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May 2010

Mycorrhizal fungi intimately associate with plant root forming a symbiotic relationship. The mycorrhizal symbiosis in effluent polluted soils was documented and the effect of dual inoculation with AM fungus on the host plant greengram (Vigna radiata L.) in pot culture experiments were investigated at six concentrations of tannery effluent viz., control, AM only. 50% effluent, 50% + AM, 100% effluent, 100%+AM. AM inoculated plants significantly increased in all morphological parameters.

Shock models it is usually assumed that the interarrival times between shocks are i.i.d random variables. In manpower model discussed here is assumed that there is loss of manpower to a random extent at every decision epoch at which revised policies regarding wages, incentives and targets are announced. When the cumulative loss of manpower on successive occasions crosses the threshold level, the breakdown of the organization occurs which in turn leads to recruitment.

The field experiment was conducted with three different level of nitrogen. Phosphorus and muriate of potash namely 50%, 75% and 100% and set treatment with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Soil application of AM Fungi were studied in randomized block design. In the present investigation significant improvements were observed in sugarcane germination percentage, cane height, cane girth, individual cane weight, milleable canes and cane yield. The highest growth parameters and yield noticed in treatment T9-50% NPK + G. diazotrophicus + AM fungi.

The present study aims to estimate the firing temperature and firing condition of the industrial clay bricks from three different regions namely Ramanathapuram, Madurai and Manamadurai in Tamilnadu State, India. The firing temperature of bricks were estimated by refiring the samples to four different temperatures from 600 to 900°C in steps of 100°C in air in an electric muffle furnace for 2 h and recording the corresponding FTIR spectrum.

The present investigation revealed that the volatile oil obtained from Tagetes patula contained 10 compounds and they were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura for their antifeedant activity by leaf disc bioassay. Among the compounds tested Terpinolene was the most effective feeding deterrent agent against Spodoptera litura in the laboratory condition. The mean area fed 100 ppm / cm2 and 500 ppm/cm2. The all compounds tested the antifeedant activity in both concentration appreciable value were recorded.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate antifeedant, insecticidal, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activity of different fractions obtained from the crude extracts of H. suaveolens (Lamiaceae) and M. corchorifolia (Sterculiaceae) against Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae), four fractions obtained from H. suaveolens, fraction III was found to inhibit the feeding ratio of the S. litura and it is apparent from the table. While in M.

A simple computational method (SCM) to analyze a class of (s,S) type inventory problem is developed. Under this (s, S) policy, (i) the number of units demanded where d = 1,2,... a (£ s) at successive demand epochs form a Markov chain (MC) with one step transition probability matrix (TPM) P and (ii) the replenishments are instantaneous. This method gives the algorithm for computation of stationary probabilities of inventory process, joint probability function of number of transitions and quantities of replenishments per cycle, conditional and unconditional average costs.

The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) in mid ninety’s added a new dimension in the regulation of gene expression by different types of RNA. It is a phenomenon in which double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the initiating factor in post-transcriptional gene silencing. It is a process in which the introduction of a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the cells causes the specific degradation of an mRNA containing the same sequence.

Tubers of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) obtained in three markets in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, were found associated with seven microbial pathogens causing dry and wet rot of tissues. The pathogens included; Aspergillus niger, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium sclerotigenum, Fusarium moniliformes, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Of these A. niger, P. expansum, F. oxysporium and B. theobromae were highly pathogenic causing extensive tissue rot compared to the last three.

The promotive effect of ethylene inhibitors, silver nitrate (AgNO3) and cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on in vitro shoot regeneration of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentumMill. cv. Omdurman) was investigated. Shoot development was induced on shoot tip explant cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with kinetin (Kn) at 4.0 mg/l. Addition of CoCl2 and AgNO3 to the medium enhanced regeneration frequency as well as number of shoots obtained per explant.

Seeding rate is an important factor can influence on yield and quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present study, we investigated the effect of different seeding rates on growth, yield components, grain and dough quality characteristics of the bread wheat cultivar Gemmeiza 9 grown in the Nile Delta, Egypt during two growing seasons. Four seeding rates were studied: 250 grains / m2, 300 grains / m2, 350 grains / m2 and 400 grains / m2 with four replications.

Most of the crop plants have large and complex genomes. Maize and wheat genomes have a size of 2300 Mb and 16500 Mb respectively. Until recently the sequencing of these complex genomes was considered intractable. But now the genome sequencing technology is undergoing a revolution with the commercialization of second generation technologies capable of sequencing millions of bases in a single run. In the coming years these technologies will further add to the available information regarding the genomes.

Sea snakes are venomous elapid snakes which inhabit marine environments for most or all of their lives. They are found in warm coastal waters from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific. Most sea snakes are completely aquatic and have adapted to their environment in many ways, the most characteristic of which is a paddle-like tail that has increased their swimming ability. The aim of the present study is to assess the diversity, biology and ecology of sea snakes (Family: Hydrophiidae) occurring in the Parangipettai coastal region, Southeast coast of India.

Agricultural soils of oil producing states in Nigeria have been severely affected by oil exploration activities and there is need to restore such soils to a manageable level. Phytoremediation uses plants whose rhizospheres are able to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. In order to know the capacity of Mucuna species to grow in soils polluted with crude oil and assess their capability to accumulate heavy metals which are normal components of crude oil, a field experiment was carried out. This experiment was a factorial (3 x 5) arrangement in a completely randomized design.

The present study deals with the foliar characteristics of two varieties of C. annum (Danjarawa and Nsukka Yellow) and two of C. frutescens (Langalanga and Tatashi) common in Nigeria. Significant epidermal characteristics that could contribute to the taxonomy of the genus Capsicum have been revealed. These include the presence of stomata on the upper epidermis of C. annum varieties and the straight walled upper epidermis of C. annum var. Nsukka Yellow. Equally, important was the presence of a single mesogene cell in the two varieties of C. frutescens.

Densities (ρ), viscosities (η) and ultrasonic speeds (u), for solutions of (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M) L - Valine (Val), L - isoleucine (Ile) and L - Proline (Pro) in aqueous 1, 3 - dioxolane (10 % w/w) at 298.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15K have been determined. These data have been used to calculate apparent molar volumes (φv), limiting apparent molar volume (φv°) and the slope (Sv), apparent molar compressibility (φk), limiting apparent molar compressibility (φk°) and the slope (Sk), Falkenhagen and Jones–Dole coefficients, A and B, respectively.

The effects of plant growth regulators and explants on callus induction were investigated for the purpose of developing a protocol for callus induction of garden cress (L. sativum. L). Three explants namely, leaves, hypocotyls and roots obtained from 7 days -old in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The highest callus weight (2.13) gm was obtained when leaves explant was cultured on MS medium containing 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D.

Investigations on the anatomical aberrations and biochemical alterations of white yam incited by Botryodiplodia theobromae was carried out. Inoculated and uninoculated head, middle and tail portions of white yam were treated, sectioned weekly for five weeks and photomicrographs taken. The plates revealed massive cell wall macerations and depletion of starch grains in the three portions of yam assessed. Less damage was evident in the head portion especially after one week of infection compared with the middle and tail portions.

The present investigation was carried out during kharief- 2005 at the Research Farm, Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, SKUAST-Jammu, Main Campus Chatha. The experimental material for the present investigation comprised of sixteen genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a randomized block design with three replications. The study revealed that genotypes differed significantly among themselves for all the characters viz., morpho-physiological, biochemical, yield and yield attributing traits.

A phytohormone may be defined as an organic substance other than a nutrient, active in very minute amounts which is formed in certain parts of the plant and which is usually translocated to other sites, where it evokes specific biochemical, physiological and morphological responses. Hormones are effective at internal concentration of about 1 µM, where as other metabolites necessary for growth and development are usually present at concentration 1 to 50 µM. The most commonly used and best understood group of plant growth hormones consists of those which regulate the production of ethylene.

The algae were used to assess the water quality of Nagapur and Chandapur dams. The pollution indicator genera and species of algae from each of three (3) stations of both dams were recorded, this was done with the help of palmer’s index of pollution indicator species of algae. For knowing the quality of water samples the total score of station were recorded greater than 15 indicator species were found which helped to know the high degree of organic pollution of dam. The genera observed at different stations of both dams, were 18 and 21 out of the 34 pollution indexed speices of palmer.

In this paper, a test pattern compaction algorithms for simple combinational circuits is proposed. It generates test pattern and simulate faults. Fault diagnosis is an important part of failure analysis. The fault diagnosis procedure considered here selects a set of faults and a set of tests. It stores fault simulation results in a fault dictionary and compares dictionary entries against observed faulty behaviors. It adopts fault based test minimization for simple two stage combinational circuits. Proposed Algorithm minimizes the number of test cases based on the number of faults detected.

Mulberry (genes Morus) a perennial tree or shrub in an economically important plant used for sericulture and is the sole food plant for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Mulberry is widely distributed in Asia, Europe, North and South America and it is cultivated extensively in East, central and South Asia for silk production.

Marker is a tag which is conspicuous or apparent or which helps in identification of traits. There are three different types of markers viz., morphological, biochemical and molecular. Morphological markers have certain constraints i.e. narrow diversity, influenced by environment, problem with epistasis, pleiotropy, incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Biochemical markers reveal polymorphism of sequences of certain proteins. It has certain constraints like redundancy of genetic code, incomplete genomic coverage and also sensitive to environmental pressures.

Field experiment was conducted at the Michael Okpara University of Agriculture; Umudike Farm in 2002 and 2003 season with the aim of determining the association between characters of gamma ray irradiated cowpea varieties. Forage yield was found to be positively correlated with number of leaves per plant, number of pods per plant, leaf length, and fresh pod yield. Number of days to flowering, number of days to pod filling and number of days to physiological maturing and fresh pod yield were negatively correlated thus making simultaneous improvement of both traits difficult.

Based on survey in Marathwada the different visited places are Parli-Vaijnatth, Saradgaon, Mahur, Dahelitanda, Tuppa, Degloor, Nandurves, Loni, Kinwat etc. Author collected the traditional knowledge from local inhabitants modes of application of the medicinal plants and plant parts utilized by local inhabitants are given with their names.

The effects of aqueous leaf extract of neem on serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone/interstitial cell stimulating hormone (LH/ICSH), estrogen and prolactin levels in male albino rats were studied. Rats treated with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of neem extract intraperitoneally daily for 15 days showed very highly significant (P< 0.001) reduction effects on serum concentration of testosterone, FSH, LH/ICSH and prolactin when compared with their control counterparts.

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