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January 2014

  1. Jilani S. Awati, Nishikant N. Gujar, Salauddin A. Contractor and Sayan Kumar Das

    This observational study was conducted on prospectively collected 50 cases of chronic cervical lymphadenopathy from Department of General Surgery, Al-Ameen Medical College, Bijapur during the period of October 2003 to February 2006. All patients were evaluated through detailed history, general physical examination, systemic examination and relative examinations. Data was analyzed with SPSS ver 10.0. Age ranging from 2-50 years with average age being 26.7 years, tuberculous adenitis 62%, chronic non-specific adenitis 28%, lymphoma 6%, secondary carcinoma 4%. Male:Female ratio 1:1.08. 72% of the patients were from rural area. Presenting symptom in all cases was swelling in the neck. Fever and cough was present in 54% cases. History of exposure to tuberculosis was seen in only 12% of the cases. Unilateral lymphadenopathy was seen in 92% of the patients. Upper anterior deep cervical lymphadenopathy was present in 40% of the cases. Radiological evidence of active pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in only 4% of the cases. FNAC is conclusive in 96% of the cases. To conclude, tuberculosis was the commonest cause cervical lymphadenopathy in both sexes and in urban and rural areas and FNAC is highly conclusive but biopsy is need in few cases.

  2. Senthil Elango, P. and Muthulingam, M.

    The aquatic medium such as pond, lake, estuary, water reservoirs and rivers surrounding the industrial, agricultural fields and urban areas in India, pose a serious risk for survival of aquatic organisms due to water quality deterioration through industrial effluents, excessive nutrient inputs, acidification, heavy metal, fertilizer contamination and organic pollution. Chromium is known to be a very toxic pollutant introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources including industrial effluents. The aim of the present study is to assess the protein and amino acid content in brain and muscle of the fish Oreochromis mossambicus exposed to sublethal concentrations of heavy metal chromium 1/10th (high), 1/15th (medium) and 1/20th (low) of the 96 hour LC50 values for the period of 10, 20 and 30 days. The fish exposed to chromium showed a decrease the glycogen levels in kidney, brain and muscle for 10, 20 and 30 days. However, no information is on record concerning the three different sublethal concentration of heavy metal chromium on the glycogen levels of fish. The objective of the present work was to assess the effect of heavy metal chromium on glycogen levels in kidney, brain and muscle of freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus.

  3. Senthil Elango, P. and Muthulingam, M.

    Numerous numbers of aquatic organisms are living in the aquatic medium which can majorly benefit to the man. However, due to the continuous rise in the development of industries, many of these aquatic flora and fauna are killed because of toxic metals. Heavy metals from natural and anthropogenic sources are continually released into aquatic ecosystem. The toxicity of heavy metal causes long persistence, bio accumulative and non-biodegradable in the food chain. Chromium is known to be a very toxic pollutant introduced into natural waters from a variety of sources including industrial wastes. The heavy metal, chromium can be toxic at even very low concentration when ingested over a long period of time. The aim of the present study is to assess the protein and amino acid content in brain and muscle of the fish Oreochromis mossambicus was exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium 1/10th (high), 1/15th (medium) and 1/20th (low) of the 96 hour LC50 values for the period of 10, 20 and 30 days. The fish exposed to chromium showed a decrease the level of protein and increase the level of amino acid for 10, 20 and 30 days in brain and muscle. However, no information is on record concerning the three different sublethal concentrations of chromium on the protein and amino acid contents of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The objective of the present work was to observe the effect of chromium on protein and amino acid contents in brain and muscle of freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus.

  4. Sivaraju, S., O. Sathick, Geetha, R. K. Muthukumaravel and P. Kamalakkannan

    The freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus was exposed to 10% sublethal concentrations of (LC50 for 96h ppm - 0.0028 ppm) monocrotophos for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days to study the effect of monocrotophos on the ultrastructure of gill. The scanning electron microscopic studies revealved many morphological changes in the gill of Oreochromis mossambicus such as fusion of secondary gill lamellae, degeneration of secondary lamellae and necrosis due to chronic exposure of pesticide monocrotophos.

  5. Sheik Mohamed Salahudeen, B., Geetha, R., Muthukumaravel, K. and Kumarasamy, P.

    The toxic effect of ammonium sulphate on the histology of gill and liver of Oreochromis mossambicus was studied. The fish were exposed for 10, 20 and 30 days in 10% sublethal concentration of 96 h LC50 of ammonium sulphate (148mg/l). The gills exposed to sublethal concentration of ammonium phosphate showed mild histological alterations during 10 days of exposure. However after 30 days, fusion of gill lamellae, hypertrophy and degeneration of epithelium were prominent. Liver lesions consisted of vacuolation, degeneration of hepatocytes and disintegration of cell boundaries of hepatocytes. These changes occurred predominantly in the 30 days exposure.

  6. Andarge Zelalem, Ameha Kebede and Manikandan Muthuswamy

    Background: The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of chemical mutagens on enhancement of extreme acid and alkaline condition of Vicia faba nodulating rhizobial isolates from Hararghe highlands in Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 50 wild rhizobial isolates were isolated from different regions of Hararghe highlands soils by using pot experiment. All selected isolates showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher nodule dry weight (NDW) than the positive control. Above the 50 isolates only 10 highly performed isolates were subjected to chemical mutation. After the mutagenic treatment we selected only eight survived isolates, three isolates from sodium azide and five isolates form hydroxyl amine hydrochloride. The selected mutagen was subjected to study their symbiotic effectiveness. Results: The sodium azide treated muatgens showed higher performance in terms of symbiotic effectiveness compared with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride. Chemical mutagen hydroxyl amine hydrochloride showed the acidic tolerance (pH 4) only three mutant isolates such as HUFBR12M4, HUFBR39M6 and HUFBR18M8. In case of sodium azide, it did not show any mutant isolates under acidic condition. In the meantime alkaline tolerance mutant isolates (HUFBR50M1, HUFBR31M2, HUFBR12M3, HUFBR12M4, HUFBR23M5, HUFBR39M6, HUFBR50M7, and HUFBR18M8) were observed in both the mutagenic chemicals (sodium azide and hydroxyl amine hydrochloride). All the isolates showed the pH range 10.5 to 12. Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that mutagenic chemical sodium azide is suitable for inducing chemical mutation to enhance acidic tolerance of mutant rhizobium in Faba bean and both the mutagenic chemicals (sodium azide and hydroxyl amine hydrochloride) are suitable for alkaline tolerance of mutant rhizobium in Faba bean.

  7. Amaranatha Reddy, M., Rose Mary Francies, Nabi Rasool S. K. and Venkata R. Prakash Reddy

    Colour is one of the most attractive features of flowers determining its capacity to attract insect pollinators. It also plays a major role in its market acceptance. In nature, flowers and seeds of different hues and shades are observed. In the beginning of 19th century, scientists proposed the Blending hypothesis to explain the inheritance of flower and seed colour. During 1866, the Austrian monk Gregor Johann Mendel proved this theory false. Subsequently, the Particulate hypothesis of inheritance accrued wide acceptance (Holton and Cornish, 1995). Pigments contribute to flower and seed colour. However, other factors like co-pigmentation, vacuolar pH and cell shape also influence colour development. The pigments belonging to classes viz., chlorophyll, flavonoid, carotenoid and betalain are responsible for colour development. Of these, flavonoid (mainly anthocyanins) is the most common pigment group contributing to the development of range of colours from red to purple. These are found in vacuoles (Grotewold, 2006). Pigments are the end-products of various biosynthetic pathways. The different intermediate steps in these pathways are catalysed by enzymes; the production of which is governed by genes. Any alteration in the genes encoding the enzymes or regulation of gene expression will result in modification of pigment development leading to various shades and hues of flowers and seeds. For example, genes encoding key enzymes in the branch of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway produce pigmentation in flower (Mol et al., 1998). Flavonoids are derived from a general phenylpropanoid pathway with aromatic amino acid phenylalanine as the basic substrate. Phenylalanine is catalyzed by the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS) into chalcone which is a key intermediate in the formation of flavonoids. Chalcone imparts yellow pigmentation and any alteration in the CHS coding gene will affect chalcone production and thereby inhibit yellow colour development. Regulatory genes MYB, bHLH and WD40 are also involved in controlling the expression of the flavonoid biosynthesis genes. In addition, variegated flowers are said to result from insertion or excision of transposons in flavonoid biosynthetic genes or regulatory genes. Such variegated flowers have been observed in petunia, snapdragon, morning glory, azalea and others (Iida et al., 2004). Conventional breeding methods have been extensively used to develop cultivars with flowers varying in both colour and intensity. The cultivated roses were developed by extensive inter-specific hybridization involving yellow-flowered (producing carotenoids) and orange-flowered (producing pelargonidins) wild species. Mutation breeding has played a major role in the development of variable flower and seed coat colour. Introduction of novel genes encoding enzyme activities or transposable elements and inactivation of endogenous genes to modify flower and seed colour have been attempted through genetic engineering. Blue roses were produced by introduction of pansy F3'5'H genes into rose. This resulted in a significant amount of delphinidin derived anthocyanin production and accumulation in petals of the transgenic rose plants. Suppression of CHS gene in petunia through gene silencing approaches resulted in production of white flowers (Tanaka et al., 2009).

  8. Hediat M. H. Salama

    Physiological adjustment to enhance tolerance or avoidance of drought were studied in three desert plants growing in Al-Thomamah and Al-Derayah habitats, central region, Saudi Arabia. Studied plants Tamarix aphylla L., Zygophyllum coccineum L. and Artemisia monosperma Del. were collected from three stands for each habitat in March 2012. Cell sap osmotic potential, some organic (soluble sugars, total lipids content, soluble proteins, and free fatty and amino acids) and inorganic (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42- and HCO3-) soluble concentration were determined. In addition, chlorophyll a, b, and total nitrogen content and physiochemical parameters of the soil samples support the studied three plants were also determined. Substantial osmotic adjustment (up to 2.6 MPa) was observed in Z. coccineum collected from Al-Thomamah habitat. Tamarix aphylla was dependent on soluble sugars, soluble proteins, and free amino acids, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42- to readjust their internal osmotic pressure and to improve its water status. It preferred Mg2+ concentration more than the two other plant species. Zygophyllum coccineum accumulated inorganic more than Tamarix aphylla and less free amino acids. The results suggest that, the osmotic adjustment was the main water relationship adaptation to cope with drought. Accumulation of soluble sugars, soluble proteins, free fatty and amino acids (especially proline) and inorganic elements at higher concentration often assist in turgor maintenance and helped to enhance drought tolerance.

  9. Latha, M. and Krishna, M. S.

    Sexual selection often involves female preference for males of certain age, and a body of theoretical information predicts preference for old males in species in which mating is resource independent and both parents do not show parental care. Phorticella striata is one such species in which mating is resource independent and both parents do not show parental care. Outbred population of P. striata has been used to understand age based female mate preference. It was noticed that in P. striata females of all age preferred older males more frequently than young or middle aged males. Older males showed significantly greater courtship acts, mated faster and copulated longer than young or middle aged males. Females mated with old males laid significantly greater number of eggs and progeny than females mated with either young or middle aged males. Further, female mated with older males lived significantly for a shorter time than when she mated with either young or middle aged males. Thus these studies confirmed that female evolved towards older male in species in which mating is resource independent and both parents do not show parental care.

  10. Muhammad Kashif, Munawar Saleem Ahmad, Ghufran Ullah, Iftikhar Fareedand Syed Tawab Shah

    In the present study, sero-prevalence of anaplasma sp. in sheep, Ovisaries (L) was done from January-May, 2012 in Peshawar, Pakistan. The information concerning anaplasmosis in sheep is scare.For this purpose, 376 serum samples were obtained randomly from4 different breeds of sheep,fromdifferent areas of Peshawar, and an indirect ELISA using recombinant MSP-5 as antigen of Anaplasmamarginale (T), was performed. Totally, 92/376 (24.47%) of the overall sheep sera were positive for antibodies against A. marginale. In 4 breeds of sheep, (i.e. Balkhai, Watanai, Punjabai and Turkai) Turkai were found highly infected i.e. 27/376 (7.20%).This is the first record ofA. marginal infection in Sheep in Peshawar, Pakistan, which is very high.This research should be useful in epidemiological applications.

  11. Safaa Mohamed El-Demerdash, Afaf Abdelaziz Basal andFatma Elsayed Soliman

    Background: Nursing literature indicates that patient teaching is a critical component of nursing roles, and health teaching is of the basic rights of the patients. Nursing students facing challenges and constraints while providing patient health teaching that requires study and judgments. Aim: The aim of the study was to identify the barriers of patient health teaching among nursing students in Faculty of Nursing in Tanta University. Material and method: descriptive design was used. the study was conducted in Faculty of Nursing at Tanta University, Patient teaching barriers questionnaires was used for data collection, The sample consists of 448 undergraduate nursing students in second, third and fourth academic year in the above mentioned setting and willing to participate in the study. Results: high percent (71.9%,68.1%,65.8%,64.1& 60.7%) respectively of nursing students agreed that over load of clinical duties, inability to assesses patient’s learning needs, insufficient references and opportunity to practice teaching skills as well as inability to choose appropriate methods of teaching are students themselves barriers that face them before patients health teaching. High mean were given to all items of patients health teaching barriers before ,during and after patient teaching ranged from 71.05±17.42 to 78.43±14.01 among nursing students of 3rd year followed by nursing students of 4th year ranged from 62.36±16.53 to76.39±13.41 and nursing students of 2nd year ranged from 68.82±12.60 to 75.01±15.66. Conclusion: Nursing students faced several barriers before,during and after patients health teaching namely: regarding students themselves, patients’ barriers, environmental and rules &policies barriers as well as evaluation barriers. Recommendation: nursing students have intense needs for training and learning about patient health teaching barriers and how to overcome these barriers.

  12. Youssryea M. Ibrahim and Sahar M. El-Khedr

    Osteoporosis is a disorder in which there is a reduction of bone mass, with a consequent increase in risk of bone fracture. The term "treatment adherence" is defined as two distinct concepts, persistence and compliance. Nurses play a significant role in the consistency of treatment, and compliance to osteoporosis management. Structured education is a planned and graded program that is comprehensive in scope, flexible in content, responsive to an individual’s needs, and adaptable to patient's educational and cultural background. Aim: This study aims to improve the adherence to osteoporosis treatment using structured patient education. Subject and methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in osteoporosis clinic in Al-Noor specialist hospital, at Makah Al-Mukkaramah over a period of six months. Convenient sample of 100 Patients, classified into two groups, 50 patients assigned in each group. Two tools were used in this study. The first tool was consisted of three parts; socio-demographic data, nutrition and exercises. The second tool was an observation check list, that used to observe patients during Forteo treatment and adherence Results: There were statistical significant differences between the study and control groups regarding information about exercises, nutrition and also, the practice of Forteo administration. Conclusion: structured patient education applied through, skillful nurses help to improve patient's adherence to osteoporosis treatment. We recommended the application of structured patient education as a routine nursing care for patient with osteoporosis.

  13. Rajamannan, B., Viruthagiri, G., Suresh Jawahar, K. and Shanmugam, N.

    The use of industrial waste materials as additives in the manufacture of ceramic products has been attracting a growing interest from researchers in recent years and is becoming common practice. This work describes the changes in the behaviour of the clay material used in a ceramic industry due to addition of grog, produced in ceramic industry. Mixtures of clay and waste material (0–50 wt. %) were uniaxially pressed and sintered at temperature 1000°C. Results from chemical, mineralogical and morphological analyses (XRF, XRD and SEM), water absorption and compressive strength show that the grog can be added to the clay material with no detrimental effect on the properties of the sintered fire-clay products. The test results indicate that the grog could be used as filler in ceramic bricks, thus enhancing the possibility of its reuse in a safe and sustainable way.

  14. Zeittey Karmilla Kaman and Dr. Zaleha Othman

    The 21st century era is witnessing society and stakeholders demand not only for economic, legal, profit motives and philanthropy activities, but way beyond all these. As such, profit seeking function of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been dominating people’s thinking for ages. Due to this concern, this conceptual paper draws attention to the CSR activities from the perspective of environmental concern. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the demand from society and stakeholders on green practices (i.e.; environmental management, green technology and EMS ISO14001 as part of the CSR emergence). This article also reviews the CSR concept, clarifies the notion of the corporate social responsibility in today’s dynamic business environment management and highlights current examples of putting the environmental management into CSR practices. This paper is an eye opener to researchers and practitioners as this paper provides new paradigm of CSR concept and a green aspect of doing business.

  15. Khubaib Azhar and Nain Tara Sarfarz Raja

    The study investigates the impact of consumer ethnocentricity in respect to local and foreign brands preference which obliging for consumers and marketers to understand the market need and situations. Data was collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi respondents. By using convenient sampling, 300 questionnaires were floated and response rate was 84.3%. Regression and correlation was used to analyze the results. The local brands preference has significantly positive relationship with consumer ethnocentricity while foreign brands preference has significantly negative relationship. The results concluded that people preferred local brands as compare to foreign because of their economical and affordable prices. The major limitation of the study is time constraints that is why we collected the data from twin cities of Pakistan.

  16. Muhammad Ahsan Razzaq and Naeem Ullah

    This paper examines the relationship between human attitudinal and behavioral factors of employees involvement and satisfaction in relation with a job and there commitment associated with the organization, along with there effect on labor turnover in banking sector of Pakistan by understanding of which an organization can create a idyllic and conducive working environment. Relationship between the variables under study is explored using structural equation modeling as a statistical tool. Positive association were revealed among involvement related to job, commitment to an organization with satisfaction related to a job during the study on the other hand insignificant connection among commitment in relation with the organization, satisfaction in relation with the job itself and intentions toward turnover were partially maintained by the findings. Model used in the present investigation is tested empirically and fit indices confirm it.

  17. Dr. Atul Bansal

    Conversion to IFRS offers entities a number of important potential benefits. Notwithstanding its benefits, the transition to IFRS will be challenging. It is therefore imperative to assess the impact of IFRS and immediately embark upon taking the steps to towards convergence plan and positive and pro-active approach from all the stakeholders – the regulators, the ICAI, the profession and the industry. Therefore, an attempt to throw light on key challenges embedded with conversion to IFRS is made through this research paper. The paper also describes the ways and strategies to convert challenges of conversion to IFRS into opportunities for the Indian entities.

  18. Emmanuel Wedam, Raymond Aitibasa Atanga and Irene Akobour Debrah

    Over the years, alternative approaches at fighting extreme poverty have yielded substantial results among those hardly hit in the world today. The number of people in extreme poverty in the world has declined from 47 percent to 22 percent in 2010. Thus, about less than 700 million people live in extreme poverty today than in 1990. Despite this gain, development and programme financing, management, politics, poor programme design and engineering are still a very big challenge to the acceleration of progress. This paper examines a stakeholder’s view of the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) programme in Ghana. The study revealed that the introduction of the LEAP programme has been lauded by both implementation and beneficiary stakeholders. However, lack of monitoring indicators, inadequate funding as well as institutional bottlenecks have been the greatest challenge to the smooth running of the programme. The study recommends the provision of a framework to institutionalised social protection interventions and programmes in Ghana through a synergy of institutional competence, political will and legal support systems. The study also recommends the design of clear and measurable indicators for effective monitoring and evaluation of the programme to enhance its sustainability.

  19. Haseena, V. A. and Ajims P. Mohammed

    Tourism is one of the few sectors where Kerala has clear competitive advantages given its diverse geography in a short space ranging from the Western Ghats covered with dense forests to the backwaters to the Arabian sea. Its ancient rich culture including traditional dance forms and the strong presence of alternative systems of medicine add to its allure. Unfortunately, Kerala is dominated by domestic tourism within the state although foreign tourists arrivals to the state has been growing at a faster rate than national average. The goal in the KPP 2030 is to develop Kerala as an up-market tourism destination with the state being the top destination in terms of number of tourists and revenue among all the Indian states. Sustainable tourism is the mission. This can be achieved by integrating tourism with other parts of the economy like medical and health hubs which will attract more stable tourists over a longer period of time and with higher spending capacity. There will be new elements added to leisure tourism and niche products in tourism will be developed. Infrastructure development is crucial to achieve this goal. The success of Kerala tourism will be based on the synergy between private and public sectors. The government has taken steps to encourage private investment in tourism, while adhering to the principles and practices of sustainability. Industry led sustainable tourism development relies upon the government- imposed and self- imposed regulations. Tourism in Kerala will be benchmarked against international indicators and monitored on a regular basis to achieve quality.

  20. Gudeta Kebede Asfaw and Alemu Kassa Reta

    This study analyzes the weakness of legally registered opposition political parties in post-1991 political order of Ethiopia. To analyze this state of affairs, the authors adopt a structural approach. Two major questions should be addressed in this regard. First, what factors affect operations of opposition parties? Second, why have the opposition political parties have been weakened? The paper argues that the weak nature of opposition political parties in Ethiopia has to do with the existing internal and external contexts in which the opposition political parties are currently operating. Scrutinized from this perspective, the current status of opposition parties arises from the manner in which multiparty politics is organized and governed. We view the current status of opposition political parties in Ethiopia arising primarily from the political environment or context in which these extra-constitutional actors operate or find themselves in. At the center of these contexts is the incumbent government. The research argues that weak status of opposition political parties has been caused to a large extent by the internal and external contexts. This study concludes that the vitality of Ethiopian opposition parties is limited structurally and their weak status is perpetuating for a long period in time.

  21. Jyotikona Chetia

    Migration is developing into a very significant issue to concern in Assam. Every year hundred of youth migrated to the states like Maharashtra, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat in search of occupation. Generally youths of Dhemaji, Lakhimpur and Majuli are migrated. The present paper attempted to investigate various factors which lead to migration particularly in Dhemaji District of Assam. Further this study explained how the social welfare schemes can play an important role in reducing migration in this particular district. This paper also discussed about the experiences of women of the families from which male members have migrated. The researcher has conducted this study on the villages of two blocks in Dhemaji and is based on primary data sources.

  22. Reza Alvandi and Seyyed Mahmoud Mir-Khalili

    One of the implications of cultural invasion is to disseminate Satanism misleading sect. By different tricks, it has attracted many unaware youngsters in different countries and is now changed to a security threat since committing types of crimes is not only abominable in this sect but also it is considered as praiseworthy and a factor for its members’ promotion. Unfortunately a few numbers of Iranian youngsters have tended to this sect under the influence by enemies’ propaganda while they have no information of Satanism. For instance, they would not accept to enjoy this sect if they know that they should do actions like pederasty or incest as the conditions of their memberships since even the members of the society do not accept such actions. The regretful fact is limited information making on this anti-religion and anti-cultural flow in Iran through different excuses such as the expansion of cultural invasion implication by announcing them. In present paper, the nature of Satanism is analyzed by studying some actions, behaviors and crimes committed by its members.

  23. Kannadhasan, S., SivaKumar, N., Bhapith, V. B. and Ragavendra, R.

    The Simple K-Means Clustering Technique as an input image articulated in different color spaces with different label fields to be fused. Our paper fusion segmentation maps are combining with clustering procedure as an input features to estimate the local histogram class labels for all initial partitions. This techniques residue simple to realized, quick, a variety range of applications such as motion segmentation and detection and has been lucratively functional on the Berkeley image database. Image segmentation is a traditional inverse problem which consists of achieving a dense region-based sketch of the image scene by decomposing it into having an important effect or spatially coherent regions giving out analogous attributes. In this paper show the prospective of this approach compared to the state-of-the-art segmentation methods recently projected in the literature. Our Proposed work is done by using MATLAB and also results are proficient compared to existing work.

  24. China Ramu S. and Dr. Premchand P.

    Considering the group of mobile computing applications with occasionally connected clients and are wish to share data, nevertheless, due to the cost of mobile communication, they only connect occasionally. Usually a constant server connection, having a collective of client data, makes easy sharing between clients by permitting the clients to download updates submitted by other clients and upload local updates. Then the server computes and retransmits these updates on a client-by-client basis. As a result, limiting scalability because the difficulty of these operations is on the order of the number of clients. In this paper, focusing on developing a group basis approach that notably improves the scalability of the resources to synchronize data. Since synchronization is a problem with occasionally connected mobile databases. A server from time to time generates update files for each client, which are downloaded and applied when convenient. Miserably, the time required to synchronize clients in this approach increases notably with increase in client population. We show that this tendency could be changed by by grouping, update operation sharing is computed only once per group, irrespective of the number of clients. As the mobile devices will have limited memory capabilities we effectively utilize the memory of mobile device to store the data without using any backend software. When the mobile database is connected to the server it will have less session time. Therefore by taking session time into consideration the connection establishment and data transfer is to be done.

  25. Malathi, S., Sivakumar, P. and Prakash, M.

    Searching is becoming pervasive and one of the most popular applications on mobile devices. The image search is based on the input query. Based on the query images is retrieval from database through mobile devices. Text, voice, sketches are used as query to search images on mobile devices. Search performance is the main constraint for any kind of search techniques. To improve the searching performance we need to create new technique. For that purpose, some of the searching techniques were studied below. From all that techniques, we decide to develop a new multimodal interactive image search on mobile device to visual search.

  26. Agbanyim Akuagwu, N. and Okoro Oriaku, A.

    The mineral elements and proximate (protein, crude fat, crude ash, moisture and total carbohydrate) composition of Clarias gariepinus (Cat fish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) preserved by traditional methods (smoking, frying and steaming) were investigated by standard methods described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC). The mean protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture and carbohydrate composition in g/100g for fresh Tilapia were found to be 21.54, 3.50, 0.43, 1.30, 61.00, 10.53, and for cat fish – 19.53 , 1.00, 1.30, 1.74, 76.40, 1.33 respectively. The fresh fish samples were preserved by smoking, frying and steaming, and the result of the proximate and mineral element analysis of the preserved samples showed that the nutrient contents were affected to varying degrees by the different preservation methods.

  27. Mehdi H. Diwan, Nabeel A. Bakr and Farid Jamali-Sheini

    Cobalt ferrite {Cox(Fe2O3)1-x} samples were prepared by conventional ceramic method with ferrite system (x = 0.29, 0.31, 0.33 and 0.35). Structural measurements showed that all the samples of (CoFe2O4) have spinel phase structure. The other phase which has been observed belongs to (α-Fe2O3). The structural parameters such as interplanar distance (d), lattice constant (a) and grain size (D) have been evaluated. X-Ray diffraction patterns showed that the crystal growth became stronger and more oriented and grain size became larger with increasing (Co) ratio. Dielectric measurements, A.C conductivity (σa.c), dielectric constant (ε'), and dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) were measured in the frequency range (103Hz to 5MHz) at room temperature. All the samples show the normal dielectric dispersion. The dielectric constant (ε') has a decreasing nature with frequency. This behavior is explained qualitatively in terms of the supposition that the mechanism of the polarization process in ferrite is similar to that of the conduction process.

  28. Chandrashekar, Radhika R. T., Venkatesha, B. M. and Ananda, S.

    Oxidation of nicotinamide by bromamine-T (BAT) have been studied in HCl medium catalyzed by Ru(III) at 303K. The reaction rate shows first order dependence on (oxidant), (Ru(III)), inverse fractional order on (H+) and fractional order on (nicotinamide). Addition of halide ions and the reduction product of BAT, p-toluenesulphonamide and dielectric constant of the medium do not have any significant effect on the reaction rate. The reaction was studied at different temperatures and activation parameters were evaluated. Mechanisms proposed and the derived rate law is consistent with the observed kinetics.

  29. Dr. Kamalaveni

    Young people’s poor access to reproductive and sexual health services and information, increasing trend in violence and sexual abuse pose a tremendous challenge for addressing their healthy development. There are tremendous changes in young people’s behaviour when compared to old generations. STIs are a major public health concern and have long term implications for individual’s health. STIs are most frequent in young people aged 15-19years old. One in 20 young women is believed to contact a curable STI each year, excluding HIV or other viral STIs — including hepatitis B, genital herpes and genital warts, which are not curable. Therefore the young people’s awareness towards role of contraceptive in preventing STI is significant area to be studied hence the present study is conducted.

  30. Dr. Godfred Adjapong Afrifa

    This paper reports the results of an investigation into the ranking order of Working Capital Management (WCM) components of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) listed on the Alternative Investment Market (AIM), from the perspective of financial directors. The analyses are based on questionnaire distributed to 248 AIM listed SMEs. The paper employs the one-way ANOVA and post hoc test on responses from 72 managers of AIM listed SMEs. The results show differences in the importance of each component of WCM. First, inventory holding period importance is shown to differ from that of accounts receivable period, accounts payable period and cash conversion cycle. The results also show that accounts receivable period importance is different from accounts payable period and cash conversion cycle. However, there is no difference of importance between accounts payable period and cash conversion cycle. In terms of ranking order, accounts receivable period is ranked first, leading to the conclusion that given the limited resources of SMEs, they need to prioritise their WCM by focusing on accounts receivable period to improve profitability.

  31. Pandey, C. P., Rakesh Mohan and Bhairaw Nath Tripathi

    Wavelet transform is studied on the weighted Sobolev space Boundedness results in this Sobolev space is obtained. Wavelet tra nsform with compactly supported wavelet is studied. Asymptotic properties of the wavelet transform will also be discussed.

  32. Hemapriya, V., Savithri, K., Parameswari, K. and Chitra, S.

    The inhibition effect of the synthesized organic inhibitor namely nicotinic acid hydrazide (NAH) and its benzylidine derivative (NABH) on the corrosion of mild steel in1M hydrochloric acid has been investigated using weight loss, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization measurements. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from all methods employed are in good agreement with each other. The obtained results show that the compounds NAH and NABH are very good inhibitors with efficiency 90% and 94% respectively at 1.0 mM additive concentration in acid solution. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase of inhibitor concentration. Changes in impedance parameters (Rt and Cdl) were indicative of adsorption of the compound on the metal surface, leading to the formation of a protective film. Tafel polarization measurements showed that the inhibitors are mixed type. Adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of the mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The activation energy and free energy of adsorption process were calculated and discussed.

  33. Vasantharani P. and Sankeeda I.

    Glass samples belonging to the general chemical formula 60Bi2O3–(40-x)MnO2–xZnO with x=5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mol % are prepared by melt quench method. Characterization of the system was carried out using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and thermal analysis. The structural changes with composition of the glasses have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy with special reference to structural units of bismuth. Analysis of FT-IR spectra indicate that ZnO is preferentially incorporated into the bismuthate network. Amorphous nature of the system was confirmed by XRD and SEM is used to study the morphology of glass samples. TGA is used to measure the weight loss as the temperature of the sample is increased. DTA is used to identify the glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature and melting temperature.

  34. Pramendra Singh Pundir, Brijesh Pratap Singh and Sonam Maheshwari

    The present study deals with the estimation procedure of the parameter of inverted exponential distribution based hybrid censored data. For estimation purpose, we consider both, Classical and Bayesian method of estimation. In classical set up, the maximum likelihood estimate of the parameter with its standard error and confidence interval are computed. Further, by assuming Jeffrey’s invariant and gamma priors of the unknown parameter, Bayes estimate along with its posterior standard error and highest posterior density credible interval of the parameter are obtained. Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique such as Metropolis-Hastings algorithm has been utilized to generate simulated draws from the posterior density of the parameter. A real data set representing the survival times (in days) of guinea pigs injected with different doses of tubercle bacilli has been analyzed for illustrative purpose.

  35. Siva, S., Sulaiman Sameem, M., Sudharsan S. and Sayee Kannan, R.

    Development of consistent and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an essential requisite nowadays. Herein we present the distinct properties of the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using hot water Cyperus Rotundus Grass Extracts (CRGE) a reducing and capping agent. The nature of AgNPs synthesized was analyzed by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Flourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV). UV spectral analysis showed silver surface Plasmon resonance band at 425nm. XRD showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centered cubic structure of the bulk silver with broad peaks at 35.62o, 38.24 o, 46.42 o, 55.00 o, 64.5 o, 78 o. Morphologically, the nanoparticles were found to be spherical with an average particle size distribution of 1 to 100 nm. CRGE demonstrated strong potential for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ago).

  36. Shrasti Gupta, Vijay Laxmi Saxena and Vertika Saxena

    Alopecia Areata is an autoimmune disease. It is an unpredictable disorder which can occur to a person of any age, it is commonly found in children and it also occurs in animals besides human beings. The two proteins are found to be involved in Alopecia Areata i.e. PDB ID 1SG1 of Neurotrophins family and PDB ID 1DOK of MCP-1 protein. Neurotrophins are the group of proteins, experimental data suggests that they may regulate cyclic activity of hair follicle and MCP-1 proteins are found to be present around the area having Alopecia Areata, as known from literature it increase the rate of hair follicle shedding by promoting more T-lymphocytes towards the point of growth of hair follicle and a comparison is being done between the two PDB ID 1SG1 of Neurotrophins family and 1DOK of protein MCP-1, along with the comparison between the various zinc analogs on basis of 99%, 95%, 90% similarity, for best docking results with both the protein’s PDB ID’s, for predicting a zinc analog which can be identified under the category of becoming a potential drug candidate in future. The best moldock scores were for zinc analog ZINC ID 22052012 for Biotin is -183.662 Kcal/mol, ZINC ID 13475552 for Capsaicin is -190.116 Kcal/mol and ZINC ID 09222049 for Epicatechin-3-gallate is -196.679 Kcal/mol. The two parameters for toxicity properties i.e. Oral rat LD50 and Mutagenicity were calculated, the Oral rat LD50 values for Biotin, Capsaicin and Epicatechin-3-gallate were 895.76, 3864.96 and 2178.79 mg/kg and the Mutagenicity values for Biotin, Capsaicin and Epicatechin-3-gallate were 0.17, 0.19 and 0.77 respectively. Thus finally the selected Zinc Analogs ZINC ID 22052012, ZINC ID 13475552, ZINC ID 09222049 is for three of the natural ligands i.e. Biotin, Capsaicin, Epicatechin-3-gallate respectively.

  37. Yusuf Kimutai Kibet and Dr. Michael Korir

    This study examined the relationship between compatibility and new product adoption by the sales force. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the relationship between compatibility and product adoption by the sales person. The design of the research was cross sectional survey using the questionnaire to collect data. The target population was 250 sales managers and 550 salespersons, the sample comprised of 122 salespeople judgmentally sampled and 64 sales managers who were randomly sampled from manufacturing firms in Kenya. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The findings show that there is a high correlation between relative advantage and salesperson adoption. The results showed that there was significant relationship between compatibility and product adoption. Salespersons acceptance or rejection of new products will rely greatly on the extent to which it accommodates or rejects all or some of the past values. An innovation is compatible with the way salesperson work, and is compatible with the current situation then salesperson adopts the new product. Compatibility has a positive and direct effect on the rate of adoption of an innovation. The product characteristics significantly influence the sales adoption of products and it is important to motivate salespeople particularly during new product introductions. Thus there is need to create awareness of the new products to be introduced in the market.

  38. Dr .Md. Arshad and Dr. Shoiab Ahmad Bhat

    Globalization appears to be a blessing for the societies a path to the innovative outline for growth and development. There have been swift and vivid economic, political, social and technological changes on a worldwide social transcending borders and accelerating people’s ability to communicate and to trade across continents, this inclusive revolution has been described as “globalization”. The contemporary study is an attempt to analyze the impingement of globalization on Islam, as the process of globalization has conveyed enormous gains in prosperity. But yet there is another scene, on the one hand globalization is promoting uniformization and homogenization and on the other there is increasing demand for autonomy and identity This paper proposes a transformational analysis of contemporary globalization and identifies the increasing challenge of globalization on Islam, as the process of globalization intensified the worldwide social relations, which links distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shared by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. This is a dialectical progression because such local happenings may move in an obverse direction from the very distinctive relations that shape them. Local transformation is as much a part of globalization as the lateral extension of social connections across time and space.

  39. Raskar, S. S. and Wani, A. G.

    The changing climate has become worldwide concern. Climate is directly affected the crop production and its effects on poor farmer community in tribal’s. It is need to build up healthier crop to resist adverse climatic condition. It was prove that the organic practices get the crop healthier, high yield potential and sustainable production. This study helps those farmers’ lives in tribal area depend up on rainfed paddy crop and also guide farmers how to cultivate paddy with low cost inputs to withstands climate change.

  40. Maheshbabu, N., Dr. Shivakumar S. Chengti and Balaji.Walkhinde

    In this study an attempts has been made to find out the relationship between organizational climate and job anxiety of primary school teachers. The sample consisted of 100 teachers selected randomly from various public and private primary schools. A set of tools containing organizational climate and job anxiety was used to gather information. The data were analyzed by t-test and person’s coefficient correlation. The results revealed that I. no significant difference was found in organizational climate between male and female teachers II. Significant relationship was found in job anxiety between male and female teachers III. It was also found that significant and positive correlation between organizational climate and job anxiety.

  41. Vimalkumar, P. Dr. Pakkirisamy, M. and Dr. Sivakumar, P.

    In the present study an attempt has been made to study the awareness of human rights of B.Ed. student teachers. To achieve the objectives of the study, the investigator adopted normative survey method. Three hundred student teachers were taken as sample from puducherry region. The present study has employed the Human Rights Awareness Questionnaire which was developed by the investigator. The questionnaire has 40 items. Both the descriptive and differential analysis are carried out. The finding is that awareness of human rights of B.Ed. student teachers is found to be low level.

  42. Gargi Banerjee

    The revolution in the information and communication sector is making the world united. In today’s world information and communication technology (ICT) is a key parameter for economic development. Presently India is 121st position in ICT Development Rankings out of total 157 countries. Though the value of the index increased from 2.13 in 2011 to 2.21 in 2012 India’s overall ranking slashed down from 120 to 121 during this period. Hence India has to improve its status regarding ICT if it wants catch up its development goal. Present study tries to analyse the trend and pattern of ICT in India and its impact on Indian economy. The study found that though the state of development of ICT in India is increasing in past few years, but still it is far from being satisfactory. Suitable policy prescriptions by the government are necessary for ICT to become one of the key engines of economic development in India.

  43. Ratna Biodini Amiya Priyadarsini Das and Ranjan Kumar Nayak

    The term joblessness growth refers to the situation in which there is growth but no jobs. When output measures in terms of GDP and that GDP rises but the growth of employment lags way behind. We say there is joblessness growth. This situation mainly arises in developing countries. When growth is coupled with high unemployment it means that the economy experienced with structural changes. In a jobless growth economy unemployment remains stubbornly high even as the economy grows. This tends to happen when the relatively large no of people have lost their jobs and the ensuring recoveries are insufficient to absorb the unemployed and underemployed. This paper studies the joblessness or unemployed growth in Odisha with respect to service and education sector. In Odisha the contribution of the service sector and GSDP increases day by day but still unemployed people’s number also increases. There are many reasons prevails in Odisha for unemployment, among them education and poverty is a major concern. Because of poverty the youth mass does not gets proper education facilities and for that technically they are poor and less skilled. So the services sector of Odisha does not capture that as a result the joblessness arises. Government adopts various programmes and policies to overcome from the joblessness but in some extent the government failed. The basic objective of this paper is to study the present education system in Odisha and to found how it leads to joblessness in Odisha. Secondly study of service sector’s contribution on GSDP of Odisha and also the WPR (work participation rate) in service sector in Odisha and lastly compare between education and service sector in Odisha with respect to joblessness in Odisha. This study hypothesized that in Odisha education is a major reason for the joblessness, the service sector contribution increase day by day in odisha’s GSDP but contribution of service sector is less in employment pattern of Odisha, there are lacunas prevails in Odisha from the government side to reduce the joblessness in Odisha. The methodology of the study shows that data are collected from the secondary sources from the various developmental books, journals, websites, and from survey books. Then data are presented in a tabular manner and then analyzed of data done properly to show the joblessness in Odisha. This study conclude that the Joblessness in Odisha is due to the lack of education and less contribution of service sector on employment pattern. So as population increases day by day in Odisha in the same manner the joblessness also arises day by day.

  44. John Aluko Orodho

    Despite the commitment of world countries to achieving Education for All (EFA) by 2015, many of them, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, are not likely to meet this target by the agreed date. Will Kenya be among the nations likely to achieve this target? Spurred by the current post-2015 debate and signals by the report of the High –Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Agenda of the United Nations (2013) that that there is an education, learning and skills crisis globally, this paper analyzes the current policies, interventions and incentives put in place by the Government of Kenya and profiles the progress made so far towards achievement of the EFA goals. The paper uses a combination of secondary sources from Government documents and other international sources in combination with primary research to examine reality of whether or not the country is on track to achieving EFA by 2015. The analyses use Gross and Net Enrolment ratios (GERs and NERs) by region and gender. The results show that Kenya has made good progress judging by the impressive GERs and NERs at the national level. The NERs are fairly stable and higher than 100%, indicating that EFA has been achieved at this level and hence the country is progressing well. However, when these statistics are unpacked at regional level and examined with a gender lens, then conspicuously wide and severe regional and gender disparities emerge. They show both regional and gender differences as the NERs for females are lower than those for males in some geographic areas, indicating that more males are attending school. The disadvantaged regions are located in the ASAL counties especially among nomadic communities and urban slums. It is recommended that Kenya needs to accelerate the implementation of the adroitly formulated policies and initiatives geared towards eliminating barriers to equity and quality of education, and institute concerted and collaborative approaches directed towards the translation of policies from mere rhetoric chimera to practice in order to achieve the EFA goals by the set deadline of 2015.

  45. Farnoosh Zahedi, M. A. and Seyyed Mahmoud Mir-Khalili

    Connivance is to chasing felons for goodness of society. Based on retributive policy, especially in reaction to crimes which are contrary to virtues of society, delinquency connivance has received remarkable attention especially in Islam. Like the holy verses in Quran in which you can explicitly find that probing into people’s privacy and their crime is prohibited. Connivance based on this policy is practical. The reason in which you can find permitting to apply delinquency connivance is nothing but hiding some crimes which are contradictory to the virtue of society. To put it in a nutshell, probing into crimes in which you can find vice and contradictions to the virtues of society is highly prohibited, only if probing into heinous crime is permitted by people in charge you can find the aforementioned in 43 act of our criminal procedure.

  46. Seema

    This paper entitled “Eco feminism and Environmental Movement in India” deals with the participation of women in the environmental movements in India .These Grassroots environmental movements following Gandhian nonviolent tradition is expanding in India. These movements differ from the movement of western countries. It concerned with both environmental preservation and issues of economic equity and social justice. This paper we discuss major environmental movements like Chipko movement, Narmada movement, Western Ghats Movement and also analysis the role of these movements in the Indian society, focuses on the concept and role of eco feminism and its critics in India.

  47. Tirthala Naga Sai Kumar and Dr. M. Ravindar Reddy

    The international financial institutions in India such as HSBC, Standard Charted Bank, ABN AMPRO bank, Axis bank and City Bank, are the real boons to the small scale companies and retailer branded companies. These banks top listed in establishing a very good image and earning substantial profits through timely organized, appropriate and flexible international strategies. In the present study a set of 10 dynamic variables are considered in order to assess the impact on Indian own brand retailers in 10 Telangana districts. The sample comprises of 2000 respondents especially retailers from 10 different zones of the Telangana region. The select attributes are associated with functionality of banks, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, adaptability associated with Online - services, parameters associated with customer services with NRI, CRM, and super markets and retail formats

  48. Lina A. Patel and Patel, K. C.

    Ten hot brand reactive dyes have been prepared by coupling tetrazotised 4, 4’-diaminodiphenyl sulphonamide with 2-chloro-4-nitro anilino cyanurated coupling components and their dyeing performance on silk, wool, cotton fibres has been assessed. All the dyes give well to very good light fastness on each fibre. Purity of all the dyes was checked by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The structures of all the dyes have been confirmed by Nitrogen Elemental Analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR spectra and UV visible spectra. The percentage dye-bath exhaustion on different fibres are reasonable good and acceptable. The dyed fibres showed moderate to very good fastness to light, washing and rubbing.

  49. Mithra, J. and Bashkaran, R.

    When many people think of a water source, they think of lakes, rivers and streams; in other words, surface water. However, of all of the usable freshwater in the world, approximately 97 percent of it is groundwater. The problems of water quality have become more important than the quantity, as the environmental problems are getting more serious in different parts of the world. A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water happens to stay or move and interact with ground and biological characteristics. This study is made to evaluate the status of ground water quality and its suitability to irrigated agriculture. Characterization of physio-chemical parameters of groundwater from 11 different locations nearby the small scale industries and rice mills in and around Thanjavur town have been carried out. Water quality data used in the analysis include Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). Na-Ca-Mg water types are dominant in the study area.

  50. Padmavathi Devi KSKD, Raja Shekhar, S., Umamaheshwara Rao, V. and Sushanta Kr. Das

    Ramipril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and Metoprolol a β-adrenergic blocker used as antihypertensive. In this study we aimed to titrate the concurrent use of two most conventionally used antihypertensives. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of regular intake of Ramipril and Metoprolol by patients with mild to moderate grade of hypertension, to adjust the dose and to educate the patients by providing patient counseling. In this multidose open label randomized block study, was conducted between March 2010 and November 2010 at CARE super specialty hospital, Hyderabad. A total of 60 patients were enrolled and were asked to have total of four visits including first screening visit, with 6 weeks interval between each visit. Study treatments included; Dose A (2.5mg Ramipril+25mg Metoprolol), Dose B (5mg Ramipril+50mg Metoprolol) and Dose C (10mg Ramipril+50mg Metoprolol) and patient counseling emphasizing on the role of diet, life style modification and regular exercise for management of hypertension. Blood pressure (B.P) was measured on every visit including the day of enrolment and the results were analyses from the data obtained. The study concluded that gradual up-gradation of the combination dose was useful in controlling hypertension. Along with it, patient counseling was found to be beneficial for the patients.

  51. Shafiq Mohmad Lori, Sajad Ahmad Lone and Awasthi, A. K.

    The present study aims to analyse the physico-chemical properties of the Dal Lake Srinagar, India. Various physico-chemical and biological parameters were analysed, from January 2009 to December 2009, at eight different study sites on monthly basis by the standard methods. The maximum and minimum range of physico-chemical parameters were as: Air temperature 3.99-33.20 oC in January and July respectively, Water temperature 2.54 – 31.30 oC in January and July, Depth ranged from 1.54-2.26 m in December and August respectively, Turbidity index (Secchi-disc transparency) from 49.75 -74.38 cm in August and January, Total solids 198.25–345.38 mgL-1 in June and January, Total dissolved solids ranged from 88.38 -272.00 mgL-1 in October and January, Total suspended solids ranged from 57.25 – 148.13 mgL-1 in February and August respectively, pH were 8.32-8.84 in December and June, Conductivity was in the range of 289.75 µS L-1 in June and 427.13 µS L-1 in January, where as Dissolved oxygen was 4.69 mgL-1 in August and 7.14 mgL-1 in April, Chloride was in the range of 26.18 -39.11 mgL-1 in January and March respectively. Total alkalinity was 84.39 mg L-1 in June and 143.96 mg L-1 in January. Bicarbonate 77.09 mg L-1 in June and 143.10 mg L-1 in January, Carbonate 0.86 mg L-1 in January and 7.30 mg L-1 in June, Total hardness was 84.64 mgL-1 and 125.53 mg L-1 in June and January respectively, Calcium hardness was 84.75 mg L-1 in October and 96.13 mg L-1 in June and magnesium hardness 15.05 -21.33 mg L-1 in October and February respectively, Orthophosphate 233.75 -300.00 µg L-1 in November and February, Total phosphate was 998 -1442.75 µg L-1 in January and august, Iron was 217.38 µg L-1 in January and 341.38 µg L-1 in August, where as BOD and COD was 8.04 - 9.98 mg L-1 in April and August and 14.53- 18.73 mg L-1 in August respectively. The above mentioned results indicates that the lake is suffering from different kinds of pollutants from various sources, such as, sewage, agricultural runoff, house-boat wastes and encroachments. It is concluded, that this Lake is going towards more degradation and needs an immediate action through restoration by some new innovative techniques like Installation of more aeration units and catchment area analysis.

  52. Dr. Dhanalakshmi, B. and Dr. Chitra, G.

    The use of biological test system for monitoring pollution is gaining importance worldwide by employing toxicity test model with use of a “key species” of fish. The fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) was exposed to the heavy metal Chromium for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hrs, and the consequential LC50 values were calculated using Finney’s probit analysis. Later the fish were exposed to 15, 30 and 45 days acute lethal and chronic lethal concentrations and the biochemical changes of proteins in the vital organs viz, Gill, Brain, Liver, Muscle and Kidney of the test fish were estimated and compared with the control fish. The present study revealed that Chromium is highly toxic to the test fish and the extent of toxicity increased with the increase in the exposure period. In the results of the biochemical changes it was observed that the total proteins decreased in all the tissue of the organs. Maximum accumulation of Chromium was found in the liver and kidney while minimum accumulation was seen in gill. Cirrhinus mrigala, is used as bioindicators because it tends to accumulate heavy metals and so their effects. As the fish is extensively used for human consumption, this finding urges greater regulation for industrial effluent discharge.

  53. Camilus Bassey Ben and Lawrence Ikpi Eni

    This study was designed to appraise the challenges of agrobiodiversity degradation in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. A total of 552 respondents comprising rural farmers, and forestry officers were involved in the study. Respondents were drawn from all Niger Delta States in Nigeria. These included, Abia, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, and Rivers States. The data were obtained through a structured questionnaire and analyzed with the use of percentage and chi-square as statistical tools. The findings of the study ascertained the basic challenges of agrobiodiversity degradation in the region to include intensive resource exploitation and extensive alteration of habitats, neglect of agrobiodiversity conservation practices, blueprint approach to development whereby monoculture systems and uniform technologies are promoted, quest for the transnational corporations that market agricultural inputs and process food and fibres for commercial profits and uncontrolled over-production, inequitable access to and control over land, water, trees and genetic resources of the part of local people, market pressures, under-valuation of agricultural biodiversity, pests and disease invasion, population pressure, deforestation, flooding, poverty and oil spillage among others. It was recommended among others that the governments of Niger Delta states should develop innovative funding mechanisms to support agrobiodiversity conservation programmes in the region by collecting special taxes on agricultural resources such as timber extraction, wood trading, trade in crop and livestock products, and other activities connected with the sector.

  54. Sarika Sharma and Arjun Singh

    Cold active enzymes are produced by microorganisms existing permanently in cold habitats located in polar zones at high altitudes or deep sea. Among cold active enzymes cold active proteases constitute an important group of enzymes which have high catalytic efficiencies at lower temperatures and have important applications in industries like detergents, food, pharmaceutical, silk, leather and environmental bioremediation. The aim of the present study was isolation and screening of Cold active alkaline protease producing bacteria from the soil sample collected from Manasbal Lake, Kashmir, India. With this aim the Soil sample was collected from Manasbal Lake, Kashmir and bacterial microflora can be isolated and 50 numbers of isolates were isolated. These isolates were screened for protease activity and out of 50 isolates screened for protease activity only 3 isolates showed protease activity at 10ºC. These isolates were identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp., on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization and named as MLP-1, MLP-2 and MLP-3. The mlp-1 enzyme was characterized and determination of optimum pH and temperature can be done at which the enzyme showed a maximum activity. The mlp-1 enzyme was cold active and alkaline as it showed a maximum activity at pH 12 and temp 4ºC.

  55. Uma Maheswara Rao, D.

    The study reveals that the adoption of concentrate feeding practice is 100% in members and 32.5% in non- members. This was most probably due to supply of concentrate cattle feed to the members of Dairy cooperatives by Sri Visakha dairy at subsidized rates. In case non-members low adoption is due to non availability of concentrate feed and due to its high cost of concentrate feed. Since paddy being main crop grown in the area of study, 100% of milk producers are adopting straw feeding practices to their animals. More adoption of urea treated straw was observed among the member milk producers due to demonstrations and trainings conducted by the dairy staff compared to non members. A large chunk of non-members (62.5%) were allowing their animals to graze less than 5 hours without dry fodder and concentrates, this shows improper maintenance of dairy animals by non-members. To study the balanced feeding practices adopted by the milk producers reveals that 91.66 percent of the members were adopting balanced feeding practices, (i e green fodder + dry roughages + concentrates). and 8.33 percent of members were adopting dry roughages + concentrate for their animals. In case of non-members 10% of farmers adopting dry roughages + concentrates for their animals and 90% of the farmers are not adopting any balanced feeding practice to their animals. The reason may be inadequate land holding to grow sufficient green fodder for their animals and apart from these reasons there is lack of good knowledge about balanced feeding practices for dairy animals among non members compared to member milk producers. The study infers that 93.33 percent of members were adopting a feeding practices compared to 52.4 percent among non members for growing female calves. Out of which 63.33 percent adopting balanced feeding in recommended quantity to 7.5 percent among non members and 20 percent adopt balanced feeding in less quantity among both members and non members, where as adopt balanced feeding occasionally is 10 percent among members and 25 percent among non members. The study infers that 100 percent of members and non-members were adopting disease treatment practices. But the mode of disease treatment varies from members to non-members. Among the members 100 percent of milk producers receive suggestions from veterinary surgeons, Whereas 40 percent of non-members adopt prescribed medicines and among non members 52.5 percent adopt local medicine for disease treatment and 7.5 percent left to natural cure. The table.7 reveals that all the members and non-members of the society were adoption Precautionary measures against contagious diseases. But the practices they are adopting were varies from members to non-members. Among the members 100 percent were adopting prescribed vaccination against contagious diseases. Apart from this 28.33 percent adopt regular testing of animals for diseases by veterinary surgeon and 21.66 percent adopt sanitary measures. But among non-members 45 percent were adopting prescribed vaccination, 35 percent adopt culling of diseased animals, 15 percent adopt sanitary measures and 5 percent adopt regular testing of animals for diseases. The study infers that 13.3 percent of members were adoption Dairy records for cross bred animals and 100 percent of non-members are not adopting any dairy records for their Dairy animals. The study Reveals that 41.66 percent of members adoption folded palm milking with fore finger surrounding the teat and 58.33 percent of members adopt index finger thumb milking method where as 15 percent of non-members adoption folded palm milking with force fingers surrounding the teat 85 percent adoption index finger thumb milking method. The study on hosing method reveals that 33.33 percent of members adoption cow house system, 58.33 percent adoption milking house system and 8.33 percent of members adoption open air system for their cattle, Where as 55 percent of non-members adopted cow house system , 27.5 percent adopted milk house system , and 17.5 percent adoption open air system for their cattle.

  56. Rooth Vasantha, M., Dr. Sridevi, S., Dr. Sudhakar, G., Dr. Paddaiah, G.

    The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a man-made global problem causing a major threat to tuberculosis (TB) control. MDR-TB is now encountered in India with increasing frequency, with reports from many parts of the country. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of MDR-TB in Government Hospital for Chest and Communicable Diseases, Visakhapatnam, A.P, India, from July2012 –Dec 2012. This study included 33 inpatients of the hospital. All patients were resistant to at least Rifampicin and Isoniazid (INH). Patients’ files were analyzed for clinical and epidemiological data, causes and types of drug resistance. Patients were interviewed with standard questionnaire to determine their history of anti-TB drug therapy and were classified accordingly. Total reported MDR-TB cases were 33 inpatients, 27 males and 6 females.12% are below 25yrs, 33% are between 26-35yrs,12%are between 36-45 yrs.’ and 42% are above 46yrs of age.12% are only alcoholic,12% are only smokers,45%are both alcoholic and smokers,30%are non-alcoholic and non-smokers. The above study shows that the risk of the disease is more in male individuals who are above 45yrs of age and who are habituated with smoking and alcoholism. Very few cases with family history were identified. MDR-TB is more liable to occur among retreatment patients. Acquired resistance is more common due to lack of adherence to treatment or inappropriate treatment. Cure was high in all age categories while death was significantly higher in older patients.

  57. Jaquline Chinna Rani, I. and Jayasurya Kingsley

    Proteases able to function in a broad range of alkaline pH, temperature, salts, solvents and detergents are the most preferred from an industrial point of view. An extracellular alkaline protease with thermos table properties was isolated from a marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas piscicida strain JCR 18 obtained from seawater, off the coast of Marina, Chennai. The enzyme was isolated and partially purified using gel chromatography and SDS-PAGE and was seen to be a monomer having a molecular weight of 30kDa. The specific activity was seen to be 172.4 U/mg at 27-fold purification and with an yield of 3%. It exhibited optimum activity at a temperature of 50°C and pH 9. It was inhibited by PMSF and DFP showing it to be a serine protease. The activity was only slightly enhanced by metal ions like Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+showing that it is cofactor-independent. Increased activity was seen with casein as substrate. This protease with its high specific activity, alkaline pH range, thermo stability and reduced cofactor requirement would be best suited for detergents, gelatinization of x-rays and dehairing applications in leather industries.

  58. Neha Chaurasia, Dr. S. K. Pandey and Subhashish Dey

    Writing reviews of some aspect of the measurement of arsenic in water as described in the literature is a popular activity. The field is too large to be encompassed by any one review article, and so the authors of each recent review have defined a present situation of arsenic in ground water around the world; however, there is significant overlap, as several writers have chosen the topic. In the paper that we are the focus will be on a current techniques use for detection of arsenic in ground water. As will be discussed below, there is currently considera ble interest in the arsenic content of drinking water (it high enough to be a health hazard).

  59. Kiema André, Kiema Sébastien, Sawadogo Issa, and Zampaligré Nouhoun

    The aim of this study is to establish a detailed diagnosis of the state of fodder resources in four important pastoral zones of Burkina Faso and to contribute to the development of pastoral programs. Agrostological investigations including phytomasse evaluation and herbaceous layer inventory were conducted in four pastoral zones along the tree agro climatic zones of Burkina Faso. Semi structured interviews were also conducted with key pastoralist around each pastoral zone. The results of the study show a great species diversity of pastoral zones from the Sudanian to the Sahelian zone. There are on average 10 times more species diversity in the Sudanian zone than the Sahelian. The herbaceous layer vegetation remains mainly dominated by annual grasses in the Sahelian contrarily to the Sudanian where it remains perennial grasses. Inventories, however, showed low values in all pastoral grazing units but with the best ones in the Sahelian (58.8 to 81.0%) compared to the Sudanian zones (39.8 to 75.7%). In the Sahelian zone, forage production is marked by land degradation and rainfall regression leading low pastures productivity. The lack of drinking water is also a constraint in the use of these Sahelian pastures. In the pastoral zone of the Sudanian zone, the constraints are related to the management and degradation of pastures´ vegetation. Pastoral zones in this region are under heavy pressure due to the expansion of cropped land and the degradation of habitats of lowland, rich in plant diversity. Most perennial species are in decline while those indicative of degradation of savannah such as Sporobolus pyramidalis are expanding. Improvement actions are necessary under the current state of fodder production and management forms. The main actions identified from the assessment work and interviews with farmers are: (i) the establishment of feed stocks for dry season, (ii ) appropriate use of tree fodder as supplement fodder, (iii) control of violent bushfires, (iv) respect of pasture areas carrying capacity, (v) monitoring of the of pastures vegetation dynamics, (vi) the improvement of pasture with herbaceous species with great pastoral value, (v) reforestation with local and adapted tree species including browse species, (vi) the restoration of degradated grazing areas, (vii) the practice of forage cultivation, (viii) enhancing livestock keepers capacity on pastures management.

  60. Eman Fathi Sharaf, Wael SamirEl-Sayed and Rooa Abu Seif

    In the present study,Bacillus cereus previously isolated from local 7daysfridge – kept green pepper and lettuce showed the ability to produce thehighest visible growth, in corn millet broth, after 24hrs incubation at 37 ºC. Thereafter, the growth decreased gradually by increasing the incubation period up to 120 hrs. However, the reverse occurred with the amount of secreted lecithinase enzyme (toxin) where secretion started after 24hrs incubation and then significantly increased gradually to reach the highest amount after 96 hrs incubation. No trend could be observed between incubation temperature and both bacterial growth and toxin production, however the temperature 37 ºC was optimum for both whereas 28 ºC was the minimum. The results revealed the ability of the isolate to grow at a wide pH range extending from 2.6 to 10.6. Adjusting the pH of the corn millet growth medium at acidity (2.6-5.0) or neutrality was followed by low viable colony count, however at alkalinity (8.0-10.5) the count was high. Concerning lecithinase production, the acidic (2.6 – 5.0) or neutral pHs (7.0) was not suitable for toxin production where it stopped completely but the isolate began to produce toxin at alkaline pHs starting from pH 8.6 to 10.6. A little amount of toxin was produced by B. cereus in presence of lemon juice in the growth medium while it was completely ceased in presence of acetic acid,a phenomenon which can help in controlling toxin secretion by such contaminating bacteria.

  61. Ghassan M. Ahmed and Aseel shakir Mahmood

    Lead is the one of the most ubiquitous biochemical parameters heavy metals and has been detected in virtually all areas of the environments [air, water, and soil] and in biological systems. Lead in the environment occurs both naturally and as a consequence of human activities. The experiments investigated the effect of lead acetate on some blood serum factors in rats. Twenty rates divided to two equal groups of 10 rats, the control and treated group, the control and treated group. The control group drenched drinking Water Without lead acetate, while treated group drenched drinking Water with 300 ppm lead acetate for 45 days. At the end of study blood obtained through heart puncher and tested for effects on biochemical parameters. Total serum protein, albumin, serum globulin, cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase had been estimated. The treatment of Rates with lead acetate cause low levels of blood protein levels, albumin and increase level in globins' concentrations and cholesterol. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme linked with liver function also undergoes increased levels. It can be concluded that the exposure to lead acetate can affect different body organs systems and physiological processes.

  62. Dr. Nilamadhab Prusty, Dr. Ranjan Kumar Guru and Dr. Deepak Kumar Pradhan

    Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare breed of tumour found in adolescent males and there is a paucity of Indian studies on this subject. This is a retrospective observational study of JNA patients who presented at the V.S.S. Medical College and Hospital, Burla, Odisha between October 2009 and September 2012. Total 3953 cases of mass in head and neck region were presented at our department during that period. Out of those there were 17 cases of JNA. The incidences, age and sex distribution, symptoms and management approaches were recorded. The mean age at presentation was 16.94years. The surgical approaches used were endoscopic endonasal approach and lateral rhinotomy approach. The recurrence rate was 35.3%.

  63. Deepthy, B. J., Sarman Singh, Raman Muthuswami and Ravindran, P. C.

    The study was aimed to detect the prevalence of Toxoplasma specific antibodies in young women at their reproductive age. This will help to identify and screen the risk groups, thereby reducing the chances of vertical transmission and to prevent congenital deformities. A total of 198 serum samples were collected from young women attending the gynaecology clinics. Blood samples collected were tested for Anti- Toxoplasma specific IgG and IgM antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Out of the 198 serum samples tested Toxoplasma specific antibodies were positive for 9 (4.54%) among these 7 were showing only IgG antibodies and 2 come positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest numbers of positive were noted in the age group of 30 to 39 years (58.6%). The data obtained from this study showed a moderate prevalence of Toxoplasmosis among women of child bearing age. An overall anti Toxoplasma antibodies 4.54% was recorded. The study reveals that Toxoplasmosis is endemic in Kerala and the details collected from the study participants also reveals that there is an extremely high levels (85%)of ignorance about the disease.

  64. Dr. Mohammad Banyameen Iqbal, Dr. Tushar Kambale, Dr. Atul K. Jain and Dr. Iqra Mushtaq

    Chordoma is a rare, low grade, primary malignant bone tumour arising from primitive notochord remnants. It accounts for 1-4% of all primary skeletal tumours. Sacrum represents the more common anatomical site of origin followed by skull base region, cervical vertebrae and thoracolumbar vertebrae. Ours is a case series of three patients diagnosed to be suffering from different types of chordoma’s, that is conventional, chondroid and de-differentiated based on histopathology, immuno-histochemistry and radiological findings.

  65. Dr. Himanshu Gupta and Dr. Sheetal Bishnoi

    TB and HIV have been closely linked since the emergence of AIDS. This review paper aims to explore the double burden of TB-HIV worldwide, social impact of the epidemic, strategies being followed to control the epidemic and the challenges associated with TB-HIV control activities. An estimated one-third of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIVs) worldwide are co-infected with TB. PLHIVs are also evaluated to be 15 times more likely to develop TB than HIV negative people. These two diseases represent a lethal combination since they are more destructive together and project challenges in both diagnosis and treatment, interactions between HIV and TB medications, and overlapping medication toxicities, Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) and challenges related to adherence. As the HIV and TB services seem disconnected at present, they result in an increase in the cost of care for patients, higher losses to follow-up due to depression and stigma and delays in ART initiation. To combat the fuelling epidemic of HIV and TB globally, there is a need for a Zero parallel system for HIV and TB that must create coherence and synergy between the two programs and strengthen the mechanisms that would indicate effective control, interventions to improve quality of life and significant public health gains. There is a potential need to improve TB treatment outcomes and the contribution that TB-HIV collaboration can make. It also demands additional research to reduce spread of TB, pro-actively identify TB in PLHIVs and reduce mortality.

  66. Dr. Adesola, Adefemi Muritala

    This paper (1) reviews evidence for the location of the slow component of VO2 kinetics either within the exercising limbs or alternatively at some site in the rest of the body, e.g., ventilatory, cardiac or accessory muscles (2) presents evidence in support of both the fast and slow components (i.e., < 3 min. and > 3 min. from exercise onset, respectively) of the exercise VO2 response residing predominantly in the exercising muscle. For a pulmonary VO2 slow component in excess of 600 ml O2 min-1, more than 80% could be attributed to an augmented VO2 across the exercising limbs. (3) Assesses the potential for the lactate ion per se to exert a metabolic stimulatory effect in exercising muscle in the absence of the potentially confounding influences of changes in muscle temperature, H+, blood flow or O2 delivery within the surgically isolated, electrically stimulated canine gastrocnemius, square wave infusions that increased arterial blood [lactate] by ~10mM and intramuscular [lactate] to in excess of 9 mM did not increase muscle VO2. In summary, these investigations demonstrate that the exercising muscle is the predominant site of the VO2 slow component. However, despite the close temporal association between changes in blood lactate and VO2, during intense exercise, lactate itself does not mandate an additional VO2 demand in exercising dog muscle.

  67. Chaudhary, J. and Supriya, K.

    We report the morphological findings of a case of horse shoe kidney and analyze the size and position, renal hilum, vascular and calycealsystems of the kidney. The horse shoe kidney of our case fuses lower pole below inferior mesenteric artery with parenchymal tissue. Larger area of left hilum than right both face anteriorly. They consist of extra renal calyxes. The kidney was supplied by six arteries and drained by three veins. We discussed morphologic and embryonic importance of the anomaly.

  68. Sunil Franklin, A. and Anitha, P.

    Response Quality of Work Life (QWL) is viewed as a choice to the control approach of managing people. The QWL approach considers people as an 'asset' to the organization rather than as 'costs'. It believes that people perform better when they are allowed to participate in managing their work and make decisions. To satisfy the new generation workforce, organizations need to concentrate on job designs and organization of work. Further, today's workforce is realizing the significance of relationships and is trying to strike a balance between career and personal lives. Successful organizations support and provide facilities to their people to help them to balance the scales. In this process, organizations are coming up with new and innovative ideas to improve the quality of work and quality of work life of every individual in the organization. Various programs like flex time, alternative work schedules, compressed work weeks, telecommuting etc., are being adopted by these organizations. Technological advances further help organizations to implement these programs successfully. Organizations are enjoying the fruits of implementing QWL programs in the form of increased productivity, and an efficient, Satisfied, and committed workforce which aims to achieve organizational objectives. Quality of Working Life is a term that had been used to describe the broader job-related experience an individual has. Whilst there has, for many years, been much research into job Satisfaction and more recently, an interest has arisen into the broader concepts of stress and subjective well-being, the precise nature of the relationship between these concepts has still been little explored. Stress at work is often considered in isolation, wherein it is assessed on the basis that attention to an individual’s stress management skills or the sources of stress will prove to provide a good enough basis for effective intervention.

  69. Dr. Jungare Shamali and Dr. Vaidya Seema

    Amenorrhea is the absence or abnormal cessation of the menses. Secondary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menses for a length of time equivalent to a total of at least 3 of previous cycle intervals or 6 months of amenorrhea. Recent advances in reproductive endocrinology has incriminated the anterior pitutory polypeptide hormone prolactin (PRL), in pathogenesis of anovulation in amenorrhea galactorrhea syndrome. The study was undertaken to estimate the serum prolactin level by ELISA technique to evaluate prolactin status in patients with secondary amenorrhea. Two groups of female comprising of 50 secondary amenorrhea cases as study group and 50 normal menstruating females as control were thoroughly examined and subjected to investigations for prolactin factor. Study showed that PRL levels should be kept in consideration during the diagnosis and management of secondary amenorrhea as the PRL values were found to be significant (22%). The estimation should be done in cases with H/o anovulation, infertility, secondary amenorrhea and abnormal menses. Thus the role of endocrinological PRL evaluation by ELISA appears to be a very sound and plausible answer for evaluation.

  70. Dissou Affolabi, Mathieu Odoun, Frank Faïhun, Ramatou-Laï Damala, Lucrece Ahovegbe, Ablo Prudence Wachinou, Aderemi Kehinde, Wilfried Bekou, Achille Massougbodji and Severin Anagonou

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and mecA genes in Staphylococcus aureus in Cotonou and potential association between the presence of PVL gene and antibiotic resistance. Isolates of S. aureus consecutively recovered from various clinical samples in four laboratories in Cotonou were subjected to PCR of nuc gene (for identification of S. aureus), drug susceptibility testing to various antibiotics (by Kirby - Bauer method) and PCR for PVL and mecA genes. In total, 115 non-duplicate isolates of S. aureus were studied. The prevalence of PVL gene was 14.8% while that of mecA gene was 24.3%. The prevalence of PVL genes was higher in wound swabs than in other specimens. There was no statistical significant difference between the presence of PVL and mecA genes in S. aureus isolates (p = 0.70). Also, the association between PVL genes and phenotypic resistance to main groups of antibiotics was not statistically significant. In conclusion, in Cotonou, prevalence of PVL gene in S. aureus isolates was 14.8% while that of mecA gene was 24.3%. The presence of PVL gene was not significantly associated with antibiotic resistance.

  71. Dr. Jyoti S. Kabbin and Khateeb Farheen

    Nosocomial infections are applied to infections developing in hospitalized patients, not present or without incubation at the time of their admission. The present study was undertaken to determine most predominant bacterial isolates in nosocomial infections of ICU, their antibiotic sensitivity pattern and to identify the specific age group of people at a higher risk of acquiring nosocomial infections in ICU. 100 samples were studied over a period of 3 months in a tertiary care hospital. Clinical specimens collected from patients admitted in ICU at least for 48 hours with suspicion of nosocomial infections were included. Isolates were identified by standard procedures and antibiotic sensitivity done by Kirby Bauer method. 38(38%) of the clinical specimens were culture positive while 62 specimens showed no growth. Male to Female ratio was 2.03:1. Of 40 isolates recovered, 28(70%) were Gram negative bacilli, eight (20%) were Gram positive cocci, one (2.5%) Candida spp., three (7.5%) were non-fermenters. The most common organisms isolated was Klebsiella pneumoniae (42.5%) followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (15%). All isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae were sensitive to Imipenem and Piperacillin-Tazobactam acid. Nosocomial infections was found to be more prevalent in young adults (21 to 30 years). This study clearly documents a high prevalence rate of nosocomial infections in the ICU, Gram-negative bacteria being the most common causative pathogens. There is an alarmingly high rate of resistance to cephalosporins and β lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors among Gram negative organisms. Judicious use of older and newer antimicrobial agents is essential to prevent the emergence of multi drug resistant bacteria in the ICU. We recommend that education and awareness among health care workers as well as adherence to standard guidelines for prevention of nosocomial infections.

  72. Ramya, K., Deepak, V. M. M. and Anju Tankachi

    Keratinase producing bacteria were isolated from poultry farm soil and feathers from places located in and around Coimbatore, India. The isolated bacteria were screened for keratinase production using Feather Meal medium. The positive strains were then characterized and identified as Bacillus sp. Optimum conditions for the growth of the bacterium and production of keratinase enzyme has been identified as follows: pH 7.5, temperature 37°C, substrate concentration 1 %, inoculum concentration 4 % and incubation period 24 hours respectively. For enzyme activity optimum pH was found to be 7.5, temperature 450C.The enzyme was partially purified using filter sterilization. High degradation of keratin was observed in the degrading medium added with glucose as carbon source and inoculated with partially purified keratinase.

  73. Oba M. S., Bezzari, M., Belhouari, A. Kettani, A., Saile, R. and Bennani, H.

    Depuis quelques années, la restauration rapide et collective a pris de l’ampleur au sein de la société marocaine, de plus en plus de gens actifs optent pour les fast-foods qui foisonnent les grandes agglomérations d’une part et des entreprises qui installent la restauration collective d’autre part. Ce mode d’alimentation expose probablement le consommateur à des risques d’intoxication alimentaire. Notre travail a consisté à décrire la qualité hygiénique et la prévalence des bactéries pathogènes dans des aliments issus de la restauration collective et rapide dans l’axe Rabat-Casablanca et ce à travers l’étude de 3000 échantillons analysés selon les normes en vigueur sur une période de cinq ans (soit de 2007 à 2012). Ces échantillons ont été classés en quatre (4) grandes classes : les Matières premières (poissons, viandes rouges et viandes blanches), les Pâtisseries, les Plats cuits et les Salades. Parmi les germes recherchés, en utilisant des méthodes conventionnelles de culture, quatre (4) groupes de pathogènes d'origine alimentaire ont été identifiés : les coliformes, les anaérobies sulfito-réducteurs, les staphylocoques à coagulase positive et les salmonelles. Le pourcentage global de prévalence des échantillons contaminés (n = 1072) est de 35,73% dont 10,36% sont contaminés par les coliformes totaux, 63,77% par les coliformes thermotolérants, 22,04 % par les anaérobies sulfito-réducteurs, 1,77 % par les staphylocoques et 2,05% par les salmonelles sp. Ces résultats supposent que les programmes de surveillance d’hygiène et de sécurité alimentaire devraient accorder une attention particulière sur la restauration collective et rapide pour prévenir l'apparition des toxi-infections alimentaires.

  74. Vinola Jennifer, S., Vidya, S., Jeyasudha, S., Babu, V., Selvasundari, L., Thiyagarajan, C. R.K. Sujatha and Thiruneelakandan, G.

    Oral cancers are one of the most common cancers worldwide today. They are usually neglected by the common population when compared to systemic cancers such as the lung cancer, colon cancer, Betel quid chewers, alcoholism, and tobacco etc. These are the most common malignancies in South and Southeast Asian countries. Oral premalignancies are also very common in betel quid chewers and about 10% of these undergo malignant transformation .Alcohol and tobacco are responsible for a very large proportion of chronic disease and some tumors in particular may be the result of interactions between the two risk factors. The present systematic literature review was conducted to judge combined effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco, as well as and genetic polymorphisms on alcohol-related cancer risk. However, they also may be extremely fatal if left untreated even at a very initial stage of the lesion. Early detection and treatment gives the best chance for its cure. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is suggested to be one of the major reasons. The detection and diagnosis are currently based on clinical examination, histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material and molecular methods. Several diagnostic aids have been developed over the years for early detection of oral cancer. The purpose of this article is to review the advanced available diagnostic adjuncts for the detection of oral cancer.

  75. Amrutha Gayathri, D., Krishna Rao, V. and Rajeswari, B.

    The efficacy of two botanicals viz., neem oil and castor oil, one fungicide I.e., carbendazim and three bioagents were tested in vitro and in vivo against Alternaria carthami inciting leaf spot safflower leaf spot/blight. In vitro efficacy of botanicals and fungicide was evaluated by poison food technique against Alternaria carthami. In vitro efficacy of bioagents was evaluated by dual culture technique against Alternaria carthami. In in vitro evaluation of fungicide and botanicals carbendazim found to be most effective and showed maximum inhibition of mycelial growth (43.33%) followed by neem oil (30.53%). Among the bioagents maximum inhibition of radial growth of the test pathogen was noticed in P. fluorescens (87.36 per cent) which was found on par with T. virde (86.22 per cent). Mycelial growth of test pathogen was inhibited to an extent of 81.08 per cent in in T. harzianum. In invivo evaluation, combined seed treatment with of P. fluorescens (10 g kg-1 seed) + carbendazim (2 g kg-1 seed)+ neem oil (10 ml kg-1 seed) was effective in controlling Alternaria leaf spot/blight.

  76. NANA Paul Alain, FOKAM Zéphyrin, NGASSAM Pierre, AJEAGAH Gideon, MOCHE Karine, BRICHEUX Geneviève, BOUCHARD Philippe, VIGUES Bernard, SIME-NGANDO Télesphore

    The intestinal liquid of A. emini was extracted using the vacuum aspiration technique, followed by measurement of ion concentrations and concomitantly recorded species abundance. Nitrate (NO3-) concentration decreased from the foregut to the hindgut. Nitrites (NO2-), ammoniums (NH4+) and orthophosphates (PO43-) reached their greatest levels in the midgut. Furthermore, correlation analyses between ion contents and ciliate abundance in different compartments were performed. In the foregut, a positive and significant correlation was found between the abundance of the Paracoelophrya ebebdensis and PO43-. In the midgut, a positive and significant correlation was observed between the number of the ciliates Dicoelophrya mediovacuolata; Coelophrya roquei; Coelophrya ovales; Ptychostomum commune and NO2-; Almophrya mediovacuolata and NH4+. In this same compartment, a positive and significant correlation was also observed between the abundance of Ptychostomum prolixus and NO2-. In the hindgut, a positive and significant correlation was found between the values of PO43- and Ptychostomum variabilis abundance. These results suggest that each portion of the digestive tract of A. emini can be considered as a set of natural micro-habitat in which a large number of ions generate ecological niches suitable for the Survival of a specific group of ciliate species.

  77. Sivakami, R., Sirajunisha, V., Abdul Kader, K. and Prem Kishore, G.

    Fungi play an important role in the degradation of dead leaves and other plant detritus in aquatic environments. Aquatic fungi secrete enzymes that degrade polysaccharides and other polymers. Fungi are also efficient in the biodegradation of recalcitrant compounds like xenobiotics, lignin and dye stuffs by their extra cellular ligninolytic enzyme system. Hence, the present study was aimed at using aquatic fungi in the bioremediation of waste water. The selected species were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium citrinum and Fusarium oxysporum which were isolated from the River Cauvery collected from Upper Anicut (Mukkombu). Results indicate that all the four fungal species helped in decreasing the levels of BOD, COD and nutrients like PO4 and nitrate. However, each species responded differently. Nevertheless, among the four fungal species studied, Aspergillus niger showed the most promising results and it appears to be the best candidate for bioremediation.

  78. Anusuya and Hemalatha

    This study was designed in such a way to assess the toxicity effect of 2,4- D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) pesticide in fish physiology and its antioxidant stress. Channa striatus fish were administered with two different doses compensation of 2,4-D pesticide of 100 and 200 mg/kg. After a matter of time interval the effect of 2,4-D on fish behavior and its toxic level was determined by assessing its blood parameter and antioxidant enzyme level. Hemocyte count has considerably reduced in 2,4-D treatment and its responsive antioxidant enzyme level of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase level was also drastically altered. The present study concludes the toxic effect of 2, 4-D usage.

  79. Muhammad Kashif, Munawar Saleem Ahmad, Ghufran Ullah, Ahmad Iftikhar Fareed and Syed Tawab Shah

    In the present study, sero-prevalence of anaplasma sp. in sheep, Ovisaries (L) was done from January-May, 2012 in Peshawar, Pakistan. The information concerning anaplasmosis in sheep is scare. For this purpose, 376 serum samples were obtained randomly from4 different breeds of sheep, from different areas of Peshawar, and an indirect ELISA using recombinant MSP-5 as antigen of Anaplasmamarginale (T), was performed. Totally, 92/376 (24.47%) of the overall sheep sera were positive for antibodies against A. marginale. In 4 breeds of sheep, (i.e. Balkhai, Watanai, Punjabai and Turkai) Turkai were found highly infected i.e. 27/376 (7.20%). This is the first record of A. marginal infection in Sheep in Peshawar, Pakistan, which is very high. This research should be useful in epidemiological applications.

  80. Kayode Ayinde and Adewale F. Lukman

    The use of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimator for estimation of parameters of linear regression model in the presence of multicollinearity has been reported to produce imprecise estimates associated with large standard errors. This paper presents some combined estimators based on Feasible Generalized Linear Estimator (CORC and ML) and Principal Components (PCs) Estimator as alternative to multicollinearity estimation methods. A linear regression model with three uniformly distributed explanatory variables exhibiting high degree of multicollinearity ( ) was considered through Monte Carlo studies. The experiments were conducted to assess and compare the performances of the various proposed combined estimators with their separate ones and the Ridge estimator using the Mean Square Error (MSE) criterion by ranking their performances at each parameter level and summing the ranks over the number of parameters. Results reveal that the proposed estimators of CORCPC1, MLPC1 and MLPC12 are generally better than the OLS estimator while CORCPC12 does the same at increased sample size. Furthermore, the combined estimator CORCPC1, recommended for usage, performs better than the Ridge estimator and it is either the best or does not perform too differently from the PC1 or PC12 estimator.

  81. Kayode Ayinde and Adewale F. Lukman

    The use of Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimator for estimation of parameters of linear regression model in the presence of multicollinearity has been reported to produce imprecise estimates associated with large standard errors. This paper presents some combined estimators based on Feasible Generalized Linear Estimator (CORC and ML) and Principal Components (PCs) Estimator as alternative to multicollinearity estimation methods. A linear regression model with three uniformly distributed explanatory variables exhibiting high degree of multicollinearity ( ) was considered through Monte Carlo studies. The experiments were conducted to assess and compare the performances of the various proposed combined estimators with their separate ones and the Ridge estimator using the Mean Square Error (MSE) criterion by ranking their performances at each parameter level and summing the ranks over the number of parameters. Results reveal that the proposed estimators of CORCPC1, MLPC1 and MLPC12 are generally better than the OLS estimator while CORCPC12 does the same at increased sample size. Furthermore, the combined estimator CORCPC1, recommended for usage, performs better than the Ridge estimator and it is either the best or does not perform too differently from the PC1 or PC12 estimator.

  82. Kavu Kulathuraan, Venkatasamy Ramadas and Balan Natarajan

    Porous Silicon (PS) layers were prepared by electrochemical etching in a single-tank cell on the surface of single-crystalline p-type (100) silicon wafers, using hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol (C2H5OH) in the volume ratio of 1:2. The surface and cross-section morphologies of the PS were observed from images obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Likewise, the porosity of the PS sample was determined using the parameters obtained from SEM images by geometrical method. SEM images indicated that, the pores were surrounded by a thick columnar network of silicon walls. This porous silicon layer can be considered as a sponge like structure. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed the growth of PS layer on silicon wafer and the grain size of the PS layer was found to be around 60.2 nm. The effective refractive index of porous silicon was calculated using Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) analysis. The optical properties of PS were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL). The surface chemical bonds of the PS were observed by FTIR and the band gap of the PS sample was obtained from PL spectra. The efficiency of ethanol gas sensing properties of PS was investigated at room temperature. The sensor was found to operate with maximum efficiency at a concentration of 100 ppm hence, this PS material can be used as an effective sensor element to detect ethanol vapour.

  83. Rani, S. and Shanthi, J.

    Cadmium selenide (cdse) thin films on glass substrates were prepared by electron beam evaporation technique at various substrate temperatures and annealed at room temperature (RT), 100, 200 and 300 o C respectively.XRD spectra indicates that films are polycrystalline with the hexagonal structure. When the heat treatment temperature is increased to 100° C, the films became highly oriented along (002) plane. The microstructure parameters like particle size, stress, strain, and dislocation density were calculated. The grain size is within the range of 24 to 44 nm.

  84. Mukesh Nitin, Rajnish Kumar, Agatha S. Khalko, Ruma Sinha, M. S. Anantha and Yogesh Kumar

    The traditional method for identification of bacterial species depends upon different biochemical testing and colonial morphology study. Biochemical tests are simple to execute, require minimal equipment, and generally accurately differentiate between the more common species. However, they are time-consuming and results delay in final identification due to long incubation time period. Several genes common to all bacteria have been studied in sequence-based identification. The objective o present study is to isolate, identify and characterize the bacteria from agricultural farm field of Jharkhand. The use of 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis method, is considered as recent standard approach for identification for all bacteria and is widely recognized as a rapid and accurate method for identification of novel bacterial culture. Fragment of 16S rDNA gene of the DNA was isolated from the bacterial species and was amplified by PCR. DNA sequencing reaction of purified PCR amplicon was carried out with (16sF) and (16sR) forward and reverse primers. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) was performed and the evolutionary distances were computed using the Kimura 2-parameter method and expressed in the units of the number of base substitutions per site. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted in (MEGA 4.0) software for 1447 nt contig region of sample G. It was observed to be homologous with sequence of Genbank having accession no. EU313791.1. and was identified as Xanthomonadaceae NML 03-0222.

  85. Yogendra Singh Gusain, Singh U. S., and Sharma, A. K.

    Recently, the role of plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) on plant growth promotion and maintenance of plant homeostasis under abiotic stress is gaining importance. In present study, plant growth promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains Pseudomonas fluorescence strain P2 and P16, Pseudomonas jessenii R62, Pseudomonas synxantha R81, Bacillus cereus 5507(1B), Bacillus cereus BSB 38 (14B) were tested for their role in enhancing plant growth and induction of stress related enzymes in swarna and swarna sub1 varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Two PGPRs, Pseudomonas jessenii, R62, Pseudomonas synxantha, R81 were used as consortia. Most of the PGPR inoculated plants showed enhanced growth parameter as compared to uninoculated plants under drought stress. Quantitative analyses of stress related enzymes indicated that most of the plants inoculated with PGPRs showed higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) as compared to uninoculated plants. Among all the treatments, consortia of Pseudomonas jessenii R62 and Pseudomonas synxantha R81 treated plants showed better improvements in most of the growth parameter as well as stress related enzymatic activities. The greater induction of stress related enzymes in plants may be the mechanism through which these PGPRs help plants to tolerate the consequences of drought stress and maintenance of plant homeostasis under severe drought.

  86. Bhavani, K. and Karuppasamy, R.

    The bioaccumulation pattern of arsenic (As) in whole body and different tissues of gill, liver, and gonads of both male and female of healthy Danio rerio when exposed to a sub lethal concentration of As-water, containing one-eighth 96 hr LC50level (1.11 mg/L As2O3.) for long term experimentation has been analyzed. The As shows a maximum deposition (p<0.05) in the gill (0.91 and 0.98 µ g / g dry wt.) followed by liver (0.63 and 0.69 µ g / g dry wt.) and gonad (0.21 and 0.27 µ g / g dry wt.) of both male and female fish respectively,at the end of 60 days of exposure. The highest deposition of As was found to be 3.23 and 3.56 µg / g dry wt. in the whole body of male and female fish at 60th day of exposure respectively. Comparing the accumulation As on the both sex, it is obvious that the female showed a higher As residue in all tissue as well as whole body than the male fish. Another equally important finding is that the depuration of As by maintaining the bioaccumulated female fish (60 day exposed fish to As III oxide) in quality dechlorinated tap water reveals that there is a significant (p<0.05) reduction in As concentration in different tissues and whole body of fish as the day passes. A comparison of the performance of different tissues in respect of depuration clearly indicates that the liver and gill have taken a short period of 7 days to depurate 100% of As Whereas in ovary and whole body only the level of 81.48 and 94.10 % of As was eliminated even it took 10 days of depuration period. Among the various tissues tested, the ovary did not totally eliminate the accumulated As even after the completion of 10 days of depuration. The data constitute a reference for future studies on the evaluation of As accumulation and elimination tendency in the ecotoxicological testing scheme for hazard assessment.

  87. Dr. Pratima Tripathi

    Fatal and non-fatal Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD) are increased 2-4 fold in patients with diabetes and autopsy as compared to non-diabetic patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Immediate and long-term post- Myocardial Infarction (MI) mortality is increased 1.5-2 fold among diabetic patients. Despite a comparably small infarct size, diabetic patients have a far greater risk of developing highly fatal post-MI complications when compared to non diabetic patients. Following MI, the surviving myocardium of non-diabetic patients becomes hyperkinetic to compensate for non-viable infarcted myocardium in an attempt to maintain cardiac output. However, in diabetic patients, these areas of myocardium cannot achieve this compensatory enhancement in function due to a complex set of intra- and extra-myocardial factors superimposed on an already reduced coronary artery flow reserve. Endomyocardial samples from diabetic patients show enhanced thickening of capillary basement membrane, myocellular atrophy and hypertrophy with myocardial and, interstitial fibrosis, which further reduces the function of the myocardium. In this review the author have looked into various cardiovascular complications in diabetic condition and the pathophysiological mechanisms lying behind each.

  88. Debashis Sarkar and Debajit Roy

    An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the costs of mechanization vis-à-vis marketed surplus and value of output for the different crops grown in the study region. It has been observed that small size and scattered holdings of the farmers stand in the way of mechanization and farm machinery generally remains underutilized. Majority of small cultivators are poor and cannot purchase the costly machinery like tractors, combine harvesters etc. Still animal power is used extensively on different farm operations, besides manual, electrical and tractor power in West Bengal. In fact, the major cost items in farming operations comes out to be ploughing which is mostly operated using animal power. This is followed by irrigation operations which is entirely carried out using electrical power and transportation and marketing which is mostly done using tractor power. It also comes out from the analysis that among the various operations performed with various power sources, tractor power is the highest used power source followed by animal power, electrical power and manual power. Hence it appears that in various farming operations, both tractor power and animal power remains crucial, while use of manual power is negligible. Use of electrical power however is limited and used for specific activities. The study highlights that full scale farm mechanization is still an unreal proposition in the farm sector in West Bengal. However, operation specific farm mechanization may be crucial at this stage.

  89. Rajendra Prasad Mondal, Tapas Kumar Dutta and Biswaranjan Dhua

    The lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus) ranges throughout the South East Asian region. It has been evaluated by IUCN as of “globally vulnerable species”. This species has been reported in a few states of India including a few districts of West Bengal. This paper deals with reporting a new site record of the species from Bankura District, West Bengal, India. The study was conducted during August 2012 to November 2013. In the study, birds were found to arrive at the site during last week of June every year and stay there for eight months and leave for some other location during last week of February. The total number of lesser adjutant population was found to be 33 birds in the year 2012 and 42 birds in 2013. Adults were found to feed on snails, fishes, frogs, crabs, locusts, rats, carrion and snakes. The paper concludes that the population of lesser adjutant storks in the site are not protected in any way and, therefore, special conservation efforts are needed by raising public awareness among local people.

  90. Dharuni, R., Maruthi Prasad, B. V. and Vishwanath, H. L.

    Introduction: Metabolic Syndrome represents a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that recently has become a public health problem. It has been proposed that disturbances in phosphate metabolism may contribute to the development of this constellation of cardiovascular risk factors. Lower serum albumin was regarded as an indicator of malnutrition, inflammation, and liver disease, and has been reported to be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aim: To determine the association between serum phosphate and albumin levels with the components of metabolic syndrome. Method: A case- control study was carried out with hundred subjects. Fifty of these subjects were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, while other fifty were sex and age matched healthy control subjects. Results: The mean serum phosphate level is 2.8±0.65mg/dl in cases and 3.4±0.76 mg/dl for controls. All patients with metabolic syndrome showed low phosphate levels with p<0.001 compared with controls. The mean serum albumin level is 3.1±0.74g/dl in cases and 3.67±0.82g/dl for controls. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed significantly low albumin levels with p<0.001 compared to controls. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower phosphate and albumin concentrations compared to individuals who do not fulfill criteria for the diagnosis of this syndrome. This reduction in serum phosphate and albumin levels is more pronounced as the number of components of metabolic syndrome increases.

  91. Akmel Nuro Negash, Lakshmi Kalpana V. and Sudhakar G.

    Objective of the paper is to report genetic diversity study using digital dermatoglyphics traits as genetic markers among Cheha Gurage of Ethiopia and compare the results with available data from world population studies. Digital fingerprints of 322 healthy unrelated subjects (168 Male and 154 Female) with age of 30 and above were included in the present cross-sectional study. Data drawn from 10 villages of the district was pooled into 5 cluster groups, each cluster containing 2 villages. Percent frequency distribution of digital pattern types in each hand and both hands total, bimanual differences for digital pattern type frequencies and pattern intensity index were studied. Inter-group pattern frequency differences for Gender, Religion, Clan groups, Altitude and ABO/Rh blood groups were compared. Data was processed using Microsoft excel (2007) program to sort out the data into groups and apply statistical tests. Percent pattern type frequencies, pattern intensity index and Chi-square test of independence were used to compare Inter-group differences. The results revealed that among Cheha Gurage of Ethiopia there exists significant differences in digital pattern type frequencies for Inter-clan groups comparison (2 = 18.8688, d.f = 4, p  0.001), ABO blood groups comparison (2 = 25, d.f = 12, p  0.05) and bimanual differences comparison in female gender (2 = 15.6498, d.f = 4, p  0.01).

  92. Choudhary R.K. and Singh Pratibha

    The Hepatitis B core antibody screened in various blood banks in India to attractive the safety of blood transfusion. However, In India, HBcAb is not a mandatory test as per Drug and Cosmetic Act, 1940. Now a day, HBcAbIgM and IgG testing have been adopted for routine screening but it leads to increased cost of transfused blood. Therefore, this study was carried out to look into the possibility of obviating the need of screening of HBcAb testing is necessary or not, so as to optimize the resource utilization and reduce the cost without compromising the blood safety. Aim: To find out the agreement of Hepatitis B core antibody test with HBsAg. Methods: Screening results were evaluated for HBV by immunoassay, HBsAg & Anti-HBcAbIgM and IgG. Initial reactive samples were confirmed by ID-NAT (TMA) discriminatory HBV assay. Results: Value of kappa indicates that there is no significant agreement between HBcAb and HBsAg. The diagnostic accuracy of HBcAb is very bad (8.26%) when compared with HBsAg. However, the sensitivity of the test is good (85.71%). Conclusion: The value of Kappa indicates that there is no significant agreement between HBcAb and ID-NAT with HBsAg. In fact the HB core antibody IgM can enhance the blood safety. The facility for HBV core total screening is same as that of HBsAg, HIV & HCV, whereas, HBcAb is capital extensive but give help to extra safety of blood.

  93. Arjun Chauhan and Joshi, V. K.

    Response surface methodology involving Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to evaluate the effect of additives and growth stimulators with salt on natural lactic acid fermentation of carrot at room temperature. The variables investigated in this study were salt (2% - 3%), Lactose, MgSO4 + MnSO4 and Mustard (1%,1.5% and 2%) ; and various responses involved were per cent titrable acidity (Lactic Acid), pH, per cent salt and Lactic Acid Bacterial count (LAB count). The statistical analysis of the results showed that, only the treatments having powdered mustard had an appreciable effect on lactic acid fermentation. The best results were obtained in the treatment with 2.5 % salt, 1.5 % lactose, 1.5 % MgSO4 + MnSO4 and 2.0 % mustard. These optimized concentrations increased titrable acidity (1.69% as compared to the lowest value of acidity obtained i.e. 1.50%), lowered pH (2.47 as compared to the highest value of pH obtained i.e.3.30) and increased LAB count (9 X 108 cfu/ml as compared to the lowest value of count obtained i.e.6.13 X 108). The second-order polynomial regression model determined that the desirable characteristics would be obtained at these concentrations of additives. Hence, the values for different additives and growth stimulators optimized in this study could successfully be employed for the lactic acid fermentation of carrot.

  94. NANA Paul Alain, FOKAM Zéphyrin, NGASSAM Pierre, AJEAGAH Gideon, MOCHE Karine, BRICHEUX Geneviève, BOUCHARD Philippe, VIGUES Bernard, SIME-NGANDO Télesphore

    The intestinal liquid of A. emini was extracted using the vacuum aspiration technique, followed by measurement of ion concentrations and concomitantly recorded species abundance. Nitrate (NO3-) concentration decreased from the foregut to the hindgut. Nitrites (NO2-), ammoniums (NH4+) and orthophosphates (PO43-) reached their greatest levels in the midgut. Furthermore, correlation analyses between ion contents and ciliate abundance in different compartments were performed. In the foregut, a positive and significant correlation was found between the abundance of the Paracoelophrya ebebdensis and PO43-. In the midgut, a positive and significant correlation was observed between the number of the ciliates Dicoelophrya mediovacuolata; Coelophrya roquei; Coelophrya ovales; Ptychostomum commune and NO2-; Almophrya mediovacuolata and NH4+. In this same compartment, a positive and significant correlation was also observed between the abundance of Ptychostomum prolixus and NO2-. In the hindgut, a positive and significant correlation was found between the values of PO43- and Ptychostomum variabilis abundance. These results suggest that each portion of the digestive tract of A. emini can be considered as a set of natural micro-habitat in which a large number of ions generate ecological niches suitable for the Survival of a specific group of ciliate species.

  95. Sivakami, R., Sirajunisha, V., Abdul Kader, K. and Prem Kishore, G.

    Fungi play an important role in the degradation of dead leaves and other plant detritus in aquatic environments. Aquatic fungi secrete enzymes that degrade polysaccharides and other polymers. Fungi are also efficient in the biodegradation of recalcitrant compounds like xenobiotics, lignin and dye stuffs by their extra cellular ligninolytic enzyme system. Hence, the present study was aimed at using aquatic fungi in the bioremediation of waste water. The selected species were Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium citrinum and Fusarium oxysporum which were isolated from the River Cauvery collected from Upper Anicut (Mukkombu). Results indicate that all the four fungal species helped in decreasing the levels of BOD, COD and nutrients like PO4 and nitrate. However, each species responded differently. Nevertheless, among the four fungal species studied, Aspergillus niger showed the most promising results and it appears to be the best candidate for bioremediation.

  96. Benaalilou K., El Bardouni, T., Chakir E., Boukhal, H., Chham, E., El Ouahdani, S. Elyaakoubi, H. and Kaddour, M.

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of comparative study of integral parameters for TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices of thermal reactors. The nuclear data processing code NJOY’99 was deployed for the generation of the 172-group cross-section library from the basic evaluated nuclear data files ENDFB-VII and JEF-3.1. TRX and BAPL benchmark lattices were modeled with optimized inputs, which were suggested in the final report of the WIMS Library Update Project .The inputs were the results of a detailed parametric study of the WIMS input options and also optimized for accuracy. The integral parameters (such as keff, ρ28, δ25, δ28, C*) of five uranium-fuel thermal assemblies: TRX-1 and TRX-2 and BAPL-1, BAPL-2, and BAPL-3 were calculated with the help of WIMSD-5B code based on the generated 172-group cross section library. The calculated results are compared with those of experiments and it is found that the obtained results between the two libraries are in good agreement with each other, which reflect the validation of the generated 172-group cross-section library and this library thus obtained is necessary to meet up the nuclear data for neutronics calculation of TRIGA Mark-II research reactor at CNESTEN, Rabat, Morroco.

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