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IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

November 2019

Background: Acute appendicitis remains the commonest cause of acute abdomen in teenagers requiring surgical intervention. Most patients presenting late in the course of acute appendicitis are complicated by the development of an inflammatory mass in right iliac fossa. This inflammatory mass is composed of the inflamed appendix, omentum and bowel loops. Aim of the work: Evaluate the outcome of emergency surgery versus conservative management in patients with complicated appendicitis with appendicular mass.

Varieties of wide organic and inorganic pollutants especially pesticides, poisonous metals, and dyes are introduced in to the water system from various sources such as: industrial effluents, agricultural runoff and chemical spills. The new treatment methods (Photocatalytic degradation method) are necessary for the removal of persistent dye chemicals or converting them into harmless compounds in water. The photocatalytic technique with metal oxide semi conductors has become one of the most promising methods for waste water treatment.

Certain plants, intentionally grown in gardens and other cultivated settings are termed as “weeds”. Certain weeds have very good potential nutrients which are essential for human needs. Some plants were still considered as leafy vegetables in certain tribal and rural areas with or without the nutritional knowledge behind it. In this study, five such edible weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Coccinia grandis, Acalypha indica, Boerhavia diffusa and Digera Arvensis were selected and analyzed for key nutrients like Vitamin C, Calcium, Phosphorous, Iron and Fiber.

This study focuses on the comparative adsorption of xylene from aqueous media onto cassava peel activated carbon (CPAC) and rice husk activated carbon (RHAC). Ash content, bulk density, iodine number, moisture content, pH, point of zero charge, and % carbon yield of the prepared CPAC and RHAC were reported. To evaluate the removal of xylene, adsorption activities of CPAC and RHAC were monitored under different experimental conditions: adsorbent dose, contact time, pH as well as initial xylene concentration.

Background: Diabetes health belief scale was developed to measure attitudes about diabetes self care which could help to explain compliance with prescribed medical regimens. The degree to which patients follow advice as self-care behaviours is determined by health belief of diabetes. Objective: To assess diabetes health beliefs of type 2 adult diabetic patients attending chronic follow up units of Dessie referral hospital. Method: Cross-sectional study design was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2018 in Dessie referral hospital diabetic chronic follow up units.

Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) consists of two processes primary injury and secondary injury. Secondary injury in TBI involves many factor of molecular and cellular responses to the primary impact. All of these factors culminate in cellular dysfunction and cell death via necrotic and more apoptotic. These downstream molecular and cellular processes in the secondary injury are the focus of many pre-clinical and clinical therapeutic studies.

Waste in each area is very various and depends on total of public areas and residence in the area. Reasearchaimsto analyze the influence of water level against heating value of organic waste at temporary waste. This research was analytical and observational design. Meanwhile, data analysis in this research utilized Linear Regression. The results showed that the average of water level in organic waste at temporary waste disposal was 15,84%. The average of heating value of organic waste at temporary waste disposal was 2362,62 kkal/kg.

Background: Head and neck cancer are emerging as a major health problem. The management of head and neck cancers involves a variety of options like surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or targeted/immunotherapy & palliative care. Radiation Therapy is the most common form of treatment in operated as well as non- operated cases. The various side effects of radiation therapy involve xerostomia, fatigue, skin changes/reactions, dysphagia, damage to the nerve, muscle, tendons and ligaments which causes conditions like dropped neck syndrome, muscle atrophy, etc.

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are potential biocontrol agent against many economically important crop pests. Combining the use of biological control agent with chemical insecticide in IPM programme leads to reduced the environmental risk as well as management costs. The author review different aspects of compatibility or interaction of insecticide with EPNs which will show promise to contain pest infestation in agriculture.

Background: The outcome in pediatric cancers have significantly increased in the last few decades. Early diagnosis and risk directed therapy have been the cornerstone for success. However high treatment related mortality and deaths due to progressive disease in low middle income countries still prevail affecting the overall survival. We have analysed the hospital deaths in our pediatric oncology department for the years 2010-2017 to assess the treatment related mortality, factors affecting the same and have devised strategies to address these issues.

Medicinal plants are known to be used for centuries which are still being used for their health benefits and are a valuable source for bioprospecting endophytes. These days medicinal plants are exploited for the isolation of plant-derived drugs as they are effective and have relatively less or no side effect, due to which medicinal plants are getting exhausted. Endophytes are ubiquitous organisms found in plant bodies that constitute an important component of microbial diversity. Endophytic fungi reside in the host plant without causing apparent symptoms of infection.

Nuts are nutrient-dense supplying a wide range of essential amino acids, MUFA and PUFA. Oats contains a good source of proteins, fibre and minerals. The amount of oats used for human consumption has increased progressively, the fact health effects of oats benefit mainly on the total dietary fibre and B- glucan content a cholesterol-lowering chemical. Commercially available biscuits are mostly deficient in ALA and dietary fibre. Refined ingredient usage makes biscuits deprive of grain components that are protective of health.

The purpose of writing this article is to analyze and describe the political process of the preparation of the Oil and Gas Law in the Republic of Indonesia House of Representatives methodology in this study using a qualitative approach research results suggest that the political process in policy formulation occurs from the stages of planning, preparation and discussion and involves many actors from the executive, legislative and judicial, which has an impact on the slowness of the policy formulation process, as a result of different views and different objectives of each actor towards the

Background: The ideas and designing process of train stations had evolved to follow the several philosophies of design-led elements, such as: highlighting the cultural development of the surrounding community, space division for several activities and uses, axes planning for human gathering and the quality of the prevailing economic activity in it and divide the assembly elements and its distribution, and also keep up with the rapid evolution in rail transport technology.

Both information technology IT and Business leaders are continually looking for methods and practices to align their IT and business strategies. Alignment seems to become more important for companies to survive in a competitive and evaluative market. Literature proposes several models, but it never takes into consideration the complex characteristics of this strategic alignment, which undergoes the interventions of several agents. This paper proposes a new approach of strategic alignment based on complex systems and analyses agent influencing this alignment.

Pneumonia is number one largest infectious cause of death in children worldwide, kills about 2,500 children every day. It is most prevalent in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In Ethiopia pneumonia is a leading single disease killing under-five children. The aim of this study was to examine the risk factors of time to death of under-five pneumonia patients in Tercha General Hospital. Retrospective study was conducted by taking 281 under-five pneumonia patients.

The survival data are often censored in nature and hence semi-parametric or nonparametric methods are mostly used for estimating the survival or hazard functions and also for making other types of analysis. It is to be noted that the life-times of several natural phenomena are continuous in nature, not the precise numbers and hence denoting the life-times as precise may be absurd. Viertl (2009) has shown that life times are more or less fuzzy. In this research paper, a procedure for Generalized Nelson-Aalen Estimator is introduced on the basis of fuzzy survival times.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection alone is not enough to induce malignant transformation due to viral clearance. Genetic factors could play a very important role in the progression. Genes such as cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) could affect the progression of cervical lesions. The objectives of this study were to screen HPV-positive women and to determine CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms in human papillomavirus infections in West African women. Methods: For this study, a total of 1215 samples taken from endocervical cells, were collected.

The significance of studying the job satisfaction of librarians has been made discussion in the present study. The study concentrates on a comparison of the job satisfaction among LIS Professionals in Bhiwani and Ch. Dadri District. Data were collected by means of the structured Questionnaire. A total of 50 questionnaires distributed and were collected and analysed as per the objectives of the study.

The purpose of this study was to analyze proverbs that represent women positively among the Arsi Oromo. The proverbs used for the study were 15 theme-relevant proverbs collected by interviewing systematically selected 10 elders, focus group discussion and by analyzing documents. Qualitative research design was used to conduct this study. Women were positively represented in the selected proverbs as: wise, protectors of men, glory of men and as a pillar of their home.

The purpose of this study was to analyze proverbs that represent women negatively among the Arsi Oromo. The proverbs used for the study were 15 theme-relevant proverbs collected by interviewing systematically selected 10 elders, focus group discussion and by analyzing documents. Qualitative research design was used to conduct this study. Women were negatively represented in the proverbs as: weak, as the causes of conflict, and evil. They were also represented negatively as unreliable, properties of men, ignorant and as sex objects.

The crop combination regionalization is a method to examine the cropping pattern of an area. In this process, the existing cropping pattern is analysed and the best combination of crops is proposed for the highest productivity in that area. The combination of crops in an area is influenced by numerous physical and human factors. This study has been carried out on Kheri district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Secondary data has been used gathered from the District Statistical Magazines. The ranking of specific crops is estimated by percentage method.

Majority of our country still depend upon the agriculture for the food but due to climate change a major area of our land is getting affected by the change in soil, air, temperature and rainfall. While these factors make changes in our crop productions and duration for them. This paper tells about the soil analysis of kharicut canal on the surrounding agriculture and evaluates the effects of these crops that grow in this region on cattle and human health.

Researches dealing with female criminality are not only limited, but often present contradictory findings It is widely accepted that substantial proportion of crime by women is associated with mental disorder. In general it would appear that women are more law abiding than men. Aims: The study was designed to determine socio-demographic data, type of crime and type of mental illness among all female offenders referred to forensic psychiatric committee for psychiatric evaluation.

Background: Nasogastric intubation was in routine use after abdominal surgeries for the last many years. During the few years, better concepts of peri-operative fluid management, early postoperative mobilisation and good pain control have changed the whole scenario of postoperative course of patients on surgical floor. These changes have raised many questions on routine use of postoperative nasogastric decompression after small bowel anastomosis.

Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common reasons for emergency admissions in surgical practice Cholecystectomy is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallstones disease Traditionally acute cholecystitis is treated conservatively followed by delayed laproscopic cholecystectomy after 6-8weeks A recent meta analysis of various randomised trials of early vs delayed LC for AC showed early surgery to have similar operative complications rates but reduced overall length of hospital stay Acute phase laproscopic cholecystectomy is recommended because of fewer complications, less hospita

Background: Drowning is a main universal community health problem. In Medico- Legal practice the autopsy diagnosis of drowning presents one of the major problems especially when there is delay in recovering the victim from water. This study concentrates on gathering the autopsy findings with the electrolytes changes between the right and left ventricles to reach more accurate diagnosis of drowning.

The orthodontic tooth movement occurs by an inflammatory process involving osteoclasts, osteoblasts, neuropeptides, cytokines and alterations in innervation and local vascularization. Bone remodelling activity can be regulated either by local factors, such as the applied forces, or by systemic factors, such as drugs, hormones and vitamins. Following review article is to discuss the effects of drugs and systemic factors capable of affecting bone metabolism and influencing the orthodontic tooth movement during the entire treatment phase.

Social cognition and social information are the most notable of human creativities. Social cognition is unlike many regular aspects of teaching subjects, as it requires more natural social interaction to be learned. On the other hand, the Theory of Mind (ToM) has demonstrated that a child’s ability to understand people's mental states develops around the age of five or six, the time when children begin to go to preschool. To the author’s knowledge, no study in Saudi Arabia has examined ToM among preschool students.

Background: Soft tissue includes supportive connective tissue of various organs and other nonepithelial, extra skeletal structures. Soft tissue includes the fibrous tissue, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and smooth muscle tissue, peripheral nervous tissue and vascular endothelial tissue.Objectives: To study the incidence of soft tissue tumors in our institute. To study the clinicopathological correlation of soft tissue tumors with respect to incidence of age, sex, site distribution & histopathological types of soft tissue neoplasms.

Background: Health information obtained from different sources has an impact on diabetes patient health care outcomes. Time to time there is a growing concern over the quality of health information sources used by diabetic patients. The degree to which diabetes patients follow advice as self-care behaviours determined by the source of information they got through various methods. Objective: To asses type 2 adult diabetic patients source of information on chronic follow up units of Dessie referral hospital.

Aims and Objective: To compare 4 score and Glasgow coma scale as prognostic marker for disability in patients with altered neurological status. To assess the interrater reliability of 4 score and Glasgow coma scale. Introduction: Assessing impaired consciousness in the medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) is very difficult. To asses the abnormal consciousness ,GCS.

Readmissions in the Emergency Department (ED) are multifaceted. In our earlier research1, we found that poorly managed transitions during discharge were the cause of avoidable readmission. Thus, pre-discharge interventions focusing on discharge planning, medication reconciliation, and scheduling a follow up visit prior to departure from the ED were incorporated in practice and studied in this phase of study.

Background: Rostral and Proscopic dimensions are always influenced by age, sex race(tribe). We were Students selected those parents and grandparents that are tribe. Rostral and Proscopic measurements and indices are used to find out different shapes of Rostral and Proscopic. It is very useful for all upcoming Anatomists, forensic scientists, plastic surgeons, physical anthropologists. We were calculated rostralproscoic indices, rostral length, rostral breadth, rostral index, proscopic length, proscopic breadth, proscopic index.

Introduction: Illness or symptoms of an illness are a common human experience. Most of the signs and symptoms of an illness perceived or identified by the population are attended or treated by the ill people themselves. The most widely self-medicated substances are over-the-counter drugs used to treat common health issues at home, as well as dietary supplements. Aims: To assess the self-medication practices among patients attending Medicine OPD, JIPMER and to identify the association between practice of self-medication with selected demographic and clinical variables.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diseases seen in the community. Aim of the present study is to find out etiological agents and their antibiotic susceptibility, causing urinary tract infections at Vasavi Hospital Bangalore. A total of 810 (278 males and 532 were females) clinically suspected cases of urinary tract infection attending the OPD of Vasavi Hospital Bangalore formed the study group. This is a retrospective study from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019 (7 months). The age ranged from 1 to 75 years.

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases have become the main threat these days and the main reason of cardiovascular diseases are related to our adoption of sedentary lifestyle including diet, physical activity, stress, consumption of alcohol and smoking. Its quite essential to see that those who will be the healers for many in future are to what extent leading a healthy life in their present. Objectives: 1. To assess the awareness and attitude of medical students towards cardiovascular disease.2.

The objective of this study is to examine and analyze the positive representations of women in the Bible. The study analyzed the Bible by using theories from feminism and hermeneutic interpretations. The researcher used the Bible as a document. Qualitative research design was used for the study. This is because it was believed to be suitable to interpret and thematically elucidate the existing gender related issues in the Bible. Textual analyses were chosen as a method of analyzing the verses in the Bible.

Shoulder complaints are consistent with impingement in certain occupations. The biceps tendon act as a depressor of the humeral head. Excessive superior head migration contributes to reduced subacromial space. Strong positive relationship was found between the reduction of AHD narrowing and functional improvement following rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long head of biceps (LHB) strengthening exercises in improving acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) patients.

Instructional leadership is essential for the academic success of any schooling situation. The purpose this study was to evaluate the instructional leadership practices employed in the primary schools of Siltie Zone, Ethiopia. Descriptive survey research design was used to conduct the research. Mixed research method was used to collect and analyze data concurrently, and triangulate results side by side.

Efficient and effective material management system in place is vital for realization of the university’s core objectives, namely, teaching and learning, research and community engagement. The major purpose of the was to identify how well educational materials management activities, namely, procurement, purchasing, storage, inventories, distribution and utilization were facilitating the flow of educational materials in the Wolaita Sodo university and suggest feasible strategies to improve the system. Observation and interview were data collecting instruments employed in the study.

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have become the most important cause of non - communicable disease deaths.According to WHO statistics, cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of deaths in the world.In every open heart surgery, there is the risk of complications specific to the disease and surgery being performed, in addition to the general risks related to surgery and anesthesia. Both CABG & valvular surgeries are performed to improve functional capability and quality of life.

This study aims to establish a strategic approach for enhancing quality of life in rural settings through effective healthcare delivery. Society constantly strives to improve the social determinants that impact quality of life. This article identifies and examines key social determinants that influence the lifestyle and quality of life of people in the rural settings of Bayelsa State, Nigeria, and their access to health services. It also presents approaches for enhancing healthcare delivery.

By viewing the contents you agree to the Terms and Conditions. All punishments subject to jurisdiction at Ranchi 834001. All protocols are valid. Statement - A number should always be represented as: A+-Ni , where A is magnitude of real part, N is magnitude of imaginary part, i is the imaginary iota symbol. The angle Tan^-1(N/A) is calculated with sign to obtain phase. There is always a tendency towards the number 0 +- 0i i.e. neither leading nor lagging phase. It is not possible to convert all Imaginary part of a number into real number.

SMEs development has become an imperative to the economic development of countries having a major share in GDP. A booming trend on researching the constraints of SME development is everywhere in the world. Hence the study focused on searching a firm root in the development of SMEs followed to a systematic process of categorization of constraints and identification of strategies to revitalize the SMEs. The study identified prevailing constraints on SME development referring to the previous reports and research articles.

Hernia is the protrusion of the abdominal contents through some weakness in anterior abdominal wall. The indirect inguinal hernia is one of the most common form of hernia and most of the time congenital in origin. Cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both the testes do not descend in the scrotum. The incidence of unilateral cryptorchidism is 3% of boys at the birth and 1% of boys at the age of three months. During routine dissection the author found a left sided indirect inguinal hernia with cryptorchidism in a male cadaver.

Introduction: Thyroid gland, brownish red and highly vascular endocrine gland, is placed anteriorly in the neck, extending from 5th cervical to 2nd thoracic vertebra. In present case the isthmus of thyroid gland was absent. It’s a developmental anomaly of thyroid gland. Observations: The two lobes of thyroid gland were separate from each other. There was agenesis of thyroid isthmus. Discussion: The agenesis of thyroid isthmus is the complete and congenital absence of the thyroid isthmus.

Introduction: Appendicular mucocele is a rare disease and constitutes 0.2-0.3% of surgically excised appendicitis, more frequently in females (3: 1) and with an average age of 55 (2.4 , 6.12). We distinguish four subtypes characterized with non-specific clinical manifestations. The study proposes, through clinical observation, a focus on the current diagnostic and therapeutic orientation of the pathology.

This study explored the use of projective techniques to uncover the students’ learning preferences, shortcomings in the course, their transformative experiences and their resulting performance by construction and completion. Students were tasked to construct their action research participants' demographic profile, survey questionnaire, action research proposal, letter protocol to conduct a survey, letter to participants, documentation on the survey conducted, presentation of written research, publication, and their personal projection after two years.

Background: A positive relation between high fat diet and obesity is well documented. The amount of total energy required by an organism derived from each component of diet affects the weight. But if the total calories in diet of an experimental animal is constant (isocaloric) irrespective of its constituents, it is least likely to increase the weight of these animals. The present study was done to observe the effects of isocaloric diet with different percentage of the constituent components on the weight of Albino rats. Methods: The present study was done for a period of 24 weeks.

Background: Onychomycosis is a commonly encountered superficial fungal infection. Beside causative dermatophytes and yeasts, present data shows that non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi can also be the potential cause of this ungual disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the causative agents of onychomycosis in patients attending dermatology OPD of a tertiary care hospital.

The main objective of this study was to assess micro level risk factors for food insecurity and identify coping mechanisms in Dale woreda. About 150 sampled households were selected for the study. The result from sampled households revealed that 38.7 and 61.3 percents were found food insecure and food secure respectively.

Self-ligating brackets have been gaining popularity over the past several decades. Although the self-ligating edgewise bracket was introduced to orthodontists 75 years ago, recent advances in bracket technology have resulted in a number of new selfligating bracket ‘‘systems’’ and greater interest in their use. Much of this interest is in response to information comparing the benefits of self-ligating systems with conventional edgewise brackets.

Background: Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS) has increased amount of information that can be obtained during examination of the cervical lymph nodes. Vascularity of the lymph node helps in diagnosing the cause of lymphadenopathy as vascularity is directly related to the actual pathology such as oral cancer. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between vascularity of lymph nodes and lymph node size on Color Doppler Ultrasound images of the patients with oral cancer.

Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in Burkina Faso because every yearthe burkinabè population continue to bear a heavy burden. Malaria infection depends on the parasite's ability to interact with the host's red blood cells for its development. In population living in malaria endemic areas, sickle cell trait (HbAS, HbAC and HbCC) is considered to be a factor in malaria resistance. The present study aims to assess the involvement of sickle cell hemoglobin S and C in the protection against asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Burkina Faso.

Present study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of 600 elderly population residing in urban (200), rural (200) and tribal area (200) of Nanded district of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state, India. out of total elderly subjects 279 male and 321 were female. Anthropometric status of selected elderly was determined by recording height (cm.), weight (kg.), hip circumference (cm.), waist circumference (cm.) and body mass index was calculated using values of height and weight. On the basis of BMI, selected subjects were categorised under different grades of undernutrition.

Background: Pre-eclampsia has significant impacts on maternal and fetal health. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality in both developed and developing countries. Early prediction of the disease would help in determining those patients who were more likely to benefit from interventional measures. Objective: to evaluate association of some serum biomarkers (calcium, creatinine, and uric acid) to severe pre-eclampsia.

The study of the spatial evolution of forest galleries in the humid savannah of Adamaoua-Cameroun was conducted between 2013 and 2017 in all five departments of the region and aimed to see the dynamic evolution of the gallery surfaces. In comparison with other types of land use (savannah, shrubby savannah, habitation, etc.). For this, a socioeconomic survey was conducted to have the perception of local residents on the evolution of plant density. A diachronic study with acquisition of satellite images was conducted.

Introduction: External auditory canal cholesteatoma is a rare condition. We are reporting a rare case of primary auditory canal cholesteatoma causing facial canal erosion with mastoid tip involvement and jugular vein thrombophlebitis. Case Report: We are presenting two cases 75years and 50 years female who presented to us with unilateral otorrhoea with hearing loss. Otomicroscopy revealed external canal wall cholesteatoma with intact Tympanic membrane.

Burnout is a multidimensional, psychological syndrome resulting from long – term stress during one’s career [Lin, 2019]. Burnout amongst healthcare professionals is characterized by various degrees of depersonalization, emotional exhaustion and sense of low personal accomplishment ( Maslach, 1996). Emergency physicians (EPs) experience the highest levels of burnout among all physicians (Lu, 2015).

Emergency departments manage a variety of patients at their most vulnerable time. Among the interventions undertaken for stabilizing the patient, endotracheal intubation is fundamental. Being an academic emergency department, the Medeor institute of emergency medicine (MIEM) undertook an audit to study the elements of endotracheal intubations at MIEM. Therefore, all patients requiring endotracheal intubations at MIEM were included prospectively over a period of seven months.

Emergency departments (ED) care for patients with a diversity of requirements that decide their disposition and revisit to the ED. Furthermore, readmissions to the hospital are often used as a quality indicator. However, caution must used since readmissions are complex in nature and only the avoidable readmission need to be dealt with improvements. Thus, we undertook an audit at the Medeor Institute of Emergency Department (MIEM) to gauge the readmissions within 72 hours.

Background: Dental caries is considered as the most common chronic disease of childhood that interferes with normal nutrition intake, speech, and daily routine activities. Dental caries afflict humans of all ages with the highest priority risk group being schoolchildren. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim to assess the prevalence of dental caries among 6-8 year old school-going children of Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir.

Background: Dengue an important emerging mosquito-borne disease worldwide, is transmitted primarily by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. In recent times, there has been a surge in number of dengue cases creating a burden on the already stressed health infrastructure. Objectives: This study was done to assess & analyze the trend of the disease progression over the years along with the epidemiological features in patients admitted to Hindu Rao hospital situated in North Delhi.

Patient’s primary concern before starting orthodontic treatment is how long treatment will proceed. Long orthodontic treatment time poses several disadvantages like a higher predisposition to dental caries, gingival recession and root resorption. Accelerating orthodontic tooth movement can notably reduce treatment duration and risks of side effects. Plenty of methods are available to accelerate tooth movement, such as surgical methods (corticotomy, piezosurgery etc.), mechanical/physical stimulation methods (vibration, lasers), drugs, etc.

Objective: To discuss the effect of systemic nursing on postoperative recovery of gastric cancer patients. Methods: According to the patient's operation time, 134 patients with radical gastrectomy from January 2016 to July 2018 were randomly divided into two groups, 64 in each group. Patients in the control group received routine care and the observation group received systematic nursing intervention based on routine care. The recovery and complications of the two groups were compared.

Objective: To investigate the effect of rapid surgical rehabilitation nursing on clinical indicators of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Methods: From January 2017 to July 2018, 146 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were enrolled in our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to the random number table, 73 cases in each group. The control group received routine nursing and the observation group received routine nursing.

Objective: To explore the effect of evidence-based nursing on the quality of life of patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 92 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled in our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to the admission time of the patients, 46 patients in each group. The control group received routine nursing, and the observation group used evidence-based nursing. The nursing intervention was 2 months, and the improved quality of life comprehensive assessment questionnaire was adopted.

Background: This article mainly focuses on the causes, the organisms involved and the protocols of disinfection of the water-pipelines of the dental units. Aim: The aim of this article is to review different herbal irrigants used in the field of endodontics. Materials and methods: A literature review is conducted using electronic databases “PubMed”, “Google Scholar” and “Scopus”, using keywords “dental chair contamination”, “Micro-organisms”, “water-pipelines”, “dental water units”, “Biofilms”. Out of 107 articles, only 35 articles were relevant for this study.

Various ways of histopathological staining has been carried out in today's laboratories through advancements by way of chemical, molecular biology assays and immunological techniques. At early years, only the readily commercially available chemicals available for staining purpose were Potassium dichromate, alcohol and the mercuric chloride to harden the cellular tissue varieties. Staining techniques available during those times were Carmine, Silver nitrate, Gram's, Giemsa, Trichrome and Hematoxylin.

Introduction: A child to use toilet is one of the pivotal milestones of development, it is necessary to adapt to the social and cultural value of the society. Late toilet training may lead to dysfunctional elimination. Toilet training should start only after the child must be both physically and emotionally ready for toilet training. According to psychosexual theory of Sigmund Freud the correct time to start toilet training is toddler period especially 18-24 months.

Ovarian carcinoma is the most common cause of death due to gynecologic malig¬nancy. Peritoneal involvement is present in approximately 70% of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. Common sites of intraperitoneal seeding of ovarian carcinoma include the pelvis, omentum, paracolic gutters, liver capsule, and diaphragm. Soft-tissue thickening, nodularity, and enhancement are all signs of peritoneal involvement. Computed tomography can be used to detect these metastatic lesions, which can be miliary or large and appear as soft-tissue or low-attenuation masses.

Background: Sessile polyps are generally considered one of the most difficult polyps to remove endoscopically many polyps that might be considered endoscopically resectable are sent for surgical resection. Many endoscopists appear to refer large sessile polyps for surgical resection. Indeed, there is incentive to remove them endoscopically. sessile polyps are associated with the greatest risk of postpolypectomy bleeding and of perforation. They may take a substantial amount of time to remove.

Human identification is a mainstay of civilization and the identification of unknown individuals always has been of paramount importance to the society. Traditional methods of identification have included visually recognizing the body, personal property like clothing, jewellery etc. These methods are however, not very reliable and can be a very traumatic experience for relatives and friends in burned & decomposed cases. The most reliable means of identification include finger prints, dental comparison and DNA profiling, which are unique to every person.

Aim: The aim of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of sub-epithelial connective tissue graft for papillary regeneration. Background: Loss of interdental papilla is multifactorial and creates diverse complications. Among them food lodgments, unaesthetic black triangle and subsequent periodontal diseases are most frequent. Sub epithelial connective tissue graft based papillary regeneration is thought to be the gold standard treatment option. It provides long term result with acceptable esthetics.

Care of the critically ill parturients is a unique challenge in obstetrics particularly because of its unpredictability. The major contribution to mortality and morbidity being obstetric haemorrhage, toxaemia of pregnancy, severe anemia and sepsis, especially in developing countries.

Background: Acute poisoning is a commonly encountered medical emergency and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Poisoning was a common mode of suicide and is an important part of medicolegal cases. Materials and Method: Prospective study of 100 admitted cases of poisoning from 2015-2018, Admitted at emergency department. The cases were studied regarding epidemiological profile, distribution of poisons, Nature of poison. Results: Out of 100 prospective cases, 68 were males and 32 were females, Male female ratio is 2.12:1.

Goitre is quite a common clinical presentation in surgical practice. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a well established first line diagnostic test for evaluation of goitre and is a more useful investigation than others like ultrasonography, thyroid function tests and serological studies. Materials and methods: Prospective study of 50 cases of goitre who underwent FNAC during period Jan 2017- Dec 2017. The results of Fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology were compared and sensitivity and specificity were studied.

Background: Death due to hanging is commonly encountered in medico legal procedure and is one of the common mode of suicide after poisoning. Aim: To study on various factors associated with suicide by hanging at Bijapur, India. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in Department of Forensic Medicine Al- Ameen Medical College, Bijapur, Karnataka 2014-2018. Results: most common age group involved in Hanging is 31-40 years (38%) followed by 21-30 years (19%), then 51-60 years (16%).

Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus is uncommon benign uterine tumour in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The exact etiology is not known, but it may be associated with a history of leiomyoma, obesity, and hyper-estrogenic disorders. There are several proposed theories for the pathogenicity of lipoleiomyoma, none of which has been proven yet. Here we report a case of uterine lipoleiomyoma in a postmenopausal woman with long-standing diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia.

Introduction: Burning in a child is a relatively common occurrence in everyday life. The resulting support benefits not only the children but the entire community. The objective of this study is to evaluate the management of burned children in Bangui. Methodology: This is a retrospective analytical study carried out at the Department of Surgery of the Pediatric University Hospital Center of Bangui from April 2013 to December 2016. The data were collected from the exploitation sheets and analyzed on the software. Epi-info version 7. Results: 216 patients were included.

The successful movement of the Indian economy depends upon the smooth functioning of its banking sector. But in recent years, it has witnessed a big issue called Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) and it is becoming an incurable problem for the banking sectors. On the other side, the Indian banking sector has launched a concept called financial inclusion and thus to provide the banking services to the financially excluded people. But, this initiation is putting the additional financial risk on the banking sector in the form of mounting NPAs day by day.

Ethiopia is one of a country which has largest cattle population in Africa and world. It has great potential to supply sufficient animals’ products for domestic and international markets; however, overly increase of meat price was causing people whose income per is low capital unable to procure meat. Hawassa city is victim with overprice of meat animals. It requires investigation why this city is facing with overprice of meat animals in one of the country that has largest cattle population in Africa and world.

In order to reduce construction costs and the energy consumed in heating and cooling, the use of laterite and cement are the essential element to install stabilized earth blocks. For this work, the main purpose is to study the effect of the use of bricks of raw earth stabilized with the help of cement. Its objective is to assess the evolution over time of mechanical resistance to the compression and traction of these bricks as well as the speed of water absorption. The mass dosages used for cement are: 25%, 20%, 15%, 10% and 00%.

Internal audit quality plays key role in enhancing organizational performance in particular and safeguarding public resources in general. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the impact of internal audit quality on organizational performance of public sector selected bureaus in SNNPRS, Ethiopia. To this end, the researchers employed quantitative research approach with Explanatory research design where the effect caused by the independent variable on the dependent variable is observed through regression analysis.

This research was conducted with the aim to quantify the impact of Phosphorus and Sulphur of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.) during winter season of 2014-15, at Agriculture experimental field, Nehru P.G. College Lalitpur, (U.P.). The treatments consisted of 4 Phosphorus levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 Kg P2O5 ha-1) and 4 sulphur levels (0, 10, 20 and 40 Kg S ha-1). The Pot experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications.

Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 is an Act of the Parliament of India that prohibits certain types of financial transactions. The act defines a 'benami' transaction as any transaction in which property is transferred to one person for a consideration paid by another person. Such transactions were a feature of the Indian economy, usually relating to the purchase of property (real estate), and were thought to contribute to the Indian black money problem. The act goes on to ban all benami transactions and the right to recover property held benami.

The Tribal Plurality and Cultural Inflexibility in Papua New Guinea (PNG) address a unique sense of socio-political structure indicating peculiarities of its own compared to other tribal nations. This distinctive mode of traditional tribal cultural phenomena got its prominence because of the existence of over eight hundred tribes with similar count of languages thereof in PNG. All different tribes and their diverse cultures tend to maintain their pride and distinctiveness without any compromise.

This study focuses on teacher perceptions of the use of tablets in mainstream classroom in a K12 school in Dubai to enhance teaching and learning. It also explores the development of mobile devices and their usage, and how smart learning has evolved from just handling small devices with limited features, to tablets with endless features and endless learning opportunities. The participants in the study are teachers at a private K12 school in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The study employs a quantitative approach to data collection.

Under constitutional supremacy doctrine, if a law or contract violates any norm of the Constitution, that law or contract, whether promulgated by the parliament or by the executive branch or entered into by private persons for private purposes, is null and void and without any force and effect. In this line of argument, the Constitution is the basic and paramount law to which all other laws must conform and to which all persons, including the highest officials of the land, must defer.

In ‘epidemiology it is very important to develop surveillance systems that are being used to detect disease outbreaks. The requirements for such systems are the data related to cases and various risk factors associated with the disease over time. Meaningful information can be obtained from the collected data using statistical analysis which could be used for effective disease control. However, a geo-visualization approach by adding spatial parameters would be more informative through which one can identify the spatial patterns or space or space-time clusters of the disease.

Modification of polymers is widely used nowadays. Among the most important and practical methods of modifying polymers is blending. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) was blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE)in five different ratios for each (100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, and 60/40) respectively with loading the blends with carbon black filler. Effect of polyethylene content in the blend on its swelling behavior and Mechanical properties was investigated. The critical content of PE in the blend was 0.3 weight fraction.

The lack of devices to test the tiles is not a reason to ignore the problems related to their durability. This article presents the results of an analysis of the impact behaviour of three qualities of tiles. The strike force of a fibro-mortar (TFM) is 70% lower than that of a vibrated mortar (TMV) and 54% lower than that of a baked clay (TAC) tile. Deflection results (TFM = 1.24 mm; TMV = 0.56 mm and TAC = 0.68 mm), stresses and deformations show that TFM resists better because it deforms extensively before breaking.

Since its discovery, concrete has exhibited a varied behaviour in different environments and under different conditions of preservation. This variation was the major concern of many researchers. The majority of studies developed for this purpose are carried out in laboratories under well-controlled test conditions that do not reflect the actual conditions under which the concrete structure is put in place. In the Sahelian climate (arid and hot climate), the effect of ambient temperature and hygrometry greatly influences the mechanical resistance of concrete to compression.

The goal of this work is to study the sensitivity of the parameters over the optimal duration of operation of a concentric exchanger bi-tube. To know: the dynamic optimization of the operation of a heat exchanger subjected to a fouling by considering the exergoeconomic criterion. Indeed, the exergo economy offers additional possibilities of optimization compared to the conventional methods on the first principle of thermodynamics, because it allows to associate the irreversibilities to the economic aspects.

In the building sector, noise is a source of deterioration in the health status of the population. The choice of building materials is essential to ensure the acoustic comfort of buildings. Our study focused on the stabilized earth, and the cement-wood composite where each sample is acoustically characterized using the Kundt tube where the absorption coefficient of these materials was measured according to the water content. It shows that the humidity influences the acoustic absorption coefficient of each material in the standardized frequency zones ranging from 315 Hz to 2000 Hz.

Ethiopian energy sector is highly depend on traditional biomass and has very low modern energy. In this study, wind energy potential of Wereilu, Amhara Region, Ethiopia is analyzed statistically by using the data of wind speed that was measured between 2008 -2017 years. The Weibull distribution method and Rayleigh distribution method were used in this study. Three different methods namely: moment method (MM), empirical method (EM) and Energy Pattern Method (EPM) were used to estimate the Weibull parameters.

The purpose of this research project is to develop a nutraceutical chocolate based confectionary product which will provide benefits other than that of traditional chocolate. We felt like there is a need to produce some innovative confection other than traditional chocolates. The nutraceutical chocolate bar which we have manufactured is more nutritious and healthy due to its rare ingredients which also makes it a unique nutraceutical chocolate bar.

A study was carried out to protect Vigna radiata L. seeds from the common storage product pest, the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) by using oil prepared from the seeds of a wild plant, Croton tiglium (L.). This oil was found to be toxic to C. maculatus adults. The 24 and 96 h LC50 values (in ml/100g grain) were 0.93 and 0.74 respectively. C. tiglium oil was found to have an effective ovicidal action. At oil concentrations of 0.6 and 0.8 ml/100g grain, adult emergence was as low as 26 and 9 percent respectively, compared to 98 percent emergence in the control group.

Background: Mental health is an essential part of children's overall health and has a complex interactive relationship with their physical health and their ability to succeed in society. As children grow they acquire many skills to adjust themselves in environment. Sometimes they acquire good skills but sometimes they develop some unhealthy skills which sometimes turned up to into behavioural problems. Mothers being primary caregiver of child play important role in their mental health.

Introduction: Aging is an inevitable developmental phenomenon bringing along a number of changes in the physical, psychological, hormonal and the social conditions. Old age has been viewed, as problematic period of one’s life and this is correct to some extent. The aged become increasingly dependent on others. As man grows, his reduced activities, income and consequent decline in the position of the family and society makes his life more vulnerable. Neeraja K.P. stated that old age is natural, normal, universal and inevitable biological phenomenon.

The present investigation was under taken during two consecutive years on periodical observations (30, 60 and 90 DAT) on vegetative growth at C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. Results indicated that all the growth parameters such as number of leaves, plant spread, diameter of plant stem, increased to the maximum upto the 75 % nitrogen level with or without biofertilizers.

This article aims to explore and analyze Oromo’s philosophical and theological understandings of lafa, meaning and in English. Land issue has been a scorching issue in Oromo sociopolitical and economic situations under successive Ethiopian regimes. The chain the people’s notion of land has with their understandings of cultural identity, natural environment, economy, national identity, politics, human rights, and religion has never been explored from philosophical and theological perspectives.

Background: Caring code is a guidance developed as a guideline in applying caring behavior. Objects: to develop caring code in the Emergency Room of Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital. Methods: The research used action research method. It was done from October, 2017, November, 2018, until January, 2019 through action research cycle 1. The research instrument was focus group discussion (FGD) guideline, questionnaires on nurses’ knowledge of caring, and observation sheets about nurses’ caring behavior.

Goitre is quite a common clinical presentation in surgical practice. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a well established first line diagnostic test for evaluation of goitre and is a more useful investigation than others like ultrasonography, thyroid function tests and serological studies. Materials and methods: Prospective study of 50 cases of goitre who underwent FNAC during period Jan 2017- Dec 2017. The results of Fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology were compared and sensitivity and specificity were studied.

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to the search for new substances with bactericidal activity. Among them are some extracts of plant origin, such as some essential oils, which have shown a potent antimicrobial action. At present, the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris have been studied. It has been reported that T. vulgaris essential oil has shown high antibacterial activity against Salmonella enteritidis, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, S.

The pods of three trees namely Fidherbia albida, Ceratonia seliqua and Tamarindus indica were evaluated as animal feed in terms of its chemical composition, macro mineral content and in vitro digestibility. The experiment was carried out during the period from March- April 2015. The results showed that crude protein content was significantly (p<0.05) higher in F. albida (4.22%) than in C. seliqua (1.43%) and in T. indica (1.46%).Crude fiber in F.albida (48.21%) was higher than in C. seliqua (29.39%) and T.indica (25.73%).

The purpose of this study to identify the extent of awareness and knowledge of the Saudi women in Jeddah city of the conceptions of fermentation and fermented foods. Questionnaires were designed and distributed among female students (n= 174) at King Abdul-Aziz University. The results demonstrated that over 60% of respondents have known about the fermentation process in food production and its essential step in making cheeses and yogurt.

Background: Malaria, a disease with a wide variation in clinical presentation (ranging from mild to deadly cerebral malaria) remains an important health challenge in the tropics including Sudan. This study investigates the role of allelic single nucleotide polymorphism in Promoter regions (-590 C/T) of the IL-4 genes, Serum IL-4, IgE and TNF-concentrations in severity of malaria in Sudanese children. Methods: This is hospital based- case control cross-sectional study on one hundred ten malaria patients and sixty healthy controls.

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