyze the trend of the disease progression over the years along with the epidemiological features in patients admitted to Hindu Rao hospital situated in North Delhi. Method: Blood samples from patients suspected of having dengue infection, attending medicine, pediatrics, fever clinics of Hindu Rao hospital were collected and tested for dengue specific IgM antibodies and NS1 antigen positivity. Results: In this study, conducted over a period of 4 yrs (2015-2018), a total of 17,499 samples were tested from suspected dengue infection cases. Out of 9968 samples tested for dengue specific IgM antibody, 1711 (17.17%) were positive and out of 7531 samples tested for NS1 antigen, 580 (7.70%) were positive. Conclusion: An increase in detection of dengue cases was observed in 2017 & 2018 in comparison to 2015 & 2016.The increase in case detection may be attributed to active health campaigns generating awareness among general public and availability of prompt diagnostic facilities. The increase may also be indicative of infection by a possible new serotype.

  65. Dr. Alisha, Dr. Naveen Bansal, Dr. Gurinder Singh, Dr. Amit Kumar and Dr. Suraj Sachdeva

    Patient’s primary concern before starting orthodontic treatment is how long treatment will proceed. Long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like a higher predisposition to dental caries, gingival recession and root resorption. Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement can notably reduce treatment duration and risks of side effects. Plenty of methods are available to accelerate tooth movement, such as surgical methods (corticotomy, piezosurgery etc.), mechanical/physical stimulation methods (vibration, lasers), drugs, etc. These methods have successfully proven to reduce treatment times by up to 70%.This review encapsulates the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying accelerated orthodontic tooth movement, and the clinical and experimental methods that accelerate orthodontic tooth movement.

  66. Sheng Qi and Wen Yuanyuan

    Objective: To discuss the effect of systemic nursing on postoperative recovery of gastric cancer patients. Methods: According to the patient's operation time, 134 patients with radical gastrectomy from January 2016 to July 2018 were randomly divided into two groups, 64 in each group. Patients in the control group received routine care and the observation group received systematic nursing intervention based on routine care. The recovery and complications of the two groups were compared. Results: In the observation group, the first anesthesia time, the first time to the ground, and the total hospital stay were shorter than the control group, and the incidence of complications was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Systematic nursing intervention in patients with gastric cancer can significantly shorten the recovery time after radical gastrectomy in patients, and significantly reduce the incidence of complications in patients with gastric cancer.

  67. Sheng Qi and Wen Yuanyuan

    Objective: To investigate the effect of rapid surgical rehabilitation nursing on clinical indicators of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Methods: From January 2017 to July 2018, 146 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were enrolled in our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to the random number table, 73 cases in each group. The control group received routine nursing and the observation group received routine nursing. On the basis of rapid surgical rehabilitation care; compare the clinical indicators and satisfaction of the two groups of patients after treatment. Results: After nursing, the postoperative exhaust time, eating time, time of getting out of bed and hospitalization time were significantly shorter in the observation group than in the control group. The nursing satisfaction of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusion: Rapid surgical rehabilitation can effectively shorten the postoperative recovery time of patients with gastrointestinal cancer, and the patient satisfaction is high. It is worthy of clinical promotion.

  68. Wen Yuanyuan and Sheng Qi

    Objective: To explore the effect of evidence-based nursing on the quality of life of patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 92 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled in our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to the admission time of the patients, 46 patients in each group. The control group received routine nursing, and the observation group used evidence-based nursing. The nursing intervention was 2 months, and the improved quality of life comprehensive assessment questionnaire was adopted. (GQOLI) compares the quality of life of the two groups of patients. Results: After 2 months of nursing, the psychological function, physical function, social function score and total score of the two groups were significantly higher than those before treatment, and the scores and total scores of the GQOLI scales in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Statistical significance (P <0.05). Conclusion: Evidence-based nursing can effectively improve the GQOLI scale score of gastric cancer patients and improve their quality of life. It has high application value in gastric cancer.

  69. Dr. Hussain Mookhtiar, Dr. Vivek Hegde, Dr. Mohd Naved, Dr. Srilatha Shanmugasundaram and Dr. Umair Parkar

    Background: This article mainly focuses on the causes, the organisms involved and the protocols of disinfection of the water-pipelines of the dental units. Aim: The aim of this article is to review different herbal irrigants used in the field of endodontics. Materials and methods: A literature review is conducted using electronic databases “PubMed”, “Google Scholar” and “Scopus”, using keywords “dental chair contamination”, “Micro-organisms”, “water-pipelines”, “dental water units”, “Biofilms”. Out of 107 articles, only 35 articles were relevant for this study. Conclusion: To conclude from this review DUW contamination is now more clearly defined, changes can be made by dental manufacturers and the scientific community in approaches to prevention and control.

  70. Dr. Suresh Yadav, Dr. Treville Pereira, Dr. Sourab Kumar, Dr. Abhishek Jadhav, Dr. Mukesh Wankhede and Dr. Siddesh Birje

    Various ways of histopathological staining has been carried out in today's laboratories through advancements by way of chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques. At early years, only the readily commercially available chemicals available for staining purpose were Potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden the cellular tissue varieties. Staining techniques available during those times were Carmine, Silver nitrate, Gram's, Giemsa, Trichrome and Hematoxylin. In modern histopathological procedures, it has been proved that various combination of the different staining procedures would enhance the staining process efficiency and results. In this article, we have analyzed the different varieties of stains and its efficiency.

  71. Mrs. Harpreet Kaur

    Introduction: A child to use toilet is one of the pivotal milestones of development, it is necessary to adapt to the social and cultural value of the society. Late toilet training may lead to dysfunctional elimination. Toilet training should start only after the child must be both physically and emotionally ready for toilet training. According to psychosexual theory of Sigmund Freud the correct time to start toilet training is toddler period especially 18-24 months. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice of mothers regarding toilet training and to prepare guidelines to enhance the knowledge and to improve their practice for toilet training among toddlers. Material and Method: Descriptive study with non-experimental research design. The sample of 100 mothers was selected by using simple random sampling technique. Self structured questionnaire and check- list were used to collect the data from mothers of toddlers. Results: The data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics in terms of mean, SD, ‘t’ ANOVA and Percentage. The finding of study revealed that majority of mothers i.e 64% had average level of knowledge but showed adequate level of practice i.e 73% regarding toilet training among mothers. Conclusion: hence it was concluded that majority of mothers had average knowledge and their practice level is adequate regarding toilet training in toddler.

  72. Pranav Pandoh, Akshay Sharma, Arun Kumar Negi, Dinesh Sood, Narvir Singh Chauhan and Arushi Suri

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most common cause of death due to gynecologic malig¬nancy. Peritoneal involvement is present in approximately 70% of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. Common sites of intraperitoneal seeding of ovarian carcinoma include the pelvis, omentum, paracolic gutters, liver capsule, and diaphragm. Soft-tissue thickening, nodularity, and enhancement are all signs of peritoneal involvement. Computed tomography can be used to detect these metastatic lesions, which can be miliary or large and appear as soft-tissue or low-attenuation masses.

  73. Megahed Mohammed AliEl-Shafei, Ahmed Abdel- Mawgoud El-Tokhy and Moustafa Mahmoud El-saied

    Background: Sessile polyps are generally considered one of the most difficult polyps to remove endoscopically many polyps that might be considered endoscopically resectable are sent for surgical resection. Many endoscopists appear to refer large sessile polyps for surgical resection. Indeed, there is incentive to remove them endoscopically. sessile polyps are associated with the greatest risk of postpolypectomy bleeding and of perforation. They may take a substantial amount of time to remove. Aim of the work: The aim of the work is to view the role of endoscopy in resection of sessile colonic polyps and review different techniques of endoscopic resection identifing their safety and efficacy. Time consuming, rate of complete and incomplete resection, complications as bleeding or perforation intra operative or delayed post operatively, rate of recurrancy and rate of convertion to surgery. Patient and Methods: A prospective study was held in Al-Azhar University Hospitals between A total of 20 patients with sessile colonic polyps were included in this study who were admitted for endoscopic resection Biopsy foreceps in complete resection of colonic polyps in: 7 cases (35%) Endoscopic sub mucosal resection (EMR) technique using submucosal injection in: 5 cases (25%). Cold snare technique in: 4cases (20%) and Hot snare technique in: 4cases (20%). at the Department of Surgeryof Sayed Galaal Hospital Alazhar University during the period from April 2019 to October 2019. Results: Location of sessile polyps detected - sigmoid colon: 7 cases (35%), - ascending colon and caecum: 10 cases (50%) - descendin colon: 2 cases (10%) ,- transverse colon: 1 case (5%). Size of polyps detected ranged from (0.5 mm to 40mm). The majority of polyps (83.3%) removed (including both successful and incomplete resection) were benign. These included tubular (n = 9), villous (n = 4), and tubulovillous adenomas (n = 4). In addition, one case serrated adenoma and one hyperplastic polyp were removed. Invasive adenocarcinoma . Complete resection occurred in 95% cases, one case failed to be resected during technique failed. Bleeding during procedure occurred in one case (5%), and that settled spontaneously, delayed bleeding occurred in one case (5%) after two weeks and blood transfusion was done . ,perforation occurred in one case that transferred to surgical interference (5% of cases) ; transverse colostomy was done and after one month we use colonoscopy to be sure that perforation completely healed and then closure colostomy was done. Conclusion: Endoscopic resection of sessile colonic polyps presents a number of unique challenges. the majority of benign sessile colonic polyps can be safely and successifully removed endoscopically There are more than one procedure for endoscopic resection according to size, shape and location of the polyps in our study we use biopsy foreceps for small polyps cold snare and hot snare techniques for polyps in larger size and endoscopic mucosal resection for the largest polyps . submucosal saline injection is important in lifting the mucosa of the flat or sessile polyps and makes it easier for complete resection now surgical transferring is only for complicated cases or failed endoscopy not the first choise.

  74. Dr. Tejinder Pal Singh, Dr. Gurbachan Singh and Dr. Rubby Brar

    Human identification is a mainstay of civilization and the identification of unknown individuals always has been of paramount importance to the society. Traditional methods of identification have included visually recognizing the body, personal property like clothing, jewellery etc. These methods are however, not very reliable and can be a very traumatic experience for relatives and friends in burned & decomposed cases. The most reliable means of identification include finger prints, dental comparison and DNA profiling, which are unique to every person. Forensic Odontology is one of the most rapidly emerging branches of forensic medicine and forensic science. This branch gives immense importance to dental evidence for the identification of victims and suspects in mass disasters, abuse and organized crimes. Forensic Odontology involves the correct collection, management, interpretation, evaluation and presentation of dental evidence for criminal or civil legal proceedings: a combination of various aspects of the dental, scientific and legal professions. Literature reveals that human dentition is never the same in any two individuals; this is the main basis for dental identification (Each dentition is considered to be unique, although to the non-dental eye, they all may look the same. Variations in shape, color, position, age changes, wear patterns, caries and periodontitis, and all associated dental restorations and prosthetic work, make the dentition as individual as fingerprints. This review aims to discuss the utility of periodontal findings in the field of forensic odontology.

  75. Pritish Chandra Pal, Dr. Garima Mukhopadhyay, Dr. Puja Tiwari, Dr. Neha Prakash and Dr. Moitra Debanjana

    Aim: The aim of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for papillary regeneration. Background: Loss of interdental papilla is multifactorial and creates diverse complications. Among them food lodgments, unaesthetic black triangle and subsequent periodontal diseases are most frequent. Sub epithelial connective tissue graft based papillary regeneration is thought to be the gold standard treatment option. It provides long term result with acceptable esthetics. Case Description: 3 patients reported with the papillary recession between two maxillary central incisors. Connective tissue graft was procured from hard palate and a pouch space was created on the recipient area. Gingiva papillary unit was coronally advanced and auto graft was secured with suture. 6 month evaluation showed an excellent papillary fill in all the 3 cases. Conclusion: sub-epithelial connective tissue graft still remains a valid and predictable therapeutic modality for papillary reconstruction. Auto graft based papillary soft tissue reconstruction provides esthetic result and meets the functional demand.

  76. Beenish Yousseff and Samiya Mufti

    Care of the critically ill parturients is a unique challenge in obstetrics particularly because of its unpredictability. The major contribution to mortality and morbidity being obstetric haemorrhage, toxaemia of pregnancy, severe anemia and sepsis, especially in developing countries. Method: This study evaluated the obstetric admissions to ICU in our tertiary care 700 bedded centre over a 2 year period; ‘A retrospective Observational Study’, from Jan 2017 to Dec 2018.The information collected included patient characteristics, vital signs and GCS on ICU admission, and outcome of patients admitted. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: On analysis 0.6% of the total obstetric patients admitted during the study period required ICU admission(390), which constitutes to 1.02% of the total no. of deliveries(38,251).Severe PET/Eclampsia, (44.86%) 175 patients, and obstetrical haemorrhage (37.94%),148 patients were the two most common indications for admission to ICU.156(40%) patients received mechanical ventilation. Conclusion: Obstetric ICU management is a team approach involving obstetricians, anaesthesiologists and other physician/surgeon specialists for the optimal care of these patients. Early referral to tertiary care centres can minimise mortality in critically ill patients.

  77. Dr. Maheboob Bagali, Dr. Nasheen Bagali, Dr. Dharmaraya Ingale and Dr. Praveen Kumar S. P.

    Background: Acute poisoning is a commonly encountered medical emergency and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Poisoning was a common mode of suicide and is an important part of medicolegal cases. Materials and Method: Prospective study of 100 admitted cases of poisoning from 2015-2018, Admitted at emergency department. The cases were studied regarding epidemiological profile, distribution of poisons, Nature of poison. Results: Out of 100 prospective cases, 68 were males and 32 were females, Male female ratio is 2.12:1. Maximum number of cases were observed between 21-30 years (52%) followed by 11-20 years (22%). 72% cases were married and 28% were unmarried. Urban area Reported higher incidence as compared to the Rural area. Suicidal poisoning was reported to be the highest (70%) followed by accidental (28%) and homicidal (2%). In these cases, most of them were agriculturists (32%), followed by students (29%), housewives (22%). Among the expired 7 cases none of them arrived at hospital in or before 3 hours, more than half of the victims arrived at the hospital after 3 hours. Commonest agent involved is organophosphate (48%), followed by organochloride (22%), sedatives (10%). Conclusion: Organochemicals were the commonest agents used in poisoning.

  78. Nasheen Bagali, Maheboob Bagali and Praveen Kumar, S.P.

    Goitre is quite a common clinical presentation in surgical practice. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a well established first line diagnostic test for evaluation of goitre and is a more useful investigation than others like ultrasonography, thyroid function tests and serological studies. Materials and methods: Prospective study of 50 cases of goitre who underwent FNAC during period Jan 2017- Dec 2017. The results of Fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology were compared and sensitivity and specificity were studied. Results: The results were that majority of patients were having colloid goitre 62%, followed by multi nodular goitre (20%), thyroiditis 12%,papillary carcinoma 4% and anapaestic carcinoma 2%. Carcinoma among patients was diagnosed in 3 patients by FNAC while by histopathology among 5 patients. Also, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive vale (NPV) of FNAC are 97%,71%,95.7% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: FNAC is base line investigation in case goiter & appears to be reliable and best used in conjugation with thyroid function test and ultra sonography

  79. Dr. Maheboob Bagali, Dr. Nasheen Bagali, Dr. Dharmaraya Ingale and Dr. Praveen Kumar S. P.

    Background: Death due to hanging is commonly encountered in medico legal procedure and is one of the common mode of suicide after poisoning. Aim: To study on various factors associated with suicide by hanging at Bijapur, India. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in Department of Forensic Medicine Al- Ameen Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka 2014-2018. Results: most common age group involved in Hanging is 31-40 years (38%) followed by 21-30 years (19%), then 51-60 years (16%). 72% of cases were married and living with their families while 21% were unmarried and 3% were widowed. Financial problems is the most common cause which is about 70% followed by 10% cases of family dispute, then failure in exams (1%), then mental illness (1%) and personal affairs (4%). 82% cases were involved in complete hanging and 18% cases were present in partial hanging. 18% of cases showed dribbling of saliva which is an obvious sign of antemortem hanging. Nylon rope was the most common type of ligature material used for hanging accounting for about 68% followed by cotton rope (6%), Metal wire (6%), saree (6%), dhot i(5%), lungi (1%). In most of the cases, ligature mark was found above the thyroid cartilage (92%), below the thyroid cartilage (6%) and at the level of thyroid cartilage (2%). Conclusion: Death due to hanging is commonly encountered mostly in younger age group, financial problem, followed by family disputes were commonly observed reasons. Nylon rope is most commonly used ligature material followed by cotton rop. In most of the cases of death due to hanging ligature mark was found above the level of thyroid cartilage.

  80. Abuobieda Abusharib

    Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus is uncommon benign uterine tumour in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The exact etiology is not known, but it may be associated with a history of leiomyoma, obesity, and hyper-estrogenic disorders. There are several proposed theories for the pathogenicity of lipoleiomyoma, none of which has been proven yet. Here we report a case of uterine lipoleiomyoma in a postmenopausal woman with long-standing diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. This observation suggests that coexistence of both diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia in this patient may be just a syndromic association or it may have a role in the mechanism behind changes of leiomyoma to lipoleiomyoma in postmenauposal women.

  81. Ndoma, V.N., Poutou-Piri, D.B., Gbelesso, J.S. and Gaudeuille, A.

    Introduction: Burning in a child is a relatively common occurrence in everyday life. The resulting support benefits not only the children but the entire community. The objective of this study is to evaluate the management of burned children in Bangui. Methodology: This is a retrospective analytical study carried out at the Department of Surgery of the Pediatric University Hospital Center of Bangui from April 2013 to December 2016. The data were collected from the exploitation sheets and analyzed on the software. Epi-info version 7. Results: 216 patients were included. Burns were more prevalent among boys (56.48%) than girls (43.42%). The average age was 6 years old. The patients came from Bangui in 63.88% of cases. 54% of parents were of low socio-economic status. The main place of accident was home (97%) and parents were involved in 65% of cases. The thermal cause was dominant (87.5%) and immersion (65%). Headquarters regions (34.7%) were the most affected. Patients were medically treated (56%) and 4% required secondary skin grafting. The evolution was uncomplicated in 150 patients (66.44%). The average duration of hospitalization was 22 days. 20 deaths (9.25%) were deplored. Traditional treatment and burned skin area greater than 15% appeared to be associated with this lethality rate. Conclusion: Improved home monitoring and scalding education are key to reducing burns in children in Bangui.

  82. Dr. Anil B Malali

    The successful movement of the Indian economy depends upon the smooth functioning of its banking sector. But in recent years, it has witnessed a big issue called Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) and it is becoming an incurable problem for the banking sectors. On the other side, the Indian banking sector has launched a concept called financial inclusion and thus to provide the banking services to the financially excluded people. But, this initiation is putting the additional financial risk on the banking sector in the form of mounting NPAs day by day. This kind of situation has to be tackled in an effective way by the banking sector for their future survival. With this backdrop, the present paper has made an attempt to identify the reasons for rising NPAs and to construct a valid methodology to foresee NPAs in the future. Thus, in this research, Multiple Linear Regression model has been constructed to forecast the amount of NPAs in 2020. This model was constructed based on the existing models used in the prediction and this model would help the Indian banking sector to tackle the NPAs problem in an effective manner.

  83. Amalo Soga Mago

    Ethiopia is one of a country which has largest cattle population in Africa and world. It has great potential to supply sufficient animals’ products for domestic and international markets; however, overly increase of meat price was causing people whose income per is low capital unable to procure meat. Hawassa city is victim with overprice of meat animals. It requires investigation why this city is facing with overprice of meat animals in one of the country that has largest cattle population in Africa and world. Thus this study aimed to assess factors that were causing overprice of meat animals in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative research approach was used. Hawasssa city was selected purposively considering its higher price index in 2016. Probability and convenient techniques were used to select 205 informants for self-administered questions and 10 for interviews. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20. It was carried out using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. . The major factors that were causing for overly rise of meat animals’ price in Hawassa market were overly request of profit, increase of living costs, increase of demand, increase of cost of production and shortage of supply. Therefore, arrangement of small enterprises around Hawassa city who can supply meat animals, any strategy to control overly request of profit from meat animals, minimize unnecessary involvement brokers and living cost of people are important areas to stable price in the city.

  84. NIANGORAN Kouadio Charles, MANGOUA Oi Mangoua Jules and N’Goh Yao Alexis

    In order to reduce construction costs and the energy consumed in heating and cooling, the use of laterite and cement are the essential element to install stabilized earth blocks. For this work, the main purpose is to study the effect of the use of bricks of raw earth stabilized with the help of cement. Its objective is to assess the evolution over time of mechanical resistance to the compression and traction of these bricks as well as the speed of water absorption. The mass dosages used for cement are: 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 00%. All bricks were tested for compression, traction and permeability testing at 14 days. The results obtained show that the dosage at 25% cement is optimal; it gives compression resistance of 5.84 MPa and 0.99 MPa in 14-day traction for soils collected from Site 2 at a depth of 0.7 m. However, the demands of the bricks to the traction give lower values compared to those obtained in com pressure for all soils. On the other hand, the presence of cement has a positive effect on the mechanical behaviour of the composite material.

  85. Tekalign Negash Kebede and Asfaw Chufamo

    Internal audit quality plays key role in enhancing organizational performance in particular and safeguarding public resources in general. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the impact of internal audit quality on organizational performance of public sector selected bureaus in SNNPRS, Ethiopia. To this end, the researchers employed quantitative research approach with Explanatory research design where the effect caused by the independent variable on the dependent variable is observed through regression analysis. The primary data were collected using structured questionnaire from 112 respondents out of total 120 respondents’ selected using simple random sampling technique from purposively selected 15 bureaus in SNNPRS, which make the response rate of 93.33 percent. Then, both descriptive and inferential statistics analysis has been done through E-views version 9 in order to get the research findings. The research employed multiple linear regression models to investigate the effect of explanatory variables on the dependent variable (organizational performance) of bureaus in SNNPRS. Consequently, the result of regression analysis showed that, out of eight variables incorporated in the model, four variables such as independency of internal audit (positive), competency of internal audit staff (positive), management support (positive), and formal mandate of internal audit (positive) and statistically significant respectively. Whereas, other explanatory variables like objectivity of internal audit staff (negative), internal audit standards (negative), competent leadership (positive) and unrestricted access to audit evidence (negative) were not statistically significant respectively.

  86. Dharwe, D.S., Dixit, H.C., Dotaniya, C.K., Doutaniya, R.K., Sandeep Mohbe and Tarwariya, M.K.

    This research was conducted with the aim to quantify the impact of Phosphorus and Sulphur of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) during winter season of 2014-15, at Agriculture experimental field, Nehru P.G. College Lalitpur, (U.P.). The treatments consisted of 4 Phosphorus levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 Kg P2O5 ha-1) and 4 sulphur levels (0, 10, 20 and 40 Kg S ha-1). The Pot experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Application of 90 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 40 kg S ha-1 significantly increased the Yield Attributes & Nutrient Content, Protein Content and Nutrient Uptake of Green Gram. The seed yield & straw yield at 20 kg S ha-1 was significant over control and nutrient uptake, content production at 40 kg S ha-1 was significant over control respectively. The maximum N, P, K and S contents and uptakes in Green Gram were recorded with 90 kg P2O5 and 40 kg S ha-1, respectively. The interaction between P and S had significant effect on yield and mineral composition of Green Gram and maximum yields were recorded under 60 kg P2O5 and 40 kg S ha-1 that was statistically at par with 90 kg P2O5 and 40 kg S ha-1.

  87. Dr. Sangeetha, K.

    Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 is an Act of the Parliament of India that prohibits certain types of financial transactions. The act defines a 'benami' transaction as any transaction in which property is transferred to one person for a consideration paid by another person. Such transactions were a feature of the Indian economy, usually relating to the purchase of property (real estate), and were thought to contribute to the Indian black money problem. The act goes on to ban all benami transactions and the right to recover property held benami. The Act came into force on 5 September 1988. Although benami transactions are now illegal, the act had limited success in curbing them. Updated versions were therefore passed in 2011 and 2016, seeking to more comprehensively enforce the prohibitions. In 1973, the Law Commission of India after studying various Acts and prevailing benami system, recommended formulating an Act to tackle the issue. Accordingly, the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 was enacted by the Parliament which came into force on 19 May 1988. However, due to various deficiencies in the Act, the rules required for operationalizing the Act were not framed. To address these deficiencies, several years later, in 2011, the Government of India introduced "Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Bill, 2011 and 2015" After attacking black money by demonetisation announced on November 8th 2016 of high value currency notes, Prime Minister Narendra Modi is all set to take on ‘Benami’ properties to check corruption. In his last Mann Ki Baat of the year 2016, Modi said the Government will soon operationalise a strong Law to effectively deal with ‘Benami’ properties. “We will take action against ‘benami’ property. This is major step to eradicate corruption and black money… We are going to take action against the properties which are purchased in the name of others (Benami). That is the property of the Country,” said the Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The Government has already enacted the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amendment Act, 2016 which provides for rigorous imprisonment of up to seven years, and a fine which may extend to 25 per cent of the fair market value of the Benami property. It also empowers the Government to confiscate deposits of people using others accounts to convert unaccounted wealth into white money. But it seems it has not deterred the corrupt from amassing benami properties. This paper brings out whether the Legislation given in 2016 would really serve the required purpose for which it is made.

  88. Francis Essacu

    The Tribal Plurality and Cultural Inflexibility in Papua New Guinea (PNG) address a unique sense of socio-political structure indicating peculiarities of its own compared to other tribal nations. This distinctive mode of traditional tribal cultural phenomena got its prominence because of the existence of over eight hundred tribes with similar count of languages thereof in PNG. All different tribes and their diverse cultures tend to maintain their pride and distinctiveness without any compromise. That is how, this long enduring tribal plurality and cultural inflexibility influence day to day life of Papua New Guineans at large. This study would endeavor the effectiveness of the multiplicity of tribes and their rigid cultures against the waves of modern global expectations. Research under study would be dealt in using the ethnographic and anthropological methods facing the efficacy of Melanesian society and culture.

  89. Sary El Shaar and Khadeegha Alzouebi

    This study focuses on teacher perceptions of the use of tablets in mainstream classroom in a K12 school in Dubai to enhance teaching and learning. It also explores the development of mobile devices and their usage, and how smart learning has evolved from just handling small devices with limited features, to tablets with endless features and endless learning opportunities. The participants in the study are teachers at a private K12 school in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The study employs a quantitative approach to data collection. The results of this study indicate that teachers in Dubai require more understanding of how to implement technology in general, and more specifically tablets. The most important point concluded from this study is that the school leadership should strive to keep teachers up-to-date with technological development and continuous training in order to ensure effective implementation of tablets in mainstream classrooms.

  90. Dr. Philemon Sengati

    Under constitutional supremacy doctrine, if a law or contract violates any norm of the Constitution, that law or contract, whether promulgated by the parliament or by the executive branch or entered into by private persons for private purposes, is null and void and without any force and effect. In this line of argument, the Constitution is the basic and paramount law to which all other laws must conform and to which all persons, including the highest officials of the land, must defer. Despite this constitutional guide the perplexing scenario has been the expediency to sap this constitutional strength for gluttony of leadership power which has debased its rectitude in the practice of some of the EAC member states. A reflection of Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi points to the truth that constitutions have been amended egoistically to legitimize power in the name of the will of the people. This has generated constitutions that focuses on the interest of leaders rather than citizen and has necessitated compliance under constitutional authority. This paper recommends that an ethical understanding of constitutional building process that genuinely integrate the will of the people should be capitalize and regional and global effort should come together recall for respect of appropriate constitutional building processes in some of the East African Community member states.

  91. Jaisankar, R., Kesavan, J. and Ranjani, M.

    In ‘epidemiology it is very important to develop surveillance systems that are being used to detect disease outbreaks. The requirements for such systems are the data related to cases and various risk factors associated with the disease over time. Meaningful information can be obtained from the collected data using statistical analysis which could be used for effective disease control. However, a geo-visualization approach by adding spatial parameters would be more informative through which one can identify the spatial patterns or space or space-time clusters of the disease. In this work, Space-time analysis using the Poisson model assumption is used for the identification of potential disease clusters of dengue in Tamil Nadu, using SaTScan and open-source Aeronautical Reconnaissance Coverage Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) software. Maps of the geographical location of disease clusters are provided to enhance the understanding of the results of statistical analysis.

  92. El-Feky, A.A., Osman M.M. and Hamdy, A.

    Modification of polymers is widely used nowadays. Among the most important and practical methods of modifying polymers is blending. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) was blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE)in five different ratios for each (100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40) respectively with loading the blends with carbon black filler. Effect of polyethylene content in the blend on its swelling behavior and Mechanical properties was investigated. The critical content of PE in the blend was 0.3 weight fraction. All the blends showed excellent swelling behavior in sea water medium. It was found that addition of PE into EPDM matrix enhances the mechanical properties of the blends such as: tensile strength and modulus of elasticity .Also EPDM/PE blends show sufficient degree of toughness to be utilized in industrial applications efficiently.

  93. Bozabe Renonet Karka, Bongor Danhrée and Adoum Waïbaye

    The lack of devices to test the tiles is not a reason to ignore the problems related to their durability. This article presents the results of an analysis of the impact behaviour of three qualities of tiles. The strike force of a fibro-mortar (TFM) is 70% lower than that of a vibrated mortar (TMV) and 54% lower than that of a baked clay (TAC) tile. Deflection results (TFM = 1.24 mm; TMV = 0.56 mm and TAC = 0.68 mm), stresses and deformations show that TFM resists better because it deforms extensively before breaking. This study shows that, compared to shocks, fibro-mortar tiles are more resistant than vibrated mortar tiles and baked clay tiles, which are more durable during operation.

  94. Adoum WAIBAYE, Bozabe Renonet KARKA and Abdoulaye Saleh TODJIBAL

    Since its discovery, concrete has exhibited a varied behaviour in different environments and under different conditions of preservation. This variation was the major concern of many researchers. The majority of studies developed for this purpose are carried out in laboratories under well-controlled test conditions that do not reflect the actual conditions under which the concrete structure is put in place. In the Sahelian climate (arid and hot climate), the effect of ambient temperature and hygrometry greatly influences the mechanical resistance of concrete to compression. To illustrate this effect, we have tried in this study to make a comparison between the effect of the cure on concrete specimens prepared and subjected to the different real conditions of protective workings (burlap, polyane film, etc.) and test pieces kept in water within the laboratory. For this we carried out an experimental programme in which several test pieces were made and subjected to compression tests according to age. The results obtained show that in the environment where the ambient temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, fresh concrete increases in resistance at a young age and then loses in resistance at an older age and that the effect of the method of cure is very considerable and can control this result.

  95. Sandra Ludovic Huguette DJIMI, Louis OKOTAKA EBALE, Christian TATHY, M.G.M. MANTSANGUISSA KIVOUTIKI, Abdelhamid KHEIRI and Jean Mathurin NZIKOU

    The goal of this work is to study the sensitivity of the parameters over the optimal duration of operation of a concentric exchanger bi-tube. To know: the dynamic optimization of the operation of a heat exchanger subjected to a fouling by considering the exergoeconomic criterion. Indeed, the exergo economy offers additional possibilities of optimization compared to the conventional methods on the first principle of thermodynamics, because it allows to associate the irreversibilities to the economic aspects. The model that we propose is a compromise between the aspects exergetic and economic and makes it possible to determine one optimal operation life before the stopping of the exchanger for maintains. These economic aspects take into account the capital cost related on the purchase and the installation of the exchanger, the cost of maintenance related to the cleaning of the exchanger, and the economic losses caused by the malfunction of the heat exchanger. Different adimensional parameters were introduced into the model with an aim of evaluating the parametric sensitivity of the operation lifet_1. The results show a strong influence of the parameters over the operation life. These parameters are : β_cowhich represents report/ratio calorific initial of fluids, X_ewhich is related to the number of units of transfer of reference of the external wall of the tube, A^'which defines the coefficient of surface convective exchange external in the clogged side associated the thermal resistance of the material, A^''which represents the external coefficient of exchange convectif surface at the side fouling associated the asymptotic resistance of fouling of material, Lthe report/ratio of the internal ray, represents here on the external ray of the exchanger. It is related to the geometry of the exchanger, Hrepresents the report/ratio of the surface coefficients of convectifs exchange andτ_erepresents the time-constant of the asymptotic kinetics with an aim thus of evaluating the parametric sensitivity.

  96. DJIKOU M. Sylvain, HOUNGAN C. Aristide, KIKI Gratien Jesugo Dieudonné, AGBOMAHENAN Macaire, ANJORIN Malahimi, VIANOU Antoine, and DEGAN Gérard

    In the building sector, noise is a source of deterioration in the health status of the population. The choice of building materials is essential to ensure the acoustic comfort of buildings. Our study focused on the stabilized earth, and the cement-wood composite where each sample is acoustically characterized using the Kundt tube where the absorption coefficient of these materials was measured according to the water content. It shows that the humidity influences the acoustic absorption coefficient of each material in the standardized frequency zones ranging from 315 Hz to 2000 Hz.

  97. Tegenu Argaw Woldegiyorgis, Eninges Asmare

    Ethiopian energy sector is highly depend on traditional biomass and has very low modern energy. In this study, wind energy potential of Wereilu, Amhara Region, Ethiopia is analyzed statistically by using the data of wind speed that was measured between 2008 -2017 years. The Weibull distribution method and Rayleigh distribution method were used in this study. Three different methods namely: moment method (MM), empirical method (EM) and Energy Pattern Method (EPM) were used to estimate the Weibull parameters. The results showed that Energy Pattern Method was the most efficient methods for determining the value of shape parameter k and scale parameter c. Four statistical tools namely: the mean percentage error (MPE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square error (RMSE) parameter and Chi square error (χ^2) were used to precisely rank the distribution methods. The statistical fitting of the wind power density from measured data and wind power density estimated using Weibull and Rayleigh are determined for justifying the performance of the methods. According to the data obtained from Kombolcha Meteorological agency wind energy generation in Wereilu was fair. The result showed that the site has the potential of generating wind power density of 10.45Wm-2 at height of 10 m. From statistical tests, Rayleigh model is recommended for this area. Therefore, this paper gives the assessment of wind energy in Wereilu, South Wollo, Ethiopia.

  98. Neve, A.C., Er. Ade, K.D., Shah, R.R., Yeole, P.R., Veer, A.D., Baviskar, D.A. and Patil, N.R.

    The purpose of this research project is to develop a nutraceutical chocolate based confectionary product which will provide benefits other than that of traditional chocolate. We felt like there is a need to produce some innovative confection other than traditional chocolates. The nutraceutical chocolate bar which we have manufactured is more nutritious and healthy due to its rare ingredients which also makes it a unique nutraceutical chocolate bar. The raw materials required for the preparation of this bar like moringa and quinoa along with fruits like kiwi, pineapple, apricots and nuts like almonds, cashew nuts, peanuts and desiccated coconut are procured from Jalgaon district. For the standardization of formulation, 4 test samples were prepared of different proportions of raw materials, among which the T4 was selected by sensory panelist based on organoleptic evaluation. The bar is further packed into the aluminum foil wrappers. The approximate nutritional values obtained by analysis are particularly as, Protein 5.19 gm, Fat 29.15 gm, Carbohydrate 37.28 gm Fiber 22.8 gm. The storage conditions are studied at variable temperature conditions and recommended to be as below 200C in cool, dark and dry place. The well packed bars were studies for the duration of 3 month to determine its shelf life.

  99. Jeya, S. and Sam Manohar Das, S.

    A study was carried out to protect Vigna radiata L. seeds from the common storage product pest, the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) by using oil prepared from the seeds of a wild plant, Croton tiglium (L.). This oil was found to be toxic to C. maculatus adults. The 24 and 96 h LC50 values (in ml/100g grain) were 0.93 and 0.74 respectively. C. tiglium oil was found to have an effective ovicidal action. At oil concentrations of 0.6 and 0.8 ml/100g grain, adult emergence was as low as 26 and 9 percent respectively, compared to 98 percent emergence in the control group. The grains drenched in C. tiglium oil germinated normally, indicating the non-toxic nature of the oil on the grain endosperm, and hence, the oil is very effective in protecting the grains without affecting seed germination. At the highest drenching concentration of 1.0 ml/100g grain, the mean germination percentage of V. radiata seeds was 96, whereas 100 percent germination was recorded in the control group. The oil concentration at which high ovicidal activity was recorded, failed to affect the germination potential of the grains.

  100. Pooja Devi, M.S.Vandna and Dr. Maheshwari, S.K.

    Background: Mental health is an essential part of children's overall health and has a complex interactive relationship with their physical health and their ability to succeed in society. As children grow they acquire many skills to adjust themselves in environment. Sometimes they acquire good skills but sometimes they develop some unhealthy skills which sometimes turned up to into behavioural problems. Mothers being primary caregiver of child play important role in their mental health. Time spend by mothers with their children, their knowledge and awareness regarding behavioural problems and its management plays major role in the prevalence of behavioural problem in their children. Aim: The Present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of behavioural problems among children (age 3-10yrs) of working and non-working mothers in selected areas of Faridkot. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional survey was used to select 300 children of working and non working mothers from the Peadiatric department of Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital Faridkot, Punjab. Out of 300 sample 150 children were of working mothers and 150 children were of Non-working mothers and were selected with purposive sampling technique. Tool used for data collection were –Socio demographic data sheet and strength and difficulty questionnaire. Results: From the results of present it was concluded that 12% children were abnormal in case of non-working mothers and 7.3% children were abnormal in case of working mothers. Prevalence of behavioural problems was found more in children of non-working mothers. Conclusion: From the results of present study it appears that association of working mothers education and family income had impact on the prevalence of behavioral problem in children most of working mothers in present study were educated up to graduate/more level with good family income and tend to show that prevalence of behavioral problems in their children was less than the children of non-working mothers.

  101. Preeti Thakur

    Introduction: Aging is an inevitable developmental phenomenon bringing along a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. Old age has been viewed, as problematic period of one’s life and this is correct to some extent. The aged become increasingly dependent on others. As man grows, his reduced activities, income and consequent decline in the position of the family and society makes his life more vulnerable. Neeraja K.P. stated that old age is natural, normal, universal and inevitable biological phenomenon. It is a development phase in the life process which begins at conception and continues until death. Old age is the last stage in the life journey and closing period in the life span of a man with decreased capacity for adaptation. We cannot heal old age, we have to protect them and help them to extend their life span. Methodology: In this, Quantitative non-experimental research approach was used to assess the emotional wellbeing of 50 senior citizens in the age group of above 60 were selected as the sample for the study by using simple random sampling technique. The data was collected by using self structured questionnaire on emotional wellbeing. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Result: The results revealed that 40% senior citizens were emotionally well and 60% were emotionally stable and 0% were disturbed. There was no association between knowledge & any demographic variable. Discussion: In the present study, it was concluded that among 50 senior citizen and 20(40%) were emotionally well, 30(60%) were emotionally stable & none senior were emotionally disturbed.

  102. Vikas Ranjan Chaudhary, Shashi Bala, Shukla, H.S. and Singh, I.P.

    The present investigation was under taken during two consecutive years on periodical observations (30, 60 and 90 DAT) on vegetative growth at C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. Results indicated that all the growth parameters such as number of leaves, plant spread, diameter of plant stem, increased to the maximum upto the 75 % nitrogen level with or without biofertilizers. As regard the flowering characters there was a significant reduction in days taken to first flower bud initiation and days taken to first flower bud opening, under the combined application of biofertilizers (Azotobacter + PSB) along with 75 % nitrogen (T8) in both the years. While, Application of 100 % nitrogen along with biofertilizer inoculation delayed both the parameters. However, the maximum days were required under control (T14).

  103. Wake Jeo Gerbi

    This article aims to explore and analyze Oromo’s philosophical and theological understandings of lafa, meaning and in English. Land issue has been a scorching issue in Oromo sociopolitical and economic situations under successive Ethiopian regimes. The chain the people’s notion of land has with their understandings of cultural identity, natural environment, economy, national identity, politics, human rights, and religion has never been explored from philosophical and theological perspectives. Commercialization of land was introduced to Oromia (Oromo country) after the Abyssinian colonizers annexed the land in the 1890s. The colonial settlers occupied vast size of Oromo’s land and propagated inflation of land price that left many Oromo with no land to call their own. This article focus on analyzing the concept of Oromo’s notion of land using the expression lafi keenya lafe keenya (our land is our bones) and lafaa fi lafi keenya lafe keenya (we live on our land and bones) as meta-concepts, the concepts that cover other ideas in conceptual framework of Oromo philosophical and theological understanding of land. To this end, the article used primary, and secondary sources to analyze the findings. The study shows that Oromo’s notion of land has holistic nature with diversified aspects of life linked to different dimensions such as ancestral, political, theological, sociological, anthropological, ecological, psychological, cultural, economic, and liberation. Through their experiences, the Oromo constructed the meanings and values of land and established friendly relations with the environment that connects them to each other as a nation, relate them to nature, universe, and Waaqayyo (God). Land is symbolized as a mother. It is referred as Haadha Morgoo (life-giver), baattuu (carrier) and obsituu (patient). Land is not only expressed as life but also as a place where people practice their culture, religion, and the place their bodies rest after death, and their ekeraa (spirit of the dead) live. It is also described as a country of the nation that they call Oromia. In order to have a better understanding of the people’s question of land and to conceptualize it in national and international contexts, the study recommends that studying Oromo indigenous knowledge is significant.

  104. Lira Fedora, Setiawan and Diah Arruum

    Background: Caring code is a guidance developed as a guideline in applying caring behavior. Objects: to develop caring code in the Emergency Room of Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital. Methods: The research used action research method. It was done from October, 2017, November, 2018, until January, 2019 through action research cycle 1. The research instrument was focus group discussion (FGD) guideline, questionnaires on nurses’ knowledge of caring, and observation sheets about nurses’ caring behavior. The samples were 20 nurses as the respondents, taken by using purposive sampling technique. The data were gathered qualitatively, using content analysis and quantitatively, using frequency distribution. Results: The result of the research showed that there were some themes: the meaning of caring according to the nurses, nurses’ caring behavior needed in the emergency, nurses’ caring behavior used by patients, the factors which influenced nurses’ caring behavior, and nurses’ obstacles in doing caring behavior. The caring code in the emergency room was divided into three stages, organized based on triage at Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital which had 21 nurses’ caring behaviors. It increased nurses’ knowledge of caring: in the pre-caring code implementation, their knowledge frequency was 90%, and in the post-implementation it increased to 100%. In the pre-implementation, their caring behavior in the emergency room was60%, and in the post-implementation it increased to 90%. Conclusion: It is recommended that the hospital management give support and reward to nurses in the emergency room who have had good caring behavior.

  105. Nasheen Bagali, Maheboob Bagali and Praveen Kumar, S.P.

    Goitre is quite a common clinical presentation in surgical practice. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a well established first line diagnostic test for evaluation of goitre and is a more useful investigation than others like ultrasonography, thyroid function tests and serological studies. Materials and methods: Prospective study of 50 cases of goitre who underwent FNAC during period Jan 2017- Dec 2017. The results of Fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology were compared and sensitivity and specificity were studied. Results: The results were that majority of patients were having colloid goitre 62%, followed by multi nodular goitre (20%), thyroiditis 12%,papillary carcinoma 4% and anapaestic carcinoma 2%. Carcinoma among patients was diagnosed in 3 patients by FNAC while by histopathology among 5 patients. Also, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive vale (NPV) of FNAC are 97%,71%,95.7% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: FNAC is base line investigation in case goiter & appears to be reliable and best used in conjugation with thyroid function test and ultra sonography

  106. Flores-Encarnación, M., Morales-Baéz, J.R., Aguilar-Gutiérrez, G.R., Cabrera-Maldonado, C., Silvia del Carmen García-García

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to the search for new substances with bactericidal activity. Among them are some extracts of plant origin, such as some essential oils, which have shown a potent antimicrobial action. At present, the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris have been studied. It has been reported that T. vulgaris essential oil has shown high antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli. In the present work, the effect of T. vulgaris essential oil on the viability of eukaryotic cells was studied.

  107. Haroun, A. A., Amasaib, E. O. and Salih, A. M

    The pods of three trees namely Fidherbia albida, Ceratonia seliqua and Tamarindus indica were evaluated as animal feed in terms of its chemical composition, macro mineral content and in vitro digestibility. The experiment was carried out during the period from March- April 2015. The results showed that crude protein content was significantly (p<0.05) higher in F. albida (4.22%) than in C. seliqua (1.43%) and in T. indica (1.46%).Crude fiber in F.albida (48.21%) was higher than in C. seliqua (29.39%) and T.indica (25.73%). Ether extract was significantly (p<0.05) higher in C.seligua (2.7%) than in f. albida (1.72%) and T. indica (1.3%).Ash content was not significantly (p>0.05) between them which registed (4.40%, 4.67%, 3.51%) respectively. NFE was significantly (p<0.05) higher in C.seligua (57.50%) than in T. indica (55.56%) and f. albida (35.96%). Sodium content were no significantly between them witch registed (0.10%, 0.11%, 0.10%).potassium content was lower in f.albida (1.24%) than in C.seliqua (2.05%) and higher than in T. indica (1.05%). Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus were (0.59%, 0.75% and 0.40%), (0.22%, 0.19% and 0.12%) and (1.04%, 1.06% and 1.05%) in F. albida , C. seliqua and t. indica respectively. The In vitro dry matter digestibility of F. albida (79.14%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in C. seliqua (65.03%) and in T.indica (77.69%). It could be concluded that the pods of three tree species could contribute most of livestock nutrition requirements.

  108. Amal Bakr Shori

    The purpose of this study to identify the extent of awareness and knowledge of the Saudi women in Jeddah city of the conceptions of fermentation and fermented foods. Questionnaires were designed and distributed among female students (n= 174) at King Abdul-Aziz University. The results demonstrated that over 60% of respondents have known about the fermentation process in food production and its essential step in making cheeses and yogurt. On the other hands, Saudi women showed a low level of awareness (25%, 8%, and 17 %) in the fermentation process involved some fermented products such as soy sauce, cocoa and coffee beans respectively. Similarly, only 18% of Saudi women had known about the beneficial effect of microorganism in improving fermented cereals quality and removes toxic compounds. A low percentage of Saudi women (16%) had knowledge about probiotic bacteria in fermented foods. In conclusion, this study exhibited a moderate level of awareness among Saudi women about the fermentation process and its used in food production and preservation.

  109. Amar B Elhussein, Kawthar A Mohammedsalih, Walid G. Babikr, Omar E Fadlelseed, Soad M Alfadol, Ashraf Naeem, NourElhouda A A Rahma and Mohammed H F Shalayel

    Background: Malaria, a disease with a wide variation in clinical presentation (ranging from mild to deadly cerebral malaria) remains an important health challenge in the tropics including Sudan. This study investigates the role of allelic single nucleotide polymorphism in Promoter regions (-590 C/T) of the IL-4 genes, Serum IL-4, IgE and TNF-concentrations in severity of malaria in Sudanese children. Methods: This is hospital based- case control cross-sectional study on one hundred ten malaria patients and sixty healthy controls. The blood samples were assessed for IL-4, IgE and TNF-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Extracted DNA and ready use master mix were used in polymerase chain reaction, then the product was digested by BSMFI restriction enzyme. Results: IL-4 SNP was found to have a significant association with the development of cerebral malaria. Allele frequency was CT % = 50:50 (p = 0.03). Results shows a significant difference (p= 0.003) in IL-4 concentration when compared with allele genotypes in cerebral malaria patient, the highest concentration was shown in the allele TT (363.0 ± 199.5 Pg/ml).IL-4 level in uncomplicated malaria patients revealed a significant difference between groups (p= 0.009), the highest concentration was for mutant allele CT (428.4 ± 101.1 Pg/ml). Conclusion: Our study suggests that IL-4 (-590 C/T) gene polymorphism is associated with the severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Sudanese children. IL-4 SNP was found to have a significant association with the development of cerebral malaria and with increased levels of serum IL-4.

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