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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

April 2013

The demand for natural food colourants is increasing because of public awareness of their health benefits. Caramel is made heating sugar (cane / beet) whose colours range from the palest yellows to the deepest browns. They are used for colouring dairy products, meat and frozen desserts. An investigation was carried out to find the acceptable level of caramel liquid as a natural colouring agent for ice cream and assess the sensory scored of the resultant product.

Migration is a process that gets intensified with the process of economic development. Among the various migration streams like rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-rural and urban-urban, population mobility from rural to urban areas is a common and ever-increasing phenomenon in India. Interestingly, this rural-urban migration is observed to have significant implications to the development of urban informal sector.

Background: Lymphadenopathy is a common presenting symptom in various diseases.¹ Lymphadenopathy, which is defined as an abnormality in the size or character of lymph-nodes, is caused by the invasion or propagation of either inflammatory cells or neoplastic cells into the node.² Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a diagnostic tool in cases of Malignant Lymphadenopathy.

Every organization envisioned at maximizing the productivity and the profit. The company never fails to show immense interest on knowing their customer requirements. Fulfilling the needs and satisfying the customers becomes very much essential, hence a satisfied customer is an unpaid advertiser for the company. It is equally important to satisfy the dealers and retailers if the company is in the business of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGS). The consumer behaviour varies from brand to brand on the basis of quality, quantity, price, taste, advertisement etc.

Resettlement and Rehabilitation (RandR) form an important constituent of any developmental project – be it internally financed or externally funded. Since benefit to the people, who are at the centre of development process, is a prime concern for success or failure of any project, assessing the same remains a vital component of the project implementation. To measure implementation process of any RandR Project, with particular reference to the perceived benefit accrued to the people, Monitoring and Evaluation (MandE) is very crucial and important.

1. By the middle of the last century the hippocampal formation started to be one of the most studied structures of the nervous system. The present study was conducted using 45 albino rats of either sex (150-200 gm) and divided into 3 equal groups. First group was control and received water and food ad-libitum, second group was experimental receiving chronic depression for 7 weeks by immobilization method, the third group received Flouxetine drug (1mg/kg body weight orally) for 4 weeks following chronic depression.

Background and Objectives: “Management of Common Bile Duct-Different Modalities”, is a prospective study comparing the three different modalities viz. endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP), open CBD exploration and laparoscopic CBD exploration. The study was conducted with an objective to compare and contrast these different modalities and to study the advantage of ERCP over surgical methods. Methods: 50 cases of common bile duct stones admitted in JSS Medical College Hospital, Mysore,were selected for the study.

This study investigated the role of social self-efficacy and psychological strain among various managerial employees in different sectors across the levels and job tenures in India. The sample included 400 managerial employees from several organizations. The results of the ANOVA were significant for few variables. Duncan multiple range test was conducted to know the significant differences among the groups for both social self-efficacy and psychological strain. Study found the strong relationship between social self-efficacy and psychological strain.

It is believed that from the time Adam and Eve were born the bond of marriage, the concept of marriage took its birth. Marriage is a sacramental relationship under Hindu law. It is a legal contract under Mahomedan law. Whether it is sacramental relationship or a contract, it has got its own ethics and principles. It is also treated has God made relationship. It is a relationship between a man and a woman, basically to beget children and also share each other companionship through the life. But things are changing.

The Uses and Gratifications Theory suggests that people have different socio-psychological traits, which may affect the way and the reasons they use social media to satisfy their personal needs. In the Internet environment, users are even more actively engaged communication participants, compared to other traditional media. This study aims to examine the relationship between personality factors and Facebook use, and whether gender and age play a role in the dynamics. The study revealed that younger Facebook users had higher levels of extraversion and agreeableness.

Environmental nanotechnologies have the possibility to contribute to economic growth and innovation while at the same time allowing sustainable development and protecting the environment.

Estimation of stature is most common in forensic practice and is important both for legal and humanitarian reasons. Most of the time at scene of crime incomplete skeleton is usually available. Among anatomical and mathematical methods for stature estimation, mathematical method is more preferred as in this we can estimate living stature of individual from single bone. Though numbers of formulae and equation have been given for stature estimation by various workers. In India Pearson’s formula is the most commonly used.

Dengue, a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that produces variable symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening disease, is present in about 110 tropical and subtropical countries. As dengue is increasing in incidence, improved diagnosis, early detection of severe cases, and efficient medical management are of primary importance in all areas where dengue is endemic.

Fungal deterioration of stored grains is a chronic problem in the Indian storage system. When fungi associate with grains, they often reduce both the quality and yield of grains (Violeta et al., 2003). Mycotoxins produced by these fungi are hazardous for human beings and animals. In the present study, maize grains are fumigated by dry powders of leaves of Azadirecta indica (neem), seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (ajwain/ ajowan) and Anethum graveolens (Synonyms, Peucedanum graveolens) (Shepa/dill seeds), peels of Citrus sinensis (lemon), C. medica (sweet lime) and C.

A total of 77 lichen species belonging to 38 genera and 18 families are enumerated from the three districts of Jammu & Kashmir. Kistwar district has maximum diversity of lichens represented by 43 species where as Jammu and Rajouri districts exhibits 30 and 19 species respectively. The crustose lichens have marked dominance over the other lichen forms represented by 41 species while as foliose and fruticose lichens are represented by 35 and 1 species respectively.

In our present day to day life, power demand is the major problem of talking. The major causes for power demand is increasing no of utilities or lack of generation source. At any critical situation we will shed down excess of load in order to retrieve the power system stability. Shedding excessive load will affect other areas. In order to prevent that an optimum amount of load shed is needed. It is obtained by using fuzzy expert system as a tool. This has shown some improvement compared to conventional load shedding procedure.

The demand for ice cream production is increasing every year and vanilla is the second largest flavour wished in the world. Natural vanilla flavour being most expensive hence using natural identical flavour much advantage to meet the demand. Natural identical flavours are substances that are chemically identical to natural substances, but which are obtained by chemical processes or by chemical modification of other natural substances.

A study has been designed to evaluate the effect of spray drying on the survivability of yoghurt culture and its storage stability in different conditionally preserved yoghurt. For that a standardized recipe of formulation were used to prepare the yoghurt with lactic acid fermenter viz., Lactobacillus delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and then subjected to spray drying. Ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate were added to impart stabilization during storage because of the anti oxidant properties.

A study was undertaken to determine the viability of yoghurt culture on spray drying and freeze drying. In spray drying outlet air temperature of 70o C was found to be optimum as the percentage of survival of yoghurt culture was higher. The survival of yoghurt culture was found to be maximum in fresh yoghurt, followed by freeze dried powder and spray dried powder. Statistical analysis of data revealed that there was no significant difference in survival of S.salivarius ssp.

A study was undertaken to assess the vaginal health status in anestrus buffaloes treated with progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal devices. Bacterial culture swab taken at before insertion and immediately after removal of the CIDR and sponge revealed that the predominant bacterial species identified in all the groups were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. The isolates obtained were subjected to pathogenicity test that revealed all the isolates were non-pathogenic.

The study was conducted in Sirsi and Siddapur talukas (140 13' 0"N to 140 50' 0"N Latitude and 740 34' 0"E to 750 3' 30"E Longitude) of Uttar Kannada district to assess the influence of land use land cover on carbon sequestration in soil. The IRS P6 LISS-III imageries was used for land use land cover classes using ERDAS software with ground truth data. The land use classes viz., Dense forest, Sparse forest, Horticulture plantation, Agriculture and Barren-land were identified.

Floods, being natural phenomena, represent a hazard only with respect to human society. Therefore the human response and attitude are no less important in flood risk assessment. In Daspur-I block, there is a great lack of data on social aspects and public response to flood mitigation measures and information management. The number of flood victims are still high in the area, mainly due to the lack of implementation of structural flood control measures. In this paper, studies of flood perception in the Daspur-I block are represented.

The epiphytic orchid Vanda testacea (Lindl.)Reichb.f. is widely known for its medicinal properties and high floristic value. Considering the poor seed germination under natural condition, seeds of Vanda testacea were cultured on Knudson’s C medium, enriched with various concentrations of organic additives and Plant growth regulators to study asymbiotic germination, seedling development and optimization of the cultural requirements. For initiation of germination, preference for particular additives was not observed and optimal germination was recorded in basal media.

This paper presents a comparative study to find out the by comparing few already proposed models to find out the maximum best possible convertor to help in extracting maximum power point from solar Photovoltaic Cells (PV). This paper is study to find out a better model of solar array, DC convertor topology type (Boost and Buck type) and at last a convertor analysis. On the basis of these analyses a better model can found and be put into practice replacing the older versions. It is envisaged that the work can be useful for professionals for selecting an efficient and simple PV convertor.

The present study presents the distribution and health hazards of fluoride contamination and groundwater quality parameters in 23 villages of Jind district, Haryana, India. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among the school children in the age group of 5-12 years. 1428 children of different age group were examined and categorized with Dean’s Fluorosis Index as recommended by WHO. The groundwater fluoride concentration was in the range 0.2-2.0 mg/l.

The study was carried out to assess the physicochemical properties, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of twenty five different edible vegetable oil samples collected from Ota, Ogun state in Nigeria for their domestic and commercial applications.

In our country power demand is a major problem so we are going to introduce an algorithm based on genetic algorithm is proposed to solve service restoration problem in power distribution systems with priority customers. In genetic algorithm new solutions are found in every next generation with probability of getting the better solution till the optimal solution is not found. Service restoration problem is formulated as multi objective multi-constraint combinatorial optimization problem . The integer permutation scheme is used to generate the offspring in genetic algorithm.

In the present scenario Siddha system of medicine plays a vital role to combat against viral infections such as Dengue fever. It is an acute febrile illness caused by arthropod borne virus, the global prevalence of which has grown dramatically in recent decades. A large proportion of population who need hospitalization for this febrile ailment are mostly in paediatric age groups. Hence there is a need to explore effective Siddha formulations for its management.

Nitric Oxide (NO) is a lipophilic free radical diffusible gas that mediates significant and diverse signaling functions in almost every organ system in the body. It is formed from L- arginine a semi- essential amino acid present in the body with the help of three isoform of nitric oxide synthase (e.g. eNOS, nNOS and iNOS), eNOS and nNOS in cardiovascular system and nervous system respectively and inducible form produced during various body stress situations. Pharmacological compounds that release NO have been useful tools for evaluating the broad role of NO in physiology and therapeutics.

Field experimental study was conducted to observe the effectiveness of check dams for reducing runoff and sediment yield in small gully catchment area. In the first phase of experiment, rill-gullies were mapped based on field survey and rill-gully development were measured; and in the second phase, check dams were constructed in particular interval along the gully to assess its effects since 2010. Check-dams in the gully basin have played a very important role in reducing sediment yield by 41.5 percent through trapping sediment and reducing erosion.

Each year millions of people including Armed Force personnels, mountaineers, tourists are exposed to high altitude. Hypoxia, cold and intense solar radiations at high altitude can exert a significant impact on physiology of the human beings. China, India, Pakistan and Nepal are countries in vicinity of Himalayas. Over the years studies have been carried out to understand various aspects of high altitude acclimatization.This review attempts to estimate quantity, scope and quality of high altitude research in these four countries.

Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as it components though low in Sub Saharan Africa, are on a steady rise. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of this syndrome using the modified International diabetic Federation (IDF) 2005 definition in the Littoral Region of Cameroon and to find out the cause of this rise in prevalence.

Transdermal drug delivery system was first introduced more than 20 years ago. The technology generated tremendous excitement and interest amongst major pharmaceutical companies in the 1980s and 90s. By the mid to late 1990s, the trend of transdermal drug delivery system merged into larger organizations. Transdermal drug delivery system is a type of convenient drug delivery system where drug goes to the systemic circulation through the protective barrier i.e. Skin.

Mother Teresa, a woman world famous for her faith has felt no presence of God for the last half century of her life. Though she has always greeted everybody with smile, a recently published book Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light featuring more than forty communications between Teresa and her superiors and confessors reveals that she has experienced spiritual ‘dryness’, ‘loneliness’ and ‘torture’. This article attempts to show the discrepancy between her thought and her cheery public appearance which she maintains smiling, ‘a clock that covers everything’.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of four different restorations. Method: Thirty-two extracted human upper molar teeth of similar size and free of caries were used. These were randomly divided into four groups of eight specimens each. Teeth in Group I were restored using a hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE, USA) with polyethylene fiber (Ribbond THM, USA). In Group II, an amalgam with self-threading pins was used. Teeth in Group III were restored using a hybrid composite resin with a self etch adhesive (G bond, Japan).

The aim of the present study was to develop candidate gene specific polymorphic DNA marker(s) to detect the restorer lines of wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility source in rice. To suppress the male sterility inducing components of mitochondria, nuclear genome encoded proteins need to be targeted to mitochondria with the help of signal peptide. Fertility restoration in crop species is governed by the pentatricopeptide proteins and proteins involved in the cellular oxidoreductase processes.

Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge from your emotions and the emotions of others. You can use the information about what you're feeling to help you make effective decisions about what to say or do (or not say or do) next. Emotional Intelligence is NOT about being soft! It is a different way of being smart – having the skill to use your emotions to help you make choices in-the-moment and have more effective control over yourself and your impact on others.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of human placental lipopolysaccharide (HP-LPS) on activation of macrophages. We isolated and characterized the lipopolysaccharide from human placenta and E. coli by Westphal's method. The effects of different concentrations of E. coli and HP- LPS were assayed on mice macrophages and nitric oxide production was measured using Griess's method; data were then analyzed. Results showed that using the Westphal method, HP- LPS could be isolated as well as Gram-negative bacterial LPS.

Over the past decades a growing number of companies, globally have recognized the business benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies and practices. Their experiences are bolstered by a growing body of empirical studies, which demonstrate that CSR has a positive impact on business economic performance, and is not harmful to shareholder value. Companies also have been encouraged to adopt or expand CSR efforts as the result of pressures from customers, suppliers, employees, communities, investors, activist organizations and other stakeholders.

Malaria is a persistent ailment in tropical Africa and mortality to it has been in million especially among the highly prone group of young children and pregnant women. The study investigated the adoption of Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) as first line drug treatment of malaria among mothers of child bearing age. A minimum sample size of 384 was determined based on a 95% confidence level, 5% margin of error and a reasonable estimate of 50% adopting ACT for malaria treatment. The sample size was however increased to 400 to make room for missing data.

This study investigated influence of organizational learning on motivation among teachers of Nandi county public secondary schools. It specifically assessed the influence of learning from past experience, and learning from others, and quick and efficient knowledge transfer on teacher motivation. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. A sample of 82 teachers was drawn from 5 schools selected using cluster sampling technique to participate in the survey by completing structured questionnaires, developed by the researcher.

Statistical optimization study for the production of activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was carried out using response surface methodology. Chemical activation method using phosphoric acid was employed. A three-variable Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to evaluate the preparation of activated carbon. The activation temperature and retention time plus the phosphoric acid/precursor impregnation ratio for the production of activated carbons were optimized based on the percentage removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions.

Our country has enormous scope for developing both marine and inland fisheries as a major industry. India has a long coastal line of 6,100 km with a vast area of continental shelf, spread on both the west and east coast were the fishing operations are carried out. The natural catching of fish and fishery production could not meet the exponential growth of world population. Existing ponds and swamp lands as well as agricultural system can profitably used for aqua food production. The maintenance of water quality is essential for both survival and optimum growth.

Background: Cancer is a bubonic plague to mankind for which presently, there is no cure Chemopreventive plant compounds such as catechin, curcumin affect all phases of the cancer process, i.e., tumor initiation, promotion and progression.

The present study has been taken up in the Sidzii streams of Mao, Manipur, a tributary of Doyang River, the largest and longest river of Nagaland during December 2011 to November 2012. The highest Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC) value was observed in male Puntius sophore during October with a corresponding value of 2.23x106/mm3 of blood while the lowest value was recorded in female Parluciosoma daniconius during February with the value of 1.12x106/mm3 of blood.

In the current education system academic-based peer counseling is increasingly becoming critical. Its success depends on the perception of teachers and students on the influence of peer counseling services. The purpose of the study was to establish the influence of peer counseling services on academic performance as perceived by teachers and students in Kaka mega South District. The study was based on the fifth stage of Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development. A descriptive survey research design was adopted.

Objectives: The aim of this work was to show Effect of scapular mobilization on improvement of shoulder flexion in erbs palsy. Method: Thirty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned into two groups; group A (scapular mobilization plus traditional physiotherapy program), and group B(traditional physiotherapy program only). Standard goniometer was used to detect and follow shoulder flexion in addition to stand and reach test. This measurement was taken before initial treatment and after 12 weeks of treatment.

The Uppanar estuary runs behind the SIPCOT complex which is located at Cuddalore. The present study was conceded out to conclude the heavy metals in sediments samples Uppanar Estuary, Cuddalore, Southeast coast of India. The data obtained during period January to December 2012 reveled that six heavy metals of two stations.

The preferential weld corrosion of X65QT pipe line steel material due to inadvertent usage of unqualified welding electrodes at site conditions and the factors influencing the corrosion resistance was examined. The resultant change in chemical composition and microstructure effects on various weld zones by LPR (LPR) and Galvanic corrosion (GC) methods under aerated condition in natural sea water was studied. Four types of commercial electrodes were used and its influence on root weld corrosion is discussed.

This study on salivary gland tumors was undertaken for a period of one year with particular reference to age ,sex, site and histological types. Tumors were analysed according to the age, sex, site and histological type .Principal site was the parotid (73.2%).Pleomorphic adenoma(83.3%) formed the largest group of tumors.Benign tumors were common in 4th and 5th decades where as malignant tumors were more common in 6th decades.Lump was the commonest presentation and was present in 100% cases.

Monitoring of water quality with regards to physical and chemical properties and distribution of nutrients are inadequate. Biological indicators of water quality monitoring developed during the recent years have served an excellent tools in the area of water pollution studies. According to the Western Australian Planning Commission (2003) water protection integrated over time and space has become a high priority issue for the public and government at all levels. Among all the algae, fresh water diatoms are the most commonly used indicators of the conditions of the water.

Rapid and unplanned urbanization has led to an enormous increase in the number of motor vehicles world-wide. World Health Organization estimated that across the world road traffic accidents kill 1.3 million people and injure another 50 million people every yearly. In India more than a lakh of people lost their lives due to road traffic accidents in the year 2009.

Nigerians are gradually discontented with the democratization process heretofore. This is ascribable to the spectre of fraud, massive rigging, malfeasance etc that characterized electoral processes in the country, specifically from the 1999 general elections to the 2011 general elections. Against this background, this paper debates the complex web of electoral malpractices and its eventful crusade that can instigate a chain reaction, eventually leading to state collapse.

Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a well known Gram positive diplococci. This bacterium has the second most important pathogen in cases of meningitis in children under 2 years and elderly too. Currently more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes have been identified based on their antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides. Because the factors affecting serotype variation are not well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between in the types of Streptococcus pneumoniae before and after lyophilization.

There is an increasing demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, energy, and medicine. In this study synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Clitorea ternatea flowers is reported. The reduction of silver (Ag+) was monitored using UV- visible spectrophotometry and showed formation of silver nanoparticles in 60mins. The reaction mixture exhibits an absorbance peak around 450 nm characteristic of Ag nanoparticle.

In medieval times different tribal kingdoms emerged in the North Eastern region of India. The Dimasa Kacharis, Ahoms, Jayantias, Tripuris and the Koches experimented with the task of state building which reoriented their kingdom from a tribal to that of a hinduised kingdom. Sanskritisation which has been used to describe the process of socio-cultural changes occurring in India has been used to study this process of assimilation of the tribals into the Hindu fold.

The quality of ambient air in Aba metropolis, a commercial city in Abia State of Nigeria has been assessed by determining the levels of Total particulate matter (TPM), Carbon (II) Oxide (CO), Nitrogen (IV) Oxide (NO2), Sulphur (IV) Oxide (SO2), Hydrogen (II) Sulphide (H2S), and Methane (CH4) at ten different sampling points. The analysis was carried out between the months of July and August 2011, and a Crowncom portable gas analyzer was used for each of the determinations.

This paper deals with the recent trends in human resource management and the need for human resource professionals to demonstrate an understanding of the business in the way they formulate their HR strategies viz strategy for innovation, strategy of managing changes and cost reduction strategy.

Oral work lessons which encompass the teaching of listening and speaking skills are central in the teaching of English and all other languages in general. This paper is a report on a study on the teaching of oral work lessons in English that was undertaken in Nandi North District in Kenya in the year 2009. The study investigated teacher competences in the selection of appropriate learning activities and the conveyance of the meaning of new language items during oral work lessons. The study adopted a theoretical framework based on Vygotsky’s (1978) theory of social interaction.

Amylase was produced by Aspergillus niger utilizing Curcuma angustifolia as a carbon source in submerged fermentation. The effect of varying pH of the medium, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of α- amylase was investigated. The maximum activity of α-amylase was recorded after 7 days of submerged fermentation at pH 5 and room temperature 28⁰C. The enzyme produced by Aspergillus niger can be used in industrial process after characterization. The maximum amylase activity was recorded as 345 U/mg.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
Dr. Recep TAS
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
United State
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
Dr. Ali Seidi
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Dr. Imran Azad
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Anam Bhatti
Md. Amir Hossain
Mirzadi Gohari