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April 2013

  1. Ayyavoo Preamnath Manoharan, Ramasamy, D. and Jayachandran S.

    The demand for natural food colourants is increasing because of public awareness of their health benefits. Caramel is made heating sugar (cane / beet) whose colours range from the palest yellows to the deepest browns. They are used for colouring dairy products, meat and frozen desserts. An investigation was carried out to find the acceptable level of caramel liquid as a natural colouring agent for ice cream and assess the sensory scored of the resultant product. Caramel liquid was incorporated at different level in ice cream for chocolate flavour and prepared ice cream was subjected to sensory analysis and found out the optimum level of inclusion of caramel liquid in the ice cream preparation. Then sample were stored at -29C and studied for their sensory scores.

  2. Debasis Chakraborty and Dr. Pravat Kumar Kuri

    Migration is a process that gets intensified with the process of economic development. Among the various migration streams like rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-rural and urban-urban, population mobility from rural to urban areas is a common and ever-increasing phenomenon in India. Interestingly, this rural-urban migration is observed to have significant implications to the development of urban informal sector. Less skilled migrated labour are, in fact, less equipped for the urban formal jobs due to their lack of knowledge and experience and hence they end up forming ‘urban informal sector’. Thus there is an intense linkage between rural-urban migration and the expansion of urban informal sector. In fact there exists a two-way causation: migration helps in booming of urban informal sector, while the development of informal sector attracts further. Using mainly census and National Sample Survey data sources, this paper attempts to examine the nature and pattern of internal migration and its determinants across the states of India. Among various factors explaining the extent of internal migration in India, rural unemployment, rural indebtedness, opportunity cost of migration, rural industrialization, extent of urban informal sector etc. have been identified as key variables. Attempts have also been made to examine the inter-relationship between the extent of rural-urban migration and the expansion of urban informal sector in India.

  3. Dr. Lakshmibai B. Mallappa

    Background: Lymphadenopathy is a common presenting symptom in various diseases.¹ Lymphadenopathy, which is defined as an abnormality in the size or character of lymph-nodes, is caused by the invasion or propagation of either inflammatory cells or neoplastic cells into the node.² Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a diagnostic tool in cases of Malignant Lymphadenopathy. Study design: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pathology; Victoria Hospital; Bangalore Medical College Bangalore over a period of 6 months i.e from 1.1.11 to 30.6.11. Material and Methods: No of Fine Needle Aspirations done in this period were 1349. Out of which 74 cases were that of Malignant Lymphadenopathy (involving cervical, axillary, inguinal and generalised group of lymph-nodes). Malignant Lymphadenopathy comprises of both primary and secondary (metastatic) disease. Out of 441 cases of lymphnode fnac, 74 cases were diagnosed as malignant cytologically and clinically. Results: Out of 1349, 74 cases were diagnosed to have Malignant Lymphadenopathy. Of the 74 cases, 5 cases were suspicious of malignancy. The age group involved was between 5-95 yrs. The male to female ratio was 2:1. Among them, there were 9 cases (12.16%) of primary lymphoid malignancy and 60 cases (81.08%) of metastatic malignancy and about 5 cases (6.75%) were suspicious of malignancy. The most common metastatic deposit was of squamous cell carcinoma (58.10%) followed by breast carcinoma (8.10%) and malignant melanoma (4.05%). Conclusion: FNAC remains a useful investigation in diagnosing Malignant Lymphadenopathy with good certainty. It is an economical and convenient alternative to open biopsy.

  4. Jegan, A. and Dr. Sudalaiyandi, S.

    Every organization envisioned at maximizing the productivity and the profit. The company never fails to show immense interest on knowing their customer requirements. Fulfilling the needs and satisfying the customers becomes very much essential, hence a satisfied customer is an unpaid advertiser for the company. It is equally important to satisfy the dealers and retailers if the company is in the business of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGS). The consumer behaviour varies from brand to brand on the basis of quality, quantity, price, taste, advertisement etc. In India the biscuit industry was started in the middle of the 19 century. In 1887, the first Biscuits bakery was set up in India. This research paper is a study on consumer buying behavior on Sunfeast (ITC) biscuits in Kovilpatti Area. The instrument used to collect data for the study was the structured interview schedule.

  5. Lone G. Hassan

    Resettlement and Rehabilitation (RandR) form an important constituent of any developmental project – be it internally financed or externally funded. Since benefit to the people, who are at the centre of development process, is a prime concern for success or failure of any project, assessing the same remains a vital component of the project implementation. To measure implementation process of any RandR Project, with particular reference to the perceived benefit accrued to the people, Monitoring and Evaluation (MandE) is very crucial and important. The study intends to focus on the need and importance of MandE as a vital component of the whole project cycle with main emphasis on the Resettlement and Rehabilitation (RandR) aspects of the project.

  6. Nazim Nasir and Mohammad Rehan Asad

    1. By the middle of the last century the hippocampal formation started to be one of the most studied structures of the nervous system. The present study was conducted using 45 albino rats of either sex (150-200 gm) and divided into 3 equal groups. First group was control and received water and food ad-libitum, second group was experimental receiving chronic depression for 7 weeks by immobilization method, the third group received Flouxetine drug (1mg/kg body weight orally) for 4 weeks following chronic depression. The animals were sacrificed after the experiment, perfused with 10% formaldehyde, brains were dissected and tissue blocks were processed for paraffin embedding. Observations were made on 5 micron thick H and E stained sections. Estimation of neuronal density of CA4 regions was performed using Motic images plus 2.0 software. Neuronal density was markedly reduced (85.4 cells/cubic mm) in experimental group, as compared to control (110.5 cells/cubic mm). Neuronal density was enhanced to 144.3 cells /cubic mm in Treatment Group. Statistical analysis was done using students t-test and the significance was assessed. It was found that stress induced depression causes significant neuronal loss in CA4 region that can be significantly reversed by the pharmacological intervention.

  7. Vikram Sindgikar and Manjunath Shenoy

    Background and Objectives: “Management of Common Bile Duct-Different Modalities”, is a prospective study comparing the three different modalities viz. endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP), open CBD exploration and laparoscopic CBD exploration. The study was conducted with an objective to compare and contrast these different modalities and to study the advantage of ERCP over surgical methods. Methods: 50 cases of common bile duct stones admitted in JSS Medical College Hospital, Mysore,were selected for the study. After pre procedure work up patients were subjected to either or combination of procedures namely ERCP, open CBD exploration, laparoscopic CBD exploration. The age/ sex distribution, the clinical presentation, the investigations, the treatment modalities, the complications and the outcome were evaluated. Results: In this study of 50 patients, 39 patients underwent ERCP with successful stone extraction in 24 patients and in 7 patients incomplete duct clearance was obtained and 8 patients had failed ERCP. 22 patients underwent open CBD exploration with T tube closure in 18 and 3 patients underwent cloledochoduodenostomy and in 1 patient trans duodenal sphincterotomy was performed. 4 patients underwent laparoscopic CBD exploration with 1 converted to open procedure. 3 patients underwent choledochotomy with extraction of stones and primary closure of CBD with ante grade biliary stenting. Conclusion: Management of CBD stones in each patient needs to be individualized for different modalities depending upon the need and the indication. However the preferred method based on our study is subjecting the patient to pre operative ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  8. Bellamkonda Raja Shekhar and Syed Samiullah

    This study investigated the role of social self-efficacy and psychological strain among various managerial employees in different sectors across the levels and job tenures in India. The sample included 400 managerial employees from several organizations. The results of the ANOVA were significant for few variables. Duncan multiple range test was conducted to know the significant differences among the groups for both social self-efficacy and psychological strain. Study found the strong relationship between social self-efficacy and psychological strain. Discussions are made based on the results of the survey.

  9. Chandrika, M. P.

    It is believed that from the time Adam and Eve were born the bond of marriage, the concept of marriage took its birth. Marriage is a sacramental relationship under Hindu law. It is a legal contract under Mahomedan law. Whether it is sacramental relationship or a contract, it has got its own ethics and principles. It is also treated has God made relationship. It is a relationship between a man and a woman, basically to beget children and also share each other companionship through the life. But things are changing. The definition of marriage given under different personal laws does not carry weight age as a new concept called live-in-relationship has been introduced by the young generation to the society. No commitment and no bond in such relationship. It purely based on an oral/written contract. Though Indian society has not accepted such relationship, but the problem pertaining to certain aspects like the status of the children born out of such relationship, share in property, violence against women who is into such relationship, stands unanswered. Our Apex courts decisions pertaining to maintenance, share in property to children born out of such relationship, are in par with the decision given in case of marriage. The matter is also true in case of homosexual marriages. Hence, it would be anathema to hold such relationship in par with marriage.

  10. Kalyani Suresh

    The Uses and Gratifications Theory suggests that people have different socio-psychological traits, which may affect the way and the reasons they use social media to satisfy their personal needs. In the Internet environment, users are even more actively engaged communication participants, compared to other traditional media. This study aims to examine the relationship between personality factors and Facebook use, and whether gender and age play a role in the dynamics. The study revealed that younger Facebook users had higher levels of extraversion and agreeableness. Older respondents were more conscientious, emotionally stable and open to experiences. Males showed higher extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability. Females were more conscientious and open to experiences. Attitude towards Facebook and its Online Sociability functions with differed with Age. Extraversion and Openness to Experience differed in relation to Attitude towards Facebook. Extraversion, Conscientiouness and Emotional Stability differed with Online Sociability functions. Gender was not a significant predictor.

  11. Shanmuganatan, S. P. and Nakkeeran, S.

    Environmental nanotechnologies have the possibility to contribute to economic growth and innovation while at the same time allowing sustainable development and protecting the environment. There is considerable commercial potential in environmental technologies because the development of innovative solutions to prevent and remediate pollution is needed to ensure sustainable development.This projected world market can be sub-divided into four principal sectors: Remediation, Protection, Maintenance, and Enhancement, of which remediation represent the fastest growing area, while maintenance and protection constitute the bulk of the remaining applications, and enhancement is the smallest sector. Present day filtration and purification plants used for supplying drinking water generally achieve only partial success because the active materials are of limited efficiency. However,because of their much greater specific surface area, nanoparticles are able to perform significantly more effectively as filtration media than larger particles with the same chemical composition.Companies and organizations involved in nanotechnology are intrinsically linked within the start of a much longer supply chain, as nano materials developers working with composites, ceramics and coatings require nano scale instrumentation and nano scale instrumentation developers require the scientific know how and equipment to manipulate and measure materials at an atomic level. Hence, It is only by understanding this supply chain that we can see where ‘traditional’ industries such as aerospace and automotive manufacture integrate and how, if at all, the supply chain is working together to solve business problems and provide market leadership for companies.A strategic issue therefore is to address the stage at which the relevant technology is added to the product and whether this becomes an OEM (original equipment manufacturer) process or whether the process can be reengineered to enable the nano supply chains to effectively engage with the OEM within the final stages of product assembly.By mapping nanotechnology supply chain, back from user demand, through technology developers to science initiators. Supply chain management providing a solution consisting of three parts, Supply Chain Planning: covers the demand flow and how companies, organizations, and units collaborate ,environmental risk of nano particles within supply chains.Supply Chain Execution: covers the flow of materials, products and services as well as informational and financial flows both upstream and downstream including enviro risk.Supply Chain Performance: supports the decision-making process along the supply chains

  12. Mahaboob A. Bagali, Dharamraya I. Ingale, Nasheen Bagali, Nishikant N. Gujar, Wasim Ahmed Bennishirur and Atik, M. D

    Estimation of stature is most common in forensic practice and is important both for legal and humanitarian reasons. Most of the time at scene of crime incomplete skeleton is usually available. Among anatomical and mathematical methods for stature estimation, mathematical method is more preferred as in this we can estimate living stature of individual from single bone. Though numbers of formulae and equation have been given for stature estimation by various workers. In India Pearson’s formula is the most commonly used. Here we are estimating stature from radiologically measured humerus length from 107 Indian Adults of North Karnataka Bijapur city.

  13. Biswajit Batabyal, Bappa Mandal, and Dwaipayan saha

    Dengue, a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that produces variable symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening disease, is present in about 110 tropical and subtropical countries. As dengue is increasing in incidence, improved diagnosis, early detection of severe cases, and efficient medical management are of primary importance in all areas where dengue is endemic. Traditionally, dengue has been diagnosed by virus isolation or serological methods, but with recent advances in molecular techniques and in rapid detection technology, a range of novel diagnostic tests will soon be commercially available that will improve case management and aid disease control efforts.

  14. Shirurkar Deepavali, D. and Wahegaonkar Nilima, K.

    Fungal deterioration of stored grains is a chronic problem in the Indian storage system. When fungi associate with grains, they often reduce both the quality and yield of grains (Violeta et al., 2003). Mycotoxins produced by these fungi are hazardous for human beings and animals. In the present study, maize grains are fumigated by dry powders of leaves of Azadirecta indica (neem), seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain/ ajowan) and Anethum graveolens (Synonyms, Peucedanum graveolens) (Shepa/dill seeds), peels of Citrus sinensis (lemon), C. medica (sweet lime) and C. reticulate (orange) and stored in cotton bags for 30 days. The results indicated that fumigation of botanicals controlled growth of seed borne fungi viz Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium solani and Penicillium sp. All the natural product fumigation treatments applied were also significantly effective in enhancing seed germination, seedling length and chlorophyll content. The findings emphasize on toxicity of fumigation of botanicals against fungi attacking stored grain and strengthen the possibility of using them as an alternative to chemicals for preserving stored grains.

  15. Mukhtar Ahmad Sheikh, Anil K. Raina and Asma Hussan

    A total of 77 lichen species belonging to 38 genera and 18 families are enumerated from the three districts of Jammu & Kashmir. Kistwar district has maximum diversity of lichens represented by 43 species where as Jammu and Rajouri districts exhibits 30 and 19 species respectively. The crustose lichens have marked dominance over the other lichen forms represented by 41 species while as foliose and fruticose lichens are represented by 35 and 1 species respectively. Corticolous (growing on tree bark) lichen species exhibits their dominance in the area represented by 46 species while as saxicolous (growing on rocks) lichen species are represented by 28 species.

  16. Rekha, A., Dr. Rathina Kumar, M., Ashok Kumar, N. and Vanitha, D.

    In our present day to day life, power demand is the major problem of talking. The major causes for power demand is increasing no of utilities or lack of generation source. At any critical situation we will shed down excess of load in order to retrieve the power system stability. Shedding excessive load will affect other areas. In order to prevent that an optimum amount of load shed is needed. It is obtained by using fuzzy expert system as a tool. This has shown some improvement compared to conventional load shedding procedure.

  17. yyavoo Preamnath Manoharan, Ramasamy D. and Jayachandran, S. A

    The demand for ice cream production is increasing every year and vanilla is the second largest flavour wished in the world. Natural vanilla flavour being most expensive hence using natural identical flavour much advantage to meet the demand. Natural identical flavours are substances that are chemically identical to natural substances, but which are obtained by chemical processes or by chemical modification of other natural substances. An investigation was carried out to find the acceptable level of Natural identical vanilla flavour as a flavour the ice cream and assess the sensory scored of the resultant product. Natural identical vanilla flavour was incorporated at different level in ice cream and prepared ice cream was subjected to sensory analysis and found out the optimum level of inclusion of natural identical vanilla flavour in the ice cream preparation. Then sample were stored at -29C and studied for their sensory scores at weekly intervals.

  18. Gnanalakshmi K. S., Dhanalakshmi B., Ayyavoo Preamnath Manoharan A. and Baskaran D.

    A study has been designed to evaluate the effect of spray drying on the survivability of yoghurt culture and its storage stability in different conditionally preserved yoghurt. For that a standardized recipe of formulation were used to prepare the yoghurt with lactic acid fermenter viz., Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and then subjected to spray drying. Ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate were added to impart stabilization during storage because of the anti oxidant properties. Microbial analysis was carried out on different storage days 0 day, 30th day stored at (4 & 30˚C) with or without addition of stabilizer. The analyzed results revealed that, chemically stabilized yoghurt powder had showed higher microbial counts than the non-stabilizer added yoghurt powder and significantly (p<0.01) differed. Comparatively, survival rate for S. salivarius ssp. thermophilus was higher in chemically stabilized yoghurt powder than L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus at both the storage temperature up to 30 days. There was no significant difference in the survival of L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in spray dried and chemically stabilized spray dried powder during storage at 4C and 30C upto 30 days.

  19. Gnanalakshmi K. S., Dhanalakshmi B., Ayyavoo Preamnath Manoharan A. and Baskaran D.

    A study was undertaken to determine the viability of yoghurt culture on spray drying and freeze drying. In spray drying outlet air temperature of 70o C was found to be optimum as the percentage of survival of yoghurt culture was higher. The survival of yoghurt culture was found to be maximum in fresh yoghurt, followed by freeze dried powder and spray dried powder. Statistical analysis of data revealed that there was no significant difference in survival of S.salivarius ssp. thermophilus between freeze dried powder (zero day), (30th day at 4C) and chemically stabilized powder (zero day), (30th day at 4C) respectively.Statistical analysis of data with regard to survival of L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus revealed that there was significant difference (p < 0.01) noticed between freeze dried powder (zero day, 30th day at 4C) and chemically stabilized spray dried powder (zero day, 30th day at 4C) respectively.

  20. Jayachandran S., Malmarugan S., Nanjappan K., Selvaraj P. and Ayyavoo Preamnath Manoharan

    A study was undertaken to assess the vaginal health status in anestrus buffaloes treated with progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal devices. Bacterial culture swab taken at before insertion and immediately after removal of the CIDR and sponge revealed that the predominant bacterial species identified in all the groups were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. The isolates obtained were subjected to pathogenicity test that revealed all the isolates were non-pathogenic.

  21. Koppad, A.G. and Pavan Tikhile

    The study was conducted in Sirsi and Siddapur talukas (140 13' 0"N to 140 50' 0"N Latitude and 740 34' 0"E to 750 3' 30"E Longitude) of Uttar Kannada district to assess the influence of land use land cover on carbon sequestration in soil. The IRS P6 LISS-III imageries was used for land use land cover classes using ERDAS software with ground truth data. The land use classes viz., Dense forest, Sparse forest, Horticulture plantation, Agriculture and Barren-land were identified. The soil samples at one meter depth in all land use classes were collected and soil organic carbon (SOC) was estimated. The result indicated that the SOC in soils of different land use classes are significantly different. The total SOC in Sirsi taluka was 15.47 million tonne and that of Siddapur was 10.52 million tonne. The average SOC in Sirsi and Siddapur soil was 108.82 t/ha and 102.63 t/ha respectively. The Carbon mitigation potential in soils of dense forest was 2.78 times more in Sirsi and 2.86 times more in Siddapur taluka as compared to Agriculture soil followed by horticulture plantation in both taluka.

  22. Sibsankar Mal and Sumanta Mondal

    Floods, being natural phenomena, represent a hazard only with respect to human society. Therefore the human response and attitude are no less important in flood risk assessment. In Daspur-I block, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. The number of flood victims are still high in the area, mainly due to the lack of implementation of structural flood control measures. In this paper, studies of flood perception in the Daspur-I block are represented. This area was exposed to floods in every year, the most recent serious flood being in 2011 with loss of Rs. 4.12 crore Crops damaged. The aim of the study is to finding the general attitude toward the floods and flood control. The surveys revealed that floods present a serious threat in the eyes of the inhabitants, and that the perception of threat depends, to a certain degree, on the place of residence. More than 90% people of the area emphasis on the repair and strengthen of the embankments of the rivers to prevent flood. The surveys also highlighted, among the other measures, solidarity and the importance of insurance against floods.

  23. Soumi Naha, Tustu Mondal and Nirmalya Banerjee

    The epiphytic orchid Vanda testacea (Lindl.)Reichb.f. is widely known for its medicinal properties and high floristic value. Considering the poor seed germination under natural condition, seeds of Vanda testacea were cultured on Knudson’s C medium, enriched with various concentrations of organic additives and Plant growth regulators to study asymbiotic germination, seedling development and optimization of the cultural requirements. For initiation of germination, preference for particular additives was not observed and optimal germination was recorded in basal media. Seedling survival was not affected either with organic additives or with BAP (6-benzyl amino purine), but significantly retarded in presence of NAA (α-napthalene acetic acid). 0.1% peptone stimulated seedling growth while 0.4% yeast extract and 40% coconut water were inhibitory. However, NAA was stimulatory for seedling growth while BAP retarded this process. Yeast extract stimulated organized growth of seedlings, rather than allowing unorganized growth to form callus.

  24. Vanitha, D. and Rathinakumar, M.

    This paper presents a comparative study to find out the by comparing few already proposed models to find out the maximum best possible convertor to help in extracting maximum power point from solar Photovoltaic Cells (PV). This paper is study to find out a better model of solar array, DC convertor topology type (Boost and Buck type) and at last a convertor analysis. On the basis of these analyses a better model can found and be put into practice replacing the older versions. It is envisaged that the work can be useful for professionals for selecting an efficient and simple PV convertor. Though these are not experimentally observed but their experimental results are analyzed to put forth the final results.

  25. Ajit Singh, Laura, J. S. and Anju Rana

    The present study presents the distribution and health hazards of fluoride contamination and groundwater quality parameters in 23 villages of Jind district, Haryana, India. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among the school children in the age group of 5-12 years. 1428 children of different age group were examined and categorized with Dean’s Fluorosis Index as recommended by WHO. The groundwater fluoride concentration was in the range 0.2-2.0 mg/l. The villages were categorized as high fluoride level (1.5-2.0 mg/l) and low/ normal fluoride level villages (0.9-1.3mg/l) for comparison. The Community Fluorosis Index (CFI) in high fluoride villages ranged between 0.22-0.29 whereas low/normal fluoride level villages ranged between 0.09-0.21. In both the cases the value of CFI being lower than 0.4 as prescribed by DEAN Index. The prevalence of dental fluorosis varied from 17.10%-25% in the high fluoride level villages and 6.58%-16.38% in the low/normal fluoride level villages. Higher Fluorosis prevalence was found in high age group of 11-12 years and decreased in lower age groups. The findings showed the presence of dental fluorosis in the studied villages and also a proportional increase in prevalence of dental fluorosis with respect to increase in fluoride level in the potable water sources. However, the CFI was on the lower site in all villages.

  26. Siyanbola, T. O., James, O. O., Eromosele, C. O., Akinsiku, A. A., Nwinyi, O. C., Edobor-Osoh, A., Enebe, A. O., Anake, W. U. and Falomo, A. A.

    The study was carried out to assess the physicochemical properties, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of twenty five different edible vegetable oil samples collected from Ota, Ogun state in Nigeria for their domestic and commercial applications. The moisture contents (0.02 – 0.13%), acid values (0.46 – 1.73 mg KOH/g), saponification values (226.19 – 310.19 mg KOH/g), iodine values (0.06 – 1.17 mg I2/g) and the low pH values (0.0 – 2.49) generally make these vegetable oils to be more useful in industrial applications than consumed directly or indirectly as ingredients in food. The results of the phytochemical screening of these oil samples indicated the presence of terpenoids, deoxysugar, steroids and cardenolides. The microbial sensitivity tests showed that most of the vegetable oil samples exhibited no inhibitory power against candida, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli but only sample 25 (soya bean oil) was sensitive to these three microbes and its inhibition of these microbes was concentration dependent. The mineral contents of these oils showed detectable levels of Zn (2.57 – 21.43 ppm), Mn (0.12 – 0.98 ppm), Fe (2.21 – 97.41 ppm), Cu (0.49 – 61.70 ppm), Cd (0.42 – 0.74 ppm) and Pb (0.14 – 31.09 ppm) which were found to be above the WHO permissible limits for these metals in drinking water.

  27. Gnanambigai, S., Anisha, K. and Rathinakumar, M.

    In our country power demand is a major problem so we are going to introduce an algorithm based on genetic algorithm is proposed to solve service restoration problem in power distribution systems with priority customers. In genetic algorithm new solutions are found in every next generation with probability of getting the better solution till the optimal solution is not found. Service restoration problem is formulated as multi objective multi-constraint combinatorial optimization problem . The integer permutation scheme is used to generate the offspring in genetic algorithm. Integer permutation does not allow the hamming cliff problem. In case of partial restoration, including micro grid action that increases the power transfer capacity reduces out-of-service area. The operating time of manual and automatic controlled switches is significantly different. Therefore both type of switches are considered separately. The comprehensive simulation results of proposed method including three phase and load side fault are presented for 5 bus test systems.

  28. Dr. Sumathy Muniamuthu and Dr. R. Raju

    The ever increasing use of computers in various fields has led to rise in musculoskeletal problems related to its operation. The pre-tested Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) survey instrument that includes the constructs Equipment Design, Equipment Setup, Equipment Layout, Provision of Training, Work Environment, Psychosocial Work Aspect, Psychosocial Personal Aspect, Rest Break Frequency and Assumed Posture has been to solicit the respondents like Design Engineers, Systems Engineers, Managers, Data Entry Personnels working in Production, Service and Software industries in order to get their perceptions. The study was conducted in the state of Tamilnadu in South India. A total of about 600 questionnaires were distributed to the Video Display Terminals (VDT) users and 410 questionnaires were valid one. SPSS version 15.0 was used for all statistical computations. The associations of musculoskeletal disorders with gender were assessed to check whether the perception level of male VDT workers and female VDT workers on the MSD causing risk variables, MSD prevalence level and Job Prevention are different. From the results, it is understood that even though the male and female VDT workers perceive the same level of MSD prevalence, the female VDT users perceive the higher level of Assumed posture than the male VDT users, meaning that the women while using computers alter their body posture in a better way when compared to men. A hypothesis is framed and tested to check whether there is significant difference in the perception level of VDT users doing physical exercise and VDT users not doing physical exercise on the MSD causing risk factors, MSD prevalence and Job Prevention. It is inferred that the VDT users not doing physical activity perceive higher level of MSD prevalence when compared with VDT users doing physical activity. The association between computer workplace and the musculoskeletal disorder is also studied and the results show that the level of MSD prevalence level and Job Prevention differs significantly for various age groups since the value of significance is less than 0.05. The age group (35 – 40 years) perceives the higher level of MSD prevalence when compared to remaining age groups. Thus, our study suggests that MSDs are a common problem among those who use computer intensively. Results of this study can contribute to the development of appropriate hazard-prevention programs for workers who frequently use computers.

  29. Kalai arasi, R., Jeeva Gladys, R., Elangovan, S., Soundararajan, D. K., Mubarak, H. and Kanakarajan, A.

    In the present scenario Siddha system of medicine plays a vital role to combat against viral infections such as Dengue fever. It is an acute febrile illness caused by arthropod borne virus, the global prevalence of which has grown dramatically in recent decades. A large proportion of population who need hospitalization for this febrile ailment are mostly in paediatric age groups. Hence there is a need to explore effective Siddha formulations for its management. This pilot study is a descriptive clinical documentation of a set of Siddha formulations Nilvembu Kudineer (NVK) and Adathodai Manapagu (ADM) administered in twenty cases for a scheduled period of seven days. This documentation reveals that the scheduled intervention has a notable role in achieving satisfactory symptomatic relief and significant improvement in laboratory results. Further it is assured for safety in usage and no adverse effects were noted.

  30. Rajendra Nath, Dixit, R. K., Rishi Pal and Priyanka Rathi

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a lipophilic free radical diffusible gas that mediates significant and diverse signaling functions in almost every organ system in the body. It is formed from L- arginine a semi- essential amino acid present in the body with the help of three isoform of nitric oxide synthase (e.g. eNOS, nNOS and iNOS), eNOS and nNOS in cardiovascular system and nervous system respectively and inducible form produced during various body stress situations. Pharmacological compounds that release NO have been useful tools for evaluating the broad role of NO in physiology and therapeutics. NO deficiencies have been implicated in the generation and evolution of several disease states. Apart from newly developed drugs e.g. NO- Aspirin, several commonly used cardiovascular drugs exert their useful action, at least in part by modulating the NO pathway. This review discusses the fundamental pharmacological properties and mechanism of action of NO, their physiological effect in various system of the body and pathophysiological role in various disease process e.g. hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, shock and neurodegenerative diseases, either because of deficiency or excess of NO.

  31. Pravat Kumar Shit, Gouri Sankar Bhunia and Ramkrishna Maiti

    Field experimental study was conducted to observe the effectiveness of check dams for reducing runoff and sediment yield in small gully catchment area. In the first phase of experiment, rill-gullies were mapped based on field survey and rill-gully development were measured; and in the second phase, check dams were constructed in particular interval along the gully to assess its effects since 2010. Check-dams in the gully basin have played a very important role in reducing sediment yield by 41.5 percent through trapping sediment and reducing erosion. Check-dams depressed the sediment yield by reducing the power of concentrated flow to remove materials through raising base level of erosion. The sediment deposited upstream of check dams shows distinct sorting. This trapped deposit facilitated the growth of vegetation which again intensifies the stability of deposit and so check dam is proved to be an efficient method of controlling rill-gully in the present study.

  32. Mallika Manral, Prasanna Reddy, M. and SomNath Singh

    Each year millions of people including Armed Force personnels, mountaineers, tourists are exposed to high altitude. Hypoxia, cold and intense solar radiations at high altitude can exert a significant impact on physiology of the human beings. China, India, Pakistan and Nepal are countries in vicinity of Himalayas. Over the years studies have been carried out to understand various aspects of high altitude acclimatization.This review attempts to estimate quantity, scope and quality of high altitude research in these four countries. A systematic search of literature was carried out in electronic databases viz. www.sciencedirect.com and www.pubmed.com with acclimatization; oxygenation; SaO2; pulmonary function; altitude maladies (acute mountain sickness, chronic mountain sickness, High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema (HAPE/HAPO)); therapeutic agents (diamox, herbal remedies, Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, Hippophae rhamnoides); nutrition and genetic variation as keywords. It was observed that maximum numbers of studies on high altitude research have been carried out by China followed by Nepal, India and Pakistan. Amongst the different research areas of high altitude research, highest numbers of studies have been carried out on acclimatization followed by pulmonary function and acute mountain sickness.

  33. Gordon Kunbuma Tachang, Simeon-Pierrre Choukem, Jules Ndjebet, Anastase Dzudie and Vincent P. K Titanji

    Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as it components though low in Sub Saharan Africa, are on a steady rise. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of this syndrome using the modified International diabetic Federation (IDF) 2005 definition in the Littoral Region of Cameroon and to find out the cause of this rise in prevalence. Method: A representative sample of total of 1974(733 males and 1241 females) patients aged between 18 -80 years from 10 district hospitals in littoral Region of Cameroon was surveyed between May 2010 and April 2011. These 752 peri-urban and 1222 urban patients were interviewed on their personal medical history and lifestyle options. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist and Hip circumferences) were recorded using standardized methods by trained and certified medical personnel. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast for fasting blood sugar determination. Results: Based on the IDF 2005 definition, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 8.4 [95% C I] 7.2%-9.7%). Considering the other definitions, a prevalence rate of 2.5% [C I: 1.8%-3.3%] was obtained using the National Cholesterol Education Program –Adult Treatment Panel(NCEP-ATP III) definition and 1.9% (95 %C.I:1.3-2.6%) based on the WHO, 1999 definition. The prevalence rate was higher in urban than peri-urban(2.4% vs. 1.1%).Central obesity was more prevalent in females than males while hypertension and fasting blood sugar had a higher prevalence in males.The prevalence rate of the components [male: female] were central obesity,16.0%[5.3-24.7], High blood pressure 6.7% [10.8:3.3], Elevated blood glucose 1.2% [2,1:0.4] For all the three definitions of Metabolic Syndrome, the prevalence increased with age[18-36years:0.3%;37-55years 1.7% and >56years 6.2%]. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of the MS between the three age groups for all the different definitions (p<0.001). Regardless of the definition of MS employed, no significant difference in the prevalence of MS between males and females was observed. The prevalence of central obesity and diastolic hypertension were highest among the components. Conclusion: This study gave a prevalence rate of 8.4% (IDF definition) in the Littoral Region of Cameroon. The rate increased with age as expected, and there was no significant difference between the estimates for men and women. Central obesity and diastolic hypertension were observed to be the most prevalent components of MS.

  34. Nirali Dave, Sameer Sheaikh

    Transdermal drug delivery system was first introduced more than 20 years ago. The technology generated tremendous excitement and interest amongst major pharmaceutical companies in the 1980s and 90s. By the mid to late 1990s, the trend of transdermal drug delivery system merged into larger organizations. Transdermal drug delivery system is a type of convenient drug delivery system where drug goes to the systemic circulation through the protective barrier i.e. Skin. Over the year it has showed promising result in comparison to oral drug delivery system as it eliminates gastrointestinal interferences and first pass metabolism of the drug but the main drawback of TDDS is it encounters the barrier properties of the Stratum Corneum i.e. only the lipophilic drugs having molecular weight < 500 Da can pass through it. Ethosomes have been found to be much more efficient in delivering drug to the skin; Ethosomes are the non invasive drug delivery carriers that enable drugs to reach the deep skin layers finally delivering to the systemic circulation. For optimal skin delivery, drug should be efficiently entrapped within ethosomal vesicles. Ethosomal drug delivery system is a new state of the art technique and easier to prepare in addition to safety and efficacy. Ethosomes have become a area of research interest, because of its enhanced skin permeation, improved drug delivery, increased drug entrapment efficiency etc.

  35. Mohammad Kaosar Ahmed, PhD

    Mother Teresa, a woman world famous for her faith has felt no presence of God for the last half century of her life. Though she has always greeted everybody with smile, a recently published book Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light featuring more than forty communications between Teresa and her superiors and confessors reveals that she has experienced spiritual ‘dryness’, ‘loneliness’ and ‘torture’. This article attempts to show the discrepancy between her thought and her cheery public appearance which she maintains smiling, ‘a clock that covers everything’.

  36. Nurcan Ilday, Nilgun Akgul, and Pinar Gul

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of four different restorations. Method: Thirty-two extracted human upper molar teeth of similar size and free of caries were used. These were randomly divided into four groups of eight specimens each. Teeth in Group I were restored using a hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE, USA) with polyethylene fiber (Ribbond THM, USA). In Group II, an amalgam with self-threading pins was used. Teeth in Group III were restored using a hybrid composite resin with a self etch adhesive (G bond, Japan). The final restoration used amalgam and a meta adhesive system (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray, Japan) (Group IV). Each specimen was loaded in compression at a 90o angle in a universal testing machine (Instron, Corporation, USA) with a cross head spread of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test for fracture resistance. Result: Group IV exhibited the lowest fracture resistance (p<0.05). Although group III exhibited the highest resistance, there was no statistically significant difference among group I, II and III (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that a bonded composite restoration should be first choice for cuspal replacement.

  37. Nirmala, R., Gnanesh A. U., Anshu Rani, Shashidhar, H. E.

    The aim of the present study was to develop candidate gene specific polymorphic DNA marker(s) to detect the restorer lines of wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility source in rice. To suppress the male sterility inducing components of mitochondria, nuclear genome encoded proteins need to be targeted to mitochondria with the help of signal peptide. Fertility restoration in crop species is governed by the pentatricopeptide proteins and proteins involved in the cellular oxidoreductase processes. Therefore, the present study was focused on (i) identifying the genomic regions code for these genes using rice genome database, (ii) listing the number of genes possess mitochondrial targeting signal peptide sequence, (iii) develop primer pairs to amplify the region of signal peptide sequence regions, (iv) assess the polymorphism if any, and (v) validate the polymorphic markers among germplasm lines known for their fertility restoration ability. Earlier reports on molecular mapping of fertility restorer genes (Rfs) in rice indicated Rf genes are located on chromosome 1 and 10 and therefore these two chromosomes were chosen for the genome analysis. A set of 132 loci out of 393 clones from chromosome 1 and 84 loci out of 202 clones from chromosome 10 were found to possess the select genes of interest. Using Mitoprot software, genes containing the mitochondrial signal sequences were identified and their sequences were retrieved. A set of 59 sequence tagged site (STS) markers to amplify at and around the region of mitochondrial signal sequence were developed. Amplification check of these primers was performed initially with two cytoplasmic male sterile lines namely IR58025A and Pusa6A and two restorer lines KMR3 and PRR78. Out of 59 markers analyzed, two markers namely CGS2 and CGS36 were polymorphic among CMS and restorer lines. Therefore, these markers were analyzed further among a set of 30 CMS lines, 34 maintainer lines, 54 restorer lines and two F2 segregating populations for the validation. The efficiency of the marker to detect the restore lines was found to be 87.5%. Marker-trait association analysis revealed STS marker CGS36 was associated with the restoration trait at the significance level of p <0.001 and its phenotypic variance was 71.74%. This result indicated the STS marker CGS36 as informative to detect the restorer lines.

  38. Anitha Aldrin and Gayatri, R.

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge from your emotions and the emotions of others. You can use the information about what you're feeling to help you make effective decisions about what to say or do (or not say or do) next. Emotional Intelligence is NOT about being soft! It is a different way of being smart – having the skill to use your emotions to help you make choices in-the-moment and have more effective control over yourself and your impact on others. The study of emotional intelligence is often dated to the early 1990s, when scientific articles suggested that there existed an unrecognized but important human mental ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance thought. The basics of Emotional Intelligence include knowing your feelings and using them to make life decisions with which you can live. Being able to manage your emotional life without begin hijacked by it or allowing yourself to become paralyzed by depression or worry, or worse, swept away by anger, is key in today’s volatile and changing workplace. Cultivating Emotional Intelligence can provide the support that you need in the face of setbacks, and a positive channelling of your impulses can be critical to keep you on target and on track as you pursue your goals. An emotionally intelligent person has empathy, not sympathy, for the other person without them having to tell you exactly what they are feeling or going through. In today’s work place this skill is critical in light of privacy laws, and issues of work place harassment. A skillful handling of emotion and feelings in the workplace is critical for the diverse personalities and skills that allow all to move in the same goal direction in some form of harmony. Emotional Intelligence allows the unspoken pulse of a group to work to get things done, sometimes the impossible, given all of the differing ideas, skills and agendas that sometimes come together. Generally speaking, emotional intelligence improves an individual's social effectiveness. The higher the emotional intelligence, the better the social relations. Emotional Intelligence is described as a combination of personal competence and social competence. Wall Street Journal, previous Chairman of GE Jack Welch stated, “A leader’s intelligence has to have a strong emotional component. He has to have high levels of self-awareness, maturity and self-control. He or she must be able to withstand the heat, handle setbacks and when those lucky moments arise, enjoy success with equal parts of joy and humility. No doubt emotional intelligence is more rare than book smarts, but my experience says it is actually more important in the making of a leader. You just can't ignore it.”

  39. Ramezan Ali Ataee, Ahamadi Kazem, Mohammad Hossain Ataee, Ali Mehrabi Tavana and Mohammad Hosein Kalantar Motamedi

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of human placental lipopolysaccharide (HP-LPS) on activation of macrophages. We isolated and characterized the lipopolysaccharide from human placenta and E. coli by Westphal's method. The effects of different concentrations of E. coli and HP- LPS were assayed on mice macrophages and nitric oxide production was measured using Griess's method; data were then analyzed. Results showed that using the Westphal method, HP- LPS could be isolated as well as Gram-negative bacterial LPS. The results indicate that the HP- LPS had ability to stimulate mice macrophages to produce nitric oxide. Detoxified LPS Gram-negative bacteria in concentrations of more than 500 ng/ml showed toxicity. Whereas, HP- LPS at concentration of 1000 ng/ml had a significant effect on nitric oxide production. In addition, the isolated HP- LPS had no pyrogenic effects. The findings of this study suggest that the HP- LPS shows activity similar to Gram- negative bacterial endotoxin which stimulates macrophages to produce nitric oxide. These properties indicate that this substance acts as a detoxified Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin. Because of its human origin, it has no toxic effects and may be a safe adjuvant.

  40. Pratibha J. Mishra

    Over the past decades a growing number of companies, globally have recognized the business benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies and practices. Their experiences are bolstered by a growing body of empirical studies, which demonstrate that CSR has a positive impact on business economic performance, and is not harmful to shareholder value. Companies also have been encouraged to adopt or expand CSR efforts as the result of pressures from customers, suppliers, employees, communities, investors, activist organizations and other stakeholders. As a result, CSR has grown dramatically in recent years, with companies of all sizes and sectors developing innovative strategies. The term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is not new in the Indian context too. A Few companies have incorporated it in their core values; a lot of them practice it in some form or the other. All the leading industrial associations have included it in their agendas. A survey of about 600 companies in India commissioned by Partners in Change and published in the year 2000 has revealed that more than 85% of the industries surveyed agreed that companies must be socially responsible.

  41. Adewole Adekanmi, Faparusi Foluso, Olayinka Ebenezer Tunde and Bello-Akinosho, M. M.

    Malaria is a persistent ailment in tropical Africa and mortality to it has been in million especially among the highly prone group of young children and pregnant women. The study investigated the adoption of Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) as first line drug treatment of malaria among mothers of child bearing age. A minimum sample size of 384 was determined based on a 95% confidence level, 5% margin of error and a reasonable estimate of 50% adopting ACT for malaria treatment. The sample size was however increased to 400 to make room for missing data. The result shows poor adoption of the new drug treatment policy among the respondents. It was concluded that the major barrier to the adoption of the new treatment policy is cost of procuring the drug, less accessibility to it especially in the interior villages and poor knowledge of its efficacy. Therefore the study concluded that government and other stakeholders as a matter of priority should increase the public awareness and make it available at reduced price.

  42. Agui, D. K.

    This study investigated influence of organizational learning on motivation among teachers of Nandi county public secondary schools. It specifically assessed the influence of learning from past experience, and learning from others, and quick and efficient knowledge transfer on teacher motivation. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. A sample of 82 teachers was drawn from 5 schools selected using cluster sampling technique to participate in the survey by completing structured questionnaires, developed by the researcher. The data was analyzed descriptively using means and percentages and presented in tables and graphs. The results revealed that learning from past experience, and learning from others, and quick and efficient knowledge transfer, as aspects of organizational learning, had an influence on teacher motivation, with teachers who reported that their schools had good environment that fostered these aspects scoring higher in motivation. The study concludes that organizational learning has an influence on motivational levels of public secondary school teachers in Nandi County, Kenya. The study recommends that school heads introduce multi-discipline empowerment where employees are allowed to learn another relevant skill, employ mentoring and couching as a developmental tool for staff, create space and time for individuals and teams to be innovative.

  43. Joseph T. Nwabanne and Philomena K. Igbokwe

    Statistical optimization study for the production of activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was carried out using response surface methodology. Chemical activation method using phosphoric acid was employed. A three-variable Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to evaluate the preparation of activated carbon. The activation temperature and retention time plus the phosphoric acid/precursor impregnation ratio for the production of activated carbons were optimized based on the percentage removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for Pb2+ adsorption were as follows: activation temperature of 8000C, activation time of 2hr and acid impregnation ratio of 1.5:1 (acid/precursor, wt basis) which resulted in 90.28% uptake of Pb2+. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The result of adsorption studies showed that activated carbon produced from EFB is a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution.

  44. Kannadasan, N., Sekar, P., Cholan, T. and Krishnamoorthy, R.

    Our country has enormous scope for developing both marine and inland fisheries as a major industry. India has a long coastal line of 6,100 km with a vast area of continental shelf, spread on both the west and east coast were the fishing operations are carried out. The natural catching of fish and fishery production could not meet the exponential growth of world population. Existing ponds and swamp lands as well as agricultural system can profitably used for aqua food production. The maintenance of water quality is essential for both survival and optimum growth. The water quality parameter like temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon-di-oxide, salinity, calcium. The biological variables such as qualitative and quantitative study of phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish growth were analyzed, the readings were recorded on the twice a month. Surface temperature of culture pond of varies between 25.3˚C to 33.2˚C. The temperature is responsible for regulative some physiological process both under nature and artificial conduction. The hydrogen ion concentration of the pond has a little variation. The highest pH is (8.1 pH) of was recorded on first week of March, the CO¬2 is a limiting factor for the pH. The turbidity of water ranging from 35-41cm, normally turbidity of water affected by the growth of phytoplankton and rainwater inflow from the river. The oxygen content in a water body is the function of temperature as well as phytosynthesis and community respiration. The phytoplankton population gradually increased from December to March during the study period. The phytoplankton increase may be due to high light intensity. Among the three fishes in the order of cypriniforms like Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala maximum weight was recorded for the fish Catla than the other groups. An organisms which have direct influence on the activities of the organisms.

  45. Shivani Watak and Swati Patil S.

    Background: Cancer is a bubonic plague to mankind for which presently, there is no cure Chemopreventive plant compounds such as catechin, curcumin affect all phases of the cancer process, i.e., tumor initiation, promotion and progression. But major drawback of these phenolic compound is their poor bioavailability Objective: Literature resources reveled that formation of complex of these phenolic compound with mineral will increase Bioavailability and free radical scavenging activity: Which stimulate our interest to form herbomineral complex and evaluate its effect on free radical scavenging and anticancer activity Material and Method: Herbomineral complex was formed by the process of chelation Phenolic compounds such as Catechin, Curcumin and polyphenols from Trigonella foenum graecum extract chelate the divalent metal ions Zn2+in weakly acidic aqueous solution. Formed complex was screened for anticancer activity on human nesopharyngeal cell line kB. Herbomineral complex of catechin and Trigonella foenum graecum extract showed potent anticancer activity.In the present study an attempt was also made to prove the therapeutic effect of herbomineral complexes of these drug

  46. Jiten Singh Soram, Sunita Gurumayum, Abujam, S. K. S., Sanjay Dakua and Biswas, S. P.

    The present study has been taken up in the Sidzii streams of Mao, Manipur, a tributary of Doyang River, the largest and longest river of Nagaland during December 2011 to November 2012. The highest Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC) value was observed in male Puntius sophore during October with a corresponding value of 2.23x106/mm3 of blood while the lowest value was recorded in female Parluciosoma daniconius during February with the value of 1.12x106/mm3 of blood. Among the female fishes, highest TEC value was recorded in Puntius ticto with the value of 2.18x106/mm3 of blood during October while the lowest value was found in Parluciosoma daniconius during May. Again, in male fishes, the maximum TEC value was observed in Puntius sophore with the value of 2.23x106/mm3 of blood during October and minimum TEC was recorded in Parluciosoma daniconius with the value of 1.17x106/mm3 of blood during February. In all the four seasons, male fishes have comparatively more TEC values than their female counterparts. However, in July, the TEC value were found to be higher in females of Puntius sophore and Puntius ticto with the corresponding values recorded as 1.54x106/mm3 and 1.59x106/mm3 of blood respectively. It was also observed that the higher TEC values for all three species were recorded during post-monsoon as compared to the other seasons.

  47. Felistus Nyamoma, Poipoi W. Moses and Kennedy Bota

    In the current education system academic-based peer counseling is increasingly becoming critical. Its success depends on the perception of teachers and students on the influence of peer counseling services. The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of peer counseling services on academic performance as perceived by teachers and students in Kaka mega South District. The study was based on the fifth stage of Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The study population comprised of 23 principals, 349 teachers and 7160 students. Questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data. Content validity was established by giving the instruments to experts in the department of Educational psychology. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages. Qualitative data was received in verbatim, transcribed and organized according to themes. A higher proportion of students compared to teachers in the district have a positive perception of participation in joint academic discussions, small subject-based peer counseling groups is perceived as having a direct influence on students’ academic performance. The study concluded that, Joint academic discussions and small subject-based discussion groups are the key PC services. The study recommends that there is need for stakeholders in education to enhance academic performance through exploitation of the benefits of joint group discussions and small subject-based discussion groups.

  48. Ahmed M. Azam

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to show Effect of scapular mobilization on improvement of shoulder flexion in erbs palsy. Method: Thirty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned into two groups; group A (scapular mobilization plus traditional physiotherapy program), and group B(traditional physiotherapy program only). Standard goniometer was used to detect and follow shoulder flexion in addition to stand and reach test. This measurement was taken before initial treatment and after 12 weeks of treatment. The children parents in both groups B were instructed to complete 3 hours of home routine program. Results: Data analysis were available on the 30 Erb's palsy children participated in the study. The mean value of shoulder flexion ROM test in both groups at baseline measurement (pre-treatment) was insignificant (p>.05). By comparison of both groups there was significant improvement in shoulder flexion ROM post-treatment (p<.05). the difference between pre and post treatment results was significant in both groups in favor of the study group (p=0.0079). Conclusion: According the results of this study it can be concluded that the combined effect of physiotherapy training program in addition to scapular mobilization can be recommended in improvement shoulder flexion range of motion in erbs palsy children.

  49. Velsamy, G., Manoharan, N. and Ganesan, S.

    The Uppanar estuary runs behind the SIPCOT complex which is located at Cuddalore. The present study was conceded out to conclude the heavy metals in sediments samples Uppanar Estuary, Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India. The data obtained during period January to December 2012 reveled that six heavy metals of two stations. The minimum and maximum values of heavy metal ranges in sediment Iron, Copper Zinc, Cadmium, Chromium and Nickel were 1.88 to 6.48 and 1.24 to 6.32; 0.35 to 1.37 and 0.25 to 1.32; 0.35 to 1.25 and 0.31 to 1.12; 0.13 to 0.52 and 0.12 to 0.36; 0.13 to 0.68 and 0.12 to 0.53 and 0.11 to 0.69 and 0.09 to 0.53 at the two stations with minimum and maximum mean values of 4.60±1.78 (S1) and 4.31±1.87 (S2); 0.95±0.38 (S1) and 0.81±0.37 (S2); 0.74±0.28 (S1) and 0.66±0.25 (S2); 0.32±0.12 (S1) and 0.27±0.09 (S2); 0.35±0.20 (S1) and 0.28±0.18 (S2); 0.33±0.20 (S1) and 0.26±0.14 (S2) values was respectively. The results indicate that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and normal monitoring will help to adopt severe pollution control measures for better managing of the aquatic area.

  50. Balraj Velu, Rajnish Garg and Paul Rostron

    The preferential weld corrosion of X65QT pipe line steel material due to inadvertent usage of unqualified welding electrodes at site conditions and the factors influencing the corrosion resistance was examined. The resultant change in chemical composition and microstructure effects on various weld zones by LPR (LPR) and Galvanic corrosion (GC) methods under aerated condition in natural sea water was studied. Four types of commercial electrodes were used and its influence on root weld corrosion is discussed. The heat affected zone (HAZ) of all the welds resulted as more anodic than the weld and base metal. The influence of weld root hardness was found to have less significant for the electrodes used. The elements like Cr, Ni shows increased corrosion resistance. Mo in combination with Cr results in higher level of cathodic effect. Ni content is outperforming than Cr+Mo on corrosion resistance. Si equally contributes corrosion resistance compared to Ni. The type of metallurgical grain shows significant effect on corrosion characteristics.

  51. Acharya Souvagini, Nilamadhab Prusty, Ranjan Kumar Guru, Sujata Panda

    This study on salivary gland tumors was undertaken for a period of one year with particular reference to age ,sex, site and histological types. Tumors were analysed according to the age, sex, site and histological type .Principal site was the parotid (73.2%).Pleomorphic adenoma(83.3%) formed the largest group of tumors.Benign tumors were common in 4th and 5th decades where as malignant tumors were more common in 6th decades.Lump was the commonest presentation and was present in 100% cases. The features of rapid growth, fixity, hard constistency and associated facial paralysis or hypoglossal nerve paralysis were indicative of malignancy.

  52. Rani, R. and Sivakumar, K.

    Monitoring of water quality with regards to physical and chemical properties and distribution of nutrients are inadequate. Biological indicators of water quality monitoring developed during the recent years have served an excellent tools in the area of water pollution studies. According to the Western Australian Planning Commission (2003) water protection integrated over time and space has become a high priority issue for the public and government at all levels. Among all the algae, fresh water diatoms are the most commonly used indicators of the conditions of the water. Several diatom indices are tested for lakes in other countries, but have not used for river water systems. Diatom monitoring studies in India have suffered since their identification is difficult and extensive literature is not available mainly. Therefore the study aims that identification of diatom flora and distribution of nutrients in fresh water river in Chidambaram. Water samples from palaman river were collected during January 2011 to December 2011 at monthly intervals for studying various physico-chemical parameters and nutrient were analysed viz. Temperature, pH, Salinity, Dissolved oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, Chloride, Phosphate, Sulphate, Nitrate, and Silicate. Phytoplankton density and diversity was more or less uniform throughout the study period. However the community structure of the phytoplankton varied from season to season. During post-monsoon and summer 15 genera of the phytoplankton were recorded whereas 9 genera were recorded during pre-monsoon season. Nitzschia intermedia, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Cyclotella automus, Navicula cryptocephala, Melosira varians were strong indicators of organic pollution, while Amphora ovalis, Pinnularia gibba, Synedra ulna, Synedra acus, Cymbella tumida, Gomphonema olivaceum, Nitzchia gracilis, Cocconeis pediculus and Navicula amphiceropsis were indicators of anthropogenic pollution which was mainly due to cattle ranching around these river. Possible causes for the temporal variation of the water quality parameters and community structure of the phytoplankton have been described.

  53. Pradip Kharya, Arti Gupta, Hariom Solanki

    Rapid and unplanned urbanization has led to an enormous increase in the number of motor vehicles world-wide. World Health Organization estimated that across the world road traffic accidents kill 1.3 million people and injure another 50 million people every yearly. In India more than a lakh of people lost their lives due to road traffic accidents in the year 2009. The most common causes for road traffic accidents are over speeding, non usage of safety measures, driving under the influence of alcohol, distracted driving especially mobile phone distraction, poor road design, Poor visibility, over confidence, ignorance, tendency to overtake from wrong side and lack of adequate infrastructure. Improvement in quality and availability of injury related indicators providing useful data on the effects of crashes is needed for efficient planning. A number of factors affecting the occurrence of road traffic accidents need to be considered within the system approach. Principal preventable factors need to be acted on include better road design and traffic management, improving maintenance of vehicles, enforcement of speed limits, use of seat belts and helmets and strictly dealing with offenders of traffic laws including severe punishment for driving under influence of alcohol or drugs.

  54. Nuruddeen Muhammad Koko

    Nigerians are gradually discontented with the democratization process heretofore. This is ascribable to the spectre of fraud, massive rigging, malfeasance etc that characterized electoral processes in the country, specifically from the 1999 general elections to the 2011 general elections. Against this background, this paper debates the complex web of electoral malpractices and its eventful crusade that can instigate a chain reaction, eventually leading to state collapse. The bottom line is that, attitude and excesses of stakeholders lie central to the integrity and credibility crises confronting the electoral process in the country. Thus, the paper seeks to explain the connection between electoral malpractice and state collapse. It provides answers to questions as; what is state collapse? What are the significant features of state collapse? What are the implications of diminished confidence in the democratic process to state formation? Answers to these and other questions may provide a window to arresting the slides from failed elections to a failed state.

  55. Ataee Ramezan Ali, Mehrabi Tavana Ali Hossain Najdegerami Esmaiel and Hossaini Said Mohammad, M. D.

    Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well known Gram positive diplococci. This bacterium has the second most important pathogen in cases of meningitis in children under 2 years and elderly too. Currently more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes have been identified based on their antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides. Because the factors affecting serotype variation are not well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between in the types of Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after lyophilization. Materials and methods: In this experimental study 50 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected and reidentified. Quelling reaction test as one of the serotyping methods were carried out (based on SSI protocol- Statens Serum Institute protocol).The results of the first step was recorded and then samples were lyophilized. In the second step the lyophilized samples were been reserotyped again and the results was compared. Results: The results of this study showed that there is no difference was occurred between the serotypes before and after lyophilization. Therefore lyophilization of Streptococcus pneumoniae has not affect on serotype diversity. In addition, we found that the isolates were belonging to serotypes of 7, 2, 5, 1, 6, 8, 4, 20, 3, 17, 19, 14, 22 and 10. Only one isolate was nonserotypable. Discussion and Conclusion: The finding of this study indicated that lyophilization use for maintenance samples can not change the types of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. If we haven’t any preparation for serotyping of isolates, we can use lyophilization as a way for conserve of our samples. On the other hand, when the equipment and material are not available in some case condition, we would perform lyophilize the clinical isolate and do serotyping later. In this research, serotyping has been done based on immunologic reaction but for accurate recognition due to the effects of lyophilization on serotypes diversity, further study is necessary to determine existence or inexistence of eventually mutation.

  56. Gayathramma, K., Pavani, K. V., Aparajitha Banerjee and Shah Suresh

    There is an increasing demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, energy, and medicine. In this study synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Clitorea ternatea flowers is reported. The reduction of silver (Ag+) was monitored using UV- visible spectrophotometry and showed formation of silver nanoparticles in 60mins. The reaction mixture exhibits an absorbance peak around 450 nm characteristic of Ag nanoparticle. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed silver nanoparticles was pure and polydispersed and the size were ranging from 10-50 nm. The approach of green synthesis seems to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis.

  57. Sanghamitra Jahari

    In medieval times different tribal kingdoms emerged in the North Eastern region of India. The Dimasa Kacharis, Ahoms, Jayantias, Tripuris and the Koches experimented with the task of state building which reoriented their kingdom from a tribal to that of a hinduised kingdom. Sanskritisation which has been used to describe the process of socio-cultural changes occurring in India has been used to study this process of assimilation of the tribals into the Hindu fold. In this process the Brahmans acted as catalysts of change by exercising their influence among the kings through their expertise in Vedic rites, playing the role of religious advisers in state affairs and by providing the tribal kings with a genealogy tracing their descent to a Hindu mythological hero.

  58. Akuagwu Agwu and Rita N. Ozeh

    The quality of ambient air in Aba metropolis, a commercial city in Abia State of Nigeria has been assessed by determining the levels of Total particulate matter (TPM), Carbon (II) Oxide (CO), Nitrogen (IV) Oxide (NO2), Sulphur (IV) Oxide (SO2), Hydrogen (II) Sulphide (H2S), and Methane (CH4) at ten different sampling points. The analysis was carried out between the months of July and August 2011, and a Crowncom portable gas analyzer was used for each of the determinations. The mean values obtained for CO, NO2 and H2S exceeded the standard regulatory limits (EPA and NAAQS) in all the sample points with the exception of the control point. The study showed that there is need for the control and monitoring of ambient air in Aba metropolis by the relevant agencies.

  59. Michael Sammanasu, J.

    This paper deals with the recent trends in human resource management and the need for human resource professionals to demonstrate an understanding of the business in the way they formulate their HR strategies viz strategy for innovation, strategy of managing changes and cost reduction strategy. In 21st Century the human resource professionals require an understanding of organistional behaviour organization theory, human resource management and organizational development as an integrated and innovative way for them to be able to solve business problems and contribute meaningfully to the global growth. This will require conceptual learning, reflective learning, action learning and observational learning. These learning will enable the up gradation of professional skills and capabilities of the HR professionals and allow them to remain contemporary in the way they look at phenomena.

  60. Anne Syomwene

    Oral work lessons which encompass the teaching of listening and speaking skills are central in the teaching of English and all other languages in general. This paper is a report on a study on the teaching of oral work lessons in English that was undertaken in Nandi North District in Kenya in the year 2009. The study investigated teacher competences in the selection of appropriate learning activities and the conveyance of the meaning of new language items during oral work lessons. The study adopted a theoretical framework based on Vygotsky’s (1978) theory of social interaction. It utilized a qualitative research approach with a heuristic methodology. An exploratory research design was used. The research population consisted of primary school teachers teaching English in upper primary classes and standard six pupils. Data was collected using structured and focused group interview schedules, observation checklists and document analysis. The study delved on two objectives: To find out the kind of learning activities that the teachers selected for oral work lessons; To find out the methods that teachers used to convey the meaning of new language items during oral work lessons. This paper is a discussion of the findings, conclusions and recommendations of this study.

  61. Rajila, C., Liji, T., Rinku Sundar and Suganyadevi, P.

    Amylase was produced by Aspergillus niger utilizing Curcuma angustifolia as a carbon source in submerged fermentation. The effect of varying pH of the medium, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of α- amylase was investigated. The maximum activity of α-amylase was recorded after 7 days of submerged fermentation at pH 5 and room temperature 28⁰C. The enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger can be used in industrial process after characterization. The maximum amylase activity was recorded as 345 U/mg.

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