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August 2013

  1. Dr. Charles kombo Okioga

    The introduction of corporate government practices in Nairobi stock exchange saw the Bull Run that kicked off in the Nairobi Securities Exchange in the year 2006, which made the market gain more than 50%. As earnings of companies increased, so did the demand for shares by the public, corporate governance was incorporated as a strategy for the company success. The price appreciation forced many companies to split shares owing to the nature of majority of the Kenyan and foreign investors who wanted to invest in listed companies. Companies such as Kenol/ Kobil (Kenya Oil Company Limited), East African Cables Limited, CMC Holdings Limited, ICDCI (Centum Investments Company Limited) and Barclays Bank Limited that were highly priced opted to split shares to make them accessible to the public, and to benefit the company as well as potential investors. Corporate governance formulated and implemented legislation and enforcement procedure in place within the CMA and the NSE, to curb massive falsification of financial reports, conspicuous dealings in the NSE and illegal collaboration of stockbrokers with the intention to defraud investors. It is good corporate governance that even with the recent collapse of many stockbrokerage firms investor confidence in the capital corporate governance still is high. This study explores the contribution of the corporate governance on investor confidence in Nairobi Securities Exchange; recommend the possible solutions to curb corporate governance irregularities that lead to tremendous loss of investor money and confidence.

  2. Jeyapriya, S. P., Venkatesh. P., and Suresh, N.

    Indian major carp Catla catla were exposed to sublethal concentration of monocrotophos to determine the role of pesticide on fish physiology. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentration (0.0250mg/l) for acute (5 days) and subchronic (30 days). Blood biochemical parameters such as Total protein, Total glucose, Urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Cholestrol, Triglycerides, Bilirubin, AST and ALT levels were estimated in the control and experimental fishes. Significant changes in the biochemical parameters were obtained in the experimental group compared with the control. The total protein and total glucose decreased in the acute and sub chronic exposures compared with control; where as a significant increase in urea nitrogen, creatinine, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST and ALT levels were noticed. The changes in the biochemical profiles shows monocrotophos induce alterations in the blood, which may be used as an index for the toxic role of pesticide on the aquatic organisms.

  3. Ramesh Kumar, P., Ronald Ross, P., Vaidehi, J. and Paramanandham, J.

    Environment gets degraded more rapidly in spite of various remedial measures undertaken. The man-made activities, abundant usage of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides have still worsened the problem. This in turn affects the water bodies very severely making it unfit for drinking, domestic and even agricultural purposes. In this background, the present work was initiated to analyze the extent of deterioration of water in a defined stretch of River Giri, Himachal Pradesh, India. The physical and chemical qualities of water were analyzed and the extent of pollution was found out and presented in detail.

  4. Gowri, K., Elanchezhiyan, C., Hemalatha, S., Sartaj Ahmad Allayie, Babby, A., Shoba, V. and Suhasini, S.

    The effect of the leaf extract of Naringi crenulata in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were studied. Blood glucose levels were determined after oral administration of graded doses of Naringi crenulata (300, 600mg/kg) in fasted normal and diabetic groups. In both groups, 600 mg/kg of the extract, significantly reduced blood glucose levels 8 h after administration, which was consistent and time-dependent. The higher doses of 300 mg/kg did not affect significantly the blood glucose levels. The plant extract (Acetone) is given to the diabetic rats as well as normal rats orally by intragastric tubes. The blood glucose levels were increased when diabetes is induced in all the experimental rats. The methanolic extract of N. crenulata action was significant in increasing the plasma insulin levels in diabetic rats when compare to acetone extract treated rats. Total Hb was also found increasing in extract administered rats. The normal rats blood glucose levels did not change much when treated with plant extract alone. The plant extract was capable of ameliorating at the glycosylated Hb levels and moderate increase in glycogen levels and significant decrease in urea and creatinine levels while administering deferent dosage of N. crenulata extracts.

  5. Praveenkumar Yadahalli, Kulkarni, S. A., Noorulla, H., Gururaj Sunkad, Mallesh, S. B. and Konda, C. R.

    Greengram powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe polygoni is a major disease in greengram growing areas of northern Karnataka and causes considerable yield loss in greengram and other pulse crops. Survey was conducted during kharif, 2012 revealed that the greengram powdery mildew was prevalent in all greengram growing fields in parts of northern Karnataka. However, incidence was maximum at Bidar followed byGulbarga and Yadgir districts and least was at Raichur.

  6. Priya Roosvelt, Indu Purushothaman and Rajarajan, S.

    Since its first origin in 1918, Influenza virus has caused the highest degree of morbidity and mortality compared with the other dreadful infections. Till date, many works were carried out on the molecular level to unveil the mystery behind this dreadful infection. In this paper, we have carried out a proteomic and structure validation analysis for the two important genes, Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase of influenza virus isolated between 1918 to 2009. Among the subjected isolates, HA and NA protein of 2009 isolates were highly antigenic. The subcellular location of all pretense was located in the plasma membrane. Simultaneously, the structure quality checks inferred that Phyre 2 produced a better and a significant prediction for ten isolates of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase protein when compared to Raptor X and (PS) 2 software.

  7. Pandi, P., Gopinathan, C., Kavitha, M., Sakthivadivel, R. and Sarveswaran, T.

    The main objective of this work is to prepare the solar active materials such as TiO2 with help of dye. The Rhodamine-B modified TiO2 (RhoB-TiO2) composite will used as DSSC. The PL studies are carrying out by the emission and excitation of TiO2 is increased after addition of Rhodamine-B. UV study showed that the composite energy gab has shifted towards the visible region in electromagnetic spectrum (Red shift), and then band gap is indirect and allowed transition. In this type of RhoB-TiO2 composite used for fabrication of optoelectronic device and fabrication of DSSC.

  8. Vijayalakshmi A. and Thamarai Selvi J.

    A new schiff base based membrane ion selective electrode has been developed. The ion selective electrode system prepared used without an internal solution contains dioctyl phthalate (plasticizer) and sodium tetra phenyl borate (anion excluder). The electrode reveal a Nernstian behavior in linear concentration range of 1M to 1x10-4M with detection limits of the order of 10-4M. The stable potentiometric signals are obtained within a short time period of 1 minute. The effect of pH, and the effect of medium have been studied to found a better response. Selectively coefficient values were evaluated. The sensors have also been used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations of Ca (II) ions with EDTA and determination of concentration of Ca2+ in milk and hardness in water samples.

  9. Nharingo Tichaona, Shoniwa Viola, Hunga Olindah and Shumba Munyaradzi

    The potential of acid treated sugarcane bagasse (ATSB) to remove methylene blue (MB), an azo-cationic dye, from waste waters was explored. Surface characterization of the biomass before and after MB sorption was achieved using FTIR spectrophotometer. The ATSB had surface functional groups, -OH, N-H, -C=O, -C-OH, SiO2 and C-halogen that were involved in removing MB from solution. Batch equilibrium sorption experiments were performed under optimized pH, contact time, biosorbent dosage and varying MB initial concentrations. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Halsey adsorption isotherms were used to describe equilibrium data generated from the effect of MB initial concentration. The equilibrium data fitted the isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Freundlich = Halsey > Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) > Temkin with R2 ranging from 0.9957 to 0.9621. The Langmuir isotherm based separation factor, RL, (0 < RL < 1) and the Freundlich’s adsorption intensity, n, (1/n < 1) indicated sorption favorability between MB and ATSB with the Langmuir sorption capacity of 64.9351 mg/g. The Freundlich and Halsey isotherms pointed to the surface heterogeneity that the ATSB comprised of both macropores and micropores. The energy of sorption, ED and bT parameters, derived from the D-R and Temkin isotherms respectively indicated that the biosorption was endothermic and physical ion-exchange in nature. ATSB can be used to remove MB from waste waters. However there is need to explore the effects of metal ions, anions and other dyes on the removal of MB by ATSB.

  10. Tuwei A. K., Karimi P. M. and Njogu S. M.

    This paper describes a simple automated instrumentation and measurement system that is designed to offer a more reliable and fast method of measuring temperature and pressure, in thin film deposition systems. The designed computer based measuring system was based on thermocouple type K temperature sensor, MP20C-01-F2 pressure sensor, parallel port for interfacing and LabVIEW driver for accessing data. The system was able to measure temperature and pressure simultaneously when implemented in Edward Auto 306 Magnetron Sputtering System and stored these values in a computer memory, hence retrieved at operator’s will. It had a temperature and a pressure range of 0 to 3000 oC and 0 to 1.01 x103 mbar, respectively and temperature error of ± 0.2 %. However, the designed system recorded varied pressure errors. In higher vacuum, pressure range of 1.0 x10-2 to 1.0 mbar, the error was 0.8 % and in the lower range of 1.0 x10-5 to 1.0 x10-4 mbar, the error of 0.5 % was observed. These errors were within acceptable range and therefore, the system is viable to be used in thin film deposition systems to automate the measurement of process parameters: temperature and pressure to achieve high quality thin films.

  11. Omid ramezani azghandi and Afshin Farahbakhsh

    Glucose oxidase sensor is one of the best methods for measuring small amounts of glucose. this sensor can be modified using multi wall carbon nanotubes as complementary substance in the electrode structure with the aim of increasing efficiency.In this paper, Pt electrode, was enriched with carbon nanotubes by an intervening material of amino groups of poly (allylamine) (PAA), and was used as working electrodes (anode) along with a platinum auxiliary electrode and the reference electrode Ag / AgCl (cathode). Working electrode was surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane containing the Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with Ph = 4,6,9 enzyme. To evaluate the performance of the constructed biosensor, it was put into a dish containing 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 M glucose concentrations which were dissolved in doubly distilled water. The produced current and its rate was measured by Potentiostat with transferring the electron from the working electrode to reference electrode which was released by the reaction of glucose in the presence of the enzyme. According to the performed experiments, with increasing concentration, the flow rate of current production is increased and pH deviance from neutral range reduces the flow. Optimal conditions was obtained in concentrations 0.1 M and pH=6, respectively.

  12. Niladri Halder and Dibyendu Roy

    In the framework of computer assisted diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, a new algorithm that forms a retinal vascular graph from segmented retinal vessels and determines the branching pattern of retinal arteries and veins and the artery vein ratio (AVR) in fundus images of the macula is presented and discussed. The parameters of the blood vessels in the macular region of retina are hallmark of diabetic retinopathy and allow its detection with a high sensitivity. Since detection of blood vessels is an important diagnostic task, computer assistance plays a major role. Blood vessels are found using their high gray level variation and their contours are determined by means of morphological reconstruction techniques. The detection of optic disc is very essential for this approach. We detect the optic disc by means of thresholding and morphological reconstruction technique.

  13. Yarrakula Mahesh Babu, Kurva Raghu Ramudu, S. S. Dana and Gadadhar Dash

    Litopenaeusvannamei(Pacific Ocean shrimp) is the exotic species, imported from Taiwanto India for experimental purpose. L. vannameihasso many advantages than the tiger shrimp (Penaeusmonodon), so The Government of India (GOI) permitted pilot-scaleintroduction of the species in 2003 and subsequentlypermitted the culture of L. vannamei in the country in 2008based on a risk analysis carried out by Central Institute ofBrackishwater Aquaculture (CIBA) and National Bureauof Fish Genetic Resources (NBFGR) which recommendedthe pilot-scale introduction of L.vannamei culture in Indiawith strict regulatory guidelines (kumaran et al, 2012). Present production of vannamei is too high when compare to last two decades. Scientistsare expecting so many problems such as, diseases, unsustainability etc. All problems can overcome by importing of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF), Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR) brood stocks from other countries, implementing biosecurity factors and practicing of Better Management Practices (BMP) in field level, will maintain the environmental sustainability.

  14. Oyetoro, J. O. and Olabode, O. S.

    The study assessed the contributions of farmers’ children to crop production in Odo-otin Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of eighty farmers’ children were selected using simple random sampling. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents and statistical tools used in analyzing the data were: frequency distribution, percentages and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC).The result of data analysis showed that majority of the farmers’ children interviewed were male (76.30%) and (76.30%) of respondents stayed with their parent. The result also showed that majority of the respondents (96.3%) claimed incentives as source of motivation for their contribution to crop production; almost half of the children interviewed (51.3%) considered no appropriate technology for farmers’ children as mild problem. The result also revealed that time spent on farm activities (r=0.844) had a strong significant relationship with level of contribution to crop production. Farmers’ children contributed greatly to crop production through their participation in farming activities mostly harvesting, fertilizer application and planting of crops. The study therefore recommends that Children should be adequately motivated to develop interest in agriculture in such a way that it will not affect their academics pursuit but choose agriculture as a career.

  15. Mahakhode, R. H., Chaudhary, R. R. and Somkuwar, S. R.

    The plant of Psoralea corylifolia sprayed with glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine’) showed some morphological changes such as scorching, wilting of leaves and stems, crumpling and yellowing of leaves and drying of all the parts of the plant at all concentrations (100,200,400,600 ,800, 1000 and 1200ppm). On fourth day of spraying plant showed yellow spots on lower leaves at all concentrations. When glyphosate sprayed at concentration of >= 400ppm lamina showed burning effects and they dried on completely. Stem became pale green on eight day after spraying. At 600ppm and above concentration, apical and lateral growth was found inhibited, whereas at 1200ppm the leaf dried completely, thus this dose acts as a lethal dose to this plant. Glyphosate induced anatomical changes in stem, root, petiole and leaf. At 400ppm phloem showed abnormal meristematic activity owing to periclinal and anticlinal divisions of phloem, the cortex was pushed outward and crushed. The xylem and pith cells disintegrated at many places and formed lacunae at 800ppm. Similarly at 800ppm root showed ruptured epidermis and disorganization of cortex forming lacunae. At 1000ppm, the leaf epidermis showed cellular disorganization of the spongy and palisade tissue.

  16. Hasna Boura, Rachid Saile, Omar Abidi, Lahcen Wakrim, Brahim Bouchrif, Nourredine Dersi, Houda Bennani

    Summary: Aim of the study: To determine profile of résistance to C.albicans and mutations in ERG 11 gene in strains of C. albicans azoles resistant. Material and Methods: In this study, we isolated and identified the yeast species in the vagina of patients consulted in the Pasteur Institut and tested in vitro activities of antifunguals. We amplified and sequenced the ERG11 gene of C. albicans azole resistant. Résulte: C. albicans (69, 1%) was the most frequently identified species followed by C. glabrata (21 %), C.Tropicalis (6, 2%) and C. parapsilosis (3,7 %). Susceptibility testing carried out on 56 representative isolates of C.albicans that 12,4 % were resistant witch 1,7 % to 5-fluorocytosine and 10,7 % to itraconazole , 3,5% dose dependant to fluconazole and 1,7% to voriconazole. No resistance has reported with amphotercine B. Sequence analysis of ERG11 gene of selected itraconazole-resistant isolates identified In the 6 isolates, 4 types of amino acid substitutions: K128T, D116E, E266D and D153E. Conclusion: Our study provides information on antifungal susceptibility of vaginal yeast isolates in a rural community in Morocoo. Since the majority of C. albicans isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, its use may be continued for empirical therapy of uncomplicated candidal vulvovaginitis in the Morrocan community. The frequency of C. albicans isolates resistant to itraconazole was considerably higher .The relationship between D116E substitution and resistance to itraconazole were confirmed, other mutations such K128T, E266D and D153E are confirmed to not participate in itraconazole resistance. Other mechanisms of resistance, such as overexpression of ERG11 and efflux pumps and mutations in the ERG3 gene should also be investigated.

  17. Ansari Pour, A.

    A study on differences between two species of ladybird, H. variegata Goeze and E. pubescens Kuster determined that they there were differences in terms of size, color of pupa shell, shape of pupa shell, pattern of adult emergence and length of adult from emergence out of the shell. In this research, pupa length of E. pubescens was 4.3 – 4.8 mm and pupa length of H. variegata was 3.6 – 4.2 mm. Shell color of E. pubescens pupa was pale brown or gray, but shell color H. variegata pupa was orange with black lines on it. Length of body in adult H. variegata after discarding the pupa shell was 3.7 – 4.2 mm and length of body in adult of E. pubescens after discarding the pupa shell was 3.7 – 4.1 mm. There were differences in appearance between pupae of the two ladybird species. And the process of adult emergence from the shell was different for each species; adult E. pubescens emerged from a wide suture in the shell but the adult H. variegata emerged from a hole in the shell. Duration of pupation (development of the adult state inside the shell) at 25° C, in relative humidity 65 ± 5, with 14 hours daylight and 10 hours of darkness took 72 hours (3 days) for H. variegata and 120 hours (5 days) for E. Pubescens.

  18. Mohanambal, R. and Puvaneswari, S.

    In this present study, the mortality rate of heavy metal lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) was determined in the freshwater fish Catla Catla. The median lethal concentration was determined using static and renewable method through Probit analysis. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value of (Pb(NO3)2) was found to be 190.56, 181.81, 172.43 and 163.04 mgL-1 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs respectively. The dose and time dependant responses (mortality rate and behavioural changes) in the test fish was observed. The behavioural changes observed in the experiment includes hyper activity, loss of balance, vertical and downward swimming pattern, frequent surfacing activity, convulsion, difficulty in breathing and mucus secretion over the body. No behavioural changes or death were observed in the control group during the experiment. The results of the study showed that, acute lead toxicity severely affects the normal behaviour and results in death.

  19. Krishnamoorthi, A., Selvakumar, S. and Shanthi, G.

    An attempt was made to study the microbial population of Veeranam lake water, Tamil Nadu. Water samples were collected monthly at five locations and analysed for the microbial population by MPN technique during the year from July 2011 – June 2012. The samples showed the presence of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The monthly average values were taken for statistical analysis. The percentage distribution of microorganisms varied from 75.04 to 77.36% bacteria, 0.79 to 2.05% fungi and 21.23 to 24.17% actinomycetes. The concentration of bacteria and actinomycetes were lower during the premonsoon and gradually increased in monsoon, post monsoon and summer and the fungi concentration were maximum during postmonsoon and gradually reduced in monsoon, premonsoon and summer. It indicates that the water for drinking is pre-treated before consumption.

  20. Manoj Kumar

    Seeds of 365 divers bred wheat lines were sown in paired row plots of 2m length. The field was heavily fertilized and frequently irrigated to provide a congenial environment for the development of the spot blotch disease. Observations were recorded for disease severity (%) as well as using 0-9 scale. Disease was rated three times i.e. at growth stages 69, 77 and 83 (Zadoks et.al.1974) to calculate AUDPC. Plant height, days to maturity and test weight was also recorded for each genotype. A wide variability for resistance to spot blotch was observed in the wheat lines screened. In one year of testing, 15 lines were found to have resistant. The proportion of moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible lines were 47%, 43% and 6% respectively. The resistant as well as susceptible lines belonged to early, medium as well as late maturity groups. However the late maturity lines appeared to carry greater resistance than early ones. The useful resistant lines having dwarf stature and early days to maturity were 15. These lines can be exploited in crossing programme to developing spot blotch resistant early maturing lines suited to rice wheat cropping system of NEPZ. Most of the wheat lines showed susceptible reaction. However, differential reaction was also observed in same line. Thus, the differential reaction for spot blotch severely in some of the genotypes supported the idea of independent gene control.

  21. Joshi, A. A., Kshirsagar, R. B. and Chilkawar, P. M

    The experiment was conducted to study the physico-chemical characteristics of Ajanta and Thailand varieties of tamarind and the results obtained were compared with the local variety. It showed that Thailand variety was superior in physical characteristics like length and width where as Ajanta was superior in respect of average fruit weight, per cent flesh and average pulp yield, while the local variety was found to be at par in these respect. Thailand variety was rich in carbohydrates, reducing and total sugars with lowest extractable TSS and minerals. However the local tamarind variety pulp was having highest TSS, ascorbic acid and minerals (calcium and iron) as compared to other two varieties. On the other hand Ajanta variety was rich in protein and fat content with at second most position in extractable TSS, ascorbic acid and minerals.

  22. Shanmugasundaram, P., Sumathi, T., Chandramohan, G. and Ramesh Bapu, G. N. K.

    The corrosion inhibition characteristics of amino acid L- Methionine on IS : 1062 Grade A - Low carbon Steel in 1M HCl solutions at 300C temperature was studied by using weight loss, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) and Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X- Ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) techniques. Measurements were conducted without and with various concentrations of L-Methionine and the inhibition efficiency (IE %) has been studied accordingly. The addition of very small concentration Zinc and potassium iodide as synergizing agents on the corrosion inhibition behavior of L- Methionine was also studied. The highest Inhibition Efficiency (IE %) of 98.80% was observed in the presence of L- Methionine (10-1 moles) with Zinc (15 milli moles) and KI (10 milli moles) as synergizing agents at 300C for an exposure duration of 1hr. These measurements were complemented with ICP-OES examinations of the electrolyte solution, SEM and EDX characterization of the electrode surface. The effect of Zinc and KI as synergizing agents on inhibition efficiency along with combined synergizing effect (Zn+ KI) was also studied.

  23. Dr. Sumathy Muniamuthu and Dr. R. Raju

    The use of Video Display Terminal (VDT) is widespread and beneficial for improvement of work quality and productivity. Musculoskeletal symptoms or disorders in the upper extremities and neck among employees working at video display terminal workstations has been a topic in occupational health research for many years. This study has developed a MSD prevalence model suitable for computer workplaces in India. A total of about 600 questionnaires were distributed to the VDT users of production, software and service industries. Out of total 600 questionnaires distributed, 427 were collected with the response rate of 71.16% of the respondents. Out of 427, only 410 samples were found to contain complete information and so were valid for analysis. To check whether the perception level of production, software and service industries regarding MSD causing risk factors, MSD Prevalence level and Job Prevention is different, a hypothesis H1 was framed and tested. One way ANOVA has been conducted and the result clarifies that the perception of production, service and software industries are significantly different regarding the variable Equipment Layout and Assumed Posture. The Management of software industries has to understand the urgent need to take steps towards reducing the MSD prevalence level, since the VDT users of software industries suffers a lot compared to productions and service sectors. The production and service sectors have to accept the need of document holder and foot rest for VDT work.

  24. Sugantha Kumari, V., Khaleel Basha, S. and Sudha, P. N.

    Treatment A series of Chitosan(CS)/Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)/ Methylcellulose(MC) hybrid ternary blend with crosslinked of glutaraldehyde (G) was fabricated by a solution casting method, in order to be used as a potential sorbent material for toxic soft metal of cadmium (Cd). The fabricated crosslinked CS/ PVA / MC hybrid ternary blend film were characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effect of time, pH, adsorbent dose and adsorbate concentration on the adsorption of Cd (II) was investigated in batch process and pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetic models was also evaluated. The data was analyzed on the basis of Lagergren pseudo first order, and pseudo-second order. Regardless of the metal ion species, the adsorption capacity rapidly reached and adsorption followed second order kinetic equation. The equilibrium adsorption obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were calculated. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of CS/PVA/MC-G blend film as obtained from Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found to be 100.15 mg g-1 for Cd (II) ions. The experimental results demonstrated that CS/PVA/MC-G blend film could be used for the removal of Cd (II) ions from aqueous medium through adsorption. The regeneration study indicates that CS/PVA/MC-G blend film could be used repeatedly without significantly changing their adsorption capacities and desorption percentage.

  25. Tuwei J. Gloria, Matelong K. Nebert, Tubey Ruth and Tallam K. Zakayo

    Career change is an issue of concern to institutions given the huge costs related to lost productivity, hiring and training of employees. This study examined the effect of job satisfaction on non teaching staff career change intention in Moi University Eldoret Municipality Kenya. The objective of this study was to; establish the effect of remuneration on non teaching staff career change intention. This study was based on survey research design. Individual elements were selected using stratified, systematic random sampling and the sample size determination was based on Nassiuma method. Data analysis was based on frequencies, percentages, spearman correlation and ordinal regression. The findings indicated that; Remuneration had a significant relationship with non teaching staff career change intention. The findings indicated that non teaching staff considered remuneration as a critical indicator of their perception of job satisfaction. This study concludes that job satisfaction indicator as perceived by non teaching staff had a higher impact on career change intention. Arising from the conclusion of this study, it is recommended that, the institution pay reasonable salaries to its employees, which continue to act as a constraint to performance of its staff resulting to career change intention.

  26. Arijit Majumder and Dr. Lakshmi Sivaramakrishnan

    Alluvial areas in india are considered as groundwater potential zone of a region. Excessive Draft of groundwater over natural recharge in an area leads to loss of groundwater storage in that area over the period of time. The present study aims at computing the total loss of groundwater storage in Pandua block of Hugli district, West Bengal. The area is a meander flood plain with continuous fall of groundwater level. Borehole points of the area have been taken and the length has been differentiated according to their texture corresponding to respective specific yield to calculate the total loss of groundwater in the area.

  27. Manjunatha S.

    Today, the violence against women is the most pervasive yet under recognized social problem, not only in India but also throughout the world. It is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education and age. More significantly, with the increasing trend of urbanization the number of cases of violence against women has rapidly grown over the years. Hence in the present study an attempt is made to analyze the relationship between urbanization and increasing violence against women. For the said purpose, the data on the total number of cases registered under major six types of violence against women (Rape, Kidnapping of Women & Girls, Dowry Deaths, Cruelty by husband/in laws, Molestation & Sexual Harassment and PIT Act) during the period of 2001 to 2011 has been collected from all the police stations of all the seven divisions of Bangalore city. In the present study the pattern of violence against women in Bangalore city particularly during the period of 2001 to 2011 has been examined in the larger context of Indian society. The major casual factors for the violence against women have been discussed from sociological perspective. Further, important suggestions have been made to reform the existing legislative system regarding violence against women and at the end to provide gender justice in all the sections of the society.

  28. Dr. R. C. Hiremath

    Economic recession is one of the stages in economic system affecting world economy in an adverse manner. Economic recession occurs at frequent intervals. But recession of 1929-39 lasts for 10 years sweeping world economy at it had worst economic impact disturbing the economic activities specially in case of developing economies like India. Economic recession is mainly due fall or uncertain in prices of securities listed on stock exchange disinvestment low capital formation fall in inflow of FDI, decreasing purchasing power and dull trend in banking and financial sectors, declining GDP, export growth and decreasing trend in employment opportunities, slow down in industrial growth and process of economic development. However we can list out the adverse impact on economy. Global financial and economic crises global economic recession or meltdown had mixed impact of India economy both positive and negative affected. Balancing factors Major Challenges some of them are highlighted here. Current global financial crisis has thrown up unprecedented external challenges for India in navigating high growth process in the coming years. The global economic slowdown has hit the vital sectors of our economy. The dimensions and intensity of the crisis become more comprehensible in the coming days. It is necessary for both the Government and the RBI to become more proactive with respect to its policy stance. With global economy hurtling towards recession India’s growth path cannot remain unscathed. It is suggested that effective and smoother liquidity managements and credit availability or similar monitory policy measures will not be enough. The policy makers may have to evaluate other policy options especially imperatives of fiscal expansion. Such options must be anchored with the essence of fiscal governance.

  29. Gunjan Adhikari, Mustfa Hussain, Syed Md Faisal Ali Khan, Divya Rana and Amal Mohammed Sheikh Damanhouri

    A mutual fund is just the connecting bridge or a financial intermediary that allows a group of investors to pool their money together with a predetermined investment objective. Mutual funds are considered as one of the best available investments as compare to others they are very cost efficient and also easy to invest in, thus by pooling money together in a mutual fund, investors can purchase stocks or bonds with much lower trading costs than if they tried to do it on their own. This study is done to determine the preferences of investors for investment in mutual funds in India. The objectives of the study were to identify the factors that influence the preferences of investors for investment in mutual fund, to analyze investment options other than mutual funds and to plan the promotion of mutual fund investment in India. The sample were divided into two i.e. Prospective and Existing investors. The study reveals the most preferred factor for investment in mutual fund by the existing investors is high return and tax benefits. Bank is the main factor which influences their investment decision as the preferred distribution channel for investment. Tax benefit is the mostly preferred feature of mutual fund which attracts the investor for investment in mutual fund. Most of the prospective investors would like to seek the advice of their financial advisors and the bank personnel.

  30. Guha, P. and Phookan, B. K.

    Promotion of trade across the nations can be stated as one of the significant developments of the post war period which have brought paradigm shift in global economy. Wave of change that swept the globe since the last decade of 20th century marked a new era of economic integration. Freer multilateral movement of goods and services has been strengthened with the emergence of the WTO. In addition formation of regional trading blocs has minimised trade barriers amongst member nations. The landlocked India’s North East although have enormous potential to grow with economic integration continued to remain a pocket of development in pre and post independence period. Although India has adopted its look east policy in early 1990s as a part of its foreign policy, the north eastern region of India, often touted as the gateway to east, itself has not been given much attention. Studies has claimed that pre and post liberalisation period do not seem to have benefitted proportionately India’s North-East in the fields of agriculture, industry, trade and commerce compared with other regions of India. Geographical remoteness, infrastructural deficiencies, ethnic conflict and militant activities are the reasons for unpopularity of investment in North East region. With the popularity of cross-border economic ties in many parts of the globe, expectations from border trade has become high in this region. The centrality of the region and its strategic location supports India’s growing economic links not only with ASEAN but also with neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal. From the present study it can be inferred that though India has continued to enjoy comparative advantage1 in the international trade of merchandise product with ASEAN and SAARC, however the country has registered negative growth in the volume of formal trade (net trade) during the last decade or so. A similar circumstance has been observed for India’s trade at formal level with Bangladesh, Myanmar, Bhutan and Nepal. For all these four countries formal trade has remained favorable in merchandise product for India however there has been a decline in both export and import intensity of India’s merchandise trade with the four nation’s in later half of last decade with export intensity declined faster than import intensity. Some of threats for promotion of trade in the regions are like, persistent dumping policy of bordering nations towards India, the increasing volume of informal trade, exchange rate problem with Myanmar currency, low level of capital formation and low private sector investment, absence of a supporting market structure and adequate institutional finance structure, low technology spread. Hence, the central and state Governments should look into the matter to find out ways for overcoming such problems and undertake deliberate measures in the wake of increasing importance of border trade for the country in general and North Eastern region in particular. Efforts of DoNER since 2001 has helped Socio Economic upturn in the region to some extent. Announcement of Vision 2020 has unveiled roadmap for development of the region. Besides improving the physical infrastructure, the planners at the central level and in the North East should think about improving the cross border interaction by developing monitoring mechanisms on transactions across border, opening up of sea route, improving institutional finance structure for setting up of large scale industries, creation of infrastructure for attracting investment and capital formation. With such revival India’s on-going and already concluded regional, sub-regional and bilateral trade agreements with South and South East Asia, it can effectively harness the trade potential and economic advancement of the region in particular and country in general.

  31. Dr. Sekar, P.C. and Subburajan, M.

    Poverty reduction is an overarching development goal for Tamil Nadu. Providing rural poor with financial services is considered to be one of the key inputs to achieve this goal of poverty reduction. But looking at the diverse topography, lack of access to financial services has been one of the major obstacles to accelerate the socio-economic, disadvantaged community people living in remote and inaccessible areas of Tamil Nadu. The low level of family incomes have limited the poor families to self finance on farm and off-farm income earning activities. Adequate access to financial services has therefore been considered essential to promote the growth and contribute to reduce the widespread poverty. Over the last four decades there has been several efforts made in the financial sectors in addressing the needs of financial services to support poor and ultra poor for creating self employment opportunities. Accordingly, there has been continued emphasis to expand the financial services to rural and poor through several targeted programmes related to microfinance services. Microfinance service providing organizations mainly target exclusively low income level people especially women living in hard economic conditions. These institutions have been playing significant roles to reduce social and economic poverty in rural and urban areas. Lack of schooling also means that women live in ignorance of their legal rights, including rights over their children and property, and their rights within marriage, and this in turn can lead to neglect, abuse, and too often domestic violence. It should be noted also that very few women in the region are in positions of authority in government, business or the professions, and hence there are few women role models.

  32. Dr. U. Jayalakshmi Srikumar

    This is the age of Information Technology and the access to and availability of information is crucial Small Scale Enterprises (SMEs) are a very vibrant segment of the Indian economy making substantial contribution to the Indian economy. SMEs need to obtain and store information at a competitive cost. Cloud computing provides an easy solution. Cloud computing refers to a set of services that provide the necessary infrastructure for data storage on a third party server. This paper after covering extensively the definition and types of clouds goes to look at the benefits and limitations of cloud computing for SMEs. Given the benefits it outlines the opportunities and challenges for SMEs.

  33. Onuigbo, Liziana N., Onuoha, Joseph C. and Ugwuanyi, Leonard, T.

    The purpose of this paper is of three –folds; (a), to analyse the awareness of the causes of NIDHL of students in tertiary institutions; (b), to explore whether students in tertiary institutions are aware of the consequences of NIDHL and (c), to ascertain whether the students are aware of the strategies for preventing NIDHL. The sample of this study is made up of 525 students from 5 tertiary institutions in Enugu. The design of the study is a descriptive survey. To collect data from the respondents, three research questions were formulated and validated by three experts, one in measurement and evaluation and two from special education. The validated instrument was trial tested at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State and a reliability coefficient of 0.76 was obtained. The findings of the study among others showed that the students in the 5 tertiary institutions in Enugu were not aware of the causes of NIDHL and their consequences.

  34. Emmanuel C. Sharndama and Blessing Ijem

    This paper is a corpus based analysis of lexical archaism in Public Legal Texts. The study aims at uncovering the incidences of lexical archaism in the selected Nigerian statutes. Incidences of lexical archaism were identified and discussed with emphasis on their effects on the readers. The incidences were illustrated by presenting portions of the text in which they occurred. The study therefore was purely descriptive and qualitative as no attempt was made to quantify the incidences. The findings, however, revealed that compound adverbs and prepositions are the commonest form of lexical archaism noted. Others include the use of doublets, and the use of the modal “shall. “ Latin and French terms as terms of arts were also noted as forms of archaic vocabularies. The study recommends that though lawyers/legal specialists use archaic lexical items on purpose, the study recommends that the use be minimised so that the public will have better understanding public texts.

  35. Dr. Ratna Sinha

    India is one of the emerging economies, which have witnessed significant development in the stock markets during the liberalization policy initiated by the government. And Indian stock market is largely integrated with the world markets. In that Context financial crisis of 2007-09 was a glass case of large spillovers from one bank to another bank heightening risk. It is clear that the investing in banking shares include high risk at the same time it earns extremely negative return which is revealed by the performance analyses on selected banking shares. Investing in stocks is a risky business. There are some risks which can control over and others that can only guard against. Most of these risks affect the market or the economy and require investors to adjust portfolios or ride out the storm. In this paper author analyze the risk and return in banking equity with non banking equity in Bankex. The study compare the banking equity performance with two major effected sector (Real, IT). The hypothesis taken is there is significant difference in return in banking and non banking equity. The statistical tools which were used for analyzing the hypothesis were descriptive analysis and T-test. The author has given some suggestion to improvise the market condition from the global recession.

  36. Holliyavar, M. M.

    Wavelets are new families of basis functions that practical measurements of real phenomena require time and resources, they provide not all values but only a finite sequence of values called a Sample of the function representing the phenomenon under consideration. Therefore, the first in the analysis of a data with wavelets consists in approximating its function by means of the sample alone. One of the simplest methods of approximation uses a horizontal stair step extended through each sample point. The resulting steps form a new function denoted here by f ̃ and called a simple function or step function, which approximates the sampled function f. Although approximations more accurate than simple step exist, they demand more sophisticated Mathematics, so this paper presents to simple steps. A precise notation will prove useful to indicate the location of such steps. In this paper we have used simple steps, Haar wavelets for approximating the different class of data and analyzed by using wavelets.

  37. Joan M. Tenge, David K. Kariuki, Isaac O. Jumba, and Dan O. Riaroh

    A total of seventy nine samples from four different wells of Mui basin in parts of Mwingi and Kitui districts in Kenya were examined in order to establish the presence and quality of coal. The research was based on a proximate analysis which involved analysis of seven parameters per each sample based on ASTM standards (ASTM, 1991, Speight, 1983).The parameters were; determination of calorific value, fixed carbon, sulphur content, volatile matter, moisture content, ash content and iron. Proximate analysis is the determination of overall composition of coal sample (Spheight, 1983; Barbaras, 1991). The results obtained provided quick and valuable information regarding commercial classification and determination of the suitability of the coal from Mui basin identified for a particular industrial use (Dara, 2004). About 80% of the samples could be classified as industrial fuel, while the rest could be suitable for domestic fuel. But with reference to specific uses, 63% of the coal samples were found to be suitable for power generation, 19% for domestic fuel, gaseous fuel or tar distillation while the rest (18%) could be suitable for use in metallurgical coking.

  38. Suganthi, S., Geetha, M. and Revathi, J.

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) is an active research area with a number of proposals being made to support real-time applications that are based upon the interaction between the routing scheme and a QoS provisioning mechanism. This paper builds upon such ideas and presents QoS-aware Shortest Multipath Source (Q-SMS) routing protocol that have been shown to offer significant network improvement when compared to best protocol proposed schemes. Q-SMS essentially modifies the previously proposed SMS scheme to explicitly provide QoS assurance. The new proposed scheme allows nodes to obtain and then use estimation of the residual capacity to make appropriate admission control decisions. In this paper we compare a QOS-based, Robust Multipath Routing (QRMR) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks and a cross layer based multipath routing (CBRM) protocol to improve QoS in mobile ad hoc networks to allot weights to individual links, depending on the metrics link quality, channel quality and end-to-end delay is developed. This paper presents a new approach based on multipath routing backbones (MRB) for supporting enhanced QoS in MANETs. The objective of this multipath routing is to improve the reliability and throughput and favour load balancing. The bulkiness of our protocol achieves improved packet delivery ratio with reduced latency was established.

  39. Revathi, J., Kokila, N. and Suganthi, S.

    Wireless networks, and mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) in particular, are characterized by time- varying link characteristics and network topology. In such an environment, the network must accommodate the changes, providing end-end packet delivery while at the same time incurring low control overhead. This paper proposes a routing algorithm for MANETs with the primary goal of maximizing connectivity while limiting overhead. The KA algorithms of AOMDV-DPU strengthen the primary route and secondary routes, respectively. As a result, the frequencies of Received Route Requests RREQ, RREP (route replies), and RERR (route error) messages are reduced considerably. As a result, the route breakage probability increases. Node mobility in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) causes frequent route breakages and intermittent link stability. In this paper, we introduce a robust routing scheme, known as ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector with dynamic path update (AOMDV-DPU), for delay-sensitive data transmission over MANET.

  40. Vinutha Moses, Hemanth, L. R. and Dr. Suresh, R.

    Metal displacement reaction is a common method, well known and practiced world wide in decorative and electronic IndustriesElectroless plating has gained importance to satisfy the demands of the niche and gamet technologies.The chemical deposition of a metal from an aqueous bath solution of a salt, onto any other metal surface immersedin it, involves an electrochemical mechanism (oxidation and reduction reactions). The oxidation of a substance is characterized by the loss of electrons, while reduction is distinguished by a gain of electrons. Electroless nickel plating is the most commonly used plating method.Copper and gold are equally competent and are also used in electroless plating. Their physical and chemical properties, surface morphology, thickness characterization, applications and efficiency are significantly studied.

  41. Poonam Sharma, Pooja Deshmukh and Dr. Preeta Sharan

    Optical biosensors are powerful detection and analysis devices that have vast applications in biomedical research, healthcare, and pharmaceuticals. This paper includes design of a 2-dimensional photonic crystal based biosensor with line defect which can detect different components of blood. Analysis has been done for blood serum albumin, blood plasma, glucose, white blood cells and red blood cells. Analytical work has been done using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. Modeling and designing of photonic crystal is done with the help of simulation tools MEEP and MPB. Simulation results shows different blood components like blood serum albumin, blood plasma, glucose, white blood cells, and red blood cells and their peak has been observed. It has been observed from the band structure that for little change in refractive index there will be a moderate shift in the frequency and hence it acts as a sensor.

  42. Viruthagiri G. and Sri Nithya Nareshananda

    Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been carried out to analyze the both chemical and mineralogical composition of the IFB (Insulating Fire Bricks) samples. In the present study, the insulating fire bricks have been prepared by mixture of kaolin, plastic clay and sawdust materials. FT-IR technique has been used to find the mineralogical transformations of clay during firing temp in the range of 900°C - 1200°C. The FT-IR results indicate that insulating fire bricks have different mineralogical composition i.e., namely kaolin, quartz montmorillonite, hematite respectively. The increasing firing temperatures lead to the disappear of kaolinite (1114 cm-1) and the development of quartz (1096 cm-1). Mullite is developed from kaolin clay mineral and this is confirmed by FT-IR spectra

  43. Ezenwa, A. E, Chikwendu, D.U and Dike, D.N

    The study focused on passengers preference for selected mass transit companies in South eastern Nigeria. Data were collected from 114 passengers who patronized the selected mass transit in the study area with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages. The results of the study showed passengers preference for Imo Transport Company Limited, then Rivers Transport Company Limited, and then Abia Line Network Company Limited. Findings revealed that passengers were satisfied with the general quality of service, fares charged, vehicle standard, attitude of drivers and crew, and drivers' safety consciousness on the highway. Findings also revealed that vehicles were also readily available when required. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made: Government should develop other modes of transportation to enhance proper integration of transport services in the country. The companies should open up more routes to increase extent of vehicle utilization which will result to increase in income. The government should assist the companies to improve the standard of facilities such as tarrying of parks, building of adequate passenger waiting hall and other passenger comfort facilities. More importantly, Government should improve the condition of Nigeria roads.

  44. Harbhajan Singh and Dr. Gurpreet Singh Kang

    Sports have become an integral part of society. The coaches and trainers all over the world are aspiring for better result of their trainers. This can be made possible by conducting studies on the relationship of motor ability and level of skill of the player with their playing ability. The purpose of the study was to find out relationship of football skills with the selected physical fitness component. The study was delimited to 150 male inter college level player is age group of 19-25 year. The subject was selected from the inter college football matches of three university of Punjab. The data was collected during the inter college matches of soccer. The Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient (r) method was used. The level of p≤0.05 was considered significant. The result show significant relationship of football skills with sprinting speed, agility, endurance and flexibility

  45. Khaled E. Elgayar, Iman M. A. El kholy, Yasser M. Abd Elmonem and Hala, Abu shady, M.

    In this study, a modern technique for the diagnosis of Salmonella typhi using the outer membrane protein was established. To reduce the identification time of the infection by typhoid fever; Salmonella typhi outer membrane protein was extracted from Salmonella typhi bacteria ATCC 19430 growing on optimized growth conditions. Partially purified outer membrane protein was immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane and tested against serum of typhoid patients to detect the antigenicity of the protein isolated using immunoblotting technique. The molecular weight of the highly antigenic protein was measured and it was about 50KDa. These antigens showed high antigenisity against the sera of Typhoid fever patients using Western blotting technique. So, this can be an initial step towards the rapid immunochromatographic strips and ELISA diagnostic kits for the efficient detection of antibodies against Salmonella typhi in serum specimens.

  46. Ali Ahmadi, Mahmoud Mobasheri, Ali Akbar Khadem-Maboudi and Borzoo Khaledifar

    Introduction: Knowledge transfer is a process by which research results will be transferred to users and decision makers. Nowadays, knowledge alongside its application is one of the most important factors for survival of organizations and universities in the world. This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge transfer in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is an epidemiological, cross-sectional, decriptive-analytical study with Research and Technology Deputy of (research centers affiliated to) Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences as research community and a 38-idividual sample size. Data were gathered through a four-index, 50-item questionnaire with authenticated reliability and validity. Data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of the four indices of knowledge transfer based on research question, knowledge generation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge and scientific evidence promotion was, respectively, 31 ± 1.8, 27.1 ± 8.1, 37.7 ± 18.4, and 11.2 ± 4.2. The total mean ± standard deviation for knowledge transfer in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences was 143 ± 35 from the total 250. The general status of knowledge generation, knowledge transfer, and knowledge promotion in the University was 73.6% acceptable and 26.4% weak and unacceptable. Conclusion: Generating and applying knowledge has been recognized as a necessity for universities to compete and survive. Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences should consider the process of knowledge and research evidence transfer to live effectively, to maintain the present status in rank three medical universities, and to promote to rank two. This university requires a more sophisticated planning to achieve these purposes.

  47. Balvir Singh, Ram Bahal Rai, Kuldeep Dhama, Hamid Ali, Thukkaram Damodaran, Sandip Chakraborty and Ashwani Kumar Singh

    Poultry farming as a business had tremendous scope for self-employment on one hand and could diversify the agriculture production system on the other hand. Training is very essential for capacity building and for strengthening the business economically by developing scientific attitude to increase knowledge status and making aware about present situation of sector throughout country and worldwide. Present study was carried out under World Bank funded ICAR research project, National Agricultural Innovative Project, Component- III in the Raebareli and Barabanki districts of Uttar Pradesh, India to identify the training need areas and farmers preference regarding methods, venue, time and period of training activities. Information was collected with the help of well-constructed questionnaire from a list of poultry farmers selected. The data were tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical method. Training need areas were classified into more important and less important based on the average mean score value, which was 9.18. Out of sixteen activities of poultry husbandry five were found to be most important training areas among farmers viz., feed formulation; vaccination and preventive measures; finance and loan facilities; brooding management; disease diagnosis and health care. Maximum 89.5% farmers acquired training during the period January to March; 3.5% during April to June (3.5%); 2.5% during July to September; and 4.5 % during October to December. Majority of the farmers desired training by on site demonstration method (74.5%), 15.5% by using exposure visits, 5.5% by lecture with field trip, and 4.5 % by group discussions. This suggests that site demonstrations provide multi-session interaction with experts at their farm during frequent visit at any stage of development. Largest part of the farmers (83.5%) recommended village name as venue of the training programme, as an alternative of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) (14%) and Block / Tahsil / District headquarter (2.5%). The 78.5% farmers suggested that the duration of the training programme should be for 2-3 days, followed by 19% for one day, 1.5% for 4-5 days and 1.0% for one week or more. It can be concluded from this study that all these aspects when studied vividly will enable the farmers to perform poultry farming more efficiently to enhance their own household income, which is crucial for obtaining sustained livelihood security and poverty alleviation.

  48. Zineb Saif, Hicham Benyaich, Mehdi Karkouri, Omar Battas, Mohamed El Kharroussi Et Mohamed Agoub

    Summary: Aim of the study: conducting a neuroanatomical study on the deterious effects of regular and chronic concomitant consumption of alcohol and cannabis on the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum hemisphere. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Casablanca (IFM) for the period from January 2008 to January 2012. The study population consisted of all deaths following an accident or fall and having concomitant consumption of alcohol and cannabis (n = 228). Results: Of the 228 admitted to the IFM. We recorded 13 deaths with concomitant alcohol and cannabis consumption chronic and regularly. The average age was 28.84 years (SD: 0.73) with extreme ranging from 20 to 39 years, all were male. We found a score (2) in 10 cases, and score (1) in 3 cases. Conclusion: The neuroanatomical study showed the presence of variation in the number of neurons in the prefrontal cortex in 13 cases of people with the emergence of two scores: score (2) in 10 cases and score (1) in 3 cases while no structural change was found in the cerebellar hemisphere.

  49. Kulroop Kaur Badwal

    The present study was conducted to examine the echocardiographic parameters between open and closed skill athletes. To obtain data for this study, the investigator had selected seventy two (N=72) male university level athletes of 19 to 25 years of age group to act as subjects. They were further divided into two groups which includes thirty six (n= 36) open skill athletes and thirty six (n=36) closed skill athletes of various games. The purposive sampling technique was used to obtain the required data. To measure the cardiac morphology the echocardiography was administered. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was employed to find out the intra-group differences. To test the hypothesis, the level of significance was set at 0.05.The results revealed significant differences between open and closed skill athletes on the left ventricular internal dimensions and thickness. The study concludes that cardiac morphology is affected by the type of sport and training undertaken by the athletes.

  50. Ram Bahal Rai, Kuldeep Dhama, Sandip Chakraborty, Thukkaram Damodaran, Balvir Singh, Hamid Ali and Harendra Kumar

    India is the largest milk producer in the world. The dairy enterprise is inherent activity in rural India, encompassing all the agro-system. The prolonged inter-calving period due to anestrous / endometritis or repeat breeding in general term, results in lesser lactation number, less milk yield and lower number of calf / breedable heifer production. Any improvement in inter-calving period resulting in higher economic return will help in reducing the poverty level as well as improving the nutritional security. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of estrous induction on inter-calving period as well as net return to farmers during 2009-12 in the Barabanki and Raebareli districts of Uttar Pradesh. The interventions covered 62 villages in 4 clusters. A base line survey on various aspects was conducted covering 15% of families in 42 villages at the beginning of 2009. Survey on conception rate by artificial insemination (AI) from different sources and natural service was conducted. All the oviparous bovines in the study were given patented estrous induction formulation orally (between 90-120 days of calving) for 10 days to initiate normal estrous cycle through development of corpus luteum and follicles. Animals exhibiting estrous were inseminated either naturally or artificially. The base live survey data indicated prolonged inter-calving period of 27.7 months (pooled data). The inter-calving period of the buffaloes which showed very poor estrous and conception percentage during peak hot and humid months of June-July was reduced to 17.8 ± 0.4 months and 15.2 ± 0.7 months in cows. The reluctance of many farmers to get their animals pregnant before 4 months of calving increased the inter-calving period though the estrous induction, the rate was above 86% in cows and above 74% in buffaloes. The average cost of milch animals in the localities varied during the period from Rs. 3000-4000 / lit milk production for cows and Rs. 4000-5500 / lit for buffaloes. The present formulation not only induced the estrous through corpus luteum and follicular development but probably helped in checking the rejection of pregnancies during first month. Timely insemination, care and observing estrous improved the inter-calving period compared to baseline data. The total cost of estrous induction in 3 subsequent pregnancies, averaged around Rs. 80/- per animal per pregnancy that enhances the number of lactations (around 55-60%) and make the existing low producing animals also a profitable venture.

  51. Ram Bahal Rai, Kuldeep Dhama, Sandip Chakraborty, Thukkaram Damodaran, Balvir Singh, Hamid Ali, Sweta Rai and Harendra Kumar

    Creating reasonable and sustainable livelihood security to masses is a major concern in the developing countries world over. The major challenge is creating reasonable livelihood security to landless and marginal farmers who comprise nearly 30% and 40% of rural families, respectively. Small dairies have been recommended as most acceptable and profitable venture. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate a concept of establishing small dairies by the resource poor farmers without involvement of any sizeable capital. It was conducted in two different situations: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, where dairy venture is in its infancy and low producing animals are reared for milk and availability of high producing animals for purchase and lateral introduction does not exist. The other situation existed in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, where dairy activities suffer from very low profitability. In the first scenario, initially in 10 villages of south Andaman, estrous synchronization of existing cows was done using our mineral based estrous induction and synchronization technology. In the second scenario, for establishment of dairies afresh 22 unemployed youths resource generation approach was taken up and they were provided with 250-300 day old chicks of Nirbhik strain and fed azolla. The income generated by first batch of rural poultry along with income from vegetables/gladiolus was used to purchase first high producing animal. The sale proceeds of milk along with cash realized from subsequent batches of poultry and vegetables /gladiolus was used to purchase second batch at 3-4 months interval. The concept was termed as “systematic introduction scheme” (SIS). The inter-calving period in intervened animals during 5 years was reduced to 15.5 ± 1.1 months. The male: female calf ratio during the period was 54.6: 45.4. Female calf survivability up to one year was 88.2%. The age at first calving in new stock was significantly reduced to 30.8-1.6 months. All the 22 youths monitored for the establishment of dairies earned on an average of Rs. 30,000/- net income from the first batch of chicks and Rs. 30,000 - 34,000/- in subsequent batches at 2-3 months intervals. Off-season vegetables provided Rs. 10,000 – 18,000/- in 3-4 months per 0.24 ha (one bigha) whereas, gladiolus gave a better return (above Rs. 25,000/- per 0.24 ha). Systematic introduction scheme (SIS) automatically improves earning status of rural youths as it has got a positive impact on milk production without incurring any expenditure.

  52. Tirzah Jansiba and Estherlydia, D.

    Functional foods and nutraceuticals may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent or attenuate diet-related disease. Nurses often fill the role of nutrition counselors of the patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurse’s knowledge and attitudes about functional foods and their recommendation, intentions toward functional foods. Ex Post Facto design was used to collect information from 50 nurses using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to explore the consumption, awareness and perceived risk factors related to functional foods among nurses. Results indicate that majority (80%) of the nurses were aware of the term ‘functional foods’, while they had moderate knowledge on functional foods as nearly half of them consumed functional foods on a daily basis and actively seek information about functional foods. The bioactive ingredients considered most effective at improving their health were omega-3 fatty acids (42%) and dietary fibers (40%). Health areas nurses were concerned about were primarily reported as diabetes (62%), heart disease (52%) and followed by hypertension (44%) and immunity (42%). Predominately participants reported that they have confidence on foods functional foods. Nurses’ attitudes towards the safety and the efficiency of functional foods could influence their attitudes on whether or not to recommend these foods to the patients

  53. Kavitha Shetty, Mahesh V Hegde, and Dhanesh Kumar, K. U.

    Background and Purpose: A recent study reported promising clinical results using dynamic stretching and ballistic stretching as a warm-up exercise in improving vertical jump performance for basketball players. Objectives: This study aims to determine the acute effect of dynamic and Ballistic stretching in a warm up routines on vertical jump height in amateur basketball players. Methodology: In This experimental study sixty subjects of amateur basketball players with a mean age of 22.46+1.21, were randomised to Dynamic stretching, Ballistic stretching and control group randomly. Each subject were pretested for vertical jump on one day and for 7days each subject received 10 min jog warm-up and Dynamic and Ballistic stretching groups received Stretches addressed the major muscle groups of the lower body (Gluteal, Hamstrings, quadriceps, adductors, hip flexors, gastrocnemius and soleus) stretches performed in both the legs for Fifteen repetitions per leg for three sets followed by post test for vertical jump everyday for a week. Results: The results analyzed using ANOVA showed that there was significant variations p<0.05 in the mean improvement of all the groups considered thus accepting the experimental hypothesis stating that there is significant difference with stretching protocols in improving the vertical jump performance of Amateur Basket ball players. Mean improvement values of the amateur basket ball players belonging to group Dynamic stretching, Ballistic stretching and control group (1.42, 0.97, and 0.25) shows Group-A players trained with Dynamic stretching had a significant improvement with their vertical jump performance when compared to the group trained with Ballistic stretching and the control group. Conclusion: This study shows acute effect of both Dynamic stretching and Ballistic stretching have got beneficial effect in improving the Vertical jump performance of amateur Basketball players. But acute effect of Dynamic stretch has superior hand in improving the Vertical jump performance of amateur Basketball players.

  54. Farhana Tahseen Taj, Ritupurna Dash and Sameer Haveri

    Economic Faces are but a gallery of pictures. "-Francis Bacon. Facies is the appearance of a facial expression of an individual. In the deviations from the normal facies lie subtle clues. These clues may point the keen observer not just to myriad possibilities from the coarse facies of inborn errors of metabolism to leonine facies, but at times can be the tell-tale symptom of the disease itself like syphilitic facies. Nevertheless the distinct appearance holds the clue to the diagnosis and is an integral part of clinical examination. This article brings in together the descriptions of various facies to not only emphasize but also categorise the same for the sake of convenience of the observant.

  55. Ram Bahal Rai, Kuldeep Dhama, Sandip Chakraborty, Thukkaram Damodaran, Balvir Singh, Hamid Ali, Sweta Rai, Saminathan Mani and Mohd.Yaqoob Wani

    The geographical area of India spreads over 329 million hectares is endowed with a complex diversity of climate and soil; flora and fauna. Integrated Farming System (IFS) is the main source of livelihood of nearly 65% rural masses dependant on agriculture. To overcome the problem of lower profitability in IFS, the concept and models of Specialized Integrated Farming System (SIFS) has been developed with 4 components viz. basal crops, medium duration cash crops, super short/short duration cash crops and value addition. The basal crop provides support to system like IFS. The present study was conducted during 2009-2012 in villages of Barabanki and Raebareli districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Out of 42 families for whom data was recorded and evaluated, 24 families followed rice-wheat-oilseeds cropping system, reared cow /buffaloes (1-3 Nos.) and vegetables on part of land. In the SIFS models rural poultry, off-season vegetables and gladiolus were used for resource generation and expansion of the livelihood base. The novel technologies developed in the project viz. estrous induction and infertility control technology, low cost mastitis control technology, new rural poultry production technology, banana cultivation technology using bio-enhancer (CSR-BIO), vegetable cultivation using CSR-BIO were the main technological interventions in both the systems. Intercropping with mustard and wheat; pigeon pea and paddy; potato and vegetables varied farmer to farmers. In jersey crosses or in descript cows and murrah buffaloes different parameters were recorded. The lactation yield of cows was 500-600 lit. while in buffaloes it was 400-500 lits. The pooled inter-calving period was 27.8± 0.5 months. Marginal farmers readily adopted (82%) the technologies and harvested its benefits. In contrast farmers with large land holdings were less interested (46% adaption rate). The base line data reported engagements of family labour as 82 man days/per year. In mono-crop practicing farmers, it was 62 man days/yr and in SIFS model: 187 man days/yr (increased). The comparative net returns in all the 3 systems showed significant difference. The average net return in 3 years period in the area of 0.40 ha from traditional farming (control) was Rs. 96,000 whereas in integrated farming system practicing additional ventures of rural poultry and vegetables was Rs. 2,71,000/-. The profitability in specialized integrated farming system was Rs. 6,13,000/- and farmers adapted banana, rural poultry, gladiolus and vegetables. The input cost in subsequent years in traditional farming was more or less constant while it decreased by 25-35% in subsequent years in IFS models and thus especially the SIFS model proves to be profitable in the present scenario of decreased landholding.

  56. Ram Bahal Rai, Kuldeep Dhama, Sandip Chakraborty, Thukkaram Damodaran, Balvir Singh, Hamid Ali, Sweta Rai, Saminathan Mani and Mohd.Yaqoob Wani

    Livestock sector is the best and most effective tool for livelihood security and poverty alleviation. The present study was conducted between 1999 to 2012, covering the island ecosystem of Andaman & Nicobar islands, Terai belt and 6 districts of UP representing northern plains of India and having low levels of various micro-minerals. Area specific mineral mixture (15-20 days feeding), commercially available estrogenic substances feeding as per the prescribed schedule, hormonal interventions as follicular stimulating hormone, gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GNRH), lutelizing hormone (LH), and HCG were tried for correcting the hormonal imbalance. Keeping in view the lower success rate, a formulation was developed. The present formulation was fed orally for 10 days (in de-wormed animals directly). In random survey, out of 265 animals examined, palpable corpus luteum was observed in 37/156 cows (23.71%) and 19/109 buffaloes (17.43%). In majority of cases it was indistinct. The number of animals exhibiting estrous within 4-5 months of calving were 35 (24.6%) cows and 16 (18.6%) buffaloes, respectively. However, when the injection was given in animals having palpable corpus luteum, induction rate within 48-96 hrs was 93.2% in cows and 77.4% in buffaloes. The area specific mineral mixture was able to correct anestrous, by inducing estrous, in 33.33% (range 23-36%) of 462 oviparous animals. Various estrogenic products available commercially when given orally the induction rate varied widely with an average of 20.9% (range 11-29%). In oviparous cows the present formulation when given the induction rate was 92.3% (range 82-96%) while in buffaloes it was 73.1%. The conception rate in animals where estrous was induced by present formulation was 66.4% compared to 56.6% of area specific mineral mixture and 42.8% of estrogenic substances. Evaluation of cost showed that all the 3 treatment regimes have more or less similar cost which was around Rs. 80/- per animal. The area specific mineral mixture was not able to induce estrous beyond 36% in field animals which indicated that minerals are not alone responsible for follicular and corpus luteum development. Estrogenic substances provide estradiol which can help in inducing the estrous but cannot assure conception. The present formulation stimulated follicular and corpus luteum developments and thus corrected the cycle in the body which may be helpful in subsequent pregnancies and the cost is as low as mineral supplementation. This formulation has created a hope for poor dairy farmers facing the menace of infertility in their animals.

  57. Dr. Roopali Bajaj

    Glucose The objective of this study was to understand the crucial factors that are helpful in building good employee relations, specifically in public sectors.The study determined that although the human resource function plays an important role in building strong Employee Relations in any organization measures of HR practices are not being properly implemented in state PSUs.

  58. Shuaibu Lawal and Ibrahim Aliyu Yar Adua

    The levels of bromate in twenty bread samples obtained from some locations in Katsina metropolis were determined using spectrophotometric method. It was based on the redox reaction between bromate and promethazine in an acidic medium. This reaction produced a red-pink product with maximum absorption at 515nm.Prior to the quantitative determination; a qualitative test was carried out on a portion of each bread sample using 2cm3 of 0.01M promethazine and 0.6cm3 of 12M hydrochloric acid. The change in colour observed in each bread sample indicates the presence of bromate. The results obtained show bromate levels which ranged between 2.18 to 8.25μg/g in bread samples. Bromate levels in all the samples examined were found to exceed the recommended permissible level by US Food and Drug Agency and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control of 0.02μg/g. All bread samples examined were considered unsafe for human consumption. Bread bakers should explore other alternative means of flour improvers instead of using bromate because of its deleterious and carcinogenic effect in humans.

  59. Gowri, R., 2Balaji, P., Vijayalakshmi, P., Preethy Mol, G., and Karthik Raja, P.

    Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant based liposomes. Niosomes, the novel drug delivery system are self assembled vesicles primarily of synthetic surfactant incorporated with cholesterol as an excipient. They are the vesicles formed by hydrating the cholesterol and non-ionic surfactant. The main aim of niosome includes use of drug in efficient manner which includes reduced dose, reduced side effect, reduced dosage frequency, greater patient compliance and maximum concentration at the site of action so, that under exposure to the entire body. It includes higher therapeutic efficiency and reduced side effect. Niosomes are thought to be the better candidate’s drug delivery system due to the various factor like cost, stability, etc. various types of drug delivery is possible using niosomes like targetting drug action, ophthalmic, topical, parenteral, etc. Drug delivery potential of niosomes can be enhanced by using novel concept like proniosomes, discomes and aspasomes. Niosomes serves better aid in the diagnostic imaging and as a Vaccine adjuants.this article focuses on the recent advances in niosomal drug delivery, formulation methods, and methods of characterization and current researches in the field of niosomes.

  60. Dr. Namrata Arvind Thakur and Dr Arun Y Humne

    Background: The rising trend in breast cancer worldwide and in India has become a matter of great concern.The most common site-specific cancer is breast cancer and also it is the leading cause of death from cancer in women.Geographical variations in incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer suggest that the known risk factors for breast cancer may vary in different parts of the world and that environmental factors are of greater importance than genetic factors.It is important to identify these factors in order to bring down the incidence, morbidity and mortality.One of the major modifiable risk factor associated with breast carcinoma is breast feeding.Hence this case control study mainly focuses to study practice of breast feeding and its risk with breast carcinoma Aim: To study association of breastfeeding with breast carcinoma and to assess its strength of association. Methods: This was a case control study carried out in Government Medical College, Nagpur from August 2010 to February 2011. 240 women were studied which included 120 histopathologically confirmed cases of breast carcinoma and 120 age (5 years) and residence (rural / urban) matched controls. Data was gathered using predesigned and pretested proforma. Results: The women who had never breastfed were 5.12 (1.60 – 21.34) times at a risk of breast carcinoma than those who have ever breastfed.No association was found between initiation of breastfeeding after delivery and breast carcinoma.Decreasing trend with increasing cumulative duration of breastfeeding was seen. Discussion: Similar findings are seen from other authors. Conclusion: Longer duration of breastfeeding is a protective factor for development of breast carcinoma.

  61. Dr. Rani Nallathamby, Dr. Ramakrishna Avadhani, Dr. Meera Jacob and Dr. Boban Babu

    Background: Cervico- diaphyseal angle or neck-shaft angle is the angle made by the neck of the femur with the femoral shaft. This angle had grabbed much attention of researchers and different studies with variable results were obtained. Aim: The aim of the study is to measure the neck-shaft angles on both gender types and on both sides and correlate it clinically. Materials and Methods: This study was done in Department of Anatomy, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore.100 dry human femora of both sexes belonging to either sides were measured mechanically using osteometric board, threads and glass protractor .The results obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: The neck-shaft angle of femur is measured in100 dry bones and the mean value is calculated as 134.56 degrees. The mean values for males were 134.29 and females were 134.82 degrees respectively. The mean values for left side were 135.22 and that of right side were 133.86 degrees. Even though the value is higher in females and in left side, no statistical difference was found. Conclusion: Any increase or decrease in femoral neck-shaft angle is associated with various clinical conditions.It had a significant role in maintaining hip stability and normal gait pattern. Knowledge about this is essential in hip arthroplasties and corrective osteotomies. The data established in this study will be useful for various orthopedic diagnosis and procedures and also in the field of general human osteology and anthropology.

  62. George, G. S., Uwakwe, A. A., and Egoro, E. T.

    The effect of aqueous extract of two herbs Tapinanthus bengwensis and Oscimum gratissimum treatment on Wistar Rats induced with diabetic streptozotocin (Zanosar) have been investigated. Their hypoglycemic properties were evaluated after treatment of separate groups of adult male and female rats weighing between 240-300g with 5% and 10% aqueous extract of the herbs for 16 days resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated heamoglobin (HbA1c). Other paramaters investigated were insulin, glutathione (GSH) creatinine and urea. Further analysis of data with a scatter plot of individual groups according to their FBG and HbA1c shows a positive linear correlation and the linear regression had a coefficient of r=0.69 significant at 0.01 level (r=0.69, p<0.01). Histological examination of the kidney and pancrease pre and post induction were studied. We deduced an improvement from the weight status. Treatment with T.bengwensis improved GSH, insulin and creatinine levels appreciably suggesting possible credence for its efficacy in management of diabetes mellitus specifically as it has to do with protection of red blood cells and kidney functions.

  63. Ambica, R. and Sahana, P.

    Extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBLs) are a group of enzymes which confer resistance to cephalosporins, monobactams and related oxyimino β-lactams. ESBLs are encoded by transferable conjugative plasmids which may also carry resistant determinants to other antimicrobials like aminoglycosides, limiting treatment options. ESBL’s are more prevalent in Klebsiella spp. than any other members of family enterobacteriaceae. The present study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and to detect ESBL production in Klebsiella spp. from clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital. 100 isolates of Klebsiella spp. derived from various clinical specimens processed as per the standard guidelines were considered for the present study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer technique was done according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2011 guidelines. 41 Klebsiella isolates which were considered presumptively positive for ESBL production by Kirby-Bauer method were later confirmed by the phenotypic double disc diffusion test using cefotaxime & cefotaxime/clavulanic acid discs. An increase of >/= 5 mm in the latter disc was considered as confirmatory. A majority of these isolates were also resistant to aminoglycosides. All isolates were found to be susceptible to carbapenems. The study revealed a high prevalence of ESBL producing Klebsiella spp. in our hospital. Enhanced infection control, coupled with antibiotic stewardship programs backed by simple and effective detection methods are required to limit the spread of ESBL-producers.

  64. Nishikant Gujar, Santosh K. Ijeri, Mohammed Azmathullah, Jilani Awati, Nasheen Bagali, Ravi Kumar Choudhari, Sayan Kumar Das and Vipin Balachandran

    Introduction: Adult polycystic kidney disease is characterized by bilateral multiple renal cysts which is often accompanied by cyst formation in liver and pancreas. Although the disease is bilateral, renal involvement may be asynchronous and asymmetrical. There are some reports on unilateral ADPKD in literature. Risk of renal cell carcinoma in patients with ADPKD is controversial and reportedly <1%. We are reporting a case of unilateral ADPKD with focus of RCC presenting as a huge mass. Case presentation: Seventy years old male patient from South India was admitted with the history of abdominal distension, dyspnoea, cough with expectoration, fever and weight loss with a positive family history of ADPKD. On examination, a 30 × 25 cms mass was palpable in right hypochondriac, right lumber, right iliac, umbilical, left iliac and hypogastric areas. The mass was crossing the midline. Computerized tomography scan of abdomen showed a huge, predominately cystic, well defined mass occupying right hypochondriac, renal, iliac and umbilical regions. Computerized tomography guided Fine needle aspiration cytology showed moderately differentiated renal cell carcinoma. Intravenous pylography showed a grossly enlarged right polycystic kidney with multiple calculi (an incidental finding). Right radical nephrectomy was done, and about a 5 kg, hugely enlarged polycystic right kidney mass was removed. Patient recovered well postoperatively. Conclusion: Bilateral ADPKD is common finding, but there are only a few reports on unilateral ADPKD; still rare is development of RCC in ADPKD. Our case adds to our knowledge; of unilateral presentation of ADPKD with the focus of RCC; which presented as a huge mass which was crossing the midline.

  65. Enas N. Morgan and Abeer A. Khalefa

    Objective: The present study aimed to clarify the role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) complicated Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Materials and methods: 30 adult albino rats were included. Rats were divided into three equal groups: group I: served as control; group II: rats received high fat diet (HFD); group III: rats received visfatin injection. The serum levels of visfatin, sVCAM-1, insulin and fasting Serum glucose (FSG) levels were investigated for all groups. Moreover, proteinurea, mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and histopathological examination were detected. Results: Results showed a development of major systemic alterations similar to human MS, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension in rats on a HFD. These systemic changes were accompanied by renal pathophysiological alterations including, high creatinin levels, proteinurea, and atrophy of the glomeruli and sclerosis of the glomerular capillaries. Injection of visfatin was associated with lower levels of FSG, insulin, and HOMA-IR in comparison with both control and HFD-fed groups and high levels of creatinin, proteinurea, and sVCAM-1 in comparison with control. Moreover, mild glomerular atrophy and sclerosis was detected. Visfatin was positively correlated with proteinurea, and sVCAM-1 in both HFD-fed group and visfatin injected group. Conclusion: Visfatin plays an important role in the development of renal injury associated with MS. As it increased the sVCAM-1 level that is considered as a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction and it also caused glomerular sclerosis.

  66. Dr. Prasad Sasnur, Dr. Ravindra Nidoni, Dr. Tejaswini, V., Dr. Vikram Sindgikar and Dr. Shailesh Kannur

    Treatment of high output ECF is a challenging to the surgeon, especially in developing countries like India where the available resources and financial support to the patients are limited. The morbidity and mortality of these patients depend on nutrition. Providing nutrition by prolonged use of TPN is not feasible in all patients. Hence percutaneous T-tube placement is a simple technique which can be used to provide enteral nutrition. Apart from providing nutrition it has an added advantage of providing a mechanical support over the anastomotic site and it also help in decompressing the proximal bowel segment which help in healing process of the fistula.

  67. Tauseef Ahmad Malik, Azra N. Kamili, Chishti, M. Z., Johri, R. K., Syed Tanveer, Sajad A. Bhat, Shazia Ahad Gowhar Hamid Dar, Humeera Nisa, Sana Shafi, and Rubiya Dar

    Coccidiosis is a lethal managemental disease of poultry. It causes high mortality in affected flocks and results in the annual loss of millions of US dollars by the poultry industry. To control coccidiosis, yearly expenditures on anticoccidial drugs total approximately $650,000. For poultry producers, this is probably the largest expenditure for medication. In India and other developing countries where a large percentage of the population is unemployed, cheap food production is necessary. If the control of the coccidian parasite could be made more economical, these savings could be passed on to the consumer. In Europe, where the economics are different, people are becoming more aware of the potential dangers of using antimicrobials in producing animal protein. A solution to all these problems could be the use of plant products that function by mechanisms other than those of chemotherapeutics, with the additional advantage of a natural origin. The present article provides a background on coccidiosis and reviews the advantage of using medicinal plants as source of anticoccidial drugs.

  68. Chamundeswari, S. and Deepa Franky

    Qualitative education plays an important role in technological advancement. Therefore, to prepare competent teachers, teaching technology has developed pre-service and in- service teacher education programmes. In order to make teacher education programme effective and to bring qualitative improvement, a need is felt to investigate the training of teaching skills at the micro level and teaching performance of student-teachers. The study envisages the effect of microteaching training in classrooms on teaching performance of student-teachers using pre and post experimental design. From the target population of student-teachers, a sample of 248 student-teachers enrolled during the academic year 2012-2013 at NKT National College of Education for Women, Chennai is chosen. From the statistical analysis, it is concluded that the post-training performance of teaching is significantly better than the pre-training performance of teaching of students both in B.Ed. and B.Ed. in Special Education. Hence, it is evident that microteaching training technique has a positive influence on the teaching performance of student-teachers. The gain scores of the teaching performance of student-teachers in B.Ed. and B.Ed. in Special Education courses did not differ significantly, revealing that the student-teachers in both the courses gained to the same extent because of their exposure to microteaching.

  69. Sivasankari, B., Radha, M. and Anandharaj, M.

    In the present study E .coli was selected for the fermentative hydrogen production. The E. coli strain was isolated from sewage sample and identified based on gram staining and growth on selective media (EMB agar). Isolated E. coli was used for hydrogen production using sweet sorghum juice and sugarcane juice. The hydrogen produced by E. coli was estimated by water displacement method. The more amount of water was being displaced (420 ml) in 24 h by E. coli using sugarcane juice. Whereas 390 ml of water was displaced where the sweet sorghum juice used as a substrate. More amount of water was displaced (420 ml) by E. coli using sugarcane juice at the pH of 6.5 when compared with pH 4.5 (315 ml), pH 5.5(390ml),pH 6.5 (420 ml), pH 7.5 (400 ml) and atpH 8.5 (320 ml). The result revealed that the E. coli can produce more amount of hydrogen using sugarcane juice as substrate at the pH range from 5.5 (390 ml) to 6.5(420 ml).

  70. Ezhili, N., Manikandan R. and Ilangovan R.

    Zooplanktons are good indicators for changes of water quality, because they are strongly affected by environmental conditions and respond quickly for the changes in environmental quality. The present study was carried out to examine the diversity and density of zooplankton in Ukkadam lake, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, for the period of one year from May 2003 to April 2004. During the present study period, a total of 36 genera of zooplankton composed of 8 genera of protozoa, 6 genera of Rotifera, in which 7 genera belonged to Cladocera and 6 to Copepoda were recorded in all the three stations during the period of study. Rotifera were observed to be maximum during summer (March, April and May) and dominated other genera. Species Diversity Index calculated for zooplankton population varied from 1.74 to 3.63. Maximum numbers of zooplankton were recorded in the months of March and October. Dominance of Rotifers is indicated the eutrophic status of lake. The present study result was clearly indicating intensified eutrophication of lake.

  71. Sukristiyonubowo, Umi Haryati, Ai Dariah and and Wiwik Hartatik

    Usually, the use of nitrogen fertilizer in vegetables growing area by farmers is too high. Study on nitrogen balance of cabbage at different soil conservation techniques was conducted in Talun Berasap, a vegetables growing area in Kerinci District, Indonesia in 2011. The aimed of this study were to determine the nitrogen recommendation application rate at different soil conservation techniques and to estimate the nitrogen fertilizer at Kerinci district. Four treatments were tested including control, a farmers practices with the direction of planting in line with slop (KTA-1), modification of farmer practice by adding ridge terrace every 5 m of slope length (KTA-2), modification of farmer practice by adding ridge terrace and hill side ditch every 5 m of slope length (KTA-3), and (4) planting in line with contour (KTA-4). Nitrogen balance was calculated according to the differences between nitrogen gains and losses. To quantify total nitrogen input, nitrogen content in urea, dosage of urea, rate of compost, nitrogen concentration in compost, and nitrogen concentrations in rainfall were collected. Output parameters were cabbage yield, crop residues production, nitrogen concentrations in cabbage and crop residues as well as erosion. The results indicated that negative nitrogen balances were taken place in planting in line with slop (KTA-1) and planting in line with contour (KTA-4) treatments. Concerning the environmental, agronomical and economic point of views as well as to get higher cabbage yield and stabile, recommended urea application rate should be from 400 to 500 kg ha-1 season-1 with adding more compost to 20 - 30 tons ha-1 season-1.

  72. George Wanderi Karanja, Jane Nyambura Mugwe and Priscilla Gathoni wanderi

    The leadership style adopted by head teachers influence various aspects of the school effectiveness including teacher job satisfaction. However, there is still lack of clear understanding of the best and most effective leadership style or a mix of them that positively influence job satisfaction among teachers, especially in developing countries. This study was conducted between May and November, 2010, and sought to assess the effects of leadership style on job satisfaction of teachers among secondary schools. The population included 274 teachers in the 17 secondary schools with a student population of 4557 including 2956 girls and 1601 boys. A random sample of 115 teachers and 11 head teachers was drawn from 12 selected schools. Data was collected using a self-structured questionnaire and in-depth interview schedule administered to teachers and head teachers, respectively. The questionnaires were pilot-tested to validate and determine its reliability. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5 for Windows. The study findings indicate that the dynamic situations in the school environment required head teachers to adopt different leadership styles.

  73. Poongothai, G. and Shubashini K. Sripathi

    Allantoin Allantoin is 2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl-urea that occurs naturally in plants and animals. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative analysis of allantoin has been developed. Separation of allantoin from crude extract of leaves, stem and roots of Pisonia grandis was achieved using C18 column as a stationary phase and acetonitrile: phosphate buffer solution as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Photo diode array detector (PDA) response was maximum at 200 nm. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.25 to 1.25 mg/ml. Limit of detection and limit of quantification values of allantoin were 0.435 and 1.65 mg respectively. Quantitation of allantoin in the plant extracts could be easily achieved by the proposed method with satisfactory results.

  74. Ajay, D., Shony M. Francis., Vijayan, A. K. and Dhanapal, K.

    Leaf blotch disease of small Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) caused by the fungal pathogen Phaeodactylium alpiniae was reported first in the year 1969. The disease appears during monsoon months at mild levels and never occurred at epidemic proportions. However there was an unusual and serious incidence of leaf blotch disease during 2010 and 2011 at various Cardamom plantations in Idukki Dist, Kerala. A detailed survey of leaf blotch disease was made at 31 localities. The disease incidence was found to be high in Mali region (92.1%) and least in Cumbummettu (15.8%). Various accessions maintained at ICRI germplasm were screened for disease incidence. The disease incidence was highest in accession MCC86 (39.87%) and lowest in accession MCC161 (6.25%). The popular land race Njallani recorded 34.7% disease incidence. Out of the 139 accessions observed, 17 had disease incidence in the range of 1-10%; 72 had incidence in the range of 11-20%; 40 had disease incidence in the range of 21-30% and the rest 10 had the incidence in the range of 31-40%. Under artificial conditions the pathogen was able to infect leaves which are intact or injured. Besides, the pathogen was able to infect pseudostems and also on capsules which is the first report of its kind. Under field conditions, Bordeaux mixture (1.0%) recorded followed by the fungicide, Propiconazole (0.1%). The fungicides, Trifloxystrobin+Tebuconazole (0.1%), Thiophanate Methyl (0.2%), Mancozeb (0.2%) and Tebuconazole (0.1%) were also effective and were on par with each other.

  75. Kalaiselvan S., Ramanathan K., and Geetha, K.

    The aim of the study is that the extraction of phytochemicals from Catharanthua Roseus and the identification of antitumour agent based on docking studies The Phytochemical compounds were extracted and the effect of absorption were calculated based on Lipinski’s rule. The list of phytochemicals was tested with Parameters and the effective ligand has been found. Finally we have observed that the ligand n-hexadecanoic acid has satisfied the conditions of Lipinski’s rule and docked effectively with the receptor.

  76. Alagesaboopathi, C.

    Couroupita guianensis Aubl and Erythroxylum monogynum Roxb. are medicinal plants popularly used in traditional medicine to cure many ailments. The aims of this research were to screen the extracts of the leaves of the two medicinal plants for phytoconstituents, and to approve the antibacterial property of the extracts against four strains of bacterial species, namely, Escherchia coli, Klebsiela pneumoniae, Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest inhibition zone noted for aqueous extract of E.monogynum leaves against E.coli was 14.66 mm followed by ethanol extract (13.80 mm). The highest activity of acetone extract against K.pneumoniae was (12.0 mm). The ethanol leaf extracts of C.guianensis showed maximum antibacterial activity against E.coli (13.60 mm). The acetone leaf extracts showed highest activity against P.putida (12.80 mm). The aqueous leaf extracts showed significant activity against E.coli (12.28 mm). The results of the phytochemical screening various solvent namely acetone and methanol were taken which revealed that the leaves extract of C.guianensis contained tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phytosterols, cardiac glycosides and carbohydrates. Phytochemical analysis of E.monogynum showed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. In conclusion, the present results of the study evidence the utilize of the plants in traditional biomedicine for the curing of ailments caused by the microorganisms.

  77. Harleen Kaur Nadha, Rahul Kumar, Ram Kumar Sharma, Manju Anand and Anil Sood

    An efficient and reproducible protocol for the large-scale propagation of Dendrocalamus asper was achieved using nodal segments as explants. .High frequency of multiple shoots was induced on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with Benzyl amino purine, BAP (8.86 µM) and adenine sulfate (13.5 µM). Regular sub-culturing carried out every 3 weeks on fresh shoot multiplication medium provided long term shoot cultures. Rooting (up to 90 %) was readily achieved upon transferring the shoot clumps (3-4 shoots) onto MS medium supplemented with Indole butyric acid, IBA (14.76 µM) and Naphthalene acetic acid, NAA (3.67 µM). In vitro raised plants were hardened in green house and successfully established in the field conditions, where they exhibited normal growth. Random amplified polymorphic DNA, RAPD and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to establish genetic uniformity in micropropagated plants. One hundred thirty three monomorphic fragments derived in 44 (34 RAPD; 14 ISSR) markers based fingerprinting confirmed genetic uniformity in in-vitro raised plants and mother plants.

  78. Dr. Raut Sayali, E., Dr. Pagar Atish, B., Dr. Suryawanshi Mahesh, K., Dr. Kowale Arun, N., Dr. Bhutada Tara, B. and Dr. Aundhkar, V. G.

    Background: Association between alcohol consumption and impairment of renal function is a well-documented fact. But, limited data is available on effect of quantity of alcohol consumption on renal function. As alcoholism is also associated with other organ damage, the present study was conducted to find out the correlation between quantity of alcohol consumption and renal function. Methods: Sample:30 light,30 moderate,30 heavy alcoholic male subjects and 30 age matched non alcoholics of age between 25 & 45 years.Details about amount, type & frequency of alcohol intake and diet were gathered by history given by subjects. Blood samples were collected within 24 hours of last drink and serum creatinine, serum bilirubin, SGPT & SGOT were estimated.Creatinine clearance was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault equation. Results: Creatinine clearance showed negative correlation with quantity of alcohol intake that is significant (P<0.001) only in heavy alcoholics. Serum bilirubin, SGOT and SGPT showed variable correlation with quantity of alcohol intake that is statistically insignificant and only marginally significant in light alcoholics. Conclusion: Increasing alcohol intake up to moderate quantity does not impair renal function. But, when the alcohol intake exceed above 50g/d, there is definite evidence of impaired renal function even though there is no evidence of liver damage.This indicates that with increasing alcohol intake impairment of renal function occurs even before hepatic impairment.

  79. Naba Kumar Das and Gautam Narayan Sarkar

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of underweight among adolescent of 11-16 years old using the 2007 WHO Child Growth Standards. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1879 school going children (939 boys and 940 girls) from rural area of Bankura District, West Bengal. Body weight (Kg) and height (cm) were measured according to standard procedure. Results: The overall prevalence of underweight was 53.27%. A high prevalence of underweight was found among girls (55.27%) than boys (51.1%). The height frequency of underweight was observed among boys of 12 years (59.39%) and among girls of 13 years (64.33%). Conclusion: It is concluded that underweight is highly persists among the adolescent in rural area especially in girls. Nutritional intervention is necessary to ameliorate their underweight.

  80. Dr. Murali Mohan Gurram

    Aim: To compare the anatomical and visual effects of posterior sub-tenon triamcinolone (PSTT) and intra-vitreal bevacizumab (IVB) when used as the primary treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: In a retrospective comparative study, 58 eyes of 47 patients which have received either PSTT or IVB were analyzed. Twenty-six eyes had received PSTT 40mg/1mL of preservative free Triamcinolone-acetonide (Group I) and 32 eyes had received intravitreal injection of 1.25mg/0.05 mL of avastin (Group II). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness prior and six weeks post procedure were studied. Complications were studied. Results: In group I, BCVA increased from 31.04±9.89 letters to 41.08±6.77 letters with an increase of 10.04±9.34 letters (P<0.001). The mean central macular thickness (CMT) in group I changed from 571.42±125.71µ to 274.73±116.76µ with a decrease of 296.7±182.34µ (P<0.001). In group II BCVA increased from 35.03±8.39 letters to 54.44±10.56 letters by 19.41±12.51 letters (P<0.001) and mean CMT decreased from 618.91±143.76µ to 216.56±76.14 with a change of 402.34±155.91µ (P<0.001). IVB group had superior effect both on BCVA and CMT which was significant statistically too. P values for change in mean BCVA and change in CMT were 0.003 and 0.021. Two eyes in group I and 6 eyes in group II had subconjunctival hemorrhage. One eye in either group had raised intra ocular pressure (IOP) which was controlled medically. No major complications were noted in either group. Conclusions: In treatment of DME, both PSTT and IVB are effective in increasing the BCVA and decreasing the CMT. IVB is superior to PSTT. IVB is costly and may be associated with serious complications, as it’s an intraocular procedure. So PSTT can be tried as a first line of management in cases of untreated DME. Long term studies with multiple injections are required to know the long term effect and complications.

  81. Ram Bahal Rai, Kuldeep Dhama, Sandip Chakraborty, Thukkaram Damodaran, Balvir Singh, Hamid Ali, Sweta Rai and Shyma K. Latheef

    The continuous decrease in cultivable land and land holding pattern is making agricultural enterprises less economical. Keeping this point in view the present study was conducted to develop suitable model(s) of rural poultry production based on semi-range system. A total of 907 farmers, out of 5,250 families in 65 villages, were given the chicks for evaluation studies and 34 families were monitored for impact. Chicks of dual purpose strain, Nirbhik, developed by Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar were provided in the batches of 250-300 per farmer. They were fed with azolla based feeding practices by keeping in shelters according to the model I in this study. Some farmers adapted the birds under open range system, either out of fancy or for subsidiary income, in the strength of 20-30 chicks. Some farmers in the group of the 34 monitored families, upgraded and opened small broiler unit from the income generated and reared batches of 300-500 broiler chicks, side by side. The profitability was assessed on the basis of data provided by them. The cost of small shelter constructed by the farmers varied between Rs. 800-1,500/-. The lowest cost realized from the sale of birds on live weight basis in summer month of 2010 was Rs. 85/ kg and highest during winter of 2010-11 i.e. Rs. 160/ kg. The market rates varied between Rs. 100-150/ kg live weight which is about 10-15 % higher than the broiler. The net profit per bird varied between Rs. 100-125/- and the batch of 250 chicks fetched net profit of Rs. 23,000-30,000/-. The net profit from the broiler units varied between Rs. 6-9/ per chicks. Even the disease problem by this particular system of rearing was found to be negligible. The evaluation of profitability among the system i.e. small broiler unit, model-1 and open range system clearly evidenced a much higher profitability in the present model. A unit of 500 broiler chicks can produce net profit of Rs. 20,000- 35,000/- in 5 cycles while in the present model, it can cross Rs. 90,000/- in a year. In open range system, profitability could not be ascertained clearly as the birds were ether consumed by the families or sold as per the need and no pattern was followed. Model-1 thus provides resource generation, self-employment, livelihood security and poverty alleviation as a whole and rural poultry has been established as the best tool for poverty alleviation.

  82. Shyma K. Latheef, Kuldeep Dhama, Mohd. Yaqoob Wani, Hari Abdul Samad, Rajamani Barathidasan, Ruchi Tiwari, Shambhu Dayal Singh and Ram Bahal Rai

    The present study was conducted to assess the ameliorative effect of four herbal preparations namely Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Azadirachta indica and E Care Se Herbal on the pathogenesis of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) in chicks. Ninety day old specific pathogenic free (SPF) chicks were randomly divided into six groups (A to F) in which the first four groups were fed with W. somnifera (1% pure extract), T. cordifolia (1% pure extract), A. indica (0.2% pure extract) and E Care Se Herbal (0.1% in drinking water), respectively, from the first day. Groups E and F were treated as positive and negative controls respectively. Groups A to E were intra-muscularly on 14th day of age with 40 times of 50% chicken infectious dose (CID50) of CIAV A strain. Chicks of each group were sacrificed on 14th day post infection (DPI), the lymphoid organs collected and ameliorative effects of the four herbal preparations were evaluated by assessing the degree of gross and histopathological changes. The chicks of all the herbal treatment groups showed ameliorative effects as revealed by reduced pathological lesions and changes when compared with the positive virus control group. The herbal preparations evaluated in this study can be recommended for immunomodulatory, prophylactic and therapeutic purposes against CIAV induced immunosuppression so as to reduce mortality and secondary infections associated with this virus.

  83. Sahar M EL-Alfy, Salwa F. Ahmed, Samy. A. Selim, Mohamed. H. Abdel Aziz, Amira. M. Zakaria, and John. D. Klena

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are recognized as an important foodborne pathogen, responsible for sporadic cases to serious outbreaks worldwide (Wani et al., 2003). The morbidity and mortality associated with several recent outbreaks due to STEC have highlighted the threat this organism poses to global public health. The present study describes the molecular characterization of STEC expressing five different serotypes (O157, O158, O114, O125 and O26) isolated from different sources in Egypt and investigates their clonal relationship. The present study investigated the ability of each Shiga toxin producing strains with different genetic backgrounds to induce disease in vivo using a rat model. STEC strains were identified and characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing analysis; clonality was determined by comparing pulsetypes generated during pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Ten STEC isolates (three from human stool, four from animal stool, two from meat products and one from untreated water) were positive for a combination of stx genes; three were positive for both stx1 and stx2, the remaining were only positive for stx1. Two of the STEC isolates contained eae, whereas one carried the enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) hemolysin gene, hlyA. All STEC isolates exhibited in vivo toxic effects after inoculation of STEC bacterial broth or their respective purified toxin to experimental rats. Subtyping of the ten STEC isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed three distinct restriction patterns. Sixty percent (6/10) of the isolates shared the same PFGE (mrp1) pattern, representing the most common profile; and 30% (3/10) shared a second common (mrp II) pattern. Only one strain (10%) showed a distinct and unique mrp III PFGE profile. In vivo challenge experiments with O157 and non O157 STEC induced disease in rats, including pronounced epithelial lesions and severe vascular damage. This study identified STEC O157 from human cases with diarrhea, and demonstrated that meats and untreated water available in Egypt were contaminated with diverse non-O157 STEC strains. This finding is of concern due to the potential of these organisms to cause human disease.

  84. Patil Priyanka., Sayed, H. M., Joshi, A. A. and Jadhav, B. A.

    The present investigation was carried out to standardize the method of extraction of juice and to study the effect of extraction method on yield and quality of pomegranate juice. Also the efforts were also made to standardize the recipe for preparation of spiced pomegranate juice by using selected processing techniques and explore the prepared product for commercial use. Further efforts were made to evaluate the chemical quality of prepared pomegranate juice enriched with spices for their nutritional and organoleptic quality. The juice was also analysed for shelf life study on both i.e. at room as wll as refrigeration temperature and techno-economic feasibility of spiced pomegranate juice was also assessed.

  85. Patil Priyanka, Sayed, H. M., Joshi, A. A. and Jadhav, B. A.

    The present investigation was carried out to standardize the recipe for preparation of pomegranate anardana powder by using selected processing techniques and explore the prepared anardana powder with spices in mouth freshner. Further mouth freshner was evaluated for nutritional, organoleptic quality and Techno-economic feasibility. Study revealed that the ascorbic acid, protein and fat content of anardana prepared from Ganesh and Arakta variety were 6.7mg/100g and 7 mg/100g, 1.3 percent and 1.4 percent and 0.91 and 0.92 percent respectively. The mouth freshner was prepared by sun drying and cabinet drying. For acidity, sample of Ganesh and Arakta prepared by sun drying had highest acidity i.e.1.4% and 1.6% respectively. For cabinet dried sample of Ganesh and Arakta cultivars 1.3% and 1.5% respectively. Ascorbic acid content was higher in cabinet dried sample (6.7 mg/100g and 7 mg/100g) for both cultivars. Whereas in sun dried samples of Ganesh and Arakta varieties ascorbic acid content was 6 mg/100g and 6.5 mg/100g respectively.In organoleptic evaluation of pomegranate mouth freshner of Ganesh variety prepared by cabinet drying scored highest score for overall acceptability than others. The effect of storage (ambient) temperature on quality of mouth freshner of Ganesh variety dried by cabinet drying was studied and found acidity and ascorbic acid were decreased during storage period. The cost of 100g pomegranate mouth freshner was Rs. 55/-, with energy value 134.19 Kcal/100g. Hence this product could be recommended for commercial exploitation.

  86. Valantina Sangamithirai, A., Selvisabhanayakam, and Mathivanan, V.

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori being a monophagous insect, derives all the nutrients required for its growth from the mulberry leaves. The quality of silk produced by the silkworm depends on the quality and yield of mulberry leaf as well as environmental conditions. The larval and pupal parameters of silkworm Bombyx mori fed with silver nanoparticles (AgNps) treated V1 mulberry leaves, the following works have been considered. The AgNps was synthesized by chemical method, it was diluted by different concentrations such as 25%,50 % and 75% (without dilution) fresh mulberry leaves (Morus indca L.) were sprayed by each concentration and were fed to silkworm from 3rd , 4th ,5th instar for four feeding were recommended. Then, group T, larva received V1 mulberry leaves sprayed with distilled water and served as control, group T2, T3, and T4 larvae received 25%, 50% and 75% AgNps sprayed mulberry leaves, respectively. Silkworm larvae fed on M.indica (V1) leaves sprayed with 25% concentration of AgNps (group T2 ) was significantly increased the larvae and cocoon length, width and weight, cocoon shell weight, pupal weight, shell ratio and silk filament length as compared to those fed on control (group T1) V1 mulberry leaves and other groups (T3 and T4). It has been observed from the present study that 25% AgNps treated (group T2) leaves fed by silkworms have enhanced the larval and pupal growth and quantity of silk production than control.

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