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January 2015

  1. Shalini Mahana Valecha and Divija Dhingra

    Genital prolapse is a disorder of pelvic support and is one of the most frequent disorders encountered in our gynaecological practice. Our social and cultural background predisposes to this condition to occur at an age which is reported to be earlier than any other part of the world. It is fairly common to see a long cervix in a young nullipara without uterine prolapse. The treatment of cervical elongation is a challenge in case of nulliparous woman in whom fertility is to be preserved. Nadkarni’s sleeve excision anastomosis is a newer technique beneficial to the young woman interested in preserving fertility and whose prolapse is due to a long cervix extruding out of the introitus.

  2. Ibama, Asiton-a Solomon, Dotimi, Doris Atibinye and Obele, Rejoice

    Community health practice refers to provision of health care services, aimed at early diagnosis of disease, recognition of environmental and occupational hazards to good health and prevention of disease in the community. The Community is seen as the hub of Community Health Practice. It is the essential laboratory for practice of teaching, training and research in the subject of community medicine/health. The idea of the community as the centre of health services delivery was advocated as far back in 1960s. From the concept of Basic Health Services, Primary Health care emerged. In this regard, the principle of health services in relation to availability, accessibility, acceptability and appropriateness became important considerations in WHO health policy from the late 1960s and into the 1970s. The goal of Primary Health Care (PHC) was to provide accessible health for all by the year 2000 and beyond. Unfortunately, this is yet to be achieved in Nigeria and seems to be unrealistic in the next decade if the basic essence of the Universal Health Coverage – making health care accessible, available and affordable to rural poor is ignored to whatever extent. This work seeks to examine some cross cutting issues in community health practice in Nigeria and to outline triggers for community oriented health manpower in Nigerian health system and some prospects in the midst of obvious challenges. Essentially, community health practice using the policy and principles of Primary Health Care in Nigeria, especially in rural communities have come a long way and still require more to be done to achieve the goal for health for all now and beyond

  3. Chaitra Venugopal, Shashank Chandanala, Danish Nayeem and Anandh Dhanushkodi

    Epilepsy is widely prevalent in the elderly populations. Besides unpredictable seizure attacks, co-morbidities like cognitive impairment, anxiety, depression and disturbed social behavior are severe in elderly subjects inflicted with epilepsy. Though anti- epileptic drugs (AED) are the most common means of treating TLE, undesirable side effects associated with them limit their usage. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop alternative non-invasive therapeutic strategies to treat elderly individuals with TLE. Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to be beneficial in immature and young epileptic rats. However, knowledge regarding the effects of EE in aged epileptic subjects has not garnered much attention. As aging is one of the predominant risk factor involved in seizure development, a non-invasive therapeutic alternative like EE for treating elderly patients with TLE will be extremely beneficial. The proposed hypotheses suggest possible non-invasive therapeutic approaches to mitigate hippocampal abnormalities, epileptogenesis and co-morbidities in aged subjects with TLE. This kind of study would shed light on the cellular and molecular basis underlying anti-epileptic and cognition enhancing effects of enriched rehabilitation for treating drug resistant TLE in young as well as aged subjects.

  4. IvoSirakov, Irina Alexandar, Lilia Christova, Simona Tchakarova, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova and Raiko Peshev

    Caprineherpesvirus 1 (CapHV1) is related to Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and may cause respiratory and reproductive symptoms. CapHV1 disease pathogenesis is poorly understood and there are few studies on Bulgarian CapHV1 isolates. The aim of this study was to investigate the central region of the glycoprotein C (gC) gene of CapHV1 in fiveBulgarian isolates and compare it with other European and American CapHV1 and a BoHV1 strains. PCR amplifications yielded 414 bp products for the CapHV1 strains and BoHV1. HpaIIandMspI gave different restriction patterns for the gC gene from Bulgarian and American “McK” isolates in comparison to the Western European isolates, but did not cleave the BoHV1gCgene.The sequence analysis identified differences at positions 887, 960, 1000 and 1110 in the CapHV1 gC gene of the Bulgarian isolates. Short sequence repeats were also observed in the studied region. Evolutionary relationships of CapHV1 isolates were identified. The obtained results indicate that the analyzed region of the gC genе could reveal some epizootiological aspects and is suitable for comparing different CapHV1 isolates. PCR and restrictase analysis of the gC gene could be used to distinguish between BoHV1 and CapHV1 infections in goats.

  5. Janakiram Katta, Ramu Govindan, Narendra Nagaraju and Ramesh, Basavaraj

    Water quality is an index of health and well being of a society. The water quality is determined by the amount and kinds of suspended and dissolved substances in water. Industrialization, urbanization and modern agricultural practices have direct impact on water resources quantitatively and qualitatively. The objective of the present study was to determine the bacterial contamination and physicochemical characteristics of drinking water samples collected from various villages in and around Javaranahalli Gram Panchayat, Nagamangala Taluk, Mandya district, Karnataka state. All the water samples tested were clear, colourless, odourless and had other parameters like PH, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, fluoride, iron, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and total dissolved solids within the permissible limits of Indian Standard for drinking water -specification, Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS). The samples tested were also free from faecal coliforms. Water sample from Bellur had fluoride content higher than BIS guidelines and required defluorination before human consumption.

  6. Poornatha Ramesh, Sailaxmi Gandhi, Mariamma Philip and Arun Kandasamy

    HIV/AIDS continues to pose challenges to the health system of developing countries. Substance use has been identified as an important behavioral co-factor for HIV infection. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge and effectiveness of HIV educational programme in Patients with Substance Use Disorders (PSUD). The study was carried out among 30 in-patients with substance use disorder at the Center for Addiction Medicine and male open psychiatric wards in a south Indian psychiatric hospital. A non equivalent control group pretest post test design was adopted. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit the study subjects. Results: The analysis showed that mean pre-intervention knowledge of the experimental and control groups were 20.53 ± 5.67 and 20.53 ± 4.53 respectively indicating that both groups were homogenous. The experimental group showed higher immediate post test and follow up test mean knowledge scores on the Knowledge Questionnaire on HIV prevention (KQ-HIVP) (p=0.001) as compared to the scores of the control group following the education program on HIV prevention. Conclusion: Educating and demonstrating protective measures such as precise use of condom and safe use of injections are the prime areas to be addressed in a HIV education program. This educational program should be integrated with other psychosocial therapies to cater to holistic needs of patients receiving treatment at centers’ for addiction medicine.

  7. Samar Hosny Ahmed

    Today, managers of health human resources in nursing face an enormous challenge. Operating within a context of rising demand for health services ,cost containment and shortages of nurses and other health workers , determining the most effective mix of staff and the skills needed by each category of staff to ensure safe, quality and cost effective patient care. Aim: This study aimed to evaluation framework to determine the impact of nursing staff mix decisions in different hospitals; Health Insurance Tanta, Main University and Menshawy Hospitals. Design: descriptive study was be used. Sample: convince sample all 128 head nurses working in different hospitals study. Tool: The data of the study was collected by tool (evaluation framework questionnaire to nursing staff mix decision) includes 2 parts; subject data about the sample and structured. Questionnaire consists of three subscales to evaluation framework structure, process and outcomes. Result: The result indicate that the Health Insurance Hospital follow framework of staff mix evaluation that contribute to best use of the staffing than El-Menshawy and Tanta University Hospital. Also, there is a significance difference found between the three hospitals study related to elements of evaluation for structure, process and outcomes. Recommendation: The study recommended that the different hospital should be follow framework staff-mix decision making to optimal use of nursing care resources and combination or grouping of different categories of workers that is employed for the provision of care to patients.

  8. Muayad A. Merza

    The study aimed to identify risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among Afghan immigrant patients at a tertiary care hospital in Iran. This was a retrospective analysis of all confirmed Afghan immigrant TB patients from December 2000 – June 2005. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was performed on Lowenstein–Jensen media according to proportion method. The risk factors associated with MDR-TB were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were isolated from 668 Afghan immigrant patients. There were 397 males and 271 females and the mean age was 35.2 ± 16.3 (SD). Based on DST, Afghan immigrant patients were divided into two groups: 493 patients were non-MDR and 175 patients were MDR-TB. The variables significantly associated with MDR were under 45 years of age, male sex, previous TB treatment, poor socio-economic conditions, and smoking. Site of TB disease whether pulmonary or extra-pulmonary, and drug abuse habit were not associated with MDR TB. In conclusion, based on our results an improved TB control programme, which must be coupled with early detection of MDR-TB among Afghan immigrant patients particularly in those with high risk factors, is highly recommended.

  9. Dr. Dharmendra Kumar and Gunja Dwivedi

    Glomus tumors are uncommon and are rarely diagnosed on cytopathology. We report a case of 28 years female presenting with a painful subungual swelling. Fine needle aspiration sample was heavily admixed with blood and cytology showed groups of cohesive, uniform, small, round to oval cells with scanty cytoplasm against the background of red blood cells. Cytology was reported as “suggestive of glomus tumor”. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Careful cytomorphological examination supported by appropriate clinical history should suggest the diagnosis of glomus tumor and help in preoperative diagnosis.

  10. Kola M Owonikoko, Olarenwaju Adeniji, Adegboyega A Fawole and Adetunji O Adeniji

    Background: Africa societies place so much emphasizes on fertility so much that couples with infertility after sometime faces considerable emotional, physical and psychological problems. Aim: To explore knowledge of effect of age, obesity, smoking, timing of intercourse, previous STIs and environmental pollutants on fertility among University students. Methods: This was a cross- sectional descriptive study of 420 consented students of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso. They were interviewed through self–administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data were entered, analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS 20 statistical package. Results: The mean ± SD age of the respondents was 22 ± 3.16years (range 15–40years). Most (90%) of the respondents were single at the time of interview. A (third 33.3%) participants overestimated by 10years, the age at which fertility starts to decline in women. Only one in four participants correctly identified that female fertility start to decline before 35years. Every one in five participants believed that fertility never declined in men. Only 10% of participants correctly identified the most fertile period in women’s menstrual cycle. Majority of male (60.8%) and female (70.1%) respondents believed that smoking has “a lot,” of effects on male and female fertility respectively. Smoking was believed to have no effect on fertility by females compared with the males (31% vs. 15% P< 0.001).Higher proportion of males than females agreed that alcohol has no effect on fertility (10.3% vs. 3.8% P< 0.001). Obesity was believed to affect fertility by 61.5% and 56.5% of males and females respectively. STIs was said to have “no effect at all” on fertility by 18.5% of participants. With use of modern contraception, 64.5% the participants believed that it has “a lot,” of effect on female fertility, while more male than female said it has “no effect” on female fertility (13.5% vs. 3.3% P< 0.001). Conclusions: Significant gaps exist in the knowledge of the students and modifiable factors that influence fertility. Students with prior information on reproductive health matters demonstrated better knowledge of impact of the modifiable factors on fertility potential of both men and women.

  11. Dr. Anil Reddy, J.

    We present a case report of a child with bronchial foreign body without any presenting symptoms. After evaluating the history and examination child was sent for x ray chest which showed a radioopaque foreign in left main bronchus. Patient was taken to OR and rigid bronchoscopy guided removal of foreign body was done. Postoperative course was uneventful. We conclude that in all suspected cases of foreign body diagnostic bronchoscopy should be considered.

  12. Dr. P. Kumudha

    In antenatal mothers pregnancy induced hypertension is one of the important cause of maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is an unpredictable multiorgan disorder unique to human pregnancy. The pathophysiological effects which may range from simple hypertension to multiorgan failure, that occurs in pregnancy for the first time after 20 weeks of gestation. Reviews of some of the important pathophysiological changes that occur in pregnancy induced hypertension were discussed in this article.

  13. Karthikeyan, P. and Darveena, S.

    The present study was to carried out plant regeneration of Arachis hypogaea from in mature leaf explant was cultured on MS medium containing various concentration of IAA (2.5mg/l) and BAP (1mg/l) was maximum percentage of callus induction from shoot explants. KIN (2.5mg/l) and IAA (1mg/l) was maximum shoot regeneration of callus. BAP+ KIN (2.5mg /l) in combined effect of 1AA (1mg/l) results showed maximum yield of callus and shoot induction. IBA (3.0 mg/l) and KIN (0.5mg/l) was produced amount of maximum number of root induction. The present study to find out to the various concentrations of hormones was vital role of callus induction, shoot regeneration and root induction.

  14. Azrai, A., Nirmala, C. K., Nur Azurah, A. G., Hatta, M. D., Lim, P. S., Omar, M. H., Zainuddin, A. A., Yulianty, A. and Sulaiman, A. S.

    Purpose: To evaluate knowledge regarding HPV and acceptability of HPV DNA self sampling among female adult in rural population in East Malaysia. Methods: Ninety eight women aged 18 to 65 years old who attended medical camp in Kaingaran village, Sabah were recruited in this cross sectional study. Demographic data were recorded through face to face interview for age, race, educational status, marital status, religion, occupation, total monthly income, parity, social background, Pap smear status, knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer. All women were shown a Delphi Screener specimen collection kit (Delphi Bioscience, Scherpenzeel, The Netherlands) for HPV self-sampling and given clear pictorial and verbal instructions about how it would be used by the main researcher. The respond to perform the test documented and factors that may contribute to the willingness were obtained. Findings: Majority of the participant had deficient knowledge towards HPV and cervical cancer with median score of 1(0-4). However, a total of 73 (74.5%) of the women agreed to perform HPV DNA self sampling due to the needs to perform the test rather than the thought they were at risk for HPV infection. There was a positive association regarding the level of education with the willingness to perform the test. Beside that, 92% women who were not willing to perform gave a reason of worried regarding improper technique. There was no association factors identified for the willingness of HPV DNA self sampling. Implication for practice: The knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer were deficient in rural population in East Malaysia thus call for the need of more educational program to be widely distributed. The acceptability of HPV DNA self sampling was good in the rural area hence it would be an alternative in improving cervical cancer screening program in these rural area.

  15. Teelavath Vijayakumari, Mangilal, T., Shyamsunder, R., Jayaprakash, D., Ravindranath, A. and Rao Patnaik, K. S. K.

    The main aim of the present Investigation was to develop colon targeted matrix tablets of Glipizide using various concentrations of selected polymers are Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, Ethyl cellulose and Guar gum. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and both pre-compression and post- compression parameters for all batches showed the suitable ranges. Short term accelerated stability studies are performed according to ICH guidelines temperature of 400±20 and relative humidity of 75%±5% RH to study any physical changes and chemical decomposition of the drug, in this concern no formulation shown any physical or chemical changes. The compatibility of drugs, polymers and excipients were studied by FT-IR Spectroscopy and the results showed that the drug was compatible with polymers and all excipients. Interaction between drug and optimized formulations were acertain by DSC Thermographs and the results showed that there is no interaction. Dissolution studies were performed for 12 hours in 1. 2 pH, 7.4 pH, 6.8 pH, respectively in phosphate buffer at the temperature of 37±0.50C at 100rpm. The dissolution data so obtained was fitted to various mathematical kinetic models and the drug release followed mixed order and Higuchi’s model. To study release mechanism of the drug from matrices the data were fitted to Koresmeyer-Peppas model. In –vitro release profile of Glipizide from all polymers which are used in study showed that drug increasing the concentration of polymers resulted in a reduction in the release rate of the drug. A formulation containing combination of polymers showed that the drug release profile for Glipizide about 38.72% after 12 hrs, 40.66% after 12 hrs, 45.45% after 12 hrs for all formulations, this is an indicative of the retardation of drug release when polymer combination was changed.

  16. Ms. Kusumakshi Nayak, Ms. Asha Patil, Dr. Vishnuprasad S. and Dr. Deepak Nayak, M.

    Background: The increasing overuse and sometimes, failure of chemotherapeutics and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic infectious microbes, have led to the screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial effect of cold and hot extract of Triphalachurna is one such medicinal extract. Materials and Methods: The clinical samples received at the Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal were tested using the extract by agar dilution method against common wound pathogens such as MSSA, MRSA, E. coli (probable ESBL producer), K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter. Results: Triphalachurna was found most potent against all the organisms. The study showed susceptibility of wound pathogens to the aqueous extract of Triphalachurna. The cold extraction was proportionally effective against each Gram negative organism in comparison to hot extraction. Acinetobacter species were the most susceptible to the antibacterial effect, followed by P. aeruginosa which showed intermediate susceptibility. E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed least susceptibility. MRSA was more susceptible than MSSA against the cold extraction; hot extraction was equally effective against both MRSA and MSSA. Conclusion: The herbal preparation helps in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and hence preventing wound infection.

  17. Syed Abdus Subhan, Abdul Wahab, Talat Yasmeen Mujahid, Tanveer Abbas, Ishrat Khan and Samia Idrees

    Actinomycetes are abundantly present in soil and they produce a variety of antimicrobial compounds that can be used as chemotherapeutic agent in order to limit the infection. In present study, actinomycetes were isolated from different ground soils. Primarily these isolates were screened for extracellular metabolites production by conventional methods. Cross streak method and double agar overlay methods were used in this screening. Initially we have isolated 33 actinomycetes strains from different soil samples and screened them for antimicrobial potential. About 51.51 % of isolated strains showed the antagonistic properties against one or two tested gram positive bacteria. The best strain IAS 1, IAS 7, IAS 10, IAS 11, showed maximum zone of inhibition against M.luteus. The chemical nature of ISA 10 was assessed by simply heating the supernatant and we found that the extra cellular metabolite activity was absent in heated sample suggesting the protein nature of it

  18. Rasha Shawky Fathy AL –Ashry, Rahma Soliman Bahgat, Adel Ali Erfan and Ebtisam Mohamed El-sayed

    Insulin pen device helps diabetic children to manage their diabetes. It offers an easier method for insulin administration that is more accurate, less painful, and more discreet compared with vials and syringes. It improves adherence, enhance quality of life, glycemic control, and decrease costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using insulin pen device on glycemic control and quality of life in children with type I diabetes mellitus. A sample of 60 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus included in this study. The study was conducted at Diabetic Outpatient Clinic and Inpatient Diabetic Unit of Pediatric Department at Tanta University Hospital. The tools of data collection were; a structured questionnaire sheet to collect socio demographic data of diabetic children, assessment of glycemic control, diabetes fear of self-injection questionnaire sheet, diabetes treatment satisfaction about insulin delivery devices, patient preferences about insulin delivery devices, and pediatric quality of life inventory scale. The results revealed that there was statistical significant difference between pen and syringe group regarding their glycemic control variables and their quality of life. The diabetic children reported significant preference, and satisfaction with the using of insulin pen, and expressed less fear of self injection compared with the using of syringe. The study concluded that the use of insulin pen device was associated with significant improvement in glycemic control variables and quality of life in children with type I diabetes mellitus. The study recommended improving awareness among Egyptian health care professionals and diabetic children about the characteristics of insulin pen devices.

  19. Mirinda, J., Lalit, S., Himanshu, V., Anurag, A. and Rajeev, T.

    Allergic rhinitis represents a considerable burden both on individual patients and society. The associated bothersome symptoms cause impairement of usual daily activities leading to absence from work and decrease in productivity, particularly among young adults. Because of the trivial symptoms, the effects and consequences of allergic rhinitis are usually under-estimated both by the patient as well as the physician. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis (AR) are thought to be a reflection of the same disease and are often found coexistent in the same individual. We undertook an epidemiological cross sectional study to evaluate the symptomatology of allergic rhinitis, its associations and complications. The impact of allergic rhinitis on restriction of daily physical activities among the productive age group (graduate young adults) of rohilkhand region.

  20. Dr. Asima Banu, Dr. Shamsundar, B. V. and Dr. Manasa S. Bharadwaj

    Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of major concern not only to hospitals, nursing home authorities but also to the environment. The Biomedical wastes (BMW)generated from health care units depend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type of health care units, occupancy of healthcare units, specialization of healthcare units, ratio of reusable items in use, availability of infrastructure and resources etc. The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Although hazards of poor management of BMW have aroused the concern world over, especially in the light of its far-reaching effects on human, health and the environment. Now it is a well established fact that there are many adverse and harmful effects to the environment including human beings which are caused by the “Hospital waste” generated during the patient care. Hospital waste is a potential health hazard to the health care workers, public and flora and fauna of the area. The problems of the waste disposal in the hospitals and other health-care institutions have become issues of increasing concern. The main challenges faced in a tertiary care hospitals are lack of manpower, training of staff who are on contract, training of junior doctors, attitude changes and constant monitoring, frequent staff turnover, and shortage of staff and proper funding.

  21. Dr. Shahzeb H. Ansari, Dr. Mona T. Aldaijy, Dr. Asma M. Almijlad, Dh.Imtithal J.AlSaihati, Dr. Jeehan M. Aldossari, Dr. Reem S. AlKuraya and Dr. Wejdan M. Aldossari

    There is a strong association between needlestick injuries and spread of infectious diseases. Dental health professionals are at constant risk of having these diseases. This research was designed to measure knowledge and awareness of needlestick injuries among dental health professionals in Riyadh. Data was collected from 777 participants who filled up a closed ended question format. Almost half of the participants reported one NSI during 12 months prior to the study, a few having experienced two or three and remaining with no injury experience. Insufficient clinical experience was reported to be the most common reason behind NSIs.

  22. Kavita Singh, Pandey, S. N. and Mishra, A.

    Discharge of industrial waste water often poses serious threat to our environment. In the present study, heavy metals content in industrial waste water from common industrial effluent treatment plant in Unnao district (U.P.), India were quantified. The nickel (1.2 mg l-1) and chromium (1.8 mg l-1) content was high in industrial waste water and concentration was found in order Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu. Eichhornia crassipes Mart. plants were exposed to various concentrations of above evaluated industrial waste water (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for 10 days and observed for their visible effects, tissue accumulation level and biochemical constituents (pigments, total protein, sugar and relative water contents and amylase activity) including antioxidants (catalase activity, peroxidase activity and Proline content) in E. crassipes leaves and roots. The accumulation of heavy metals was observed more in root than the leaves (Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu). Also inhibited biochemical constituents (pigments, protein and sugar contents and amylase activity) including antioxidants (catalase, peroxidase activity and proline content) in E. crassipes. Study concluded that, E. crassipes indicated accumulation of high content of Cr (Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu), exhibited visible symptoms of toxicity and altered biochemical constituents with exposure of industrial waste water. These findings may be helpful in phytoremedial approaches to minimize heavy metals content in surface water.

  23. Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    The thermohilic Geobacillus thermoleorans Strain REKADWADSIS isolated from Unkeshwar thermal spring showed optimum temperature 65 ± 0.2 oC at its pH optima 7.5 ± 0.2. Geobacillus amylase production was detected on starch nutrient agar plates at 65 oC. Geobacillus was produced 8, 623 U/mL amylase under SmF at 68 ± 0.2 oC. The supplementation of additional lactose (1%) and tryptone (1%) with 10% inoculum was enhanced the production of thermostable amylase (14, 223 U/mL). Geobacillus thermostable amylase has apparent approximately MW 42 kDa.

  24. Dr. V. Hemamalini, Dr. S. Rajarajan, Ms. B. Duraiselvi and Ms. J. Anandhalakshmi

    Common Sweet Flag or Acorus calamus is a medicinal plant from the Acoraceae family. Tamil name is Vashambu. It is a tall perennial wetland monocot with scented leaves and rhizomes which have been used in medicinal field. In vitro studies indicate that even those plants / plant parts / extracts that have been already evaluated for their antimicrobial efficacy have to be re-evaluated adopting these more precise and advanced assay methods. Present study was Isolation and maintaining the standard ATCC strains and clinical fungal samples. Preparation of lyophilized seitz aqueous and ethanolic extract from Acorus calamus rhizome. Find the antifungal activity of rhizome extraction of Acorus calamus using micro dilution method (M 38-P) with the RPMI-1640 medium. Find the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of rhizome of Acorus calamus for standard strains and clinical isolations of Candida albicans, Microsporum gypsum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. Mentagrophytes. Compare the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration of rhizome of Acorus calamus with few standard antifungal drugs such as Amphotericin B, Itraconazole and Fluconazole. The results of the present study was lyophilized ethanolic extract of Acorcus calamus rhizome also exhibited fungicidal on both standard and clinical strains showing MIC value of 12.5 µg/ml for ATCC and 1.56 µg/ml for clinical. The efficacy of the lyophilized extract can be considered highly remarkable as the MIC value of standard medicines Amphotericin B, Itraconazole and Fluconazole on Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentegrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum of Clinical strains and as well as ATCC strains.

  25. Kavitha, P. and Dr. R. Uma Rani

    Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) specified by IEEE 802.12 supports Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN). It is one of the most prominent technology for the next generation networks and it provides high data rates and long range with full support of mobility. It is based on IEEE 802.16 standards and the modifications specifying the MAC and physical layers for fixed, portable, nomadic and mobile access. The aim of the WiMAX Forum Network Working Group is to provide controlled transition of the Mobile Station (MS) between Base Stations (BSs) without the loss of data. In this paper, an enrichment of a Cell Reselection approach is introduced for selecting the Destination Base Station (DBS). Here, the Selection of Destination Base Station Algorithm (SDBS) is proposed to select the targeted (destination) BS. The proposed method uses the Linear Regression Model (LRM) to formulate a hard handover algorithm to predict the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value. The value is broadcasted in order to trigger the scanning process. The performance of the proposed SDBS algorithm is compared with the existing technique without using the Linear Regression Model. The proposed SDBS algorithm provideslesser handover time, handover latency with better network throughput and bandwidth consumption ratio than the existing approach.

  26. Sirimal Gopi Krishna

    The current investigation deals with the detection of class of compounds present, free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity, of the stem and leaves of Waltheria indica. For this studies Petroleum ether, Chloroform and Methanol were used for extraction. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated by using the DPPH, (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical),FRAP(Ferric reducing ability of plasma)and LPO(Lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity) methods and Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay on cancer and normal cell lines. Among the three plant extracts, Methanol extract showed stronger IC50 values in DPPH method (IC50 of <62.5), Petroleum ether showed stronger IC50 values in LPO method (IC50 is 233± 3.9). Among the extracts methanol showed the stronger reducing power with higher absorbance in FRAP method (absorbance ranging 0.524 – 0.272).For all the methods concentrations are maintained from 62.5 to 1000µg/ml, and all the extracts showed the dose dependent activity. The extracts also showed cytotoxity towards normal (Vero) and cancer cell lines (HaCaT, A549, HeLa, HT-29) when evaluated by MTT assay. A panel of 62.5 to 1000 µg/ml concentrations are maintained and concentration of extract needed to inhibit cell growth by 50% (CTC50) values is generated from the dose-response curves. Of the three extracts chloroform extract showed highest % of inhibition at concentration of 1000µg/ml (% of inhibition is 83.86) and is CTC50 103.33±5.77) followed by petroleum ether extract. (CTC50 is 133.33±5.8).

  27. Manisha K. Sangale, Mohd. Shahnawaz and Avinash B. Ade

    At three different pH (pH 3.5, 7, 9.5) screening of the polythene degrading fungi was carried out based on percent weight loss and changes in tensile strength after 2 months of regular shaking at room temperature. Maximum percent weight loss (13.63 ±4.93%) of the polythene after 2 month of regular shaking was found with isolates JAMNF 3 at pH3.5 whereas minimum percent weight loss (0.00±0.00 %) was reported with JAMNF6 at pH 3.5. In the present study we also reported percent weight gain (24.41±6.99 % with JAMNF4 at pH 9.5) of the polythene instead weight loss that might be due to accumulation of fungal hyphae in the scions of polythene caused due to degradation of the polythene. Based on changes in tensile strength, fungal isolate SURF3 recorded maximum changes in tensile strength (19±0.00 Kg/cm2) at pH 9.5 as compare to control.

  28. Maibam Bimola, Shashikumar Singh, O. Devashish Kar

    Rotifers are one of the fascinating groups of zooplankton in the aquatic ecosystem. They are one of the connecting link organisms between primary producers and consumers of higher order in aquatic food web. Rotifers are important group of zooplankton and acts as good indicators of the changes in water quality as they are strongly affected by environmental conditions and respond quickly to changes in water quality. The present study reports on a collection of 18 species of rotifer from Yenapat a freshwater lake in Bishnupur district of Manipur. Quantitative assessment of rotifers was undertaken during October 2012 to September 2013. The collected rotifers belongs to five family viz. Brachionidae (9 genera), Euclanidae (one genera), Lecanidae (4 genera), Mytilinidae (2 genera) and Filinidae (2 genera).

  29. Saife D. Al-Ahmer

    Background: Vulvovaginitis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several conventional methods are routinely used for determination; however, vulvovaginitis a challenge for patients and gynecologists. Aims and objectives: The aims of the present study was to find out the prevalence of candidial vulvovaginitis, along with Candida albicans and evolution of the 18S rRNA PCR method sensitivity in the detection of Candida albicanis in pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of vulvovaginitis. Materials and Methods: In this study vaginal swabs from 60 patients were used for Gram stain, culture, Api Candida and PCR analysis. PCR was performed with primer pair targeted to the 18S rRNA gene of Candida albicans. The result of the PCR was compared with conventional Gram stain, culture and Api Candida methods. The PCR positive samples were identified by presence of ~ 400 bp amplicon of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the 18S rRNA gene. Results: Conventional methods of microscopic examination, candidial culture and Api Candida test gave a positive result in 22 of 60 samples of vulvovaginitis. PCR detected all 22 samples that were positive by conventional method. Three of the 38 samples that were negative by conventional method were positive by PCR. Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 94.5 % in the detection of Candida albicans in vulvovaginitis. Conclusion: PCR is a sensitive, rapid and useful technique to detect Candida albicans in vulvovaginitis.

  30. Kankia, H. I. and Pickles, N. N.

    Objectives: To determine the immunomodulatory effects of xanthan, glycated albumin and mixture of both on the induction of monocytes cytokine synthesis and the cell viability. Methods: Monocytes were cultured with xanthan, glycated albumin and mixture of xanthan/glycated albumin as treatments at different concentrations for 3 h. The quantitative determination of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was performed in cultured monocytes by ELISA. Results and Discussion: Results obtained demonstrated that the mixture of xanthan/glycated albumin induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in the noticeable degree TNF-α compared to treatment and with only xanthan and/or glycated albumin. IL-6, however which has both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties seems to show more of the former than the latter in this study. The result also shown that xanthan, glycated albumin and the mixture of xanthan/glycated albumin significantly increased IL-10 production compared to other cytokines produced by the effects of the same polysaccharides and at the same concentrations. This indicated that IL-10 that is well-known in suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6 as shown by several studies. Conclusion: It is safe to conclude that xanthan and glycated albumin does not possess cytotoxicity on monocytes. The data in this study also showed that monocytes cultured with both xanthan and glycated albumin are capable to convert soluble MTS into insoluble formazan even at higher concentration (10 µg/ml), compared to PMA which serve as our control. Therefore the result strongly indicated that both xanthan and glycated albumin protects cells surviving in vitro and had ability to keep the cell viability.

  31. Razeena Karim, L. and Dr. Sherly Williams, E.

    Heavy Metals are one of the most important toxicant which destroys the aquatic ecosystem. Their natural effects are carcinogenic and mutagenic. The present study showed the concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Pd) in the ovary of Liza parsia from two sites of Ashtamudi lake, the Ramsar site. The heavy metals are found to be accumulated more in the site 2 than in site1. The study also demonstrates the histological changes associated with the accumulation of toxic heavy metals in the ovary thereby its reproductive potential. The histological changes in the ovary of the L. parsia include enlargement of oocytes, degeneration of egg envelope, appearance of atretic follicles, scattering of nucleoi etc.

  32. Nihar Ranjan Chattopadhyay, Pradip Kumar Sur, G. Dash and Mahapatra, T. K.

    In this study attempts have been made to find out the correlation and variation of the major disease problems encountered in carp culture sectors with the physicochemical characteristics of the important cultural areas of West Bengal. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, total alkalinity, transparency and hardness were analyzed during the investigation. The recorded sampling values of these variables were correlated with diseases noticed. Most of the parameters were found to be significant at 5 % level and few are significant at 1 % level whereas only the temperature was found to be significantly varied at 0.01% level indicatinges the importance of these is parameter in disease development. The above variables were found to have a definite impact individually or as a whole on the prevalence of diseases at different locations. However, among these water quality parameters transparency, DO, total alkalinity and hardness were found to be significantly varied with locations at 0.01% level due to the change in the culture regime and management practices undertaken.

  33. Thangjam Somendro and Singh, O. P.

    The study aims at identifying and analyzing the changes in land use/land cover (LULC) in Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya, using Landsat series satellite data for 1987, 1999 and 2013. The study is based on comparison of LULC data of two time interval periods of 1987-1999 and 1999-2013. Using an integrated supervised-unsupervised hybrid training approaches of image classification, the LULC maps were prepared and used to analyze the changes in LULC of the study area. The findings of this study revealed that the area under dense and open forest had experienced significant reduction while all the others remaining LULC classes constantly increased during the study period. The area under dense forest and open forest had decreased approximately by 12.17 % and 10.97% during the entire study period. However, a declining trend in the rate of change for both the forest classes have been observed in the study period. Though there is a decline in the rate of forest cover loss, the quality of forest cover tends to degrade as there has been an increasing conversion to shrub/grassland specifically during 1999-2013. The study suggests that continuous human interference in the natural landscape has led to the depletion of the quantity and quality of forest cover, resulting in deforestation and degradation in the study area. This study provides the baseline data and an updated information for LULC changes phenomena in the Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya and thus results can be used for better planning and conservation of forest in the area.

  34. Damdinsuren Narantuya, Aruyna A. Radnagurueva, Elena V.Lavrentieva, Bair B. Namsaraev, Dorjdagva Sainjargal and Davaasuren Tumenjargal

    The study of the extracellular enzymes activity, as protease, amylase and cellulase of bacteria isolated from the Kharaa River has been made. Proteases were also synthesized very intensively by bacterial strains isolated from the Kharaa River. Maximum amylase activity has been shown by the isolate from the sites with developed agriculture and livestock. The percentage of organisms having cellulytic activity is less in comparison with other enzymes; there are only few reports from bacterial strains. In the spring time, bacterial isolates have shown maximum cellulytic activity. Our study clearly revealed the potential of bacterial strains and their ability of extracellular enzyme production. Almost 92% of the strains have shown extracellular enzymatic activity for anyone of the enzyme screened.

  35. Prabhavathi, N. M., Amaresh, Y. S., Naik, M. K., Kuchanur, P. H., Patil, S.G., Yogeshkumar, Singh, Jat, M. L., Mallesh, S. B., Sreenivas, A. G. and Chennappa, G.

    Conservation Agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. Red gram diseases such as wilt, dry root rot and Cercospora leaf spot and in maize crop, blight and Curvularia leaf spot were assessed by recording per cent incidence, severity and per cent disease index at monthly interval from Conservation Agriculture plot in different treatment such as Zero Tillage With Mulch (ZTWM), Zero Tillage Without Mulch (ZTWTM), raised bed with mulch (RBWM), Raised Bed Without Mulch (RBWTM) and farmers practice (FP). The lowest per cent disease severity of red gram wilt was recorded in the treatment ZTWTM (12.54%), whereas minimum per cent disease index of Cercospora leaf spot was observed in RBWTM treatment (10.88%), dry root rot was less in the treatment ZTWTM (22.19) while in maize minimum blight severity was recorded in the treatment ZTWTM (18.30%) and minimum incidence of Curvularia leaf spot was recorded in the treatment ZTWTM (11.94%) respectively and wilt, Cercospora leaf spot, dry root rot, blight and Curvularia leaf spot disease incidence in redgram and maize were more in farmers practice treatment (21.66,21.94,29.86,31.13 and 17.43%) respectively.

  36. Fauziya Basri, Sharma, H. P., Paras Jain and Geeta Mahto

    With the improvement of people’s living standards and increasing awareness, focus is shifting towards staple food with added benefits that could be a part of healthy balanced diet. Many landraces or local varieties of rice harbour beneficial traits such as higher nutritional value and medicinal properties when compared to hybrid varieties. Efforts are required to increase public awareness about these varieties. Therefore, the present study aimed at studying physico-chemical attributes and correlation among grain quality traits of four traditionally cultivated and consumed varieties of rice from the state of Jharkhand, India, known for their nutraceutical properties. Most varieties are of medium size and shape. Recovery of Brown rice in selected varieties ranged from 75% to 79%. Variety Dani Goda was found to have the highest head rice recovery of 64.3%. Volume expansion ratio was observed to fall within the range of 2.11 to 2.70. Amylose content was found to range from 13 to 33% with the variety Karhani showing the maximum value. Various physiochemical and cooking properties exhibited convoluted relationship. Significant positive correlation was observed between grain weight and kernel length (r = 0.87, p< 0.05), kernel length and volume expansion (r = 0.74, p<0.05) and a significant negative correlation between volume expansion and amylose content (r = -0.65, p<0.05).

  37. Thoibi Devi, M., Ajit Kr. Das, Dutta, B. K. and Singh, P. K.

    Pomegranate Present study was carried out to document plant-based preparations used as abortifacients in the valley districts of Manipur, North eastern India, where Meitei’s are the highest in population among the other communities. Data were collected by interviewing local traditional healers, elderly women, mayoknabee etc., at different places in all the seasons. A total of 22 angiospermic plants belonging to 18 families and 22 genera have been documented. Information on local names, plant parts and different modes of preparations were documented in this present paper.

  38. Reethi Budanuru, Satyababu, M., Sudeep, H. V. and Shyam Prasad, K.

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L), in addition to its ancient historical uses, has been used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich juice with high antioxidant capacity. It is evident from the previous studies that pomegranate juice has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to validate the skin care properties of P. granatum. The extract exhibited high anti-elastase and collagenase activities at various concentrations indicating the significant anti-wrinkle effect (52.28 and 53.98 % respectively at 100 µg/ml concentration). Further, pomegranate extract was highly effective in protecting the DNA from hydroxyl radical mediated scission. The in silico calculations predicted that lowest energy docked poses of phenolic compounds can interact with catalysis-dependent residues, thus making them possible catalytic inhibitors and of course physiologically active. This study concludes that pomegranate can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of skincare anti-ageing agents and demand the need for extensive research in cosmeceutical applications.

  39. Claudette Bayé-Niwah and Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem

    The influence of the source of seeds was evaluated on the germination and growth of Moringa oleifera Lam. in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. The device is a randomized complete block with 3 replications and 4 treatments. Provenances or isohyets represent treatment (4). The experimental unit consists of 30 seeds. The results of this study appear that the origin of isohyets has no influence on the growth and germination of seedling. However, seed weight differs significantly with isohyets (0.0047 <0.01). It varies from 268.44 ± 76.02mg to isohyets 4 to 309.28 ± 64.89mg for isohyets 2. After 6 months the average height of seedlings from isohyets is 175.45 ± 9.6cm and that of the radial is 2.17 ± 0.09cm. How early or late the floriculture production depends on the origins of the seeds (0.015 <0.05). Thus plants derived isohyets 2 and 3 rather than flowery plants from seeds isohyets 1 and 4. However, the flower and fruit production rate is not influenced by rainfall sources.

  40. Waleed Ibrahim and Kamal Eldin Ahmed Abdelsalam

    Objectives: to examine the role of PCOS in alteration of FSH, LH, Total testosterone, LH/FSH ratio as well as correlating the outcome to obesity. Methods: One Hundred female patients with PCOS based on Rotterdam 2003 criteria. Together with fifty healthy volunteer females included as controls. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and total testosterone were tested in the two group. On top of that, we calculated LH/FSH ratio in all attendants. Body Mass Index (BMI) evaluated to be a part of the correlation. The resulted data were organized in tables and subjected for statistical analysis. Results: A significant increase was found in LH and total testosterone as well as significant decrease in SHBG in PCOS females compared to controls. Serum FSH was insignificantly increased in PCOS women. LH/FSH ratio was significantly high in non-obese patients when compared with obese patients and control. Conclusions: Hyperandrogenism is intrinsic to PCOS. At the same time, LH/FSH ratio was increased in non-obese PCOS patients.

  41. Pavitra Krishna K. U. and Sylvia Subapriya, M.

    Indian tribal people account for 8.14 per cent of the total population of the country, numbering 84.51 million (Census, 2001). There were 635 tribal groups including 75 designated as ‘primitive’ based on pre-agricultural level of technology, low literacy, diminishing population size, relative seclusion from the main stream of population, economical backwardness, extreme poverty, dwelling in remote inaccessible hilly terrains, maintenance of constant touch with the natural environment, and unaffected by the developmental process undergoing in India. There is a consensus that these scheduled tribes are the descendants of aboriginal population in India. Using Random sampling method, 4376 PTG Children in the age group of 1 –14 years from Nilgiris were screened clinically for symptoms of VAD, IDA and other micronutrient deficiencies. Among them, 84 children showing moderate to severe clinical symptoms of VAD and IDA in the age group of 7- 14 years were selected for the Spirulina supplementation for a period of 180 days. The clinical observations revealed that the prevalence of VAD and IDA is beyond the cutoff points of WHO standards and thereby making it a problem of public health significance among the screened PTG children. Spirulina supplementation showed a significant impact on clinical symptoms, nutritional anthropometry, serum retinol and blood haemoglobin when compared to placebo.

  42. Vinoth, M. and Prabudoss, V.

    PGPB – Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria are the group of beneficial bacteria promote crop growth and yield by exerting many beneficial aspects like N fixation, P solubilization, growth promoting substances production and siderophore production. In the present research about 13 isolates were isolated and identified as Azospirillum brasilense, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and phosphobacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and these isolates were studied for its PGPB nature to provide N & P nutrients and biocontrol nature through siderophore production. The findings of the present investigation clearly showed the interesting future of tested organisms. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus showed maximum efficiency on N fixation and P solubilization, Azospirillum showed efficiency and recorded maximum value for IAA synthesis and phosphobacteria (Bacillus megaterium) recorded significant value in siderophore production. Based on the present findings while inoculating these organisms to the crop plants, it is better to inoculate all three PGPB in the form of consortium for better results and further efficiency of these organisms must be exploited on crop plants in environmental conditions.

  43. Ramlakshmi, R. and Bharathiraja, S.

    Mycorrhizae are symbiotic association between higher plant roots and certain fungi which plays a key role in the mobilization of phosphorus and natural cycling of various nutrients in the ecosystem and also protect plants against environmental stresses and pathogenic organisms. Marigold is an economically important flower crop and it can be cultivated round the year. Marigold flowers has got popularity among gardeners and dealers due to its easy cultivation and wide adaptability. Both leaves and flowers of marigold are equally important in medicine field due to medical properties, the essential oil of marigold also valuable use in perfume industry. Marigolds are ideal for cut flowers especially for making garland. The present investigation was carried out in the pot culture house, Department of microbiology, Annamalai University. The growth and yield of marigold was significantly enhanced by the inoculation of AM fungi + phosphobacteria with 75% of P and 100% N&K fertilizers (T10) it was followed by (T¬13) which constituting AM fungi (Glomus fasciculatum)+ Phosphobacteria (Paenibacillus polymyxa) and 50 % P and 100% N&K fertilizers. Based on the above triats, AM fungi (Glomus fasciculatum) +Phosphobacteria (Paenibacillus polymyxa) were found to be a potential bioinoculant for Marigold to obtain maximum yield with the reduction of 25 percent Phosphatic fertilizers.

  44. Dr. R. Kungumapriya, Dr. S. Ganesan and Dr. K. Revathi

    There are varieties of agents that can impair the normal resistance mechanism of birds. The presence of such agents in modern poultry operation is of great importance as they can directly affect performance of birds and incidence of diseases. One of the most common immunosuppressive agents in poultry is mycotoxin produced by fungi. Various species of poultry differ in susceptibility to acute and sub-acute aflatoxicosis. This work was carried out to study the role of locally available herbal plant extracts such as Azadirachta indica, Cynodon dactylon and Curcuma longa in counteracting the effects of experimental aflatoxicosis in laying Japanese quail by feeding them with diets containing aflatoxin at 1.5 and 3 ppm levels for a period of six weeks.

  45. Afilal, M. E., El Farh, L. and Afilal, A.

    The organic waste is recycled in several ways, including incineration, composting and biomethanation. Controlled landfills are gradually built into the different regions of Morocco as they are considered a solution to avoid greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and allow recovery of biogas as a renewable source to produce electricity. However few studies have evaluated the cost of waste management and the emissions balance sheet as equivalent Carbon emissions Reduction from these facilities. In this study we present an estimate of the kWh price in Dirhams (Dh) and of the Carbon credits and we establish two formulas than can facilitate their calculations in different sites according to different parameters

  46. Emami, Z., Mollaie, A. and Ghasemi, A.

    Ionosphere is a part of atmosphere that caused by the solar UV radiation, in turn produced different layers including D, E, etc. Then the matters ionized into electrons and ions etc…Ionosphere affects severely to propagation of radio wave between the points on the earth. By means of ion sounds one could considered the ionosphere layers, their opacity and clearance on the radio waves propagation. These are possible by studies the critical frequency of the layer or the blanketing frequency of it. In our research we used the data obtained from one of the top side sounder station, then by using MHD equilibrium VLASOVE equation we obtained the E layer plasma electron density.

  47. Ammar, E. E. and Khalifa, H. A.

    The Solid Transportation Problem (STP) arises when bounds are given on three item properties. Usually, these properties are supply, demand, and type of product or mode of transport (conveyance). In this paper, the efficient solutions and stability of multiobjective solid transportation problem (Poss MOSTP) with possibilitic coefficients and / or possibilistic supply quantities and / or possibilistic demand quantities and / or possibilistic conveyances are investigated. We consider the problem by incorporating possibilistic data into the objective functions coefficients, supplies, demands and conveyances. The concept of α-possibly efficient is specified in which the ordinary efficient solution is extended based on the α-cut of a possibilistic variables. A solution of the weighting problem of Poss MOSTP is deduced. A necessary and sufficient condition for such a solution is established. The basic notions like the solvability set and the stability set of the first kind are defined and characterized that's to characterize the parametric optimal solution for the auxiliary problem. An algorithm for the determination of the stability set is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the aspects of the developed results.

  48. El Nadi, M. H., Nasr, N. A. H., Mostafa, A. Z. M. and Naguib, A. H. M.

    The objective of this study is to check the possibility of producing potable water from seawater using low cost technique depends on concentrated solar rays by mirrors specially in autumn and winter seasons. The study erected a pilot plant in Faculty of Eng. pilots open site, ASU. The system used 3 concave mirrors and directed to let mirrors receives sunrays and concentrated it on the pilot for the whole sunny period. The measurements for quantities, temperature and TDS for the inlet and outlet waters were made with the measuring of air temperature and sunshine period among the day. The tests covered three months between autumn and winter to be in the worst climate for the system operation that depends mainly on sun and temperature. The results were good for product quantity and quality. The study shows that the fresh water quantity is proportional with air temperature and its TDS is between 20-40 ppm even how much the salinity of the influent seawater that ensure the system high efficiency to remove salts.

  49. Supriya Jana, Shirshendu Pandit and Geetali Chakrabarty

    In this paper, the design and development of so called conventional type of microstrip patch antenna. The enhancing bandwidth and size reduction mechanism that improves the performance of a conventional microstrip patch antenna on a relatively dielectric thin substrate, is presented. The proposed conventional antenna is operated in the C-band and X-band with three resonant frequencies. The antenna has two resonances in the X-band used in weather mapping and detecting, long –range tracking radar and missile application and other in the C-band used in satellite communication, microwave relay. IE3D software used to simulate the antennas. Without any slot the simulated conventional microstrip patch antenna size has been reduced by 100% with an increased frequency ratio.

  50. Paolo Di Sia

    In this paper the important role of Kähler manifolds in the process of building supergravity theories is considered. After a brief introduction connected to particle physics and field theory, details about almost complex and complex structures, so as about the differential geometry of Kähler manifolds, will be done. Focusing then on D=4, N=1 supergravity, technical tools related to the coupling of pure D=4, N=1 supergravity to scalar and vector multiplets are also given.

  51. Momin Shaziya Mohd Irfan and Pramoda Sasidharan Pillai

    Recent investigations into the level of heavy metal enrichment in the water of Varal Devi Lake in Bhiwandi have indicated that significant contamination has occurred over the past few years. Elevated levels of Manganese have been observed in most parts of the lake causing toxicity. Current levels of manganese in the Varal Devi Lake water have arisen from natural sources and due to anthropogenic activities (Idol Immersion). These results reiterate the importance of identifying the causes of toxicity in assessments of water contamination. The results obtained were compared with standards prescribed by WHO (1993) and BIS (10500-1991). It was found that the concentration of heavy metal is above the water quality standards. The findings of the study revealed that the water quality degraded after the immersion of idols.

  52. Kwabena Osei Kuffour Adjei and Francis Andoh-Mensah

    The study sought to investigate access to and use of libraries among students with special needs at two tertiary institutions in Ghana. They are the University of Education, Winneba and Kumasi Polytechnic, Kumasi. A total of 40 participants comprising 20 students with special needs and 20 library staff were selected for the study. Questionnaire was used as the main research instrument for gathering data. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to sample the students with special needs and the library staff for the study. The study revealed that though both institutions’ libraries have students with special needs who sometimes use the library, there are no specialised facilities in terms of equipment and reading materials for them. Also, the libraries do not have a policy which takes care of the needs of these groups of students. Finally, the staff who assist these students with special needs are not specially trained to assist them. Based on the problems identified above, it was recommended among others that the library must have separate rooms stocked with modern equipment and other materials for use by students with special needs. Also staff who assist these students with special needs must be given some training to be able to offer better services to them. Finally, there should be a policy governing access and use of the library of which students and staff would be educated on.

  53. Dr. Houman Bijani, Manizhe Sinaei, Ali Sedaghat and Yaser Gerailoo, MA student at TFL

    Learners of a second language vary from some aspects such as personality, motivation, learning styles, age and aptitude. In this the aim is to study about the relationship existing between Personality and second language acquisition. To increase the learning process up to the maximum level, individual differences must be noticed. Some features of the learners might encourage or inhibit second language acquisition (cook 1996). Ellis (1994) believes that language learning strategy is a strategy contained of a mental or behavioral activity regarding to some special stages in the general development of language acquisition or language use. One of the necessary factors for learning second or foreign language is motivation which has some types. It has a relationship with language learning process. There are some tools for measuring it. It is more common to use questionnaires for measuring learners’ motivation. As Richard and Schmidt (2002) mention that motivation is generally considered to be one of the primary cause of being successful or failed in second Language Acquisition. According to Oxford (1999), actions which the learners get to make learning more enjoyable, easier and faster. It’s more effective, too. Since early 1970s, the role of anxiety in language learning has been examined (MacIntyre and Gardner 1991). Most of the researches show the negative relationship between foreign language anxiety and the level of achievement. In this study it was attempted to investigate motivation, anxiety, extroversion and introversion as some learners’ variables.

  54. Ištoňová, Lucia and Fedáková, Denisa

    An effort to fully understand the interface of work-family conflict and social support can be observed in psychological research for more than three decades. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship and effect of four types of social support provided by work-based sources and the perceived work-family conflict (WFC): work interference into the family (WIF) and family interference into work (FIW).The data were collected online during the period of two-months (October 2013 – November 2013)by means of a questionnaire filled by 100 participants: female (n=64) and male (n=36), working full-time, married/cohabitating, with one or more children. The survey included The Work–Family Conflict Scale and 12 items instrument designed to measure four types of social support. The results suggested that emotional social support obtained from a supervisor alleviates strain-based WIF/FIW for women. Instrumental coworkers’ support appeared to mitigate behavior-based FIW/WIF for men. Likewise, supervisory instrumental support proved to be a significant factor protecting against strain-based WIF for men. On the contrary, supervisory support increased strain-based FIW for men. The uniqueness of this study lies in its examination of all four distinct types of social support from work-based sources in WFC context. Thanks to its scope, the study broadens the understanding of social support and WFC interface.

  55. Shu-Chin Su

    This paper explores the implementation of a university outdoor drama performance at a prominent Taiwanese monument (Fort San Domingo) as a community service. In particular, a narrative inquiry from a student director, theater actors and a faculty director of the paper discusses the problems when they were dealing with a community service learning through the outdoor drama performance. It examines a cyclical process which involves planning, acting, observing and reflecting. This inquiry adds to the understanding of implement outdoor drama as community service and educational tool, combining community service learning and the professional development of outdoor drama education. Both a narrative inquiry and an in-depth interviewing procedure were utilized in this study to provide the insight of field-based reflections. The findings revealed problems encountered while implementing this form of community service, such as tensions and difficulties the student director and main actor faced. However, the faculty director said that the experience was great and felt a positive engaged/public scholarship relationship between campus-community services. In addition, six detailed steps for starting a community service project through an outdoor drama were described. This study may help those who would like to run a successful outdoor performance within community systems. The paper concludes with policy implications and suggestions for future research.

  56. Dr. T. Muthu Pandian and Mr. Narendran

    Most of the organizations use financial data to allocate resources to their various departments. Hence to assess the financial health of an organization, analyzing the financial data and financial performance indicators become crucial. This paper deals with the impact of financial performance indicators on profitability of a textile industry. Indian textile industry is the second largest employment generating sector, next to agricultural sector. Financial analysts often assess firm’s production and productivity performance, profitability performance, liquidity performance, working capital performance, fixed assets performance, fund flow performance and social performance. The financial performance analysis identifies the financial strengths and weaknesses of the firm by properly establishing relationships between the items of the balance sheet and profit and loss account. Thus the present paper is of crucial importance to measure the firm’s liquidity, profitability and other indicators that ensures the business is conducted in a rational and normal way and enough returns to the shareholders to maintain at least its market value. In this context researcher has undertaken an analysis of financial performance of garments companies to understand how management of finance plays a crucial role in the growth. The present study covers two garments sectors. The study has been undertaken for the period of 3 months from Jan2014 to March2014. In order to analyze financial performance in terms of liquidity, solvency, profitability and financial efficiency, various accounting ratios have been used. Statistical measures linear multiple regression analysis and test of hypothesis-t test have been used.

  57. Desta Brhanu Gebrehiwot and Hagazi Gebre

    Tourism has become a significant industry in both poor and rich economies because of its important impacts on economic, livelihoods and socio-cultural developments (Shah 2000). Hence the study aimed to assess the basic determinants of tourism development in the study area and to identify the major factors that could help to attract tourists. By using cross sectional data of 2012 household survey in Aksum town. To achieve the objectives of the study descriptive analysis techniques was used. The flow of tourist and income generated from them, in Axum was increased from year 1997-2005 E.C. at an average growth rate of 10.64 % and 7.35% over time respectively and this growth rate is significant at 1 % level of significance, since its f value is 9.7*** and 6.6159*** respectively, so, it is possible to say there is significant increment in tourist flow and income generated from tourism through time in Aksum for the previous nine years. The reason for the constantly incensement of the tourists are the little improvement in promotion, infrastructure and creating conducive environment. The presence of basic infrastructure have played a great - role in stimulating the tourism environment and tourist flow even if, it cannot as its potential. Thus the basic determinants of tourism are infrastructural Development, increasing promotion and Awareness about the historical sites and the term tourism, employing professions (skilled man power) in the sector, focusing on providing service quality and expanding internet services and also working in coordination with other sectors in order to solve some social problems and others. Based on the result, the study recommends that for those areas with no road transportation the potential for alternative carriage or riding transport should be considered. There should be continuous promotional work especially for those historical place found out of the town. In addition there should be strong awareness creation, tourists are not richest persons rather they are visitors for different reasons. Because the reality is kids and bigger consider as tourists have excess money. As mentioned by culture and tourism Agency Aksum cluster, There should be structural change the cluster should be transformed to office in order to handle different things easily, providing solution to problems early. Finally there should be continuous research in identifying new tourist products like culture house and publicized other tourist destination places around the town. That can increase the flow of tourists and then income from tourism.

  58. Desta Brhanu Gebrehiwot

    Climate change is the main challenge for farm households in the world and it becomes a special treat for underdeveloped country’s farmers whose income depends on whether condition. And Ethiopia is one of the few countries in the world that has been ravaged by extreme drought. While its economy depends on agriculture, Farmers face a variety of climatic risks that make their incomes unstable and unpredictable from year to year (Hazell et al., 2010). In order to minimize such agricultural problems index insurance program is being developed in Ethiopia. Hence the study aimed to assess farmer’s understanding to weather index insurance by using panel data of 2010/11 household survey in Tigray region. To achieve the objectives of the study descriptive technique was used. Result showed that 10.85% of the index insurance purchasers do not understand the index insurance well but most of the purchasers i.e. 83.72% of them reported that they have well understanding about insurance and purchase it based on their awareness. We have also found that 43.61% of the respondent reports that insurance could cover part of their loss while 20.30% of them reports that insurance covers full lost of crop as a result of rain fall problem. As it was explained in the previous section payout is possible only when rainfall was below the pre determined level in the area (the agreed threshold) but only 24.06% of the respondents know this fact. Based on the result, the study recommends that; repeated training program should be given to the society about index insurance and expanding awareness until they really understand it especially about the loss coverage and rain full problem. Then after, expanding weather index insurance program, in all the drought prone areas of this region. Households could increase purchasing the weather index insurance, through this production or economic capacity of households and living standard of the rural society in general could improve over time. Finally, this study is left open for further research as index insurance is at its early stage in the study area, so there should be continuous follow up and research on this area.

  59. Abas Mohammed Alter and Dame Yemane

    The study was conducted on the factors that affect Ethiopian flower companies’ export performance which are located around Addis Ababa. Accordingly, in order to achieve the overall objective of the study, the researchers selected the flower companies through convenience sampling and distributed questionnaires for the Marketing, Production and General Managers through judgmental sampling which was based on their field of study or duty. Therefore, among 80 flower companies which are located in different region of Ethiopia, the questionnaires distributed to 120 Marketing, Production and General Managers of 40 flower companies. The data collected through questionnaires were analyzed quantitatively through descriptive ways. Whereas, those data collected through open ended and secondary data were analyzed their contents through qualitative approach. From the data analysis, the result of the study shows that in Ethiopia, the factors that contribute for the growth of flower export performance include: attractive climate, the availability of natural resource like water, incentives provided by the government like land, good investment laws, and Ethiopia proximity to the global market, efficient Ethiopian airlines and the availability of abundant and cheap labor force. However, untrained labor, shortage of finance, high cost of production, expensive air freight cost, market limitation, price fluctuation, short loan payment period, poor packaging, and flower diseases are some of the factors that negatively affect growth of flower export. Therefore, the owners need to train the employees on overall activities, expand their markets to the current developed countries, get loan from importers or organize exporters to open their saving account jointly from their income and try to produce inputs locally in order to improve the selected Ethiopian flower companies’ export performance.

  60. Kamran Abdullah, Naeem Ullah and Shah Hassan

    We investigated the model cash-cash flow sensitivity by proceeding the 165 Pakistani manufacturing firms data that published by the authentic government body state bank of Pakistan and these firms are listed in Karachi stock exchange. The observation period started from 2007 to 2010. This study disclose that Pakistani manufacturing firms try to escalate the cash holding level that beyond the firm cash flow level there should be two aspects of more holding first they hold for precautionary and second investment motives.

  61. Haileab Tesfamariam Hailu

    Tourism is a fast growing industry. It has paramount contributions in the economy of a nation. However, without the consideration of the quality of tourism products such as accessibilities, accommodations, attractions, amenities and activities/entertainment facilities, tourism cannot adequately yield the desired outcomes. This paper attempted specifically to gauge the service quality of the accessibility services, amenities, attraction site facilities, accommodation and activities/entertainment facilities. This research paper employed descriptive type of research with qualitative approach. The subjects of study were inbound tourists visiting Aksum tourist destination. Questionnaire, FGD (Focused Group Discussion) and participant observation are among instruments for primary sources of data collection and secondary sources of data were accessed via document review. Sample is selected based on non-probability sampling particularly purposive/judgmental technique. The total numbers of the respondents were 400 and out of them 395 respondents respond the questionnaire. The researcher employed field editing, pre-coding coding and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS (statistical package for social science) version 16. Based on the finding, tourists are dissatisfied by the quality of the accessibility/transportation access at the attraction sites, poor medical care in case of emergency and also they are highly dissatisfied by poor availability and quality of sporting facilities, recreational activities and cultural events which should display the heritage of people of the tourist destination. Furthermore, the inbound tourists found unacceptable/poor state of art technology and equipment in the service delivery at the attraction sites. The tourist destination personnel at accessibility/transportation found to respond tourist’s requests in quick, assistance, pleasant and friendly manner. Consumers are highly satisfied with the safety and security provision to the tourists at the amenities. Besides, they are comfortable with appealing nature of the accommodation at the destination with their pleasant and friendly personnel. Furthermore, customers found the attraction site entrance fee very cheap and acceptable accessibility quality-price ratio. However, they are highly dissatisfied with regard to the amenities quality- Price ratio. The researcher recommends upgrading the accessibility facilities in order to offer opportunities for disabled tourist. Upgrading build environment and capacity building training programs for staff available at accessibility services, accommodation services, amenities, attraction sites facilities and activities/entertainments.

  62. Mearg Tesfay Hagos

    The purpose of this study was to examine the magnitude of the problem of internal efficiency and effectiveness in the form of dropouts and repetition of secondary schools in welqait wereda. To attain this objective descriptive method was employed which include a sample of five secondary schools, five school leadership member principals, 40 teachers and 40 students were selected using purposive and convenience sampling techniques respectively. Before distributing the questionnaire, its validity and reliability was checked through pilot study. Data was collected using questionnaire from teachers and students and through semi structured interview from the school leadership. The collected quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS software program. Narrative interpretations were used to analyze the qualitative data that has been collected from the school leadership. Furthermore, the analyzed data was presented through frequency and percentages. As a result the findings showed that the students travel long distance from home to school. It has been also indicated that there is lack and absence of encouragement of pupils from teachers. Students believe that they fail to study hard and show lack of interest in education. Parents are unable to provide their children with the necessary support. It has been reported that parents demand for chores is high. The discussion reveals prevalence of early marriage, teenage pregnancy, and gender role disparity. Fear of abduction or rape on the way to and from school and family breakdown (disunity) are also indicated. Regarding the availability of educational facilities; laboratory and library are available. However, it has been indicated that there is lack of instructional materials, guidance and counseling service. Moreover; there are also overcrowded classes. Teachers agree that students’ participation in income generating activities is one of the reasons for repetition and dropout of students.

  63. Greeshma Greeshmam

    This article is about the Department of Dairy Development, Government of Kerala, It was established in 1962 and it completed its Fifty years. This article is briefly about the Department of Dairy Development and his role of the department in increasing the Kerala's milk production.

  64. Magloire Aitchedji

    For several decades, in Benin, the phenomenon of guilty or desirable relationships between teachers and students of both sexes keeps increasing in school and university settings. Despite the myriad of strategies implemented by the Government of Benin and its partners, the disparity between boys and girls in secondary education is still significant, to the detriment of the latter. The objective of this research was to focus on the subject heeding the untapped human dimension. Therefore, a survey was conducted among teachers across the country using a questionnaire where the teachers were asked to explain the choice of their answer. The results of the survey showed that 61% of teachers thought that this kind of relationship was possible as against 39% who thought that this kind of relationship was not desirable according to the gender.

  65. Dr. El-Rayah Mohammed Ishag Osman and Dr. Najeeb Al-Matar

    The discrimination function is a mathematical model can be used to explain the effected factors. In this study the reproduction is very important for life, and it contains a group of sequence events (Delivery and Pregnancy). Event of delivery can be achieved after 270 -280 days and in the case called (Atform), Sometimes the delivery will be between 180-270 days and in this case called (Prematurity). If delivery within less than 180 days in this case called (Abortion). Sometimes delivery will be after 280 days and in this case called (Late delivery). The delivery happens after some events called (Labour), if it is itself called (Spontaus) or inducal and in this case may be normal or artificial. Here in this study we use the analytical methodology. The expected findings, we would like to know the variables that affected and which the first second and third, if there are variables can affect. Lastly we think we can give a good idea for people and also for the economic in the county.

  66. Rojman Khomayezi, Ali Shabestari Asl and Gholamreza Abdollahpoor

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance in human being and many animals. This zoonotic disease causes infection in cats and other pet animals and these animals can influence human's health. This study have been performed for detection of sero- epidemiology of leptospirosis and evaluation of sero- prevalence of Leptospira serovars in both household and stray cats by Microscopic Agglutination Test (M.A.T). Serum samples of 71 cats in two household and stray groups (31 household cats and 40 stray cats) were collected. Specimens were examined through M.A.T, against antigens of serovars: canicola, grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, hardjo, autumnalis, ballum. Only one of stray cats (2.5%) showed 1:100 (or more) serum- titer against Leptospira pomuna. The antibody titer was not observed against more than one serovar in any cats. Among the household cats, 6 of them showed suspicious titer (+2), which 5 cats had titer against grippotyphosa serovar and one cat against hardjo serovar. Among the stray cats 6 of them showed suspicious titer (+2), exactly same as household group. With attention to the lack of regular and annual vaccination of household and stray cats against these organisms, the results of this assessment are accurate. Fortunately, infection percentage at Tabriz is low in contrast of other part of Iran. It seems that lack of suitable conditions and climates for growing of these organisms is the most important preventive mechanism or Leptospirosis in cats is initially rare and appears to be mild although very little is known about the disease in this species.

  67. Seyed Rahmatollah Mousavimoghadam, Reza Dousti, Behrouz Mahmoudi and Neda Zahirikhah

    Introduction: One of the common methods for assessing of quality in higher education, students' point of view, in this regard, and spiritual health, as one of health, because it is the integration of other dimensions, and involve two later, and religious. Methods: This research is descriptive and is the correlation type. The population of this study consisted of all students of ILAM University of Medical Sciences, in the year 1393, at the University, were enrolled. In this research, stratified sampling, was used. According to Morgan, 311 students, as the sample was selected. In this research, three questionnaires: demographic characteristics, and Alison PULUTZIN spiritual health questionnaire, and a questionnaire on the quality of higher education in York (1995), was used. Discussion: The results of the Pearson correlation coefficient showed that the level of quality in higher education, solidarity and spiritual health, there is a significant positive And male students assess the quality of higher education, was somewhat higher, Also, the results of this research indicate that, between male and female students, in terms of spiritual health, there are significant differences. Also, the results of simple linear regression analysis showed that the prediction quality assessment in higher education students, according to their spiritual health, is significant. Conclusions: This study showed that, based on spiritual health of college students, they can evaluate the quality of higher education, as predicted; And, accordingly, be aware of the spiritual health of students, in their assessment of the quality of education, the university plans to use it effectively.

  68. Vaghela Bhavika, K., Dhruva Gauravi, A., Gandhi Shilpa, H. and Purohit Milan

    Background: Blood transfusion is lifesaving but it is also an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. With every unit of blood there is a 1% chance of transfusion associated problems including transfusion transmitted infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to find out prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) in voluntary and replacement donors in our hospital transfusion service set up. This study also aids in evaluating the safety of the collected donations. Material and Methods: This five years record based descriptive retrospective study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2013 at the blood bank, P.D.U. Government Hospital and Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Donors and cases of TTI were identified from computer records of blood bank of hospital and monthly report sent to GSACS (Gujarat State AIDS Control Society), Ahmadabad. The data were analysed in computer software, Microsoft excel 2010. Result: A total of 48162 donors were tested, out of which 10478 (21.76%) were replacement donors and 37684 (78.24%) were voluntary donors. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis was 0.21%, 0.95%, 0.24% and 0.19% respectively in total donors. Replacement donors had a high incidence of TTI was 274(2.62%) as compared to voluntary donors were 492(1.31%). Conclusion: The seroprevalence was more in replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. It concludes that motivating voluntary blood donors are the most effective way of ensuring adequate supplies of safe blood on a continuing basis.

  69. Manushi Srivastava, Ratan K. Srivastava,Vineeta Singh and Prakash V Kotecha

    Background: Iron Deficiency Anaemia is a worldwide public health problem. Estimates from the WHO report that from 35% to 75% of pregnant women in developing countries are anaemic. In India, anaemia is the most common nutritional problem affecting more than ½ of the total population particularly in children and pregnant women where the incident is 50 to 97%. Anaemia prevalence is highest among pregnant women, infants, and young children due to the high iron demands of growth and pregnancy. Purpose: To assess the factors associated with the consumption of iron folic acid tablets by pregnant women. Methods: It was a community based cross-sectional study, which was undertaken from August to December 2009. Sample size was calculated keeping 95% confidence level and with 10% confidence interval, covered 3 blocks, and interviewed 120 respondents by including 25% extra respondents to get desired sample. Results: Most of the respondents were Hindu (85.3%) by religion and two-fifth respondents were either illiterate (40.7%) or had education up to primary / middle level (34%). However, very few (6.7 %) respondents were educated up to graduate or above. It was noted that 98% respondents had heard about IFA and majority of them (132/147, 89.8%) had taken IFA Tablets. Conclusion: The study subjects of northern part of India had a low level of compliance towards IFA Tablets during pregnancy. The compliance level was influenced by source of information and socio-economic status of the subjects. The perceived side effects and lack of awareness regarding IFA during pregnancy may have decreased the compliance. Though the grass root level health workers were trying to minimize the gap between beneficiaries and service providers regarding IFA consumption but this study reports that there is lack of felt need by the respondents regarding their own health and baby’s health.

  70. Dr. Kasturi B. Hunshikatti and Dr. Pranita R.Viveki

    Background: Hemolytic disease of the newborn, secondary to Rhesus D (Rh D) iso-immunization, contributes significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of different blood groups in the region with special reference to Rh factor which would not only help in blood transfusion services but also eliminate the risk of erythroblastosis fetalis in the neonates Materials and Methods: A 0ne and half year retrospective study of rhesus negative women was carried out at civil hospital, Belagavi between March2013 to September2014. Result: The prevalence rate of Rh D negative women in North Karnataka for antenatal care, 205 (4.58%) were Rh D negative women. Out of that 68 (33.17%) of the Rh D negative women were of blood group A followed by blood group B 67 (32.69%), blood group O 47(22.93%), and blood group AB 23 (11.21%), respectively. Conclusion: There is a need for adequate counseling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  71. Alaa A. Al-Daamy, Saife D. Al-Ahmer and Noor I. Al-Baiyati

    Phenolic and flavonoids compounds were extracted from propolis obtained from Al-Hussainya district in Karbala province. Results revealed that incubation period 48 and 72hourswere the optimum period for extraction total phenol and flavonoids, respectively. Where as the best ethanol concentrations for extraction of total phenol and flavonoids were 50% and 70 %, respectively. Inhibition activity of propoliswas studied against 15 isolates of Candida albicans isolated from mouth, vagina, urine and skin of the patients. Results revealed presence of significant difference in the effect of propolis extract against the C. albicans isolates of this study. C. albicans isolates 6o isolate that isolated from mouth was the most sensitive isolate among the C. albicans isolates towards the propolis extract.

  72. Gusiyska, A. and Ilieva, R.

    Nanotechnology has revolutionized all aspects of health care and is a new paradigm of state-of-the-art patient care beyond traditional, and dentistry is no exception. Nanodental techniques for major tooth repair may evolve through several stages of technological development, first using genetic engineering, tissue engineering and regeneration, and later involving the growth of whole new teeth in-vitro and their installation. Since biomaterials interact with body through their surfaces after implantation, the properties of the outer surface of material are critical features in controlling biological response and also in regenerative medicine. Nanostructured surfaces provided more favorable architecture for normal cell attachment and osteoblast differentiation, proliferation and functional activity.

  73. Addisu Mera Liyew

    The paper examines the tax compliance costs of the individual taxpayers in Addis Ababa. One research question and one hypothesis were investigated in this study: (RQ) compliance costs of the individual income tax system borne directly by the taxpayers themselves, including both the time spent and pecuniary expenditures and (H) The compliance costs of individual income tax are relatively low - in terms of their costs per individual: especially costs of time and monetary costs. The survey was conducted to a total of 170 individual income tax payers and questionnaires were distributed to those individual taxpayers in the administrative city of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. A total of 103 useable responses were received and used for the final data analysis. The findings from the survey provide pertinent and useful insights about the compliance costs of Addis Ababa individual taxpayers. The results of the study indicate that the highest time spend was on learning tax rules. The average values per tax payers were 168.83 ETB and the average times spent by tax payers for filing their tax return were 5.17hrs. In all, the study found that the compliance costs of individual taxpayers in Addis Ababa were relatively low in term of the total monetary value.

  74. Oparinde, D. P., Atiba, A. S., Ajose, O. A., Taiwo, B. and Adesiyan, A. A.

    Certain degree of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential elements and at increased risk of nutritional disorders. Availability of dietary supplement of these elements may prevent some of these nutritional disorders. This study was designed to access serum levels of zinc, copper and selenium in albino rats fed with Moringa oleifera leaf extract. The research was carried out in the animal house of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo. Seventy healthy male and female rats (40 tests and 30 controls) were selected into the study. Test rats were fed with diet fortified with extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf for a period of five weeks while the control rats were fed with normal diet. Serum levels of zinc, copper and selenium were determined after six weeks of the experiment using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software package (version 17). The mean serum levels of zinc (99.41±31.59 Vs 66.05±33.24), copper (14.45±6.87 Vs 7.82±4.33) and selenium (17.30±7.33 Vs 9.73±5.25) were significantly higher in the test group when compared with control group, the mean differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). There was a significant strong positive correlation between zinc and copper(r = 0.786**), copper and selenium (r = 0.931**) and zinc and selenium (r = 0.671**) (p<0.01). In conclusion, this study establishes a strong relationship between Moringa oleifera leaf feeding and increase in the levels of serum zinc, copper and selenium.

  75. Dr. Padmavathi, S. and Dr. Manimekalai, K.

    Background: The extensive outgrowth of newer drug molecules not only improves the disease condition but also frequently changes the pattern of Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reaction (ACDR). The need for this study is to identify the current drugs responsible for fixed drug eruption (FDE) and to ensure safety of the patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects with the diagnosis of FDE were included in the study for a period 12 months. The entire details such as patient’s clinical history, drug reaction and detail drug history were noted down. Then the assessment of individual cases was done for causality, severity and preventability using validated scales. Results: Out of the 38 ACDR cases the total number of fixed drug eruption cases were 18. Male: female ratio was 1.25:1. The mean time between the drug intake and the appearance of eruption was on average of 7.25. The most common suspected drug was paracetamol and fluoroquinolones. Causality assessment showed that 17 cases were of probable category and one was of possible category. Severity assessment showed that 16 were of moderately severe category and two of mildly severe. Preventability assessment analysis has shown that 5 cases as definitely preventable category while the remaining were not preventable.

  76. Saravanan, M., Mohammed Shafiuzama, Ranjithkumar, M., Pushkin Raj, H., Satheshkumar, S., and Saahithya, R.

    Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) is a commonly occurring contagious reproductive tumor of dogs affecting both sexes. A two years old intact male mongrel dog was brought to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orathanadu with the history of inappetence, multiple subcutaneous swellings and blood tinted urine with dysuria for the past two weeks. Physical examination multiple hard mass approximately 2-5 cm in diameter was noticed all over the body and also swelling of the prepuce area with 12cmx6cm sized mass was noticed. Penis was not able to retract due to sever inflammatory swelling of the prepuce. FNAC and impression smear was collected in subcutaneous nodules and prepuce mass. Confirmative diagnosis was made based FNAC of nodules and an impression smear of ulcerated lesions revealed cells of transmissible venereal tumor. Chemotherapy was started with Vincristine @ 0.025mg/kg b.wt IV once a week for 4 weeks along with supportive treatment. After the end of the 4th week of Chemotherapy animal was showed uneventful recovery.

  77. Dr. Mona U. Shah

    Aim The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum lipid levels in chronic periodontitis. Methods Study population included 60 subjects between the ages of 30-60 years with chronic periodontitis. Only non-obese subjects were selected as determined by calculation of body mass index (BMI).Clinical parameters, probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded. In addition, blood sample of each subject was investigated under 12 hour fasting conditions at baseline and 3 months following the nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) for: total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol (TC) /HDL ratio. Results Patient with chronic periodontitis have higher level of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, ratio of LDL/HDL and total Cholesterol/HDL but lower level of HDL at baseline. Statistically significant changes (P < 0.005) in lipid levels were observed after3 months of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Improvementin clinical parameters of periodontal health were noted as well. Conclusion The present study indicates that non-surgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis patients could cause significant changes in serum lipid levels which may help in preventing any systemic complications in future.

  78. Asha, B., Mahendra, B. J. and Harish, B. R.

    Introduction: The rapid progress of urbanization and demographic trends is associated with a cluster of unhealthy lifestyles leading to overweight/obesity in children and adults. Rising prevalence of obesity in India may be attributed to various factors like sedentary life-style, unhealthy food habits, cultural practices and increasing affluence of middle class population. Obesity is a key factor for many chronic and non-communicable diseases. Complications of adult obesity are made worse if the obesity begins in childhood. Objectives: 1. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in high school children of Mandya city. 2. To describe the factors contributing to overweight/obesity among the study subjects. Methodology: This is a cross sectional, questionnaire based study conducted on high school children of Mandya city. English and local language Kannada version questionnaire were used to study the variables. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight were taken using standard equipments. The statistical significance was evaluated at 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). Results and Conclusion: The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.63% and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 4.50% and 5.13% respectively. Final model of the multivariate logistic regression showed that the important correlates of overweight/obesity were age, sex, type of school, family history of overweight/obesity, television viewing, sleep duration, absence of consumption of snacks

  79. Dr. Bharath Prabhu, M., Dr. Mayur Hegde, Dr. Amrita Sandhu, Dr. Aarti Desai, Dr. Pradeep, M.R. and Dr. Mallikarjuna Ragher

    Acrylic resin interocclusal appliances have been used in dentistry for the management and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Appliances have been used with the goals of altering occlusal relationships, redistributing occlusal forces, preventing wear and mobility of teeth, reducing bruxism and other parafunctional habits, repositioning the condyle, and treating masticatory muscle pain. Articles from 1974 to 2013 were randomly selected using online search engine. Articles that could be procured have been compiled in this literature review

  80. Dr. Surakshith L. Gowda

    The doctor patient relationship is a very delicate one which stands on mutual trust. Unfortunately in recent days the standard of medical practice is declining. Until 1986 the number of cases filed on doctors were less but after the emergence of the Consumer Protection Act in 1986 the consumer awareness has been increased with rising expectations and medical negligence has been included under the purview of this act. Especially in recent times the number of cases filed on doctors has increased and it is necessary to know the basics of medical negligence.

  81. Ashraf M. Awad and Mahmoud E. Sedeik

    The present study was conducted to estimate the breadth of the protection against the characterized Egyptian (EG/1212B) strain of IBV and evaluation of different immunization programs using some available commercial live vaccines in Egypt as following; group (1) vaccinated by (IB Primer and Ma 5), group (2) vaccinated by (IB Primer and 4/91), group (3) vaccinated by (Ma5 and H120), group (4) are non-vaccinated challenged and group (5) are non-vaccinated non-challenged. At 26th days, the chickens in groups (1,2,3 & 4) were individually challenged with (105 EID50/bird) IBV (EG/1212B) strain. The results indicated that group (1) recorded the highest degree of ciliary protection by 82%, followed by the second group by 56%, then the third group by 32% in relation to control non-vaccinated non-challenged group (5). Groups No. (1, 2, 3 and 4) secreted the challenge virus at 5days PC at different rates and group (1) had the lowest rate of virus secretion. Group (2) recorded the highest serological response to vaccination at 26th days (day of challenge) with 80% positive random samples. Experimentally challenged chicks showed varying degrees of coughing, sneezing, tracheal rales, head shaking, depression and watery feces. No mortalities were recorded in all five groups. The main common lesions were swollen and congestion of kidneys together with tubules and ureters distineted by urate. There were sticky clear mucoid secretion in orophraynx and trachea of groups (2, 3 and 4). Histopathological finding PC, exhibited tracheal lesions of varying degree of deciliatin, thickning in lining epithelium accompanied with inflammatory cells infiltration and vacuolation of goblet cells. In addition to renal lesions with varying degree of focal interstitial nephritis and hydrobic degeneration. The impact of the three immunization programs on the rate of body weights gain of vaccinated birds at 26th days (day of challenge) and at 7 days PC had recorded.

  82. Dr. Shilpadandekeri, Dr. Kashinath, H.M., Dr. Rakshith Hegde, Dr. Krishna Prasad, D., Dr. Haifa, B. and Dr. Sowmya, M.K.

    Eyes are the windows to soul and they are noticed first. Loss of an eye affects a patient psychologically and also socially. It makes an individual feel crippled. Hence its very challenging for a maxillofacial prosthodontist in fabricating an ocular prosthesis with acceptable aesthetics to restore facial symmetry and normal appearance for the patient. This article presents a case report of a patient with an acquired ocular defect due to trauma, treated with an ocular prosthesis using conventional technique which is much easier and with a good aesthetic results.

  83. Hojatollah Yousefi, Mojgan Naderi,Reza Daryabeigi and Mohammadreza Tajmiri

    Background: Stressors in the intensive care unit (ICU) impair patients’ comfort, excite the stress response, and change their vital signs. Non-medical interventions are recommended by several studies as a treatment to improve comfort in the ICU patients. Sensory stimulation is one of the most important interventions. Since vital signs is an important index of patients’ clinical condition, this study aimed to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation provided by family on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in critical care patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on 64 patients hospitalized in the ICU wards of Al-Zahra and Kashani hospitals in Isfahan, Iran in 2012 and 2013. The patients were selected by simple sampling method and were randomly assigned to two groups (study and control). Patients’ systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured 10 min before, immediately after, 10 min and 30 min after sensory stimulation in the study group, and simultaneously in the control group without any intervention. Results: Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate 10 min before, immediately after, 10 min and 30 min after sensory stimulation in the study group (P < 0.001), but in the control group, the difference was not significant (P = 0.33, P = 0.77, and P = 0.37 respectively). Conclusion: Application of sensory stimulations as a nursing and non-medical intervention by the family members improves comfort and decreases the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in critical care patients.

  84. Sachin Kumar, Suresh, R. V. and Ranjithkumar, M.

    The present study was undertaken to ascertain the quarter-wise comparative prevalence, distribution of etiological agents and drug sensitivity pattern of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred cows and buffaloes. Milk samples collected from 48 dairy animals (30 Jersey crossbred cows and 18 Graded Murrah buffaloes) were confirmed as subclinical mastitis by using six different indirect screening tests: pH, Electrical Conductivity, Chloride Test, Somatic Cell Count, Modified White Side Test and Modified California Mastitis Test and causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test. The overall quarter prevalence of subclinical mastitis in crossbred cows and buffaloes were (49.16%) and (45.83%) respectively. Among quarters, prevalence was higher in right hind quarter, followed by left hind quarter, right fore quarter and left fore quarter in crossbred cows and buffaloes. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus spp. showed the highest (40.68%) frequency, followed by Streptococcus spp. (37.29%), E. coli (13.56%) and Bacillus spp. (8.47%) in crossbred cows. In case of buffaloes Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli and Bacillus spp. were isolated from 39.39, 30.31, 18.18 and 12.13% milk samples respectively. Ceftriaxone showed the highest values of sensitivity for subclinical mastitis milk sample cultures of crossbred cows and buffaloes (89.83 and 87.87% respectively). It is concluded that right side quarters were found to be more susceptible for SCM than left side quarters because of farmers hand milking nature in crossbred cows and buffaloes. Staphylococcus spp. was the major pathogen responsible for SCM. Ceftriaxone and enrofloxacin were found to be the most effective drug under in vitro condition against the isolated pathogens in SCM affected crossbred cows and buffaloes.

  85. Jijisha Ali, Shripad Hebbar and Lavanya Rai

    The ultimate goal of antenatal and intranatal care is to have not only a healthy mother and a healthy baby, but also to achieve a successful vaginal delivery, keeping in mind the rising rates of caesarean deliveries. Though the aim is to achieve spontaneous vaginal delivery, many times labour has to be induced for various maternal and fetal indications. It has been stated that nearly about 13-20% term patients requires induction of labour (IOL) (Maslow and Sweeny, 2000). Recently intrapartum ultrasound examinations has been gaining popularity to assess not only labour mechanics, and also for assessing cervical findings for prediction of successful induction. Bishop’s score obtained from pervaginal examination is considered as a tool to predict successful vaginal delivery. However, it is subjective and has significant inter observer variation. Ultrasound examinations are found to be superior to digital pelvic examination to determine fetal head position and station. Thus ultrasound can help the obstetricians in a significant way to counsel the patients before induction of labour and explain them the probability of successful induction.

  86. Dr. Muneer A Bhat, Dr. Ashfaq ul Hassan, Dr. Farooq A Jan, Dr. Sadaf Ali, Dr. Sadaf Ali, Dr. GH. Yatoo and Dr. Shahnawaz Hamid

    Keeping in view the importance of referral system and centrality of outpatient department in a health care unit the present study at SKIMS will be undertaken to assess profile of patients attending outpatient department, their rationale for referral and thereby forming a policy of referral for health care institutions. In order to study the referral pattern of patients and the rationale of referral, with profile of the referred patients as well as to study the specialty wise profile of patients attending Outpatient Department of SKIMS and to evolve a referral policy for health care institutions of Kashmir. The article is devised to develop a referral policy for Health Care institutions of Kashmir

  87. Kaushal Kumar and Abhay Kumar Sharma

    Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a major public health problem in India. Seasonal outbreaks of AES occurring regularity in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar. Present investigation was carried out to explore the possible entomological causative factors for sudden onset of the disease. A total of fifty two rodents belonging to four different species viz. Mus musculus, Bendicota benglensis, Rattus rattus, and Suncus murinus were collected. In commensal rodents overall infestation rate of ectoprasites was recorded as 77.5% and in wild rodents 33.3%. Mites were the predominant ectoparisite retrieved from rodents. The oriental rat fleas (Xenopsila cheopis) were retrieved giving an overall flea index as 0.33 and vector larval trombiculid mite chiggers (Leptotrombidium deliense) were collected from commensal rodents with chigger index 7.5. Total 533 mosquitoes belong to Culex quinquefasciatus (86.9%) followed by Armigeres subalbatus (12.9%) and An. subpictus (0.19%). Maximum number of Cx. quinquefasciatus females collected from Bhikhanpur village with per man hour density (PMHD) of 31.5. Larvae and pupae were collected from the various water sources and belongs to Cx. quinquefasciatus (77.3%) and Ar. subalbatus (22.7%). Present investigations do not support any vector borne diseases in AES affected areas but ecology and environment highly support the propagation and multiplication of rodents and their ectoparasites. Present investigation suggests further deep study to correlate entomological findings with other clinical and epidemiological studies.

  88. Dr. Alok Ranjan, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Singh and Dr. Richa Singh

    Intestinal obstruction due to fecolith is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. A 20 years old adult male presented with the features of intestinal obstruction of seven days duration. Clinical examination and radiological investigations suggests the features of small bowel obstruction. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and a lump with hard consistency was found in distal jejunum, and enterotomy was made to take out the lump. It was fecolith of size 4×3×2 cm (Fig 3).

  89. Dr. Varalakshmi, K. L., Dr. Padmavathi, G. and Dr. Sangeeta, M.

    Background: Coronoid process is a flat, triangular projection from the ramus of mandible giving attachment to two important muscles of mastication -temporalis and masseter. The knowledge of variations in the shapes of coronoid process is important for maxillofacial surgeons as a graft material as well as for anthropologists for the detection of races. Aim: To determine the different shapes of coronoid process of mandible in both sides and both sexes. Material and Method: The present study was conducted on 104 mandibles from the department of anatomy, MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore. The different shapes of coronoid processes like triangular, hooked, rounded were macroscopically studied and analysed. Results: Triangular shaped coronoid process was seen in 45.19%, hooked in 33.6% and rounded in 21.15% mandibles. Triangular shaped coronoid process was seen in 45.7% in males and 43.3% in females followed by hook shaped 30.5% in males and 34.4% in females. Round shaped was least in both male and females showing the incidence of 23.7% and 22.3% respectively. Conclusion: Triangular shape of coronoid process was more prominent followed by hook and rounded shape in both sexes. This study will be helpful for maxillofacial surgeons, anatomists, forensic researchers ad anthropologists.

  90. Dr. Fairy Susan Varghese, Dr. Sunil.K.Agarwalla, Dr. Deepak Ranjan Bhol and Dr. Reshmy, J. R.

    The birth of a newborn baby with normal morphology gives a feeling of delight, hope and gratitude to the parents as well as to the health care providers. However the sight of a baby born with an unusual caudal appendage resembling a tail creates an unusual emotion of apprehension, fear and shame. The appearance of a true human tail at birth, defined as a caudal, vestigial, midline protrusion of muscle and adipose tissue with skin covering, is an unusual event with less than 60 cases reported in the literature so far. Here we report a case of an otherwise normal female newborn baby, born with a tail, in view of the rarity of the occurrence and to discuss the related issues.

  91. Dr. Vemula Murali Krishna and Dr. Nishat Ahmed Sheikh

    Background: Bio-archaeological research reveals the importance of accurate stature estimation. Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. Objective: The current study dealt with developing a regression equation for stature estimation from foot length. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place of study: Department of Forensic medicine Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally. Methods: The present study was carried out to establish the regression equation and correlation co-efficient between individual’s height and foot length. It was conducted on the children who are studying in Sixth standard to Tenth standard in the Local schools at Narketpally. 170 subjects were selected irrespective of their caste, religion, dietary habits & socio-economic status. Observation: The mean (+SD) Stature of 170 students was 141.3 (+ 20.5) cm. The right foot length showed a significant positive correlation (r= .018, p=0.0001s) with the stature. The left foot length also showed a significant positive correlation (r= .025, p= 0.0001s) with the stature. The constant and regression co-efficient value regarding right foot length was 144.01 and 0.126 respectively and left foot length was 145.07 and 0.176 respectively for estimating the stature. Conclusion: Foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature; hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot length regression model derived in the study.

  92. Padmanabh Inamdar, Garima Mehta and Dhanashree P. Inamdar

    Back ground: Triple negative breast cancer TNBC) patients are subset of breast cancer patients who test negative for estrogen receptor(ER), the progesterone receptor(PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER-2) and show different biological behavior. As racial disparity is seen in presentation and prognosis of breast cancer, we studied the clinicopathological features and patterns of recurrence in this group of patients in our local population Aims and Objectives: To know biological behavior of TNBC in local population by comparing clinical features, prognostic factors, and outcome of this group with non triple negative breast cancer patients (non-TNBC) Material and Methods: A cohort study of 352 patients of breast cancer tested for hormone receptor was included in the study. Depending on hormone status patients were grouped into TNBC and non-TNBC. Clinical variables, patterns of relapse and outcome of patients in two groups were evaluated with median follow up of eight ten years. Results: Among 352 patients included 76 were TNBC and 276 were non-TNBC cases. TNBC had significant correlation in terms of tumor size (p<0.001), decreased tumor mobility (p=0.001), fixation of lymph node (p=0.001), number of lymph node involved (p=0.046) and higher grade of tumor (p<0.001). TNBC was associated with poor relapse free survival (RFS) (p=0.010) overall survival (p<0.001). Conclusion: TNBC are aggressive tumors with poor relapse free and overall survival. Large population based prospective studies are needed to characterize these tumors.

  93. Philip Onuoha and Sasha Samaroo

    Aim: To explore the lived experiences of registered nurses who give palliative care at intensive care unit of a major medical centre in a Caribbean Island. Methods: Purposive criterion sample of all nurses at the major hospital was employed to determine their live experiences using a qualitative design based on grounded theory. Questionnaire structured to accommodate their free expression of their experiences was designed for the study. All 12 nurses who work the different shifts volunteered. Results: The nurses were of three nationalities (Trinidad and Tobago, Philippines, and Cuba). Their experiences included communication issues, the need for spiritual care, and physical stresses, and “mutual positivism”, a good feeling the nurses get when the patients and their relatives as well as the nurses derive satisfaction following the nurses’ care. This feeling is derived when the care is holistic to include spiritual care. Conclusion: We found out that regardless of culture and nationality, registered nurses who provide palliative care to paralyzed patients in the ICU experience high levels of stress and negative feelings. The evidence of the study suggests that palliative care nursing of paralyzed patients is a challenge and nurses are aware about these challenges. The most challenging aspect of this type of care is communication with the patients and their relatives. However, when the care is holistic, it benefits the caregivers as well as the patients and their relatives. Recommendation: The nurses made recommendations that included among others greater involvement of technologies and special training.

  94. Dr. K.C. Das, Dr. Sumeet David, Dr. Manish Lalwani and Dr. Nitish

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies are not uncommon mostly in the children and elderly individuals. Sharp pointed objects can cause injury to any part of the digestive tracts that lead to bleed or perforation of viscus, sometimes it can pose a catastrophic phenomena like battery ingestion. We removed partially eaten whole mango accidentally ingested and lodged in the lower esophagus by an elderly man who ran a long way from Himachal Pradesh. We used a Foley’s Catheter at the end which is an indwelling catheter used for the drainage of urine.

  95. Hassan Kamal Hassan, Hiba -M-Haneen, Mohanned Eltayeb Aboalhasan, Elshazali Widaa Ali and Ibrahim Khider Ibrahim

    Background: Essential Thrombocythaemia {E.T.} also known as essential thrombocytosis is a rare chronic blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. It is one of four myeloproliferative disorders (disorders characterized by increased production of a particular line of blood cell). Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that can elongate the TTAGGG repeats of telomeres in cells, where it is expressed to sustain cellular immortality. The components of telomerase include RNA subunit (human telomerase RNA), a reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and other associated proteins. A minisatellite tandem repeat (MNS16A) located in the downstream of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene; recently identified and reported to have an effect on hTERT expression and telomerase activity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the hTERT (MNS16A) variants among Sudanese patients with ET. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients diagnosed with ET attending to the radiation and isotope center of Khartoum (RICK) Sudan, and 50 healthy volunteer as control group were enrolled in this study. For molecular analysis genomic DNA was extracted from participant`s EDTA anticoagulated blood samples by salting out method and analyzed by allele specific PCR for determination of hTERT (MNS16A) variant. Results: A total of 50 patients diagnosed with ET attending to the (RICK) Sudan, their ages ranged between42-79 years (mean±SD: 55±15), They were correlated with 50 healthy volunteers as control group their ages ranged between 42-75 years (mean±SD: 60±8).42(84%) of patients were suffering from massive splenomegaly, four (8%) of patients were suffering from hepatomegally and also four (8%) of patient were suffering from splenohepatomegaly. The hTERT (MNS16A) genotypes271\271, 271\302 and 302\302were observed among studied patients while 271\302genotype was observed among the control subjects. Conclusion: In summary we conclude that the (hTERTMNS16A) 271\302 variant was significantly associated increased susceptibility for ET.

  96. Sudha Rani, D., Ch V Narasimha Rao and Y Suryanarayana

    A survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of 200 farmers on rodent pests and their management was conducted in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, using a structured questionnaire to study the population ecology of rodents, their extent of damage and the various management practices commonly adopted by farmers to control them. The information on this survey is useful to formulate and design the Integrated Rodent Management (IRM) strategies or modules for effective rodent control. Farmers considered rodents as the main biological production constraint in paddy cultivation and estimated that they cause on an average of 10-15% yield losses in every season. Most of the farmers believe that, poison baiting could effectively control rodents, but majority of them were unaware of the dosages of rodenticide ingredients and also unaware of usage of bait stations as the effective rodent control practices. The survey revealed that, most of the farmers are with moderate level of knowledge (68 %) and practices (76 %) and also majority of them were categorized as secondary adopters (81%) basing on the analysis of farmers knowledge, practices and attitude attributes relating to rodent management respectively. A lack of proper knowledge in adopting current recommended rodent management practices and lack of farmer’s community approach appeared to be the main constraint in rodent management. Hence, to make the farmers as innovators with high levels of knowledge and skills in practices relating to rodent control, there is an urgent need of organizing training programmes to farmers and pesticide dealers. Field demonstrations, farmer’s interactions and developing united action among the farmers is essential for planning effective rodent control in larger stretches of land.

  97. Dr. R. Mary Josephine

    The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp) is a popular mushroom due to its tremendous stability of cap and stem, cooking qualities and longer shelf life. Among the consumers, where Pleurotus spp mushrooms is very trendy, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale. Due to its gradual depletion of nutrients due to their subsequent utilization of mushroom mycelium. Hence good growth and better yield of mushroom can be achieved when different substrates are supplemented. The basic plant substrates that can be used for oyster mushroom cultivation are saw dust, wheat straw, rice husk , Mango, Jackfruit, Coconut, hulls, straw, stalk ,paper corn cobs, waste cotton, leaves and pseudo stem of banana, water hyacinth, duck weed, rice straw etc. This substrate does not require costly processing method and enrichment material which helps in supporting the growth. Among the different substrates used the study has revealed that faster mycelial growth is consistent with better yield and highest biological efficiency.

  98. Falegan, C. R. and Anidiobu, C. O.

    Traditionally, honey is used in the application of wound to reduce the possibility of infection. The study conducted here was to analyze the antimicrobial activities of local honey against Staphylococcusaureus and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Also attempt was made to find out whether there are correlations between the antimicrobial activity of honey and their physicochemical, proximate and trace elemental parameters. This activity is mainly due to its low pH, osmolality and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Honey samples were diluted at different concentrations: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and Net honey (100% of pure honey). The result indicated that most of honey samples exhibited zone of inhibition against both organisms. The honey samples showed decreasing activities upon dilution with water. The pH of the honey samples is from 3.5-4.3, showing that they are predominantly acidic in nature. The protein content of honey has been used for a long time as an index of quality. The result from the table below shows protein concentration of the honey samples ranges from 0.256 to 3.125%. The carbohydrate concentration of the honey samples ranges from 74.33 to 82.33%. Also, that of vitamins (A and C) shows highest concentration with 0.032%, 0.232% and lowest concentration with 0.011%, 0.021% respectively. The water content of these honey samples ranges from 16.2 to 24.6%. The density of honey is another reflection of intrinsic quality of the sweetener. Therefore from the results, the density of the honey samples ranges from 1380.2kgm-3 to 1439.0kgm-3. It shows that our samples are rich in minerals. Heavy carcinogenic metals, Lead and Cadmium were undetected in all the samples which make the samples safe for consumption.

  99. Sudha Rani, D., Ch V Narasimha Rao and Y Suryanarayana

    A survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of 200 farmers on rodent pests and their management was conducted in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, using a structured questionnaire to study the population ecology of rodents, their extent of damage and the various management practices commonly adopted by farmers to control them. The information on this survey is useful to formulate and design the Integrated Rodent Management (IRM) strategies or modules for effective rodent control. Farmers considered rodents as the main biological production constraint in paddy cultivation and estimated that they cause on an average of 10-15% yield losses in every season. Most of the farmers believe that, poison baiting could effectively control rodents, but majority of them were unaware of the dosages of rodenticide ingredients and also unaware of usage of bait stations as the effective rodent control practices. The survey revealed that, most of the farmers are with moderate level of knowledge (68 %) and practices (76 %) and also majority of them were categorized as secondary adopters (81%) basing on the analysis of farmers knowledge, practices and attitude attributes relating to rodent management respectively. A lack of proper knowledge in adopting current recommended rodent management practices and lack of farmer’s community approach appeared to be the main constraint in rodent management. Hence, to make the farmers as innovators with high levels of knowledge and skills in practices relating to rodent control, there is an urgent need of organizing training programmes to farmers and pesticide dealers. Field demonstrations, farmer’s interactions and developing united action among the farmers is essential for planning effective rodent control in larger stretches of land.

  100. Ajay Kumar Patra

    Duckweeds are monocotyledonous aquatic plants having ability to rapid vegetative reproduction to form genetically uniform clones. In this study, duckweeds (Lemna minor) are used for the study of laboratory scale in the reduction of parameters such as BOD, COD, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, TSS, sulphate, phosphate and chloride under different detention time (10, 12, 15, 20 and 30 days). Reduction values of these parameters were increased with corresponding increase in detention time. Hence duckweed can be used as model system for the study of water pollutants and an alternative choice for the study of some toxic chemicals present in the pollutants.

  101. Fatma Youcefi and Ali Riazi

    Antimicrobial properties of chitosan extracted from shrimp processing waste were determined against one gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. The antimicrobial activities of chitosan were explored by calculation of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in media supplemented with 200, 400, 600, 800and 1000 ppm chitosan solution. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the prepared chitosan was 800 and 1000 ppm for both bacterial strains. These results indicate that chitosan from shrimp processing waste could be used as an effective antibacterial agent in the food industry. The ability of chitosan as an adsorbent for Mn (II) ions in aqueous solution was studied. Our results show that the adsorption process is concentration-driven with high capacity of chitosan for the adsorption of these metal ions. At initial manganese concentrations of 3, 6 and 9 mg/L, the adsorbed manganese ion concentrations are 2.4122, 4. 9544, and 7.7667mg/L, respectively. chitosan produced was also characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).

  102. Fuad A. Saad and Ali G. Al-Kaf

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects immune compromised hosts and is characterized by its natural resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was the assessment of the some antimicrobial sensitive level among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, furthermore to compare between the different antibiotics among the susceptible and sensitivity by isolates of P. aeruginosa also to detect the most potent drug on P. aeruginosa. A total of 65 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from the patient in different laboratories in Taiz city, as following Aljomhory hospital laboratories (50) isolates, alpharaby laboratories (15) isolates. Most of the isolates were from ear followed by urine. Uropathogenic P. aeruginosa infections were higher in females than males, ratio was found more among young and elderly debilitated patients. The result is Ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin were found more effective as monotherapy for treatment of infections in patients. The most studied case indicate the P. aeuroginosa was resistant to most β-lactam particularly resist 100% to ticarcillin. In vitro sensitivity pattern of 65 isolates of P. aeruginosa showed highest sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (75%) followed by amikacin (65%), tobramycin (62%), and were much more resistant to β -lactam and norfloxacin antibiotics. the result of study by using combination therapy that we have use the following combinations which in all combinations are indicate to synergistic action (Ciprofloxacin+gentamycin), (Ciprofloxacin+Amikacin), (Ciprofloxacin+Ceftriaxone). Finally all the results indicate that P. aeruginosa is the most common gram-negative bacterium responsible for the nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. And the excessive use of antibiotics has not only led to treat the P. aeruginosainfections but also the emergence of antibiotic resistance.

  103. Hoshiar Singh Tak, Ajit Singh and Sandeep Kumar

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the region of Gulmarg, Kashmir. A total of 27 ethnomedical plant species belonging to 26 genera and 18 families were reported with the help of some standardize questionnaires among the tribal people. The indigenous knowledge of local people about the native plants was collected through questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. The study shows the use of plant species for traditional folk medicines and high degree of ehnobotanical novelty. Asteraceae was represented by 5 species, Scrophulariaceae by 3, Lamiaceae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae by 2 and each of Araceae, Berbidaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Diascoriaceae, Euphobiaceae, Geraniaceae, Hypericeae, Malvaceae, Phytolaceae, Podophyphyllaceae, Rosaceae, Valarianaceae and Violaceae were represented by one species.

  104. Kshetrimayum Sumita and Debanand Das

    Every organism, may be an animal or a plant, has different gene within them. Genes are the locatable regions of genomic sequences, corresponding to a unit of inheritance, which is associated with regulatory regions, transcribed regions, and or other functional sequence regions (Pearson, 2006 and Pennisi, 2007). The sum total of the entire gene in an organism is known as Genome. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of viruses in RNA. The process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule is called as genome sequencing. The first DNA sequencing method was Maxam-Gilbert sequencing method (Maxam and Gilbert, 1977) and later on many methods have been developed by many scientists for genome sequencing. Among them, Shotgun sequencing (Staden, 1979) is one of the important and widely used methods in the field of Nematology. Caenorhabditis elegans is the first multicellular organism whose genome is completely sequenced having 97Mb (now 100Mb) (The C. elegans Sequencing Consortium, 1998). With the help of genome sequencing, detection of particular nematode and study on genetic variations can be done with accurate result and, it also helps in generating a new PCR primer specific for a nematode. The functional gene identified in genome sequencing helps to know the mechanism of parasitism in the host which will play an important role in nematode disease management; ultimately it will give a boon in the science of agriculture.

  105. Kavitha, V. and Anandhan, R.

    Earthworms are one of the major soil biota but the application of insecticides in the agricultural field has been threatened the soil beneficial organisms including earthworms. Hence, in the present study sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (T1-4.195ppm and T2-13.984ppm) on the biochemical response of the L.mauritii was investigated. The activities of following enzymes were measured: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE). The levels of lipid peroxides (LP) and glutathione level (GSH) were also determined. The results showed that the GSH, SOD, CAT, GST and AChE activities were decreased than the control up to 15 days thereafter slightly increased on the 30 days. The results suggested that carbaryl was affected the earthworm populations in the soil.

  106. Olanrewaju, Comfort A., Idris, Halima S., Okwute, Simon K., Olayanju, Segun

    The phytochemical screenings and acute oral toxicity of the aqueous extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Nauclea latifolia were carried out. The leaf extract of V. amygdalina had the highest yields of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins with 16.00%, 9% and 9% respectively. Tannins yield was found to be highest in N. latifolia where 6.70x10-5mol/dm3 was recorded in its stem extract. An evaluation of the acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of these plants showed no mortality of any of the rats at 1000 and 2000mg/kg after 72 hours. The LD50 of the two plants extracts were greater than 3,000mg/kg except the V. amygdalina stem bark which was 2449.49mg/kg. Treatment with V. amygdalina and N. latifolia produced no significant changes (P= 0.999 and P= 0.798) in Pack Cell Volume and White Blood Cell counts respectively. The t-test analysis showed that there was significant difference (P= 0.0005) in the weight in relation to the different extracts concentrations. The possession of the active secondary metabolites potentiates their medicinal values and at lower concentrations per body weight (<2000mg/kg) the plants extracts can be used for a prolonged period with little or no adverse effect.

  107. Kunja Bihari Satapathy

    The present paper resulted from field studies carried out by the author in Jajpur district of Odisha for past 20 years (1990-2010). Out of over 1000 species of flowering plants and ferns recorded from the district about 530 species are of medicinal value. Twenty six species of commonly important medicinal plants have a good potential for commercial exploitation. An account of sixty two medicinal plant species, which are fast depleting in the area have been presented, which draws immediate attention for their conservation and protection. These have been enumerated with details of Sanskrit and Odia names, parts used and names of Ayurvedic preparations. Some of the medicinal plants besides many others, facing threat are Asparagus racemosus, Bacopa monnieri, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Cissampelos pareira, Crataeva magna, Denrophthoe falcata, Desmodium gangeticum, Eclipta prostrata, Embelia ribes, Gloriosa superba, Hedychium coronarium, Hemidesmus indicus, Operculina turpethum, Oroxylum indicum, Sphaeranthus indicus, Paederia foetida, Piper longum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Pueraria tuberosa, Plumbago indica, Rauvolfia serpentina, Saraca asoca, Strychnos potatorum, Vanda tessellata, Woodfordia fruticosa etc., which are widely used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as well as folklores. This paper also examines possible causes of threat to these species and offer suggestions for their proper utilization and conservation.

  108. R. Aisha, N.K Rama, Shivaprasad Aparna, Parthibhan Raja and Umabai

    Screening for HBsAg is done routinely in patients attending various departments of Hospital. Different methods of conducting HBsAg tests include solid phase assays, flow through, agglutination, and lateral flow. These rapid tests need a backup of standard EIA testing and /or DNA based methods like PCR as gold standard for evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. In our setup we perform rapid tests (J mitra’s Hepacard) based on Immunochromatographic method, Elisa and PCR for confirmation and further evaluation. When Screening for HBsAg was done in a 32 year orthopaedic patient showing pink coloured line in test reigion of Hepacard, without developing colour band in the control line. In the absence of control line we could not interpret the test result immediately. So Elisa was performed on this sample which gave reactive result for HBsAg antigen. This prompted us to do serial dilution of serum sample (1:10, 1:20) and on repeating the test, positive results with control line was observed in Hepacard. Hence we assume that inconclusive result observed earlier using Hepacard is due to Hook effect. Hook effect might have occurred due to large quantities of HBsAg antigen in serum, which impairs antigen-antibody binding, resulting in low antigen determination. Further when Quantitative PCR was done in this sample high concentration of HBV DNA was present. HenceHook effect has to be kept in mind when screening of HBsAg is done routinely.

  109. Neeru Sharma, Dr Samridhi Arora and Ambika Sharma

    The study was conducted with the objectives to: 1) assess the health status women during menopausal transition, 2) study the relationship of various dimensions of women’s health with demographic variables and socio economic status. The sample comprises of 600 women of Jammu, in the age range of 35-65 years, selected through multistage sampling technique. Women’s Health Questionnaire and SES Scale were used to collect the data which was subjected to statistical analysis. Results reveal that majority of the respondents were 49 years of age, residing in joint families and belonging to middle class. Majority of the respondents scoremoderateon Health Status. Somatic Behaviour, Vasomotor Symptoms, Sleep Problems, Anxiety and Memory/ Concentration increase as the women age whereas Sexual Dysfunction, Menstrual Symptoms and Attractiveness decrease with the growing age. Women’s health is significantly positively correlated with socio-economic status and significantly negatively correlated with age, age at menarche and age at marriage. A need for innovative approach to health care is required to be developed for women during these years as no program for healthcare during menopausal transition is available in India.

  110. Rawnaq B. Jima'a

    Removal of chromium ions from aqueous solution using dried peel of bitter orange powder was performed through batch studies. Various process parameters like pH, contact time, biomass dose, and metal concentration were studied to investigate the optimum conditions for removal percent and the maximum removal capacity of Cr (VI). The chromium ions concentration was determined using UV-VIS spectroscopy. High removal percent was achieved at optimum parameters determined as follows: solid particle size= 75µm, contact time= 120 min, shaking rate= 250 rpm, pH= 1.2 and chromium concentration Co= 100 g/l. Around 94% of chromium ion was eliminated from aqueous solution with maximum removal capacity of 23.49mg/g at these conditions.

  111. Arupkumar Chakrabartty, Kazi Monjur Ali and Debidas Ghosh

    Objective: The study explores community’s knowledge about tuberculosis and causes of exclusion from sputum examinations at designated government facilities under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in West Bengal, India. Methods: The prevalence of suspected tuberculosis is 10% among persons attending in a medical Out Patient Department (OPD). Here, survey based work has been carried out on 90 persons with cough for two weeks or more from representative sample of 36 Designated Microscopy Centre (DMC) catchment areas. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics, vulnerabilities of participants in respect to tuberculosis infection, participants’ knowledge regarding tuberculosis infection and symptoms, level stigma and facilities available at govt sector meant for tuberculosis have been studied by survey questionnaire. Results: Results indicated that overall knowledge about tuberculosis is significantly poor among the participants. Among 90 participants, 26.7% knew without being probed by the surveyor that people with cough more than or equal to two weeks are susceptible to have tuberculosis; and whereas, 50.0% participants could mention this with probe. Knowledge score of participants about six key symptoms of tuberculosis (0-6 scale: Yes-1, No-0) were assessed to see that 75.6% participants lying in lower knowledge score level (0-2) compared to 24.4% in the higher knowledge score level. Among several factors knowledge about tuberculosis and stigma are significantly associated with exclusion from access to sputum examination services within duration of two weeks’ cough. Conclusion: The survey based study identified respondent’s poor knowledge level and stigma attached to tuberculosis as important factors for exclusion from early sputum examination from DMC or TU. Finally, study results provide opportunity to review the matter in details through qualitative research among certain excluded groups in connection to different approaches for intervention.

  112. Indira Ningthoukhongjam, Romen Singh Ngasepam, Bijayalakshmi chabungbam and Shomorendra, M.

    Biodiversity may be defined as species richness (plants, animals and micro-organisms) in a given habitat be it on land, in fresh water or sea or as parasites or symbionts. Biodiversity represents sum total of various types of microbes, plants and animals present in that system. It is the variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes of which they are a part and includes diversity within species, between species, and ecosystem. Wetlands are the transitional zones between the terrestrial and aquatic environment. These habitats perform major ecological role in biosphere. They are immense use of mankind both economically and ecologically. Present paper depicted that the diversity on helminth fauna of freshwater fishes from Nambol Locality of Bishnupur District of Manipur. The study was conducted between April to August 2013 and found four groups of parasites in 600 fishes. The fishes belong to five different orders and thirteen families. Among the fishes, 279 are found infected with helminth parasites belonging to four different groups i.e., class Acanthocephala, class Cestoda, class Trematoda and 13 belongs to class Nematoda.

  113. Syed.Bibi Aisha and Ch.Adi Babu

    Almost all the Industrial Data Acquisition and control systems today use connection oriented concepts for interfaces. However, the variety of physical shapes and functional commands that each cable or wire based system has also raises numerous problems the difficulties in locating the particular area affected by the industrial parameter, the complexity in operation of the system, the maintenance issue and so on. The control of sensitive industrial parameters by using SCADA-based wireless technology has gained significant industry and academic attention lately for the usability benefits and convenience that it offers users. The control of the Gas, Alcohol, humidity and vibration the existing research has failed to provide a flexible solution for controlling such conditions by connection oriented systems. They have used cables and bulky equipment which require large amount of space, high degree of the maintenance and are easily decorated by moisture and excessive heat. Additionally, the Data acquisition and control techniques used so far have imposed considerable computational burden and have not provided a consistent and accurate results expected by the employees and their industries. The main aim of our project is to concentrate upon the development of an automated setup for the measurement and monitoring of temperature of any industrial environment, for example boilers, refrigerators and heaters etc. Adapting a technology like SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and ZIG BEE one can achieve the above mentioned objective effectively, and thus saving a lot of manpower.

  114. Aniruddha Sarma, Pranjal Sarmah, Dhruba Kr. Dolai and Pramod Medhi

    The present study was designed to make a comparative study between the antioxidant activity and nutraceutical properties of Oxalis debilis and Oxalis corniculata. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and the IC50 value of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and Oxalis debilis were found 25.82 ± 0.68 and 73.67 ± 0.91 µg/ml respectively. Among the nutraceutical properties carbohydrate, protein, crude fibre, total phenolic content and ascorbic acid were investigated. The result shows that Oxalis debilis have higher nutraceutical value than Oxalis corniculata with the exception of crude fiber content which was found to be higher in case of O. corniculata. The results revealed that these two plants can be used as dietary supplement as well as therapeutic agent as they would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant activity.

  115. Elrhayam, Y., Akki Ait, S., Mr. Chaoui, and Elharfi, A.

    The cellulose Morocco Produces about 125,000 tons / year of bleached eucalyptus pulp chlorine-free (ECF) depending on Kraft process of cooking (soda + sulfide), the oxygen bleaching and chlorine dioxide. The eucalyptus wood are Composed of other macromolecular chains of cellulose origin (these macromoleculars are Formed by the repetition of monomer units of the cyclic glucose type. The junction has its effects by the removal of water) associate fibers which are interconnected to each other by in an amorphous way by hemicellulose and lignin. Our work is to study, on the one hand, the effect of the increasing sulphidity at the level of boil on the physical properties of the bleached pulp, and on the other, the impact of the increased refining time of the unbleached pulp on the same the physical properties. This is done to the two different species of wood namely: The ROSTRATA species which gives more opacity and volume to the pulp. The latter is preferred in industries manufacturing all kinds of paper used for printing, writing or hygiene. The GRANDIS species giving more strength to the pulp is rather used by manufacturers of packaging papers

  116. Dr. Ammar Ahmed Sultan

    There are several different methods of classifying Insect. One of these methods that were used in this research is Geometric Morphometric of wing to study the variation shape and size of the right front wing of Iraqi honeybee worker collected from the provinces of Baghdad and Diyala in Iraq. Geometric Morphometric is an essential tool for honey bee races discrimination and characterization. Such vital tool has been applied widely in honey bee researches. The results showed that the mean centriod size of the right front wing is 764.34 and 768.92 for specimens of Baghdad and Diyala provinces respectively and did not show any significant differences in the mean of the centroid size for the right front between the colonies of the two provinces. When reclassification percent using discriminate analysis the results showed that the all specimens of Baghdad and Diyala provinces are completely identical. Furthermore results showed that no significant differences between specimens of Baghdad and Diyala provinces in the size and shape of the right front wing by using Analysis of variance.

  117. Beniwal, P., Jood, S. and Vasan, A.

    Various types of by-products are produced during milling in the legume and cereal industries. In the present study, value-added papads were developed by incorporating by-products obtained after milling of bengal gram and rice. The developed papads were studied for their organoleptic characteristics, functional properties and shelf-life. Three types of papads namely control, Type-I and Type-IV papads were selected on the basis of organoleptic scores, which were prepared by utilizing bengal gram seed coat and bengal gram brokens alongwith broken rice. The by-products supplemented papads were observed to have lower values of diameter, oil absorption and diametrical expansion, when compared to control papad. During shelf-life study, no remarkable changes in organoleptic acceptability of developed papads were observed even after three months of storage.

  118. Valentina, J., Poonguzhali, T.V., Josmin Laali Nisha, L.L. and Sumathi, E.

    The present investigation is concentrated on Protein, carbohydrates and mineral content of Spathoglossum marginatum, Padina tetrasmatica, Turbinaria conoides, Ulva fasciata and Enteromorpha flexuosa for future applications in dietary supplements or food industries. Three seaweed samples (i) S. marginatum (ii) P. tetrasmatica (iii) T. conoides were collected from Mandapam coast in Rameshwaram and the two seaweeds (iv) U. fasciata (v) E. flexuosa were collected from Kovalam coast of Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Of the above seaweeds tested S. marginatum showed maximum content of protein and carbohydrate. T. conoides showed maximum content of calcium, potassium and sodium, while U. fasciata showed maximum content of magnesium and iron. P. tetrasmatica observed maximum potassium content than other seaweeds tested

  119. Fadhil N. Al-Kanany

    Soil samples were collected from oil polluted station from Majnoon oil fieldat a latitude, 30°53'38.36"N and longitude of 47°32'26.18"E, Basrahcity, the samples were cultivated on Minimal salt medium contain crude oil as a sole source of carbon, four types of growing oil degraded bacteria identified according to their morphological and biochemical profiles as: Aeromonashydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens after using specific cultured media. The ability of defined species for production of biosurfactants have been checked by several methods, drops collapse test, blood haemolysis test and oil spreading test. All these bacterial specieswere determinate as biosurfactants producing species, the best results detected with Pseudomonas fluorescens, biosurfactants have been extracted and kept for further studies.

  120. Sandeep Sharma and Mamta Chhabra Sharma

    Due to the advancement in technology, electronic waste is the fastest-growing scrap stream comprising personal computers, laptops, mobile phones, televisions, consumer durables like refrigerators and other electrical and electronic products. The UNEP report suggests that over 50 million tons of e-waste is generated every year worldwide. Pre-planned product obsolescence, globalization, reduction in production costs and shifting lifestyle have been responsible for an augmented consumption of electrical and electronic products and consequently there has been an exponential high rate of waste generation. It is not only the quantity of waste but also its nature that is awfully multifarious on account of a swarm of materials which are present in these products. Precious and rare metals as well as an assortment of heavy metals and complex chemical compounds pose grave challenges in managing such large volumes of this multifaceted scrap. Handling such waste and recovery of materials by recycling it without any adversative impacts on the environment can pose grave challenges.

  121. Viji, A. R. and Pandurangan, A. G.

    Scleria foliosa Hochst. ex A. Rich, a little known sedge species has been reported for the first time from Tamil Nadu, India. The disjunct distribution nature exhibited by this species at varying degrees deserves scientific scrutiny and is of phytogeographical significance. The study provides a detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant information based on fresh collections for recognition.

  122. Brajesh Choudhary, Mukesh K. Jothe, Mahendra Singh, Mahendra Mehra and Pankaj K. Shrivastava

    In this paper we investigated the heliographic longitudinal as well as latitudinal distribution of major H-α solar flares (flares of high optical importance imp ≥ 1) for the solar cycle 23 periods 1996-2010. This period of investigation includes the ascending as well as descending period of solar cycle 23. The study reveals that for heliographic latitude majority of solar flares confined between latitude 10°-30° for both northern and southern hemisphere. Whereas for heliographic longitude we observed approximately symmetric occurrence of solar flares. The H-α solar flare occurrence dominates during increasing phase of the solar cycle achieve a peak value in middle part of solar cycle (year-2000) and show an abnormal decrease during descending phase of solar cycle. The occurrence of solar flare also compared with yearly mean sunspot number and noticed that solar flares follows the solar cycle with maximum number observed in the year 2000-2001 during the maxima of solar cycle 23.

  123. Siddappa, K. and Mayana Nabiya Sultana

    A new series of transition metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) have been synthesized from the Schiff base (L) derived from 5-bromo-3-hydrazonoindolin-2-one 3-((2-aminoethyl)amino)quinoxalin-2(1H)-one and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione. All the complexes were characterized in the light of elemental analysis, molar conductance, FT IR, UV-VIS, magnetic, thermal and powder XRD studies. Analytical data reveal that the Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes possess 1:1 metal–ligand ratios. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for the antibacterial activities towards bacteria E. coli, P. vulgaris and S. pyogones, and antifungal activities towards fungi A. flavus, C. albicans and F. solani. The results of these studies revealed that the free ligand and its metal complexes showed significant antimicrobial potency. The DNA cleavage studies have also been carried out on Calf-thymus DNA and it is observed that these Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) shows complete DNA cleavage activity whereas Hg(II) show partial DNA cleavage in the presence of H2O2 and UV light.

  124. Ali Farid Mohammed Ali

    In this review we introduced for the first time in literature a new drug FSLYM 192050, patent No. 698/2014). A new method for treatment of infertility (Glyoxalase – 1 loaded Bee venom nano particles targeted with a follicle stimulating hormone peptide as a new modality in the treatment of female and male infertility). A new (name, theories, treatment) for old problem (intravenous leiomyomatosis) again we introduced Bee venom Bee propolis, Zamzam Water, Eye Tears, and EPREX, in the treatment of many reproductive aberration and updated treatment of endometriosis (NANO GOLD, NANO SILVER, Peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Yeast betaglycan, and anti CD 147 Anew mechanism of action of Dineogest) all these innovations help to improve a fetomaternal health and well being and will cause a revolution in the field of treatment of infertility.

  125. Sujatha, T., Sankarappa, T., Ashwajeet, J. S., Ramanna, R. and Hanagodimath, S. M.

    CuO doped borotellurite glasses, (B2O3)0.2-(TeO2)0.8-x-(CuO) x, ¬where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 were prepared by standard melt quenching method and their non-crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD studies. Dielectric properties as a function of frequency and temperature over the wide ranges have been measured. Observed decrease in dielectric constant and loss with increase in frequency and temperature has been ascribed to the decrease in ionic contribution. Dielectric parameters increased with increase in CuO content. Conductivity was estimated from dielectric data. The high temperature electrical conductivity has been analyzed using Mott’s small polaron model and activation energy was determined. Activation energy decreased and conductivity increased with increase in CuO content. Conductivity also increased with increase in frequency. Frequency exponent of conductivity is found to be temperature dependent, and this contradicted Quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) model’s prediction. It is for the first time that CuO doped borotellurite glasses have been investigated for frequency dependent dielectric properties and ac conductivity and data analysed thoroughly.

  126. Hussein Alaa Lateef and B. Rama Devi

    Antifreeze glycoproteins are essential for the surviving of many marine teleost fishes in polar and subpolar seawaters, where the temperature consistently are below the freezing point of physiological solutions. In this work, synthesis of structures related to antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are presented. Synthetic routes to a protected carbohydrate derivative, 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl- β – galactopyranosyl - (1→3) – 2 – deoxy – 2 – azido - 4, 6 – di – O – benzyl – β – D -thio-1-galactopyranoside, and a tBu-Ala-Thr-Ala-Fmoc tripeptide, are described. These compounds are meant to be used in the assembly of AFGPs and analogues. A Gal-GlcN disaccharide was synthesized via glycosylation between the donor, bromo-2-O-benzoyl-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α-Dgalactopyranoside, and acceptor, ethyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-2-N-phthalimido-β-D-1- thio-glucopyranoside, using silver triflate activation. Subsequent epimerization to a Gal-GalN disaccharide was achieved using Moffatt oxidation followed by L-selectride reduction. The tripeptide was synthesized in a short and convenient manner using solid phase peptide synthesis with immobilized Fmoc-Ala on Wang resins as starting point.

  127. Nirmala Jyothi Lukkani and Surendranatha Reddy, E. C.

    This study was conducted to identify sulphur oxidizing ability of fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from groundnut rhizosphere of Rayalaseema districs of Andhra Pradesh and evaluate their sulphur oxidation ability. Out of the 55 (JS1 …. JS55) isolates obtained, 14 were screened based on their efficacy to reduce the pH of the growth medium from 8.0 to ≤ 5.0. The selected isolates were characterized and related to the genus pseudomonas. Their sulphate ion production abilities were in the range of 5mg/ml – 60 mg/ml. JS7, JS16, JS24, JS40, JS49 and JS54 gave the lowest pH and the highest total sulphate in liquid medium after one week. These isolates were checked for optimum growth conditions for efficient sulphur oxidation and their ability to produce sulphate ion. In glucose amended medium broth, bacterial strains JS7 and JS16 produced maximum sulphates i.e. 55.22 mg/ml and 53.14 mg/ml compared to other sugars.

  128. Bhuvaneswari Devi, C., Indravathi, G. and Kiran Kumari, K.

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metallo enzyme component that in high doses can exert serious oxidative and neurotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, ACh content and Histochemical Studies in both low dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and high dose (5 mg/kg bw) of Manganese (Mn) treated young and adult (2 months and 4 months) rat brain with reversal effect of alpha- tocopherol. In this study, it was observed that the AChE activity and ACh content in synaptosomal fraction of low dose and high dose of Mn-exposed rats showed decrease in AChE activity and increase in ACh content at both the ages (2 months and 4 months) when compared to control. However, the AChE activity was increased and ACh content was decreased in the animals supplemented with α-tocopherol along with Mn- exposure. In this study, we have also examined the histochemical studies in adult rat brain i.e, Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum. Histochemical staining of AChE in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of control adult rats showed increase of AChE staining and the animals treated with Mn showed loss of AChE staining in three brain regions. However, the administration of Alpha-tocopherol along with Mn showed increase of AChE staining. Among the three brain regions studied, Hippocampus showed maximum activity followed by Cerebral Cortex, and then Cerebellum. The above findings suggest that short-term Mn in vivo administration causes a statistically significant decrease in AChE activity. The Mn toxicity was reversed with Alpha-tocopherol co-administration which could thus be considered for future applications as a neuroprotective agent against chronic exposure to Mn and the treatment of manganism.

  129. Silu Basumatary, Das, A. K., Sharma, G. D. and Raaman, N.

    The present paper reports ethnobotanical uses of Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.) Hook. f. and Thomson used by Bodo tribe in Kokrajhar District of Assam, India. The plant belongs to family Cucurbitaceae and is a liane fruit bearing. The survey reveals the use of this plant by patients suffering from diabetes and stomach ailments. In this paper, uses of plant parts have been documented.

  130. Eman Mohamed Aly and Eman saad Elabrak

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in corneal protein and oxidative stress state after endosulfan-administered in rabbits and the effect of topical curcumin. The treatment scheme for the different groups was as follows: control group, endosulfan group, Endosulfan+40 μmol/L curcumin, endosulfan+ curcumin 80μmol/L and Endosulfan + curcumin 160 μmol/L. All animals groups decapitated after 6 weeks then eyes were inoculated and corneas were isolated for determination of protein content, SDS-PAGE, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD),Na+-K+-ATPase, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level activities were measured in the cornea. The results indicated that for endosulfan group a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total protein content accompanied by shift of the corneal protein peaks towards high molecular weight. Also a significant increase (p < 0.05) in catalase and MDA activities was observed. Topical application of curcumin was useful in reducing oxidative stress induced by endosulfan.

  131. Dr. R. Karthiyayini

    The effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of leaf, stem, and root of Leucas aspera L. on seed germination and seedling growth of Cajanus cajan. The result revealed that the aqueous leachates of leaf, stem and root of high concentrations significantly inhibited germination, growth and fresh weight of seedlings. But at low concentrations (5%, 10 and 15%) the same leachates promote both germination and seedling growth of Cajanus cajan. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of aqueous leachates was found to be concentration dependent. Hence it is known that the weed, L. aspara naturally growing in crop fields of Cajanus cajan has some influence over the germination behavior and seedling growth of crop.

  132. Isha Babbar, Dr. Pooja Chaddha, Dr. Monika Bhardwaj and Prabhjot Kaur

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo genotoxicity of sulphanilic acid and its biodegradation product using mice as a model. 0.5 mg of sulphanilic acid at 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs time interval and its aerobic treated product at 48 hrs time interval were injected to different mice. The experiments were carried out in control group after treatment with DMSO. The air drying preparations were made by dissecting out the limbs of adult mice and processing it. A highly significant increase in mean aberration values were found among all treated groups when compared with the control. Chromosomal aberrations observed were stickiness, clumping, breaks, dicentric, rings and gaps. Chromosomal aberrations were found both in control as well as treated groups of mice but the number of aberrations was significantly high in all treated groups as compared to control mice. Among treated groups, the number of chromosomal aberrations was high in mice treated with 0.5 mg of sulphanilic acid at 72 hrs. It has been proposed that toxins released by aromatic amines might have caused chromosomal anomalies by coming in direct/indirect contact with the chromosomes after the disintegration of nuclear membrane during cell division. Such chromosomal anomalies may lead to the genetic instability of mice population. From these findings we conclude that sulphanilic acid is more genotoxic in nature as compared to its aerobic degradation product. These degraded samples also induced significantly higher genotoxicity as compared to control but found to be less genotoxic as compared to parent aromatic amine.

  133. Soni Chaubey and Mohan Kumar Patil

    This is attributable to pollution due to human activities such as plunging of idols of deity and divinity in the festival season, surface runoff due to heavy rainfall, washing exercises and ‎sewage disposal everywhere in lakes. Water environment is a complex system where theological methods cannot meet the demands of water environment preservation. To demonstrate the usefulness of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN), the Water Quality Index (WQI) has been used on the basis of physical-chemical parameters of different sources of water. Water from different sources like Gandhisagar, Ambazari and Futala lake revealed significant water pollution as compared to Gorewada lake. The WQI is continuously upgrading and the situation is becoming more alarming which demands some appropriate actions with an immediate effect to get it under control. In this study, an attempt was made to assess WQI using Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLP) architecture. The feed forward back propagation algorithm has been chosen for training and testing the experimental data. The feed forward back propagation algorithm has been chosen for training and testing the experimental data. All the calculated WQI parameters in aforesaid lakes are observed to be at a medium level in rainy season, fairer in the autumn season and comparatively higher during the summer season.

  134. Meera Vaidya and Shikha Shukla

    Background: Hypertension remains a global asymptomatic non-communicable disease and a preventable risk factor but often leads to health complications, if untreated. Many factors seem to be responsible for influencing hypertension; however, the role of dietary factors and nutrients still remains unclear and needs to be explored. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of systemic hypertensive adults and to find the correlation of nutrients with age of the hypertensive adults. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study with purposive random sampling was conducted wherein a government Medical college of Jabalpur city and some leading physicians were requested to send 200 newly diagnosed hypertensive cases in the age group of above 20-59 years for voluntary participation in the study. The subjects were enrolled in the study after taking their informed written consent. The subjects were interviewed through pilot tested questionnaire consisting of general information, clinical history, socio-demographic information, dietary patterns along with their anthropometric measurements. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was maximum in the age group of 39-49 years affecting both males and females of similar age group. Out of 200 hypertensive cases, 78 (39%) subjects were had family history of hypertension. The nutritional status of the study subjects was assessed wherein 52% hypertensive subjects were found to be over-weight and obese. Meal intake by study subjects was majorly thrice a day (52%). Signs of nutritional deficiencies were found in 44.5% of study subjects. Further Univariate analysis predicted positive association of consumption of different nutrients statistically significant for calories, fibre, and potassium and zinc intake in different age groups. Conclusion: An integrated approach of community based intervention with support from healthcare providers on prevention of hypertension is suggested for early detection and management of hypertension.

  135. Dr. Shailendra Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar, Poonam Pathak, Kamal Pratap Singh and Nawseen Fatima Ansari

    Several N-[2,4,5-triphenyloxazole-3(2H)-yl]benzamide and N-[(2-furyl)4,5-diphenyloxazole-3(2H)-yl]benzamide have been synthesized by refluxing N1-aroyl-N2-arylidenehydrazines / N1-aroyl-N2-furylidenehydrazines with equimolar of benzoin and triethylamine few drops in ethanol for six hours and screened for their herbicidal activities against Echinochloa oryzicola, Echinochloa crus-galli, Oryza sativa, Glycine max and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Pyricularia oryzae whereas antibacterial activities against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus of the title compounds.

  136. Pramod Kumar Singh, Smruti Sohani and Neha Panwar

    In recent times, phytochemicals have drawn attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases. A number of bioactive compounds in pulses such as polyphenols, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, tannin and lectin are proven to have anti-oxidant capacity. This study has assessed the antioxidants activity exhibited by these secondary metabolites in different pulses (chickpea, mung, arhar and masur) as compared with amla using DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  137. Mounir, F., El Issami, S., Bazzi, Lh., Chihab Eddine, A., Jbara, O., Hilali, M., Salghi, R. and Bazzi, L.

    The inhibitive behaviour of Argan hulls extract (AHE) , as a type of green inhibitor, on the corrosive behaviour of copper within an aqueous solution of 2M H3PO4 containing 3.10-1M NaCl. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and gravimetric method, was used for the measurements at 298K. A significant decrease in the corrosion rate of copper was observed in the presence of the Argan hulls extract. Inhibition efficiency increases with AHE concentration to attain 91% at 6 g/L. The potentiodynamic polarization data indicated that the inhibitor was of mixed type. Impedance measurements showed that the charge transfer resistance increased and double layer capacitance decreased with increase in the inhibitor’s concentration. Also, some thermodynamic data for the activation are calculated and discussed. Results obtained from potentiodynamic polarization, impedance measurements and gravimetric method are in good agreement.

  138. Vikrant Thakur and Pawan Kumar

    Moths were collected from different part of Seraj valley of Himachal Pradesh during June 2010 to September 2013. A total of 1376 specimens were collected by using Simple light traps operated from dusk to dawn daily for eighty nights. The moths caught were identified up to the subfamily level. Sub-family Ennominae represents maximum number of species (18) and Sub- family Geometrinae show the minimum number (4).

  139. Anil Sharma, Ajay Kumar Mahur, Sonkawade, R. G., Sengupta, D., Sharma, A. C. and Rajendra Prasad

    “Sealed Can technique” with LR-115 type II plastic track detector was used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the fly ash samples. Uranium concentrations have been measured through low level gamma ray spectroscopy. Activity concentration of uranium is found to vary from 5.6 to 11.0 ppm. Radon activity was found to vary from 182.9  18.6 to 262.9  22.3 and the exhalation rate lies in the range 62.3  6.2 to 95.  8.0 mBq m−2 h−1 whereas the radon mass exhalation rate varied from 2.1  0.2 to 3.6  0.3 mBq kg-1h-1. There seems a positive correlation between uranium concentration and radon exhalation rates. Results are compared with our earlier studies of different thermal power plants in India.

  140. Raghuveer Naidu, K. and Atchim Naidu, M.

    Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification. Given the agriculture intensive economy in India, agricultural storm water discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture are predominate sources under this category. The Point source means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance and predominant contributors are Urban agglomerations and Industries. To carry out the assessment of pollutant load in macro level and in mirco level depending on the spatial scale, the land use and land cover assessment facilitates to quantify the total load into the lake system. The paper describes the methodologies adopted for carrying out such assessment for Kolleru Lake thereby to review the appropriate mitigation methods.

  141. Jayanthi, L., Saravana Bhavan, P., Srinivasan, V., Muralisankar, T. and Manickam, N.

    In the present study, commercially available probiotics product, LactoBacil®plus (LBP), which contains a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Saccharomyces boulardii was incorporated at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% concentrations with basal diet formulated with fish meal, groundnut oil cake, soya bean meal, corn flour, tapioca flour, egg albumin, Cod liver oil and vitamin B-complex with vitamin-C, and fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii PL for 90 days. The beneficial effects of LBP on the survival, growth, nutritional indices (weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio), activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase), concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid) including profiles of protein, amino acids and fatty acids were determined. In addition to these, gut microbial colony establishment and their biochemical characterization, and the molecular analysis of gut bacterial diversity through 16s rDNA were also done. The survival, growth, nutritional indices, activities of protease, amylase and lipase, concentrations of total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, level of essential amino acids and fatty acids (linoleic and ecosapentanoic acid) were found to be significantly (P<0.05) improved particularly at 4% LBP incorporated diet fed prawns when compared with control. The LBP incorporated feed fed prawn showed increased staining intensity of 36, 29 and 18 kDa protein bands when compared with control. Presence of Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp., was deducted in the gut of control prawns. In the gut of experimental prawns in addition to L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, B. longum, B. bifidum and S. boulardii the presence of E. coli was also deducted. However no Pseudomonas sp., was deducted in the gut of experimental prawns. The bacterial consortium of control and experimental prawn guts showed 98% and 93% similarity respectively with Ralstonia (genes of proteobacterium). This study revealed that the identified gut microbes were differed from originally incorporated probiotics and unidentified bacterial species was present. This needs further clarification. In conclusion, the LBP at 4% was found to be beneficial for survival, growth and production of M. rosenbergii. Therefore, this can be recommended to incorporate in aqua feed formulations for the sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  142. Prasanthi Kumari, R. and Vishnuvardhan, Z

    Kodomillet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) is one of the hardiest crop among all the small millets. It has a capability to stand for the biotic and a biotic stresses. But increased soil salinity majorly limits the plant productivity and quality. Present work was focused on evaluation of Kodomillet genotypes such as IPS 145, IPS 610, IPS 351, IC 382888, IPS 583 and IC 426676 for their salt tolerance efficiency subjected to different salinity levels i.e. 0, 200, 400 and 600 mM NaCl at 45 DAS. The results obtained were revealed that root length, shoot length, number of leaves and root length density found to be insignificant whereas root shoot ratio, root and shoot relative water content and total chlorophyll content were correlated significantly. Among all the test types IC 426676 and IPS 583 showed more salt tolerance efficiency and IPS 145 reported less salt tolerance efficiency.

  143. Ankur Katiyar and Nancy Sahu

    As we know there are very competitive atmosphere in the market of automotive. So the total focus of all the manufacturers are towards cost which will in the budget of customer and more comfort of the passengers. The FEA analysis of bracket is performed for the deflection and stresses. A model of bracket of composite material, i.e. (GRP) is also prepared and analyzed by FEA Analysis which is then compared with the previous steel bracket. The use of composite materials resulted into reduction in deflection as well as in stresses.

  144. Samuel Fosu Gyasi, Eugene Appiah-Effah and Dwumfour-Asare, B.

    Undoubtedly, brewery companies like many other commercial companies in Ghana contribute to the economic development of the nation. In fact, there is nothing new about companies being development agents. In this study, the perception of brewery’s activities with respect to pollution among some inhabitants of Kaase Kumasi, Ghana was investigated. In the study, 80 randomly selected respondents from Kaase near the Guinness Brewery Limited were interviewed with the help of questionnaires. These were compared with their control counterpart ie 80 randomly selected respondents from high School Junction all in Kumasi, Ghana. Analysis of the results based on one’s general knowledge of site of disposal of brewery waste showed that, knowledge of the dumping site was evenly distributed among both communities. Greater proportion of respondents around the upstream area of the Sissa stream in Kaase (27.5%) however, perceived odour emanated from the brewery affected their health compared to their upstream counterpart (13.75%). This was statistically significant (p=0.0316). The study also showed that, greater proportions of respondents from the Kaase area (Downstream of the Sissa stream) i.e., (97.5%) were of the view that malaria was a major concern affecting their family compared to respondents from High school junction (71.25%) (p<0.0001). Results from this study has shown that, inhabitants of Kaase living near Guinness Ghana Limited perceive the brewery could be polluting their environment with their production.

  145. Madhu Valavala and Dr. Ramarao P. V. V.

    Power System protection is a combination of Intelligent Electronic Devices, Digital Relays and other sophisticated equipment. It is an interconnected coordination between the smart devices. This paper gives the improved ideology of Substation Automation, which enables how the analog to digital signals are converted via fiber optics and sends the information to the neighboring devices. There are three major requirements for substation automation: Measurement, communication, Hardware and software. The SA is briefly explained by using one of the level i.e bay level process. Goose process also described in this review paper.

  146. Satti Babu, V. and Vasavi Sridevi, C.H.

    It is important to remove or minimize the degradations, noises in valuable ancient blurred color images. The traditional available filtering methodologies are applicable for fixed window dimensions only these are not applicable for varying scale images. In our project we propose a new technique for digital image restoration, in this the noise free and noisy pixels are classified based on empirical multiple threshold values. Then the median filtering technique is applied. So that noise free pixels are getting preserved and only noisy pixels get restored. In this project, median filter, called the multiple thresholds switching (MTS) filter, is proposed to restore images corrupted by salt-pepper impulse noise. The filter is based on a detection-estimation strategy. The impulse detection algorithm is used before the filtering process, and therefore only the noise-corrupted pixels are replaced with the estimated central noise-free ordered mean value in the current filter window. The new impulse detector, which uses multiple thresholds with multiple neighborhood information of the signal in the filter window, is very precise, while avoiding an undue increase in computational complexity. For impulse noise suppression without smearing fine details and edges in the image, extensive experimental results demonstrate that our scheme performs significantly better than many existing, well-accepted decision-based methods.

  147. Bachhav Satish Suresh and Chavan Harshal Ashok

    In highly competitive manufacturing industries nowadays, the general manufacturing problem can be described as the achievement of a predefined product quality with given equipment, cost and time constraints. Unfortunately, for some quality characteristics of a product such as surface roughness it is hard to ensure that these requirements will be met. To achieve these goals, one of the considerations is by optimizing the machining parameters such as the cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate. Recently, alternative to conventional techniques, evolutionary optimization techniques are the new trend for optimization of the machining parameters. The present work is an effort to review the literature on optimizing these machining parameters in turning processes. The objective of this review is to study the effect of cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut on surface roughness and cutting forces in dry, wet and MQL type turning by employing Taguchi optimization techniques. Present work concludes that Taguchi technique is widely used in optimizing the turning operation and MQL turning can be alternative to dry and wet turning.

  148. Kadhambari, T., Yokesh V and Selva Remya, T.S

    Renewable energy sources derive enormous energy from the sun’s radiation. Global Solar Radiation prediction is essential in Photo Voltaic power plants for efficient sizing and improving the performance of these systems. Some computational Intelligence methods are used in time series prediction of solar radiation based on the statistical data. A number of neural network models like Radial Basis function (RBF) and Multilayer perception (MLP) were used and these are all forward prediction methods which may result in inaccuracy of prediction. Here, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), in which a feedback from the output layer is given as input to one of the hidden layers has been used. Input variables used for prediction are Day of the month, daily mean air temperature, Relative humidity, Air Pressure and Solar azimuth angle.RNN is being trained using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Evolutionary algorithm (EA).EA is stochastic search and optimization heuristics derived from evolutionary theory.PSO is an optimization based technique used for solving non-linear and multidimensional problems. Also, performance of these algorithms is compared by calculating Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

  149. Kamalasri, D., Arun Prasath, J. and Thandaiah Prabu, R.

    Predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance, because of strong increment of solar power generation. Predictions is very useful in solar energy applications because it permits to generate solar data for locations where measurements are not available. In existing systems, solar radiation is predicted using fuzzy logic and neural networks separately. So that Mean absolute percentage error is greater than 10%. In our proposed method, Fuzzy logic and neural networks are combined together using Takagi Sugeno Kang (TSK) method. TSK method is very efficient than mamdani method. Previous year solar radiation data is collected from National Environmental Agency and using this values neural networks was trained. The graph between measured and predicted data values was plotted. Error is calculated using the difference between desired and output value. Prediction using combination of fuzzy and neural network model having Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is less than 10%.So that this method will reduce the mean absolute percentage error is much smaller compared with that of the other solar radiation method

  150. David O. Olukanni,Emmanuel I. Ugwu, Ifeanyi B. Ogbu and Joel O. Ademiluyi

    Sludge is often generated from the treatment of wastewater and it is essential to reduce its volume before disposal into the environment through dewatering. This helps to reduce the cost of final sludge disposal. This study was therefore aimed at developing a model for the draining time of sludge through the application of vacuum pressure. A vacuum filtration experiment was performed on sewage sludge collected from the wastewater treatment plant situated at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The sludge sample was poured into Buchner funnel apparatus and the volume of the filtrate collected was noted at a certain time interval until the end of the experiment. The specific resistance values were obtained using the newly derived-, modified-, and Carman’s-equation, respectively. A comparative study was carried out on the three values obtained and the results showed that the newly derived equation gave the best result. Overall, the newly derived equation demonstrated conformity with Carman’s equation and can be used for sludge dewatering investigation. This paper covers a relevant subject within the field of waste treatment processes, namely the dewatering of sludge from wastewater treatment system and on a large scale, can aid in producing cost effective mechanism that makes it more possible for developing nations to incorporate adequate and effective sanitation.

  151. Vijayashanthi, A., Jayanandan, T. and Roshini, J.

    Design and measurement of a new compact filter and a microstrip antenna is proposed for IEEE 802.11 applications. Here the size of the three pole hair pin BPF is approximately reduced from 6.83 cm to 5.81 cm, The three pole hair pin BPF designed at center frequency 1.97 GHz achieves an impedance bandwidth of 5.16 % (over 1.6 – 2.4 GHz) at a reflection coefficient |S11| < -20 dB and has a gain of 0.44 dB. Also the size of the designed antenna is nearly 45 mm x 35 mm on TRF substrate with relative permittivity of 4.1 dB. The antenna has a resonance frequency of 2.14 GHz with a gain of 0.15 dB.

  152. Dr. K. Radha and Mr. S. Arumugam

    In this paper, the maximal product of two fuzzy graphs is defined. It is proved that when two fuzzy graphs are effective then their maximal product is always effective. Also it is proved that the maximal product of two connected fuzzy graphs is connected. The degree of a vertex in the maximal product of two fuzzy graphs is obtained. It is illustrated that when two fuzzy graphs are regular then their maximal product need not be regular. But it is proved that the maximal product of two regular fuzzy graphs is regular with some restrictions.

  153. Venkata Dilip Kumar Pasupuleti and Pradeep Kumar Ramancharla

    Crustal deformation in vertical direction is higher at convergent plate margins when compared to other plate margins. Even though there are three types of convergent plate margins observed between continental-continental plate, oceanic-continental plate and oceanic-oceanic plate, this study considers only the interaction between oceanic plate and continental plate which are resting on lithospheric mantle to understand the topography effect on continental plate. Two dimensional finite element models are developed and analyzed using commercially available software ABAQUS. Contact properties are defined between plates so that effect of friction is calculated. All plates have an elasto-visco rheology and analysis is carried for 30000 years. The models demonstrate that inclination angles leading to subduction or collision effects the length of vertical deformation profile. Also, increasing the coefficient of friction decreases the vertical deformation but increases the amount of subsidence. This study concludes inclination angle and coefficient of friction plays a vital role for the development of higher topographic regions at convergent plate margins.

  154. Veerabhadrappa Algur, Kabadi, V.R., Ganechari, S. M. and Shetty, P.B.

    This paper describes some aspects of concerning the effect of heat treatment on friction coefficient for Modified ZA-27 alloy. Experiments were conducted based on the plan of experiments generated through Taguchi’s technique. A L25 orthogonal array was selected for analysis of the data. Orthogonal arrays of Taguchi, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, the analysis of variance(ANOVA) and regression analysis are employed to find the optimal process parameter levels and to analyze the effect of these parameters on coefficient of friction. The result shows that Normal Pressure is the more sensitive parameter.

  155. Lall Ramrattan

    This paper presents a functional framework to study diverse theories of poverty in the current literature. Because of the complex nature of different schools of thought on poverty, one needs a meta-graph that can relate element in the poverty domain of a function to elements in the egalitarian range of the function. This paper presents such a framework that can compare and contrast different theories of poverty. Two novelties of the paper are dynamic analyses for a group of countries, and a correspondence relationship that allows us to look for invariant relationships in models of poverty. The former applies a new dynamic principle in economics, and the latter fills a gap in the literature identified by the Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen’s theory of poverty.

  156. Batoul Sabzalipour and Akbar Afghari

    Language is the mean of communication among people. Tonekaboni is one of the dialects of Mazandarani language which is spoken in the north part of Iran and the south parts of Caspian Sea. The present paper investigated some English idioms and expressions and their equivalents in Tonekaboni dialect to see how similar or different they are. It also compared the teenagers and the adults to see how much intelligible these idioms are for them in Tonekaboni dialect. Twenty Persian idiomatic expressions was chosen and typed from Persian and distributed among more than fifty informants who were mostly from nearby rural areas. They were asked to write the local equivalents of the expressions. Interview was also conducted among some illiterate and older locals to increase the validity of the results. The results showed that although the idiomatic expressions are semantically the same, but they are phonetically very different in the way that the new generation of teenagers cannot even understand them.

  157. Dr Joshua Ojo Nehinbe, Olakunle O Solanke and Johnson Ige Nehibe

    Recent advancements in the size, framework, contextual and conceptual understanding of business data across the globe have subjected digital forensics to strict criticisms from numerous angles. Thus, the efficacies of most scientifically proven methods for identifying, collecting, investigating, analysing, interpreting, validating, documenting, reporting and preserving digital evidence rapidly become ineffective to support collaborative digital forensic purposes. Hence, this paper examines some of these core issues and further proposes Log-splitter that can be used to minimize them. In addition, C++ programming language is used to implement the model on the platform of Windows Operating System. The model is subsequently evaluated with series of datasets. The results obtained suggest that Log-splitter can automatically split digital evidence and assigned them to different investigators that are defined by the end-users to quicken the conclusion of digital cases. Furthermore, the results illustrate that investigations of some digital evidence can demonstrate at least three fundamental concepts. Above all, good implementation is the best strategy to mitigate the possibility of biasness of the Log-splitting processes towards one investigator than the other investigators.

  158. Tripathi, I. P., Dwivedi Neelesh, Shukla, P., Mishra, M. and Tiwari Aakanksha

    This study investigated the level of four different heavy metals Copper, Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in ten vegetables viz; Potato, Brinjal, Pumpkin, Tomato, Carrot, Radish, Coriander, Menthe, Spinach and Pigweed collected from two local market sites in Chitrakoot. The evaluation of heavy metals present in the vegetables was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean concentrations for each heavy metal in the samples were calculated and compared with the standards set by the FAO and WHO. The results reveal that the levels of Copper, Zinc and Cadmium for vegetables ranged from 0.063-9.32, 0.04-0.83 and 0.001- 0.99 mg/kg dry weight respectively. Lead was not detected in vegetables from most of the samples and where detected, it was at very low or almost negligible concentrations of 0.001- 0.003 mg/kg. The study concludes that heavy metal levels in vegetables consumed in the area were found to be within permissible limit and are safe for consumption.

  159. NagipSkenderi, AdhurimUka, YllkaAhmeti and ShpendSkenderi

    The economic system has been facing tough challenges worldwide in the last several years. In Kosovo, it seems like the monetary and credit system was untouched by the global financial crisis and the worldwide lost of confidence. Monetary policy in Kosovo has its own characteristics in the post-war period, because after war as it is known Kosovo became part of the Euro Zone. The CBK estimates that the banking sector stands well as regards to capital and especially bad credits. Still, the interest rate on deposits is considered very low as compared to the interest rate on loans. Arguably, this has an important impact on investments and in economic growth also. Furthermore, the lack of a strong competition has its share at the pie of this problem, mentioning the fact that all of the banks have some unused capacity of crediting as they remain over-liquid. At the end we conclude that the monetary and credit system faces many challenges and as such it has its own issues although it seems immune to the global financial crisis.

  160. Lakkineni Mallaiah and Malti Singh

    Agriculture sector is the mainstay of livelihood for rural people of India. It provides not only employment opportunity to the rural people but also manages food facility to the people. It is contributing nearly 12.02 percent in GDP to the nation income. Agricultural development is an integral part for the socio-economic development of the country. Land is a crucial denominator for estimation of the economic status of the people. The possession of land is a tantamount of power, prestige and prosperity in the Indian society but it’s distribution among the social categories is typically based on hierarchy system. This paper will study ‘Labour and Occupational Transformation in Uttar Pradesh’. Hence, the present study is based on secondary data. It will analyze labour and occupational transformation and its impact on economic conditions of the rural people of the state. The unequal distribution of agricultural land in the State is intrinsically based on the caste system. As a result, very few people have possessed a large size of land holdings while a bulk of people have small size of land holdings. Unequal distribution of land is responsible for the unemployment situation. Cultivators who have very few land and they are not capable to cultivate it. Hence, they are compelled to sell their agricultural land for their livelihood and became labour. Thus, cultivators and landless labour are not only converting as an agricultural laborer but also shifting from agricultural sector to non- agriculture sector like Manufacturing, Industry sector. Hence, this trend is increasing the insecure employment situation in the State. It finds almost 80 percent of marginal holdings accounted at 39 percent operated land while only 0.12 percent large holding possessed 2.38 percent operated land. Regular employment is decreasing while casual and self employment is increasing. Hence, the transformation of the surplus labour from agriculture sector to other sectors is the good symbol for the socio- economic development of the rural people in Uttar Pradesh.

  161. Subhash Chander and Dr. Suresh Dhaka

    No organization has a choice of whether to train its employees or not, the only choice is that of methods. The primary concern of an organization is its viability, and hence its efficiency. There is a continuous environmental pressure for efficiency, and if the organization does not respond to this pressure, it may find itself rapidly losing whatever market share it has. Training imparts skills and knowledge to the employees in orders that they contribute to the organization’s efficiency and be able to cope with the contract pressures of changing environment. The viability of an organization depends, to a considerable extent on the skills of different employees, especially that of its managerial cadre, to align the organization successfully within its environment. Three factors have been identified which necessitate continuous training in the organization. These factors are technological advancements, organizational complexity, and Human Relations. All these factors are related to each other Example Technological advancements tend to increase the size of the organization, which increases its complexity, similarly, increasing organizational complexity and technological advancements also a creates human Relations.

  162. Christopher Mfum Owusu-Ansah and Kwabena Osei Kuffour Adjei

    The main purpose of the study was to determine the status of information and communication technology (ICT) in academic libraries in polytechnics in Ghana. The study utilized an e-mail survey of ten (10) polytechnic librarians with the use of structured questionnaires of open and close ended questions. The respondents were purposively selected. The findings were analyzed using SPSS software and presented by use of descriptive statistics. The study found that majority of the respondents does not have adequate ICT facilities in the polytechnic libraries, and therefore cannot support modern academic library services. The findings indicate that ICT-based services that enhance the delivery of library services are generally inadequate in these libraries which are expected to offer value-added services to users. Based on the research findings, the study suggests among others that polytechnics should acquire adequate ICT facilities in their libraries to provide modern academic library services to their users. Polytechnic libraries must position themselves strategically in terms of ICT to be able to sustain their services to help achieve their mission.

  163. Suparna Shome

    Background: This study is carried out in order to see the factors associated with women’s intra-household decision making power in a newly formed state, Jharkhand where most of the women are not only suppressed and dominated by their male counterparts but also are the bottom of educational level. A comparison is done to see the exact position of the women in Jharkhand state with respect to India. The study also argues whether women decision making power is related with their educational level, employment, income and other socioeconomic variables. Aim: The three objectives of the paper is i) to see the extent of women autonomy in household decision making (ii) to find out the factors responsible for women household decision making, and (iii) to carry out a comparative study of Jharkhand state with respect to rest of the India. Materials and Methods: The data for this study is taken from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06. These data are considered only from the married women falling under the age groups of 15-49. The decisions whether taken alone or jointly with others related to (i) own health care (ii) large household purchase (iii) say on husband’s earning and (iv) visit to family or relatives, are considered for the analysis. Women individual characteristics and other socio-economic factors are also taken in this study. Results: It is found that the relationship between independent characteristics and their ability to influence decision within household depend on the nature of decision under consideration. The result shows a significant association of marital duration and family pattern irrespective of all decisions in Jharkhand state as well as in India, indicating the indirect effect of seniority in marital life. The significant relation of education or earning position with that of intra-household decision is only seen in India and not in Jharkhand, signifying the lack of awareness or low status of the women in the family.

  164. Susmita Bharati

    A large number of persons in India have been victim of domestic violence. Usually it occurs more to women. In our study, we have measured status of domestic violence among women in Jharkhand State. The main objective of my study is to measure the percentage of women who are victimized in various types of domestic violence and its comparison in respect to all India level. The relationship of the incidences of domestic violence with different socio-economic variables is also found. For this study, I have used NFHS-3 data of Jharkhand state and the sample size is 853 reproductive aged (15-49 years) married women. Background characteristics such as place of residence, women’s and their husband’s educational status, women’s occupational status and wealth index of the family are linked to domestic violence. Bivariate analyses are used to find the causes of domestic violence. Categorical logistic regression is carried out to predict the domestic violence with the selected independent variables. The major finding of the data is that occurrence of domestic violence is more in Jharkhand in comparison with India. The incidences of domestic violence are found to be very low among the higher educated men and women and richest families. It is also interesting to know that, among the professionals or service holding women, the percentage of occurrence of physical violence is very high compared to other occupational categories of women and this result is statistically significant.

  165. Dr. Shereen Sadiq and Asif Khan

    In India, the Panchayati Raj System was introduced with the aim of decentralization and democratization. However, Khap Panchayats, the self proclaimed courts of caste lords in a village, enjoy full legitimacy and authority as ‘custodians of honor’. It is through them that most regressive views are sought to be implemented. Khap adjudications are purely feudal and patriarchal in nature. Honour killings, barbaric murders committed for the sake of preserving the honour of a family, a clan or a village, are the medieval remnants of regressive tribal societies that have persisted for far too long into the modern liberal age. In the name of preserving Indian culture, they are perpetuating crimes and thereby nurturing a culture of crimes for descendents. These are acts that the International community considers as mostly confined to the Arab-Muslim world. Khap Panchayats, institutions originally designed for defense against invaders were and remain essentially caste Panchayats comprised of upper and middle-caste land owners. They function as judicial entities parallel to the state judiciary that have built their power by subordinating the poor and their diktats are focused on perpetuating caste hierarchies. Khap Panchayats/ Caste Panchayats, the earlier credible bodies with a social outlook, are now highly politicized. They are active in various states of the country at a time when the country is going through rapid social and economic advancements. As India tries to fly high the disgraceful judgments of the self proclaimed courts of caste lords definitely erase its reputations. Indian judiciary has come a long way but still much remains to be achieved in order to protect our society from the clutches of unlawful and unconstitutional dispensers of (in) justice. It is in this backdrop that the paper attempts to highlight the pattern of crime propagated by the so called custodians of honour.

  166. Kebede Abrha Mengstu

    This study investigates households’ traditional fueldemand for cooking and, their determinants in Tigray: the case of Maichew Town. The results were estimated using the binarprobit model. Traditional fuel was by far the most dominant source of cooking fuel for the households surveyed in the town. Traditional fuel such as firewood, animal residue, crop residue and charcoal were the main source of cooking in the study area used by 71.25% of the households surveyed. The findings of the study also provide support to the energy ladder hypothesis that household income is a major determinant of household fuel demand. Furthermore, socio-economic and demographic factors like household head’s education, sex of the household head, age of the household head, house type, and occupancy status and responsibility of cooking were key determinants of traditional cooking fuel demand. The researcher, thus recommend intensification of income poverty reduction programs to improve households’ incomes, educational status and awareness. The benefits of such a policy is to move majority of households towards the upper levels of the energy ladder. This then implies a move away from over dependence on traditional fuels, which will be compatible with the energy strategic policy of Ethiopia, to more efficient, clean and modern energy sources.

  167. Abas Mohammed Alter, Abebe Ejigu Alemu, Amanuel Teklay Gebremichael and Kibiret Dessalegn Negeri

    This study has been conducted with the main aim of exploring the rural entrepreneurship practices and rural small business owners’ entrepreneurial orientation. Hence the study has collected both qualitative and quantitative data in three were das (districts), selected out of 31 rural were das of tigray region. The study has followed a survey research design with both quantitative and qualitative approaches in which it has been adopted econometrics analysis. The study also follows a cross-sectional research design so as to triangulate the findings of different approaches in an effort to provide greater confidence to the study. Based on the findings, entrepreneurs prefer to take moderate risks in situations where they have some degree of control or skill in realizing a profit. Moreover as compared to those who acquire their business by rent those who inherited have low willingness to take risk. Education significantly affects entrepreneurial decision making in which Entrepreneurs with strong educational status makes decision quickly. Enlarging education and career preparation to increase creating and growing businesses is potentially a powerful way to hold young people in rural communities. It also paves new opportunities for dependent employees in trades and other professions

  168. Farahnaz Mostafavi Kahnegi

    This article aimed to study the effects of Internet and the digital world on the identity of adolescents. In this regards, the adolescence and identity development, adolescent’s identity crisis and the adolescents and the social networks are reviewed. The study showed that using Internet affects the youth’s identity. In fact, the increasing spread of information and communication technologies in recent years has affected human life in different aspects of political, social and cultural development.

  169. Dr. Hidhayathulla, A. and Arunkumar, N.

    Inclusive growth refers to a growth process that reduces poverty faster, that is broad based and labor-intensive, reduces inequalities across regions and across different social groups, opens up opportunities for excluded and marginalized not only as beneficiaries but also as partners in the growth process. The secular prevalence of poverty and inequalities implies that the growth process had never been inclusive. The growth process in the context of unfettered private ownership right to own, use, and transfer habitat and landed properties was such that it excluded many and included few. Feudalism excluded the erstwhile peasants from cultivating the land. There was a persistent effort to conserve feudal land ownership system throughout history over the entire world. This led to extreme inequalities and exclusion of a large group of people from the benefits of growth. Analysis of evidences for economic exclusion from the 2011 population census data offers the conclusion that the 2000 years legacy of economic exclusion still prevails in India in terms of literacy, safe housing, access to safe drinking water, access to sanitation facilities and possession of assets.

  170. Dr. Laxmikant Sharma

    Project management has emerged as a discipline in recent years. It developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, communications, defence and the like. A successful project must be on time, on budget and deliver quality as promised. Anything less will be either a failed project or a challenged project. Research evidence shows that only a meager percentage of projects are successful by all measures and majority of projects are either partial failures or complete failures. In addition to the strategic definition of the projects’ scope and time deadlines, it is argued that a project has a high probability of success if good planning, clear responsibility and accountability and schedule control, etc are adhered to strictly. This should certainly give proactive project managers both food for thought and motivation to action. With this perspective in mind, the present paper makes a modest attempt in defining project management in its real context, analyze and evaluate the benefits of efficient project management on the organizations’ overall performance and the like.

  171. Amanuel Teklay Gebremichael

    With due consideration to green economy, the idea of connecting the environment to economy and society turn into ought to do issue in today’s turbulent world. But despite the intent, the practice is not lucid. Thus, the prime essence of this study was to assess the practice green economy in relation to environmental dimension in manufacturing industry in Tigrai region. The study was a cross sectional and used primary and secondary source of data in which a structured questionnaire was developed to get data from 61 respondents composed of mangers/CEO of large manufacturing industry. The finding shows that, better corporate image and marketing strategy as exceedingly important in motivating firms to participate in green economy related activities. Moreover, those large manufacturing industry faces the bigger influence so as to espouse green economy activities from environmental organizations specifically to environmental protection matters. Besides, company’s effort in undertaking environmental studies annually so as to contribute on environmental protection aspects is low. Consequently, despite noteworthy involvements in practicing green economy activities, its facets are not yet fully maintained in those manufacturing industries

  172. Kibrom Aregawi Weldegiorgis

    Science, technology and innovation [henceforth ‘STI’] policy has long been a key instrument for building national competitiveness and accelerating the socio-economic development of countries. The contribution of STI in improving the quality of people’s lives has been enormous and indispensable. In relation to this, Ethiopia recognized the importance of STI long ago. It has therefore promulgated and revised its science, technology and innovation policy over the years. The STI policy which was issued in 2012 is designed in a way that serves as a key driver for inclusive and sustainable economic development. The main purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of the challenges of STI policy. The author examined the evolution of Ethiopian STI Policy and the challenges of its implementation. To achieve the objectives, empirical data was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Semi-structured interview was used to gather data from the subjects drawn from research council offices of three public universities and the Ministry of Science and Technology. In addition, document and archive reports were systematically reviewed. Clear indications of improvement and progress in the STI related endeavors were observed from the results of the study. However, there are implementation problems as evaluated from dimensions including technology transfer, research, triple helix framework, financing, and international cooperation. Likewise, results indicate that work needs to be done in formulating programs, guidelines and directives that facilitate policy translation into action. The paper ends by suggesting some recommendations for the actors in the STI policy.

  173. Houman Bijani, Ali Sedaghat, Manizhe Sinaei and Yaser Gerailoo

    The impact of the phenomenon of Globalization on different aspects of human being life in twenty first century is known to everyone. Globalization has fundamentally affected the process of teaching and learning and in particular the language teacher education program. In this study, different positive influences that globalization would have on language teacher education are considered. The awareness of globalization and its adaptation to the needs of teacher education, its effects on instruments of instruction, identity change in teacher education, long-life learning and far-distance education and finally its effects on teacher-student relationship in teacher education are issues taken into account in this study. Moreover, the possible negative effects are discussed at the end.

  174. Allison Thomas and Dr. Siva Prasadh, R.

    Continuing the professional growth of novices so that they become effective teachers has been a challenge for decades. Research suggests that induction programmes with comprehensive support structures can achieve this outcome. The NEC Teacher Induction Programme, the focus of this article, contains such support structures. Findings from a survey of novices’ perceptions of the support structures indicate that the novices view mentorship, master teacher demonstrations and the teacher-support group as the most beneficial in their induction experience.

  175. Dr. Soma Saha and Dr. Pravat Kumar Kuri

    This study was conducted to examine the extent to which the rural poor living in the forest fringe areas of West Bengal, India were dependent on forest for their subsistence. The study also analysed their participation in forest management and its impact on the environment. Total 300 households in 9 villages in the districts of Bankura and Purulia were surveyed. Both statistical and econometric techniques (Censored Tobit Model) were used to analyse the determinants of collective action in forest management. Logit Regression Method was used to analyse the nexus between active forest management and forest degradation. The results of the study indicated that in those households where the percentage of the agricultural income to the total income is very low, the participation in forest management is very active. The study also revealed that collective action in forest management is positively related to the percentage of common forest resource income to total income of the rural households. The result also confirmed that forest management has a critical role in reducing forest degradation.

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