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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

January 2015

Genital prolapse is a disorder of pelvic support and is one of the most frequent disorders encountered in our gynaecological practice. Our social and cultural background predisposes to this condition to occur at an age which is reported to be earlier than any other part of the world. It is fairly common to see a long cervix in a young nullipara without uterine prolapse. The treatment of cervical elongation is a challenge in case of nulliparous woman in whom fertility is to be preserved.

Community health practice refers to provision of health care services, aimed at early diagnosis of disease, recognition of environmental and occupational hazards to good health and prevention of disease in the community. The Community is seen as the hub of Community Health Practice. It is the essential laboratory for practice of teaching, training and research in the subject of community medicine/health. The idea of the community as the centre of health services delivery was advocated as far back in 1960s. From the concept of Basic Health Services, Primary Health care emerged.

Epilepsy is widely prevalent in the elderly populations. Besides unpredictable seizure attacks, co-morbidities like cognitive impairment, anxiety, depression and disturbed social behavior are severe in elderly subjects inflicted with epilepsy. Though anti- epileptic drugs (AED) are the most common means of treating TLE, undesirable side effects associated with them limit their usage. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop alternative non-invasive therapeutic strategies to treat elderly individuals with TLE.

Caprineherpesvirus 1 (CapHV1) is related to Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) and may cause respiratory and reproductive symptoms. CapHV1 disease pathogenesis is poorly understood and there are few studies on Bulgarian CapHV1 isolates. The aim of this study was to investigate the central region of the glycoprotein C (gC) gene of CapHV1 in fiveBulgarian isolates and compare it with other European and American CapHV1 and a BoHV1 strains. PCR amplifications yielded 414 bp products for the CapHV1 strains and BoHV1.

Water quality is an index of health and well being of a society. The water quality is determined by the amount and kinds of suspended and dissolved substances in water. Industrialization, urbanization and modern agricultural practices have direct impact on water resources quantitatively and qualitatively. The objective of the present study was to determine the bacterial contamination and physicochemical characteristics of drinking water samples collected from various villages in and around Javaranahalli Gram Panchayat, Nagamangala Taluk, Mandya district, Karnataka state.

HIV/AIDS continues to pose challenges to the health system of developing countries. Substance use has been identified as an important behavioral co-factor for HIV infection. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge and effectiveness of HIV educational programme in Patients with Substance Use Disorders (PSUD). The study was carried out among 30 in-patients with substance use disorder at the Center for Addiction Medicine and male open psychiatric wards in a south Indian psychiatric hospital. A non equivalent control group pretest post test design was adopted.

Today, managers of health human resources in nursing face an enormous challenge. Operating within a context of rising demand for health services ,cost containment and shortages of nurses and other health workers , determining the most effective mix of staff and the skills needed by each category of staff to ensure safe, quality and cost effective patient care. Aim: This study aimed to evaluation framework to determine the impact of nursing staff mix decisions in different hospitals; Health Insurance Tanta, Main University and Menshawy Hospitals. Design: descriptive study was be used.

The study aimed to identify risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among Afghan immigrant patients at a tertiary care hospital in Iran. This was a retrospective analysis of all confirmed Afghan immigrant TB patients from December 2000 – June 2005. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was performed on Lowenstein–Jensen media according to proportion method. The risk factors associated with MDR-TB were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were isolated from 668 Afghan immigrant patients.

Glomus tumors are uncommon and are rarely diagnosed on cytopathology. We report a case of 28 years female presenting with a painful subungual swelling. Fine needle aspiration sample was heavily admixed with blood and cytology showed groups of cohesive, uniform, small, round to oval cells with scanty cytoplasm against the background of red blood cells. Cytology was reported as “suggestive of glomus tumor”. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis.

Background: Africa societies place so much emphasizes on fertility so much that couples with infertility after sometime faces considerable emotional, physical and psychological problems. Aim: To explore knowledge of effect of age, obesity, smoking, timing of intercourse, previous STIs and environmental pollutants on fertility among University students. Methods: This was a cross- sectional descriptive study of 420 consented students of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso. They were interviewed through self–administered pre-tested structured questionnaire.

We present a case report of a child with bronchial foreign body without any presenting symptoms. After evaluating the history and examination child was sent for x ray chest which showed a radioopaque foreign in left main bronchus. Patient was taken to OR and rigid bronchoscopy guided removal of foreign body was done. Postoperative course was uneventful. We conclude that in all suspected cases of foreign body diagnostic bronchoscopy should be considered.

In antenatal mothers pregnancy induced hypertension is one of the important cause of maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is an unpredictable multiorgan disorder unique to human pregnancy. The pathophysiological effects which may range from simple hypertension to multiorgan failure, that occurs in pregnancy for the first time after 20 weeks of gestation. Reviews of some of the important pathophysiological changes that occur in pregnancy induced hypertension were discussed in this article.

The present study was to carried out plant regeneration of Arachis hypogaea from in mature leaf explant was cultured on MS medium containing various concentration of IAA (2.5mg/l) and BAP (1mg/l) was maximum percentage of callus induction from shoot explants. KIN (2.5mg/l) and IAA (1mg/l) was maximum shoot regeneration of callus. BAP+ KIN (2.5mg /l) in combined effect of 1AA (1mg/l) results showed maximum yield of callus and shoot induction. IBA (3.0 mg/l) and KIN (0.5mg/l) was produced amount of maximum number of root induction.

Purpose: To evaluate knowledge regarding HPV and acceptability of HPV DNA self sampling among female adult in rural population in East Malaysia. Methods: Ninety eight women aged 18 to 65 years old who attended medical camp in Kaingaran village, Sabah were recruited in this cross sectional study. Demographic data were recorded through face to face interview for age, race, educational status, marital status, religion, occupation, total monthly income, parity, social background, Pap smear status, knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer.

The main aim of the present Investigation was to develop colon targeted matrix tablets of Glipizide using various concentrations of selected polymers are Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, Ethyl cellulose and Guar gum. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and both pre-compression and post- compression parameters for all batches showed the suitable ranges.

Background: The increasing overuse and sometimes, failure of chemotherapeutics and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic infectious microbes, have led to the screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial effect of cold and hot extract of Triphalachurna is one such medicinal extract. Materials and Methods: The clinical samples received at the Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal were tested using the extract by agar dilution method against common wound pathogens such as MSSA, MRSA, E.

Actinomycetes are abundantly present in soil and they produce a variety of antimicrobial compounds that can be used as chemotherapeutic agent in order to limit the infection. In present study, actinomycetes were isolated from different ground soils. Primarily these isolates were screened for extracellular metabolites production by conventional methods. Cross streak method and double agar overlay methods were used in this screening. Initially we have isolated 33 actinomycetes strains from different soil samples and screened them for antimicrobial potential.

Insulin pen device helps diabetic children to manage their diabetes. It offers an easier method for insulin administration that is more accurate, less painful, and more discreet compared with vials and syringes. It improves adherence, enhance quality of life, glycemic control, and decrease costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using insulin pen device on glycemic control and quality of life in children with type I diabetes mellitus. A sample of 60 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus included in this study.

Allergic rhinitis represents a considerable burden both on individual patients and society. The associated bothersome symptoms cause impairement of usual daily activities leading to absence from work and decrease in productivity, particularly among young adults. Because of the trivial symptoms, the effects and consequences of allergic rhinitis are usually under-estimated both by the patient as well as the physician. Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis (AR) are thought to be a reflection of the same disease and are often found coexistent in the same individual.

Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of major concern not only to hospitals, nursing home authorities but also to the environment. The Biomedical wastes (BMW)generated from health care units depend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type of health care units, occupancy of healthcare units, specialization of healthcare units, ratio of reusable items in use, availability of infrastructure and resources etc. The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today.

There is a strong association between needlestick injuries and spread of infectious diseases. Dental health professionals are at constant risk of having these diseases. This research was designed to measure knowledge and awareness of needlestick injuries among dental health professionals in Riyadh. Data was collected from 777 participants who filled up a closed ended question format. Almost half of the participants reported one NSI during 12 months prior to the study, a few having experienced two or three and remaining with no injury experience.

Discharge of industrial waste water often poses serious threat to our environment. In the present study, heavy metals content in industrial waste water from common industrial effluent treatment plant in Unnao district (U.P.), India were quantified. The nickel (1.2 mg l-1) and chromium (1.8 mg l-1) content was high in industrial waste water and concentration was found in order Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu. Eichhornia crassipes Mart.

The thermohilic Geobacillus thermoleorans Strain REKADWADSIS isolated from Unkeshwar thermal spring showed optimum temperature 65 ± 0.2 oC at its pH optima 7.5 ± 0.2. Geobacillus amylase production was detected on starch nutrient agar plates at 65 oC. Geobacillus was produced 8, 623 U/mL amylase under SmF at 68 ± 0.2 oC. The supplementation of additional lactose (1%) and tryptone (1%) with 10% inoculum was enhanced the production of thermostable amylase (14, 223 U/mL). Geobacillus thermostable amylase has apparent approximately MW 42 kDa.

Common Sweet Flag or Acorus calamus is a medicinal plant from the Acoraceae family. Tamil name is Vashambu. It is a tall perennial wetland monocot with scented leaves and rhizomes which have been used in medicinal field. In vitro studies indicate that even those plants / plant parts / extracts that have been already evaluated for their antimicrobial efficacy have to be re-evaluated adopting these more precise and advanced assay methods. Present study was Isolation and maintaining the standard ATCC strains and clinical fungal samples.

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) specified by IEEE 802.12 supports Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN). It is one of the most prominent technology for the next generation networks and it provides high data rates and long range with full support of mobility. It is based on IEEE 802.16 standards and the modifications specifying the MAC and physical layers for fixed, portable, nomadic and mobile access.

The current investigation deals with the detection of class of compounds present, free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity, of the stem and leaves of Waltheria indica. For this studies Petroleum ether, Chloroform and Methanol were used for extraction. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated by using the DPPH, (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical),FRAP(Ferric reducing ability of plasma)and LPO(Lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity) methods and Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay on cancer and normal cell lines.

At three different pH (pH 3.5, 7, 9.5) screening of the polythene degrading fungi was carried out based on percent weight loss and changes in tensile strength after 2 months of regular shaking at room temperature. Maximum percent weight loss (13.63 ±4.93%) of the polythene after 2 month of regular shaking was found with isolates JAMNF 3 at pH3.5 whereas minimum percent weight loss (0.00±0.00 %) was reported with JAMNF6 at pH 3.5.

Rotifers are one of the fascinating groups of zooplankton in the aquatic ecosystem. They are one of the connecting link organisms between primary producers and consumers of higher order in aquatic food web. Rotifers are important group of zooplankton and acts as good indicators of the changes in water quality as they are strongly affected by environmental conditions and respond quickly to changes in water quality. The present study reports on a collection of 18 species of rotifer from Yenapat a freshwater lake in Bishnupur district of Manipur.

Background: Vulvovaginitis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several conventional methods are routinely used for determination; however, vulvovaginitis a challenge for patients and gynecologists. Aims and objectives: The aims of the present study was to find out the prevalence of candidial vulvovaginitis, along with Candida albicans and evolution of the 18S rRNA PCR method sensitivity in the detection of Candida albicanis in pregnant women with clinical diagnosis of vulvovaginitis.

Objectives: To determine the immunomodulatory effects of xanthan, glycated albumin and mixture of both on the induction of monocytes cytokine synthesis and the cell viability. Methods: Monocytes were cultured with xanthan, glycated albumin and mixture of xanthan/glycated albumin as treatments at different concentrations for 3 h. The quantitative determination of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was performed in cultured monocytes by ELISA.

Heavy Metals are one of the most important toxicant which destroys the aquatic ecosystem. Their natural effects are carcinogenic and mutagenic. The present study showed the concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Pd) in the ovary of Liza parsia from two sites of Ashtamudi lake, the Ramsar site. The heavy metals are found to be accumulated more in the site 2 than in site1. The study also demonstrates the histological changes associated with the accumulation of toxic heavy metals in the ovary thereby its reproductive potential. The histological changes in the ovary of the L.

In this study attempts have been made to find out the correlation and variation of the major disease problems encountered in carp culture sectors with the physicochemical characteristics of the important cultural areas of West Bengal. Water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free CO2, total alkalinity, transparency and hardness were analyzed during the investigation. The recorded sampling values of these variables were correlated with diseases noticed.

The study aims at identifying and analyzing the changes in land use/land cover (LULC) in Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya, using Landsat series satellite data for 1987, 1999 and 2013. The study is based on comparison of LULC data of two time interval periods of 1987-1999 and 1999-2013. Using an integrated supervised-unsupervised hybrid training approaches of image classification, the LULC maps were prepared and used to analyze the changes in LULC of the study area.

The study of the extracellular enzymes activity, as protease, amylase and cellulase of bacteria isolated from the Kharaa River has been made. Proteases were also synthesized very intensively by bacterial strains isolated from the Kharaa River. Maximum amylase activity has been shown by the isolate from the sites with developed agriculture and livestock. The percentage of organisms having cellulytic activity is less in comparison with other enzymes; there are only few reports from bacterial strains. In the spring time, bacterial isolates have shown maximum cellulytic activity.

Conservation Agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future.

With the improvement of people’s living standards and increasing awareness, focus is shifting towards staple food with added benefits that could be a part of healthy balanced diet. Many landraces or local varieties of rice harbour beneficial traits such as higher nutritional value and medicinal properties when compared to hybrid varieties. Efforts are required to increase public awareness about these varieties.

Pomegranate Present study was carried out to document plant-based preparations used as abortifacients in the valley districts of Manipur, North eastern India, where Meitei’s are the highest in population among the other communities. Data were collected by interviewing local traditional healers, elderly women, mayoknabee etc., at different places in all the seasons. A total of 22 angiospermic plants belonging to 18 families and 22 genera have been documented. Information on local names, plant parts and different modes of preparations were documented in this present paper.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L), in addition to its ancient historical uses, has been used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich juice with high antioxidant capacity. It is evident from the previous studies that pomegranate juice has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to validate the skin care properties of P. granatum.

The influence of the source of seeds was evaluated on the germination and growth of Moringa oleifera Lam. in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. The device is a randomized complete block with 3 replications and 4 treatments. Provenances or isohyets represent treatment (4). The experimental unit consists of 30 seeds. The results of this study appear that the origin of isohyets has no influence on the growth and germination of seedling. However, seed weight differs significantly with isohyets (0.0047 <0.01).

Objectives: to examine the role of PCOS in alteration of FSH, LH, Total testosterone, LH/FSH ratio as well as correlating the outcome to obesity. Methods: One Hundred female patients with PCOS based on Rotterdam 2003 criteria. Together with fifty healthy volunteer females included as controls. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and total testosterone were tested in the two group. On top of that, we calculated LH/FSH ratio in all attendants. Body Mass Index (BMI) evaluated to be a part of the correlation.

Indian tribal people account for 8.14 per cent of the total population of the country, numbering 84.51 million (Census, 2001). There were 635 tribal groups including 75 designated as ‘primitive’ based on pre-agricultural level of technology, low literacy, diminishing population size, relative seclusion from the main stream of population, economical backwardness, extreme poverty, dwelling in remote inaccessible hilly terrains, maintenance of constant touch with the natural environment, and unaffected by the developmental process undergoing in India.

PGPB – Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria are the group of beneficial bacteria promote crop growth and yield by exerting many beneficial aspects like N fixation, P solubilization, growth promoting substances production and siderophore production. In the present research about 13 isolates were isolated and identified as Azospirillum brasilense, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and phosphobacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and these isolates were studied for its PGPB nature to provide N & P nutrients and biocontrol nature through siderophore production.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic association between higher plant roots and certain fungi which plays a key role in the mobilization of phosphorus and natural cycling of various nutrients in the ecosystem and also protect plants against environmental stresses and pathogenic organisms. Marigold is an economically important flower crop and it can be cultivated round the year. Marigold flowers has got popularity among gardeners and dealers due to its easy cultivation and wide adaptability.

There are varieties of agents that can impair the normal resistance mechanism of birds. The presence of such agents in modern poultry operation is of great importance as they can directly affect performance of birds and incidence of diseases. One of the most common immunosuppressive agents in poultry is mycotoxin produced by fungi. Various species of poultry differ in susceptibility to acute and sub-acute aflatoxicosis.

The organic waste is recycled in several ways, including incineration, composting and biomethanation. Controlled landfills are gradually built into the different regions of Morocco as they are considered a solution to avoid greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and allow recovery of biogas as a renewable source to produce electricity. However few studies have evaluated the cost of waste management and the emissions balance sheet as equivalent Carbon emissions Reduction from these facilities.

Ionosphere is a part of atmosphere that caused by the solar UV radiation, in turn produced different layers including D, E, etc. Then the matters ionized into electrons and ions etc…Ionosphere affects severely to propagation of radio wave between the points on the earth. By means of ion sounds one could considered the ionosphere layers, their opacity and clearance on the radio waves propagation. These are possible by studies the critical frequency of the layer or the blanketing frequency of it.

The Solid Transportation Problem (STP) arises when bounds are given on three item properties. Usually, these properties are supply, demand, and type of product or mode of transport (conveyance). In this paper, the efficient solutions and stability of multiobjective solid transportation problem (Poss MOSTP) with possibilitic coefficients and / or possibilistic supply quantities and / or possibilistic demand quantities and / or possibilistic conveyances are investigated.

The objective of this study is to check the possibility of producing potable water from seawater using low cost technique depends on concentrated solar rays by mirrors specially in autumn and winter seasons. The study erected a pilot plant in Faculty of Eng. pilots open site, ASU. The system used 3 concave mirrors and directed to let mirrors receives sunrays and concentrated it on the pilot for the whole sunny period. The measurements for quantities, temperature and TDS for the inlet and outlet waters were made with the measuring of air temperature and sunshine period among the day.

In this paper, the design and development of so called conventional type of microstrip patch antenna. The enhancing bandwidth and size reduction mechanism that improves the performance of a conventional microstrip patch antenna on a relatively dielectric thin substrate, is presented. The proposed conventional antenna is operated in the C-band and X-band with three resonant frequencies.

In this paper the important role of Kähler manifolds in the process of building supergravity theories is considered. After a brief introduction connected to particle physics and field theory, details about almost complex and complex structures, so as about the differential geometry of Kähler manifolds, will be done. Focusing then on D=4, N=1 supergravity, technical tools related to the coupling of pure D=4, N=1 supergravity to scalar and vector multiplets are also given.

Recent investigations into the level of heavy metal enrichment in the water of Varal Devi Lake in Bhiwandi have indicated that significant contamination has occurred over the past few years. Elevated levels of Manganese have been observed in most parts of the lake causing toxicity. Current levels of manganese in the Varal Devi Lake water have arisen from natural sources and due to anthropogenic activities (Idol Immersion). These results reiterate the importance of identifying the causes of toxicity in assessments of water contamination.

The study sought to investigate access to and use of libraries among students with special needs at two tertiary institutions in Ghana. They are the University of Education, Winneba and Kumasi Polytechnic, Kumasi. A total of 40 participants comprising 20 students with special needs and 20 library staff were selected for the study. Questionnaire was used as the main research instrument for gathering data. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to sample the students with special needs and the library staff for the study.

Learners of a second language vary from some aspects such as personality, motivation, learning styles, age and aptitude. In this the aim is to study about the relationship existing between Personality and second language acquisition. To increase the learning process up to the maximum level, individual differences must be noticed. Some features of the learners might encourage or inhibit second language acquisition (cook 1996).

An effort to fully understand the interface of work-family conflict and social support can be observed in psychological research for more than three decades.

This paper explores the implementation of a university outdoor drama performance at a prominent Taiwanese monument (Fort San Domingo) as a community service. In particular, a narrative inquiry from a student director, theater actors and a faculty director of the paper discusses the problems when they were dealing with a community service learning through the outdoor drama performance. It examines a cyclical process which involves planning, acting, observing and reflecting.

Most of the organizations use financial data to allocate resources to their various departments. Hence to assess the financial health of an organization, analyzing the financial data and financial performance indicators become crucial. This paper deals with the impact of financial performance indicators on profitability of a textile industry. Indian textile industry is the second largest employment generating sector, next to agricultural sector.

Tourism has become a significant industry in both poor and rich economies because of its important impacts on economic, livelihoods and socio-cultural developments (Shah 2000). Hence the study aimed to assess the basic determinants of tourism development in the study area and to identify the major factors that could help to attract tourists. By using cross sectional data of 2012 household survey in Aksum town. To achieve the objectives of the study descriptive analysis techniques was used. The flow of tourist and income generated from them, in Axum was increased from year 1997-2005 E.C.

Climate change is the main challenge for farm households in the world and it becomes a special treat for underdeveloped country’s farmers whose income depends on whether condition. And Ethiopia is one of the few countries in the world that has been ravaged by extreme drought. While its economy depends on agriculture, Farmers face a variety of climatic risks that make their incomes unstable and unpredictable from year to year (Hazell et al., 2010). In order to minimize such agricultural problems index insurance program is being developed in Ethiopia.

The study was conducted on the factors that affect Ethiopian flower companies’ export performance which are located around Addis Ababa. Accordingly, in order to achieve the overall objective of the study, the researchers selected the flower companies through convenience sampling and distributed questionnaires for the Marketing, Production and General Managers through judgmental sampling which was based on their field of study or duty.

We investigated the model cash-cash flow sensitivity by proceeding the 165 Pakistani manufacturing firms data that published by the authentic government body state bank of Pakistan and these firms are listed in Karachi stock exchange. The observation period started from 2007 to 2010. This study disclose that Pakistani manufacturing firms try to escalate the cash holding level that beyond the firm cash flow level there should be two aspects of more holding first they hold for precautionary and second investment motives.

Tourism is a fast growing industry. It has paramount contributions in the economy of a nation. However, without the consideration of the quality of tourism products such as accessibilities, accommodations, attractions, amenities and activities/entertainment facilities, tourism cannot adequately yield the desired outcomes. This paper attempted specifically to gauge the service quality of the accessibility services, amenities, attraction site facilities, accommodation and activities/entertainment facilities. This research paper employed descriptive type of research with qualitative approach.

The purpose of this study was to examine the magnitude of the problem of internal efficiency and effectiveness in the form of dropouts and repetition of secondary schools in welqait wereda. To attain this objective descriptive method was employed which include a sample of five secondary schools, five school leadership member principals, 40 teachers and 40 students were selected using purposive and convenience sampling techniques respectively. Before distributing the questionnaire, its validity and reliability was checked through pilot study.

This article is about the Department of Dairy Development, Government of Kerala, It was established in 1962 and it completed its Fifty years. This article is briefly about the Department of Dairy Development and his role of the department in increasing the Kerala's milk production.

For several decades, in Benin, the phenomenon of guilty or desirable relationships between teachers and students of both sexes keeps increasing in school and university settings. Despite the myriad of strategies implemented by the Government of Benin and its partners, the disparity between boys and girls in secondary education is still significant, to the detriment of the latter. The objective of this research was to focus on the subject heeding the untapped human dimension.

The discrimination function is a mathematical model can be used to explain the effected factors. In this study the reproduction is very important for life, and it contains a group of sequence events (Delivery and Pregnancy). Event of delivery can be achieved after 270 -280 days and in the case called (Atform), Sometimes the delivery will be between 180-270 days and in this case called (Prematurity). If delivery within less than 180 days in this case called (Abortion). Sometimes delivery will be after 280 days and in this case called (Late delivery).

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance in human being and many animals. This zoonotic disease causes infection in cats and other pet animals and these animals can influence human's health. This study have been performed for detection of sero- epidemiology of leptospirosis and evaluation of sero- prevalence of Leptospira serovars in both household and stray cats by Microscopic Agglutination Test (M.A.T). Serum samples of 71 cats in two household and stray groups (31 household cats and 40 stray cats) were collected.

Introduction: One of the common methods for assessing of quality in higher education, students' point of view, in this regard, and spiritual health, as one of health, because it is the integration of other dimensions, and involve two later, and religious. Methods: This research is descriptive and is the correlation type. The population of this study consisted of all students of ILAM University of Medical Sciences, in the year 1393, at the University, were enrolled. In this research, stratified sampling, was used. According to Morgan, 311 students, as the sample was selected.

Background: Blood transfusion is lifesaving but it is also an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. With every unit of blood there is a 1% chance of transfusion associated problems including transfusion transmitted infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to find out prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) in voluntary and replacement donors in our hospital transfusion service set up. This study also aids in evaluating the safety of the collected donations.

Background: Iron Deficiency Anaemia is a worldwide public health problem. Estimates from the WHO report that from 35% to 75% of pregnant women in developing countries are anaemic. In India, anaemia is the most common nutritional problem affecting more than ½ of the total population particularly in children and pregnant women where the incident is 50 to 97%. Anaemia prevalence is highest among pregnant women, infants, and young children due to the high iron demands of growth and pregnancy.

Phenolic and flavonoids compounds were extracted from propolis obtained from Al-Hussainya district in Karbala province. Results revealed that incubation period 48 and 72hourswere the optimum period for extraction total phenol and flavonoids, respectively. Where as the best ethanol concentrations for extraction of total phenol and flavonoids were 50% and 70 %, respectively. Inhibition activity of propoliswas studied against 15 isolates of Candida albicans isolated from mouth, vagina, urine and skin of the patients.

Nanotechnology has revolutionized all aspects of health care and is a new paradigm of state-of-the-art patient care beyond traditional, and dentistry is no exception. Nanodental techniques for major tooth repair may evolve through several stages of technological development, first using genetic engineering, tissue engineering and regeneration, and later involving the growth of whole new teeth in-vitro and their installation.

The paper examines the tax compliance costs of the individual taxpayers in Addis Ababa. One research question and one hypothesis were investigated in this study: (RQ) compliance costs of the individual income tax system borne directly by the taxpayers themselves, including both the time spent and pecuniary expenditures and (H) The compliance costs of individual income tax are relatively low - in terms of their costs per individual: especially costs of time and monetary costs.

Certain degree of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential elements and at increased risk of nutritional disorders. Availability of dietary supplement of these elements may prevent some of these nutritional disorders. This study was designed to access serum levels of zinc, copper and selenium in albino rats fed with Moringa oleifera leaf extract. The research was carried out in the animal house of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo. Seventy healthy male and female rats (40 tests and 30 controls) were selected into the study.

Background: The extensive outgrowth of newer drug molecules not only improves the disease condition but also frequently changes the pattern of Adverse Cutaneous Drug Reaction (ACDR). The need for this study is to identify the current drugs responsible for fixed drug eruption (FDE) and to ensure safety of the patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects with the diagnosis of FDE were included in the study for a period 12 months. The entire details such as patient’s clinical history, drug reaction and detail drug history were noted down.

Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) is a commonly occurring contagious reproductive tumor of dogs affecting both sexes. A two years old intact male mongrel dog was brought to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of Veterinary College and Research Institute, Orathanadu with the history of inappetence, multiple subcutaneous swellings and blood tinted urine with dysuria for the past two weeks. Physical examination multiple hard mass approximately 2-5 cm in diameter was noticed all over the body and also swelling of the prepuce area with 12cmx6cm sized mass was noticed.

Aim The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on serum lipid levels in chronic periodontitis. Methods Study population included 60 subjects between the ages of 30-60 years with chronic periodontitis. Only non-obese subjects were selected as determined by calculation of body mass index (BMI).Clinical parameters, probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded.

Introduction: The rapid progress of urbanization and demographic trends is associated with a cluster of unhealthy lifestyles leading to overweight/obesity in children and adults. Rising prevalence of obesity in India may be attributed to various factors like sedentary life-style, unhealthy food habits, cultural practices and increasing affluence of middle class population. Obesity is a key factor for many chronic and non-communicable diseases. Complications of adult obesity are made worse if the obesity begins in childhood. Objectives: 1.

Acrylic resin interocclusal appliances have been used in dentistry for the management and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Appliances have been used with the goals of altering occlusal relationships, redistributing occlusal forces, preventing wear and mobility of teeth, reducing bruxism and other parafunctional habits, repositioning the condyle, and treating masticatory muscle pain. Articles from 1974 to 2013 were randomly selected using online search engine. Articles that could be procured have been compiled in this literature review

The doctor patient relationship is a very delicate one which stands on mutual trust. Unfortunately in recent days the standard of medical practice is declining. Until 1986 the number of cases filed on doctors were less but after the emergence of the Consumer Protection Act in 1986 the consumer awareness has been increased with rising expectations and medical negligence has been included under the purview of this act. Especially in recent times the number of cases filed on doctors has increased and it is necessary to know the basics of medical negligence.

The present study was conducted to estimate the breadth of the protection against the characterized Egyptian (EG/1212B) strain of IBV and evaluation of different immunization programs using some available commercial live vaccines in Egypt as following; group (1) vaccinated by (IB Primer and Ma 5), group (2) vaccinated by (IB Primer and 4/91), group (3) vaccinated by (Ma5 and H120), group (4) are non-vaccinated challenged and group (5) are non-vaccinated non-challenged.

Eyes are the windows to soul and they are noticed first. Loss of an eye affects a patient psychologically and also socially. It makes an individual feel crippled. Hence its very challenging for a maxillofacial prosthodontist in fabricating an ocular prosthesis with acceptable aesthetics to restore facial symmetry and normal appearance for the patient. This article presents a case report of a patient with an acquired ocular defect due to trauma, treated with an ocular prosthesis using conventional technique which is much easier and with a good aesthetic results.

Background: Stressors in the intensive care unit (ICU) impair patients’ comfort, excite the stress response, and change their vital signs. Non-medical interventions are recommended by several studies as a treatment to improve comfort in the ICU patients. Sensory stimulation is one of the most important interventions. Since vital signs is an important index of patients’ clinical condition, this study aimed to investigate the effect of sensory stimulation provided by family on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate in critical care patients.

The present study was undertaken to ascertain the quarter-wise comparative prevalence, distribution of etiological agents and drug sensitivity pattern of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred cows and buffaloes.

The ultimate goal of antenatal and intranatal care is to have not only a healthy mother and a healthy baby, but also to achieve a successful vaginal delivery, keeping in mind the rising rates of caesarean deliveries. Though the aim is to achieve spontaneous vaginal delivery, many times labour has to be induced for various maternal and fetal indications. It has been stated that nearly about 13-20% term patients requires induction of labour (IOL) (Maslow and Sweeny, 2000).

Keeping in view the importance of referral system and centrality of outpatient department in a health care unit the present study at SKIMS will be undertaken to assess profile of patients attending outpatient department, their rationale for referral and thereby forming a policy of referral for health care institutions.

Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a major public health problem in India. Seasonal outbreaks of AES occurring regularity in Muzaffarpur district, Bihar. Present investigation was carried out to explore the possible entomological causative factors for sudden onset of the disease. A total of fifty two rodents belonging to four different species viz. Mus musculus, Bendicota benglensis, Rattus rattus, and Suncus murinus were collected. In commensal rodents overall infestation rate of ectoprasites was recorded as 77.5% and in wild rodents 33.3%.

Intestinal obstruction due to fecolith is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. A 20 years old adult male presented with the features of intestinal obstruction of seven days duration. Clinical examination and radiological investigations suggests the features of small bowel obstruction. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and a lump with hard consistency was found in distal jejunum, and enterotomy was made to take out the lump. It was fecolith of size 4×3×2 cm (Fig 3).

Background: Coronoid process is a flat, triangular projection from the ramus of mandible giving attachment to two important muscles of mastication -temporalis and masseter. The knowledge of variations in the shapes of coronoid process is important for maxillofacial surgeons as a graft material as well as for anthropologists for the detection of races. Aim: To determine the different shapes of coronoid process of mandible in both sides and both sexes.

The birth of a newborn baby with normal morphology gives a feeling of delight, hope and gratitude to the parents as well as to the health care providers. However the sight of a baby born with an unusual caudal appendage resembling a tail creates an unusual emotion of apprehension, fear and shame. The appearance of a true human tail at birth, defined as a caudal, vestigial, midline protrusion of muscle and adipose tissue with skin covering, is an unusual event with less than 60 cases reported in the literature so far.

Background: Bio-archaeological research reveals the importance of accurate stature estimation. Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. Objective: The current study dealt with developing a regression equation for stature estimation from foot length. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place of study: Department of Forensic medicine Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally.

Back ground: Triple negative breast cancer TNBC) patients are subset of breast cancer patients who test negative for estrogen receptor(ER), the progesterone receptor(PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER-2) and show different biological behavior.

Aim: To explore the lived experiences of registered nurses who give palliative care at intensive care unit of a major medical centre in a Caribbean Island. Methods: Purposive criterion sample of all nurses at the major hospital was employed to determine their live experiences using a qualitative design based on grounded theory. Questionnaire structured to accommodate their free expression of their experiences was designed for the study. All 12 nurses who work the different shifts volunteered. Results: The nurses were of three nationalities (Trinidad and Tobago, Philippines, and Cuba).

Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies are not uncommon mostly in the children and elderly individuals. Sharp pointed objects can cause injury to any part of the digestive tracts that lead to bleed or perforation of viscus, sometimes it can pose a catastrophic phenomena like battery ingestion. We removed partially eaten whole mango accidentally ingested and lodged in the lower esophagus by an elderly man who ran a long way from Himachal Pradesh. We used a Foley’s Catheter at the end which is an indwelling catheter used for the drainage of urine.

Background: Essential Thrombocythaemia {E.T.} also known as essential thrombocytosis is a rare chronic blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of platelets by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. It is one of four myeloproliferative disorders (disorders characterized by increased production of a particular line of blood cell). Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase enzyme that can elongate the TTAGGG repeats of telomeres in cells, where it is expressed to sustain cellular immortality.

A survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of 200 farmers on rodent pests and their management was conducted in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, using a structured questionnaire to study the population ecology of rodents, their extent of damage and the various management practices commonly adopted by farmers to control them. The information on this survey is useful to formulate and design the Integrated Rodent Management (IRM) strategies or modules for effective rodent control.

The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp) is a popular mushroom due to its tremendous stability of cap and stem, cooking qualities and longer shelf life. Among the consumers, where Pleurotus spp mushrooms is very trendy, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale. Due to its gradual depletion of nutrients due to their subsequent utilization of mushroom mycelium. Hence good growth and better yield of mushroom can be achieved when different substrates are supplemented.

Traditionally, honey is used in the application of wound to reduce the possibility of infection. The study conducted here was to analyze the antimicrobial activities of local honey against Staphylococcusaureus and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. Also attempt was made to find out whether there are correlations between the antimicrobial activity of honey and their physicochemical, proximate and trace elemental parameters. This activity is mainly due to its low pH, osmolality and hydrogen peroxide accumulation.

A survey on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of 200 farmers on rodent pests and their management was conducted in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, using a structured questionnaire to study the population ecology of rodents, their extent of damage and the various management practices commonly adopted by farmers to control them. The information on this survey is useful to formulate and design the Integrated Rodent Management (IRM) strategies or modules for effective rodent control.

Duckweeds are monocotyledonous aquatic plants having ability to rapid vegetative reproduction to form genetically uniform clones. In this study, duckweeds (Lemna minor) are used for the study of laboratory scale in the reduction of parameters such as BOD, COD, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, TSS, sulphate, phosphate and chloride under different detention time (10, 12, 15, 20 and 30 days). Reduction values of these parameters were increased with corresponding increase in detention time.

Antimicrobial properties of chitosan extracted from shrimp processing waste were determined against one gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. The antimicrobial activities of chitosan were explored by calculation of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in media supplemented with 200, 400, 600, 800and 1000 ppm chitosan solution. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the prepared chitosan was 800 and 1000 ppm for both bacterial strains.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects immune compromised hosts and is characterized by its natural resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was the assessment of the some antimicrobial sensitive level among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, furthermore to compare between the different antibiotics among the susceptible and sensitivity by isolates of P. aeruginosa also to detect the most potent drug on P. aeruginosa. A total of 65 clinical isolates of P.

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the region of Gulmarg, Kashmir. A total of 27 ethnomedical plant species belonging to 26 genera and 18 families were reported with the help of some standardize questionnaires among the tribal people. The indigenous knowledge of local people about the native plants was collected through questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. The study shows the use of plant species for traditional folk medicines and high degree of ehnobotanical novelty.

Every organism, may be an animal or a plant, has different gene within them. Genes are the locatable regions of genomic sequences, corresponding to a unit of inheritance, which is associated with regulatory regions, transcribed regions, and or other functional sequence regions (Pearson, 2006 and Pennisi, 2007). The sum total of the entire gene in an organism is known as Genome. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of viruses in RNA. The process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule is called as genome sequencing.

Earthworms are one of the major soil biota but the application of insecticides in the agricultural field has been threatened the soil beneficial organisms including earthworms. Hence, in the present study sublethal concentrations of carbaryl (T1-4.195ppm and T2-13.984ppm) on the biochemical response of the L.mauritii was investigated. The activities of following enzymes were measured: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE). The levels of lipid peroxides (LP) and glutathione level (GSH) were also determined.

The phytochemical screenings and acute oral toxicity of the aqueous extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Nauclea latifolia were carried out. The leaf extract of V. amygdalina had the highest yields of alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins with 16.00%, 9% and 9% respectively. Tannins yield was found to be highest in N. latifolia where 6.70x10-5mol/dm3 was recorded in its stem extract. An evaluation of the acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of these plants showed no mortality of any of the rats at 1000 and 2000mg/kg after 72 hours.

The present paper resulted from field studies carried out by the author in Jajpur district of Odisha for past 20 years (1990-2010). Out of over 1000 species of flowering plants and ferns recorded from the district about 530 species are of medicinal value. Twenty six species of commonly important medicinal plants have a good potential for commercial exploitation. An account of sixty two medicinal plant species, which are fast depleting in the area have been presented, which draws immediate attention for their conservation and protection.

Screening for HBsAg is done routinely in patients attending various departments of Hospital. Different methods of conducting HBsAg tests include solid phase assays, flow through, agglutination, and lateral flow. These rapid tests need a backup of standard EIA testing and /or DNA based methods like PCR as gold standard for evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. In our setup we perform rapid tests (J mitra’s Hepacard) based on Immunochromatographic method, Elisa and PCR for confirmation and further evaluation.

The study was conducted with the objectives to: 1) assess the health status women during menopausal transition, 2) study the relationship of various dimensions of women’s health with demographic variables and socio economic status. The sample comprises of 600 women of Jammu, in the age range of 35-65 years, selected through multistage sampling technique. Women’s Health Questionnaire and SES Scale were used to collect the data which was subjected to statistical analysis.

Removal of chromium ions from aqueous solution using dried peel of bitter orange powder was performed through batch studies. Various process parameters like pH, contact time, biomass dose, and metal concentration were studied to investigate the optimum conditions for removal percent and the maximum removal capacity of Cr (VI). The chromium ions concentration was determined using UV-VIS spectroscopy.

Objective: The study explores community’s knowledge about tuberculosis and causes of exclusion from sputum examinations at designated government facilities under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in West Bengal, India. Methods: The prevalence of suspected tuberculosis is 10% among persons attending in a medical Out Patient Department (OPD). Here, survey based work has been carried out on 90 persons with cough for two weeks or more from representative sample of 36 Designated Microscopy Centre (DMC) catchment areas.

Biodiversity may be defined as species richness (plants, animals and micro-organisms) in a given habitat be it on land, in fresh water or sea or as parasites or symbionts. Biodiversity represents sum total of various types of microbes, plants and animals present in that system. It is the variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystem and the ecological complexes of which they are a part and includes diversity within species, between species, and ecosystem.

Almost all the Industrial Data Acquisition and control systems today use connection oriented concepts for interfaces. However, the variety of physical shapes and functional commands that each cable or wire based system has also raises numerous problems the difficulties in locating the particular area affected by the industrial parameter, the complexity in operation of the system, the maintenance issue and so on.

The present study was designed to make a comparative study between the antioxidant activity and nutraceutical properties of Oxalis debilis and Oxalis corniculata. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and the IC50 value of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and Oxalis debilis were found 25.82 ± 0.68 and 73.67 ± 0.91 µg/ml respectively. Among the nutraceutical properties carbohydrate, protein, crude fibre, total phenolic content and ascorbic acid were investigated.

The cellulose Morocco Produces about 125,000 tons / year of bleached eucalyptus pulp chlorine-free (ECF) depending on Kraft process of cooking (soda + sulfide), the oxygen bleaching and chlorine dioxide. The eucalyptus wood are Composed of other macromolecular chains of cellulose origin (these macromoleculars are Formed by the repetition of monomer units of the cyclic glucose type. The junction has its effects by the removal of water) associate fibers which are interconnected to each other by in an amorphous way by hemicellulose and lignin.

There are several different methods of classifying Insect. One of these methods that were used in this research is Geometric Morphometric of wing to study the variation shape and size of the right front wing of Iraqi honeybee worker collected from the provinces of Baghdad and Diyala in Iraq. Geometric Morphometric is an essential tool for honey bee races discrimination and characterization. Such vital tool has been applied widely in honey bee researches.

Various types of by-products are produced during milling in the legume and cereal industries. In the present study, value-added papads were developed by incorporating by-products obtained after milling of bengal gram and rice. The developed papads were studied for their organoleptic characteristics, functional properties and shelf-life. Three types of papads namely control, Type-I and Type-IV papads were selected on the basis of organoleptic scores, which were prepared by utilizing bengal gram seed coat and bengal gram brokens alongwith broken rice.

The present investigation is concentrated on Protein, carbohydrates and mineral content of Spathoglossum marginatum, Padina tetrasmatica, Turbinaria conoides, Ulva fasciata and Enteromorpha flexuosa for future applications in dietary supplements or food industries. Three seaweed samples (i) S. marginatum (ii) P. tetrasmatica (iii) T. conoides were collected from Mandapam coast in Rameshwaram and the two seaweeds (iv) U. fasciata (v) E. flexuosa were collected from Kovalam coast of Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Of the above seaweeds tested S.

Soil samples were collected from oil polluted station from Majnoon oil fieldat a latitude, 30°53'38.36"N and longitude of 47°32'26.18"E, Basrahcity, the samples were cultivated on Minimal salt medium contain crude oil as a sole source of carbon, four types of growing oil degraded bacteria identified according to their morphological and biochemical profiles as: Aeromonashydrophila, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens after using specific cultured media.

Due to the advancement in technology, electronic waste is the fastest-growing scrap stream comprising personal computers, laptops, mobile phones, televisions, consumer durables like refrigerators and other electrical and electronic products. The UNEP report suggests that over 50 million tons of e-waste is generated every year worldwide.

Scleria foliosa Hochst. ex A. Rich, a little known sedge species has been reported for the first time from Tamil Nadu, India. The disjunct distribution nature exhibited by this species at varying degrees deserves scientific scrutiny and is of phytogeographical significance. The study provides a detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant information based on fresh collections for recognition.

In this paper we investigated the heliographic longitudinal as well as latitudinal distribution of major H-α solar flares (flares of high optical importance imp ≥ 1) for the solar cycle 23 periods 1996-2010. This period of investigation includes the ascending as well as descending period of solar cycle 23. The study reveals that for heliographic latitude majority of solar flares confined between latitude 10°-30° for both northern and southern hemisphere. Whereas for heliographic longitude we observed approximately symmetric occurrence of solar flares.

A new series of transition metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) have been synthesized from the Schiff base (L) derived from 5-bromo-3-hydrazonoindolin-2-one 3-((2-aminoethyl)amino)quinoxalin-2(1H)-one and 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione. All the complexes were characterized in the light of elemental analysis, molar conductance, FT IR, UV-VIS, magnetic, thermal and powder XRD studies. Analytical data reveal that the Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes possess 1:1 metal–ligand ratios.

In this review we introduced for the first time in literature a new drug FSLYM 192050, patent No. 698/2014). A new method for treatment of infertility (Glyoxalase – 1 loaded Bee venom nano particles targeted with a follicle stimulating hormone peptide as a new modality in the treatment of female and male infertility).

CuO doped borotellurite glasses, (B2O3)0.2-(TeO2)0.8-x-(CuO) x, ¬where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 were prepared by standard melt quenching method and their non-crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD studies. Dielectric properties as a function of frequency and temperature over the wide ranges have been measured. Observed decrease in dielectric constant and loss with increase in frequency and temperature has been ascribed to the decrease in ionic contribution. Dielectric parameters increased with increase in CuO content. Conductivity was estimated from dielectric data.

Antifreeze glycoproteins are essential for the surviving of many marine teleost fishes in polar and subpolar seawaters, where the temperature consistently are below the freezing point of physiological solutions. In this work, synthesis of structures related to antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) are presented. Synthetic routes to a protected carbohydrate derivative, 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl- β – galactopyranosyl - (1→3) – 2 – deoxy – 2 – azido - 4, 6 – di – O – benzyl – β – D -thio-1-galactopyranoside, and a tBu-Ala-Thr-Ala-Fmoc tripeptide, are described.

This study was conducted to identify sulphur oxidizing ability of fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from groundnut rhizosphere of Rayalaseema districs of Andhra Pradesh and evaluate their sulphur oxidation ability. Out of the 55 (JS1 …. JS55) isolates obtained, 14 were screened based on their efficacy to reduce the pH of the growth medium from 8.0 to ≤ 5.0. The selected isolates were characterized and related to the genus pseudomonas. Their sulphate ion production abilities were in the range of 5mg/ml – 60 mg/ml.

Manganese (Mn) is an essential metallo enzyme component that in high doses can exert serious oxidative and neurotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, ACh content and Histochemical Studies in both low dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and high dose (5 mg/kg bw) of Manganese (Mn) treated young and adult (2 months and 4 months) rat brain with reversal effect of alpha- tocopherol.

The present paper reports ethnobotanical uses of Hodgsonia heteroclita (Roxb.) Hook. f. and Thomson used by Bodo tribe in Kokrajhar District of Assam, India. The plant belongs to family Cucurbitaceae and is a liane fruit bearing. The survey reveals the use of this plant by patients suffering from diabetes and stomach ailments. In this paper, uses of plant parts have been documented.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in corneal protein and oxidative stress state after endosulfan-administered in rabbits and the effect of topical curcumin. The treatment scheme for the different groups was as follows: control group, endosulfan group, Endosulfan+40 μmol/L curcumin, endosulfan+ curcumin 80μmol/L and Endosulfan + curcumin 160 μmol/L.

The effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of leaf, stem, and root of Leucas aspera L. on seed germination and seedling growth of Cajanus cajan. The result revealed that the aqueous leachates of leaf, stem and root of high concentrations significantly inhibited germination, growth and fresh weight of seedlings. But at low concentrations (5%, 10 and 15%) the same leachates promote both germination and seedling growth of Cajanus cajan. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of aqueous leachates was found to be concentration dependent.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo genotoxicity of sulphanilic acid and its biodegradation product using mice as a model. 0.5 mg of sulphanilic acid at 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs time interval and its aerobic treated product at 48 hrs time interval were injected to different mice. The experiments were carried out in control group after treatment with DMSO. The air drying preparations were made by dissecting out the limbs of adult mice and processing it.

This is attributable to pollution due to human activities such as plunging of idols of deity and divinity in the festival season, surface runoff due to heavy rainfall, washing exercises and ‎sewage disposal everywhere in lakes. Water environment is a complex system where theological methods cannot meet the demands of water environment preservation. To demonstrate the usefulness of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN), the Water Quality Index (WQI) has been used on the basis of physical-chemical parameters of different sources of water.

Background: Hypertension remains a global asymptomatic non-communicable disease and a preventable risk factor but often leads to health complications, if untreated. Many factors seem to be responsible for influencing hypertension; however, the role of dietary factors and nutrients still remains unclear and needs to be explored. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of systemic hypertensive adults and to find the correlation of nutrients with age of the hypertensive adults.

Several N-[2,4,5-triphenyloxazole-3(2H)-yl]benzamide and N-[(2-furyl)4,5-diphenyloxazole-3(2H)-yl]benzamide have been synthesized by refluxing N1-aroyl-N2-arylidenehydrazines / N1-aroyl-N2-furylidenehydrazines with equimolar of benzoin and triethylamine few drops in ethanol for six hours and screened for their herbicidal activities against Echinochloa oryzicola, Echinochloa crus-galli, Oryza sativa, Glycine max and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Pyricularia oryzae whereas antibacterial activities against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus su

In recent times, phytochemicals have drawn attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases. A number of bioactive compounds in pulses such as polyphenols, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, tannin and lectin are proven to have anti-oxidant capacity. This study has assessed the antioxidants activity exhibited by these secondary metabolites in different pulses (chickpea, mung, arhar and masur) as compared with amla using DPPH radical scavenging activity.

The inhibitive behaviour of Argan hulls extract (AHE) , as a type of green inhibitor, on the corrosive behaviour of copper within an aqueous solution of 2M H3PO4 containing 3.10-1M NaCl. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and gravimetric method, was used for the measurements at 298K. A significant decrease in the corrosion rate of copper was observed in the presence of the Argan hulls extract. Inhibition efficiency increases with AHE concentration to attain 91% at 6 g/L.

Moths were collected from different part of Seraj valley of Himachal Pradesh during June 2010 to September 2013. A total of 1376 specimens were collected by using Simple light traps operated from dusk to dawn daily for eighty nights. The moths caught were identified up to the subfamily level. Sub-family Ennominae represents maximum number of species (18) and Sub- family Geometrinae show the minimum number (4).

“Sealed Can technique” with LR-115 type II plastic track detector was used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the fly ash samples. Uranium concentrations have been measured through low level gamma ray spectroscopy. Activity concentration of uranium is found to vary from 5.6 to 11.0 ppm. Radon activity was found to vary from 182.9  18.6 to 262.9  22.3 and the exhalation rate lies in the range 62.3  6.2 to 95.  8.0 mBq m−2 h−1 whereas the radon mass exhalation rate varied from 2.1  0.2 to 3.6  0.3 mBq kg-1h-1.

Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification. Given the agriculture intensive economy in India, agricultural storm water discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture are predominate sources under this category. The Point source means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance and predominant contributors are Urban agglomerations and Industries.

In the present study, commercially available probiotics product, LactoBacil®plus (LBP), which contains a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Saccharomyces boulardii was incorporated at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% concentrations with basal diet formulated with fish meal, groundnut oil cake, soya bean meal, corn flour, tapioca flour, egg albumin, Cod liver oil and vitamin B-complex with vitamin-C, and fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii PL for 90 days.

Kodomillet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) is one of the hardiest crop among all the small millets. It has a capability to stand for the biotic and a biotic stresses. But increased soil salinity majorly limits the plant productivity and quality. Present work was focused on evaluation of Kodomillet genotypes such as IPS 145, IPS 610, IPS 351, IC 382888, IPS 583 and IC 426676 for their salt tolerance efficiency subjected to different salinity levels i.e. 0, 200, 400 and 600 mM NaCl at 45 DAS.

As we know there are very competitive atmosphere in the market of automotive. So the total focus of all the manufacturers are towards cost which will in the budget of customer and more comfort of the passengers. The FEA analysis of bracket is performed for the deflection and stresses. A model of bracket of composite material, i.e. (GRP) is also prepared and analyzed by FEA Analysis which is then compared with the previous steel bracket. The use of composite materials resulted into reduction in deflection as well as in stresses.

Undoubtedly, brewery companies like many other commercial companies in Ghana contribute to the economic development of the nation. In fact, there is nothing new about companies being development agents. In this study, the perception of brewery’s activities with respect to pollution among some inhabitants of Kaase Kumasi, Ghana was investigated. In the study, 80 randomly selected respondents from Kaase near the Guinness Brewery Limited were interviewed with the help of questionnaires.

Power System protection is a combination of Intelligent Electronic Devices, Digital Relays and other sophisticated equipment. It is an interconnected coordination between the smart devices. This paper gives the improved ideology of Substation Automation, which enables how the analog to digital signals are converted via fiber optics and sends the information to the neighboring devices. There are three major requirements for substation automation: Measurement, communication, Hardware and software. The SA is briefly explained by using one of the level i.e bay level process.

It is important to remove or minimize the degradations, noises in valuable ancient blurred color images. The traditional available filtering methodologies are applicable for fixed window dimensions only these are not applicable for varying scale images. In our project we propose a new technique for digital image restoration, in this the noise free and noisy pixels are classified based on empirical multiple threshold values. Then the median filtering technique is applied. So that noise free pixels are getting preserved and only noisy pixels get restored.

In highly competitive manufacturing industries nowadays, the general manufacturing problem can be described as the achievement of a predefined product quality with given equipment, cost and time constraints. Unfortunately, for some quality characteristics of a product such as surface roughness it is hard to ensure that these requirements will be met. To achieve these goals, one of the considerations is by optimizing the machining parameters such as the cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate.

Renewable energy sources derive enormous energy from the sun’s radiation. Global Solar Radiation prediction is essential in Photo Voltaic power plants for efficient sizing and improving the performance of these systems. Some computational Intelligence methods are used in time series prediction of solar radiation based on the statistical data. A number of neural network models like Radial Basis function (RBF) and Multilayer perception (MLP) were used and these are all forward prediction methods which may result in inaccuracy of prediction.

Predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance, because of strong increment of solar power generation. Predictions is very useful in solar energy applications because it permits to generate solar data for locations where measurements are not available. In existing systems, solar radiation is predicted using fuzzy logic and neural networks separately. So that Mean absolute percentage error is greater than 10%. In our proposed method, Fuzzy logic and neural networks are combined together using Takagi Sugeno Kang (TSK) method.

Sludge is often generated from the treatment of wastewater and it is essential to reduce its volume before disposal into the environment through dewatering. This helps to reduce the cost of final sludge disposal. This study was therefore aimed at developing a model for the draining time of sludge through the application of vacuum pressure. A vacuum filtration experiment was performed on sewage sludge collected from the wastewater treatment plant situated at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Design and measurement of a new compact filter and a microstrip antenna is proposed for IEEE 802.11 applications. Here the size of the three pole hair pin BPF is approximately reduced from 6.83 cm to 5.81 cm, The three pole hair pin BPF designed at center frequency 1.97 GHz achieves an impedance bandwidth of 5.16 % (over 1.6 – 2.4 GHz) at a reflection coefficient |S11| < -20 dB and has a gain of 0.44 dB. Also the size of the designed antenna is nearly 45 mm x 35 mm on TRF substrate with relative permittivity of 4.1 dB.

In this paper, the maximal product of two fuzzy graphs is defined. It is proved that when two fuzzy graphs are effective then their maximal product is always effective. Also it is proved that the maximal product of two connected fuzzy graphs is connected. The degree of a vertex in the maximal product of two fuzzy graphs is obtained. It is illustrated that when two fuzzy graphs are regular then their maximal product need not be regular. But it is proved that the maximal product of two regular fuzzy graphs is regular with some restrictions.

Crustal deformation in vertical direction is higher at convergent plate margins when compared to other plate margins. Even though there are three types of convergent plate margins observed between continental-continental plate, oceanic-continental plate and oceanic-oceanic plate, this study considers only the interaction between oceanic plate and continental plate which are resting on lithospheric mantle to understand the topography effect on continental plate. Two dimensional finite element models are developed and analyzed using commercially available software ABAQUS.

This paper describes some aspects of concerning the effect of heat treatment on friction coefficient for Modified ZA-27 alloy. Experiments were conducted based on the plan of experiments generated through Taguchi’s technique. A L25 orthogonal array was selected for analysis of the data. Orthogonal arrays of Taguchi, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, the analysis of variance(ANOVA) and regression analysis are employed to find the optimal process parameter levels and to analyze the effect of these parameters on coefficient of friction.

This paper presents a functional framework to study diverse theories of poverty in the current literature. Because of the complex nature of different schools of thought on poverty, one needs a meta-graph that can relate element in the poverty domain of a function to elements in the egalitarian range of the function. This paper presents such a framework that can compare and contrast different theories of poverty. Two novelties of the paper are dynamic analyses for a group of countries, and a correspondence relationship that allows us to look for invariant relationships in models of poverty.

Language is the mean of communication among people. Tonekaboni is one of the dialects of Mazandarani language which is spoken in the north part of Iran and the south parts of Caspian Sea. The present paper investigated some English idioms and expressions and their equivalents in Tonekaboni dialect to see how similar or different they are. It also compared the teenagers and the adults to see how much intelligible these idioms are for them in Tonekaboni dialect.

Recent advancements in the size, framework, contextual and conceptual understanding of business data across the globe have subjected digital forensics to strict criticisms from numerous angles. Thus, the efficacies of most scientifically proven methods for identifying, collecting, investigating, analysing, interpreting, validating, documenting, reporting and preserving digital evidence rapidly become ineffective to support collaborative digital forensic purposes. Hence, this paper examines some of these core issues and further proposes Log-splitter that can be used to minimize them.

This study investigated the level of four different heavy metals Copper, Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in ten vegetables viz; Potato, Brinjal, Pumpkin, Tomato, Carrot, Radish, Coriander, Menthe, Spinach and Pigweed collected from two local market sites in Chitrakoot. The evaluation of heavy metals present in the vegetables was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The mean concentrations for each heavy metal in the samples were calculated and compared with the standards set by the FAO and WHO.

The economic system has been facing tough challenges worldwide in the last several years. In Kosovo, it seems like the monetary and credit system was untouched by the global financial crisis and the worldwide lost of confidence. Monetary policy in Kosovo has its own characteristics in the post-war period, because after war as it is known Kosovo became part of the Euro Zone. The CBK estimates that the banking sector stands well as regards to capital and especially bad credits. Still, the interest rate on deposits is considered very low as compared to the interest rate on loans.

Agriculture sector is the mainstay of livelihood for rural people of India. It provides not only employment opportunity to the rural people but also manages food facility to the people. It is contributing nearly 12.02 percent in GDP to the nation income. Agricultural development is an integral part for the socio-economic development of the country. Land is a crucial denominator for estimation of the economic status of the people.

No organization has a choice of whether to train its employees or not, the only choice is that of methods. The primary concern of an organization is its viability, and hence its efficiency. There is a continuous environmental pressure for efficiency, and if the organization does not respond to this pressure, it may find itself rapidly losing whatever market share it has. Training imparts skills and knowledge to the employees in orders that they contribute to the organization’s efficiency and be able to cope with the contract pressures of changing environment.

The main purpose of the study was to determine the status of information and communication technology (ICT) in academic libraries in polytechnics in Ghana. The study utilized an e-mail survey of ten (10) polytechnic librarians with the use of structured questionnaires of open and close ended questions. The respondents were purposively selected. The findings were analyzed using SPSS software and presented by use of descriptive statistics.

Background: This study is carried out in order to see the factors associated with women’s intra-household decision making power in a newly formed state, Jharkhand where most of the women are not only suppressed and dominated by their male counterparts but also are the bottom of educational level. A comparison is done to see the exact position of the women in Jharkhand state with respect to India. The study also argues whether women decision making power is related with their educational level, employment, income and other socioeconomic variables.

A large number of persons in India have been victim of domestic violence. Usually it occurs more to women. In our study, we have measured status of domestic violence among women in Jharkhand State. The main objective of my study is to measure the percentage of women who are victimized in various types of domestic violence and its comparison in respect to all India level. The relationship of the incidences of domestic violence with different socio-economic variables is also found.

In India, the Panchayati Raj System was introduced with the aim of decentralization and democratization. However, Khap Panchayats, the self proclaimed courts of caste lords in a village, enjoy full legitimacy and authority as ‘custodians of honor’. It is through them that most regressive views are sought to be implemented. Khap adjudications are purely feudal and patriarchal in nature.

This study investigates households’ traditional fueldemand for cooking and, their determinants in Tigray: the case of Maichew Town. The results were estimated using the binarprobit model. Traditional fuel was by far the most dominant source of cooking fuel for the households surveyed in the town. Traditional fuel such as firewood, animal residue, crop residue and charcoal were the main source of cooking in the study area used by 71.25% of the households surveyed.

This study has been conducted with the main aim of exploring the rural entrepreneurship practices and rural small business owners’ entrepreneurial orientation. Hence the study has collected both qualitative and quantitative data in three were das (districts), selected out of 31 rural were das of tigray region. The study has followed a survey research design with both quantitative and qualitative approaches in which it has been adopted econometrics analysis.

This article aimed to study the effects of Internet and the digital world on the identity of adolescents. In this regards, the adolescence and identity development, adolescent’s identity crisis and the adolescents and the social networks are reviewed. The study showed that using Internet affects the youth’s identity. In fact, the increasing spread of information and communication technologies in recent years has affected human life in different aspects of political, social and cultural development.

Inclusive growth refers to a growth process that reduces poverty faster, that is broad based and labor-intensive, reduces inequalities across regions and across different social groups, opens up opportunities for excluded and marginalized not only as beneficiaries but also as partners in the growth process. The secular prevalence of poverty and inequalities implies that the growth process had never been inclusive. The growth process in the context of unfettered private ownership right to own, use, and transfer habitat and landed properties was such that it excluded many and included few.

Project management has emerged as a discipline in recent years. It developed from different fields of application including construction, engineering, communications, defence and the like. A successful project must be on time, on budget and deliver quality as promised. Anything less will be either a failed project or a challenged project. Research evidence shows that only a meager percentage of projects are successful by all measures and majority of projects are either partial failures or complete failures.

With due consideration to green economy, the idea of connecting the environment to economy and society turn into ought to do issue in today’s turbulent world. But despite the intent, the practice is not lucid. Thus, the prime essence of this study was to assess the practice green economy in relation to environmental dimension in manufacturing industry in Tigrai region. The study was a cross sectional and used primary and secondary source of data in which a structured questionnaire was developed to get data from 61 respondents composed of mangers/CEO of large manufacturing industry.

Science, technology and innovation [henceforth ‘STI’] policy has long been a key instrument for building national competitiveness and accelerating the socio-economic development of countries. The contribution of STI in improving the quality of people’s lives has been enormous and indispensable. In relation to this, Ethiopia recognized the importance of STI long ago. It has therefore promulgated and revised its science, technology and innovation policy over the years.

The impact of the phenomenon of Globalization on different aspects of human being life in twenty first century is known to everyone. Globalization has fundamentally affected the process of teaching and learning and in particular the language teacher education program. In this study, different positive influences that globalization would have on language teacher education are considered.

Continuing the professional growth of novices so that they become effective teachers has been a challenge for decades. Research suggests that induction programmes with comprehensive support structures can achieve this outcome. The NEC Teacher Induction Programme, the focus of this article, contains such support structures. Findings from a survey of novices’ perceptions of the support structures indicate that the novices view mentorship, master teacher demonstrations and the teacher-support group as the most beneficial in their induction experience.

This study was conducted to examine the extent to which the rural poor living in the forest fringe areas of West Bengal, India were dependent on forest for their subsistence. The study also analysed their participation in forest management and its impact on the environment. Total 300 households in 9 villages in the districts of Bankura and Purulia were surveyed. Both statistical and econometric techniques (Censored Tobit Model) were used to analyse the determinants of collective action in forest management.





Rosane Cavalcante Fragoso, Brasil


Chief Scientific Officer and Head of a Research Group

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Luai Farhan Zghair
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Fredrick OJIJA
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