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April 2019

  1. Manjula, K., Peeru Saheb, Y., John Sudheer, M. and Ramakrishna Rao, A.

    In Kharif groundnut, in Tirupati region, 100 per cent of groundnut leaf miner population was found mycosed during II FN October and I FN November 2018. The blotches of leaf miner were looked milky white with cadavers protruding from the blotch. Such leaves were carried to the laboratory and fungus from blotchs and cadavers was inoculated onto SDAY. The plates were incubated at 230C. Whitish colonies with green centre sporulation was observed after 5 days. The culture was reinoculated onto plates and slants. After attaining good growth and sporulation( one week), the characters of the fungus was studied. The hyphae, conidiophores, conidiogenous cells (phialides) and conidia were studied. Hyphae aseptate with 8 -9 microns width. Small branches of hyphae ranged 4 – 5 microns in width. Conidiophores are septate and like candle holders at branching. Phialides are cylindrical. Conidia arranged in chains. Two types of conidia, viz., globose and elongated were studied. length of conidia ranged from 10 to 62 microns and width ranged 5 to 44 microns. The fungus was identified as Metarhizium anisopliae var anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin. This is first report on occurrence of Entomopathogenic fungus ( Fungus is Metarhizium anisopliae var anisopliae).

  2. Dr. Madyan Mohammedfawzi. Al-Ghrer and Dr. Redhaa Ghanim Rashid

    Background: Parents are frequently concerned about their children's behavior patterns especially if they are repetitive or stereotyped.The term thumb sucking refers to placing thumb into the mouth many times every day and night, exerting definite sucking pressure. Prevalence of malocclusion is higher in children with sucking habits than in those without the habit at 3-12 years of age. However, when children stop finger sucking before the age of 6 years, they do not have a higher percentage of malocclusion than children with no history of sucking habit. Materials and method: The frequency of thumb sucking children was studied in a prospective study of 400 children less than 13 years of age, 200 boys and 200 girls attending Ibn-alatheer pediatric hospital in Mosul city during the period between Dec 2017 and May 2018. Data were collected from the mothers. The variables considered were age, sex, residence, type of feeding, use of a pacifier, occupation of the mother, presence of thumb sucking, family history of the habit, family actions to help the child, maximum time of the habit around the day, any associated habit and any dental malocclusion in children over 6-years of age with prolonged thumb sucking. Results: It was found that the percentage of thumb sucking was less with the increase in age: 28 (28%) in children less than one years of age, 15(15%) in children between 1-4 years of age, 6(6%) in children between 4-6 years of age and 4(4%) in children above 6 years of age. It was more common among females than males in all age groups, 31 (58.4%) females were found with the habit while 22 (41.6%) males with the habit. It was more in children from urban areas 44(15%) than children from rural areas 9(8%). Thumb sucking was more common in bottle fed children 16 (16%) or on combined breast and bottle feeding 3(20%) than in children on breastfeeding only 34 (12%). A reverse association was found between thumb sucking and pacifier sucking, with pacifier only 5 (6%) children had thumb sucking, while without pacifier 48 (15%) children had thumb sucking. There was a strong family history among siblings and second degree relatives 35 (66%). There was increase in the family actions against thumb sucking with the increase of age of their children, 21(68%) of these actions were found in children above 4 years of age while only 10 (32%) family actions were found in children less than 4 years old. Although most of the family actions were traditional wrong ways with unsuccessful results 23 (47%). Maximum time of the habit around the day was at day time in infants 21 (75%), at day and night in toddlers 9(60%) and at night and sleeping time in preschool and school age children 8 (80%). Various associated habits were found with thumb sucking 11(20.7%). All school age children with prolonged thumb sucking showed class II dental malocclusion. Conclusion: The frequency of thumb sucking appears to vary by the race and culture. The habit decreases with increase in age spontaneously. Pediatrician should be more concerned about the bad effects of thumb sucking and should offer a proper advice to the parents about this habit. If necessary a pacifier may be a substitute of choice in thumb sucking because it is more readily given up at a later age than thumb sucking, with less dental malocclusion.

  3. Genesta Mary Gysel, P., Uma, R. and Sivaranjiny, K.

    Uterine prolapse is the leading cause of ill health that exists throughout the entire nation especially in rural regions. While studying the situation globally, World Health Organization estimates that the reproductive ill health accounts for 33% of the total disease burden in women globally. The main aim of the present study was to assess the Effectiveness of Structured teaching programme on Prevention of Uterine prolapse among Multiparous women residing in selected villages at Kirumambakkam Primary Health Centre, Puducherry. The study samples were 100 multiparous women selected from two different villages for experimental and control group. Comparing the pre-test & post-test scores of knowledge, attitude and practice between experimental and control group, the structured teaching programme on prevention of uterine prolapse provided by the investigator proved to be highly effective in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice among multiparous women in experimental group. The STP was effective and it is also suggested that the programme should be continued in order to uplift the overall health and practices of mothers. Hence, it will help to reduce the incidence of Uterine prolapse and enhance the quality of life in future.

  4. Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim Yaseen and Dr. Salah Mahdi Rashid

    Background: Even with using of electric devises to remove ear wax, the syringing still used by large number of seniors, so Irrigation is used frequently in both primary care and specialty settings. And we should use the materials in syringing that with less chance of causing ear infection. Objectives: To find out the difference of effects on getting ear infection between distilled water and white vinegar and diluted povidone iodine in ear syringing. Patients and methods: Comparative cross-sectional study focus on 138 patients who need ear syringing to remove ear wax who visit otolaryngology department in AL-Yarmook teaching hospital in a period between February 2017 and April 2018 in determined days in a week., history taken from each patient a routine otolaryngology examinations were done including ear otoscopy, then we divided the sample in to three categories according to the material used in ear syringing, distilled water and white vinegar and diluted povidone. as ear syringing done after dissolving ear wax with the same agent for all patients. Data collected by questionnaire as age, gender, complain, any ear symptoms, ear syringing as mention in the introduction, we made three groups of patients the first who ear syringing with distilled water, the second with povidone iodine 10% diluted by 10cc povidone to 50 cc distilled water, the third is with white vinegar diluted by 10cc vinegar to 40 cc distilled water, and follow up the patient in the 2nd and 5th and 7th days. Results: 71 male (51.44%) and 67 female (48.55%) with ear wax, the main age group is (31-45y) i.e. 47 cases out of 138 in percentage (34.05% ) , the second age group is (46-60y) i.e. 43 cases out of 138 in percentage (31.15%). using distilled water alone the percentage of ear infection after syringing i.e. otitis externa is 7 cases of 46 patient (15.21%) . By using diluted white vinegar the percentage became less i.e 4 out of 46 patient (8.69%). And finally the povidone iodine (diluted) made the percentage better by only one case out of 46 patients (2.17%). Conclusion • Concerning wax percentage no male to female preponderance in our study. • The commonest age group present with wax is (31-45y). • Using ear syringing with povidone iodine is better than distilled water or even diluted white vinegar by decreasing percentage of ear infection.

  5. Sambou, A., Gomis, L., Talla, KH., Ngom, B. D., Diallo, S., Beye, A. C. and Epov, V.

    The main objective of this work was to study experimentally the isotopic fractionation of mercury Hg, in derivatization processes i.e. Ethylation and Propylation. The multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) technique makes it possible to measure isotopic signatures of mercury stable elements efficiently in extremely compact i.e. 1ppb and 10ppb concentration systems. This device made it possible to study the evolution of mass independent fractionation (MIF) and mass dependent fractionation (MDF) under different conditions. According to our results, the MIF or the so-called anomalies are observed only for the odd isotopic mercury (199Hg and 201Hg). The study conducted from the samples, reveals the presence of a maximum anomaly for hydrochloric acid (HCl) 3% in concentration equal to +1.2 ‰ for Δ201Hg, but also the presence of a negative anomaly, equal to -0.43 ‰ for Δ201Hg at 10% concentration of HCl. As derivatization procedure, direct aqueous phase methylations and propylation were tested on the sample. The different methods of derivatization are compared.

  6. Thomas, T. D. and Murphy, J. L.

    This paper describes three broad types of political implications of emergency management since historically emergency management was considered only a function of law enforcement and fire departments, with the support in the event of a major catastrophe from public health and civil defense organizations. The issue is not whether governments will be required to respond to emergencies, but the concern is when and how frequently response will occur. The time to think about emergencies is before they occur. Despite some significant weakness in the overall approach, political implications offer many benefits and provide various options for community development corporations (CDCs) to get involved in disaster/emergency response and recovery. Based on a generally positive evaluation, the paper concludes that emergency management must become a central activity, whether at the federal, state, or local or as an intergovernmental activity. As both natural and man-made disaster escalate, governments are putting more policies in place to enhance community preparation and expedite response and recovery efforts of responders. The government should be ready to take on any disaster if and when it occurs with the following policies and procedures that are in place.

  7. Naim Boustany, Rony El Khoury, Georges Hassoun, Nada Sakr and Grazia Maria Scarpa

    In an effort to safeguard the Lebanese genetic resources of olives (Olea Europea L.), this study was intended to set up an in vitro culture from axillary buds of Bshaaleh millennium trees. A series of treatments preceded the multiplication phase to limit infections in the introduced explants. Best survival rate (56.7%) was recorded when the treatment was based on a mix of fungicides (fosethyl-aluminium (6g/l) and carbendazim (2g/l)), chloroxylenol (2.5%) and NaOCl (15%) as detergents, and oxytetracycline (1mg/l) as antibiotic. Young shoots were used to induce explants in vitro on OM, WPM and MS supplemented with BAP (2, 3 and 4mg/l respectively). Autumn season gave the best multiplication rate (1.08), newly developed explants (1.35) and proliferation rate (47%) on MS medium followed respectively by OM and WPM. The longest explants (1.78cm) and the highest number of newly developed leaves (3.58) were obtained during the first subculture on the MS medium added with BAP (3mg/l).All the examined parameters decreased during subcultures. Following the elongation phase, NAA added at a rate of 2mg/l to MS medium produced 22% of rooted explants. During the autumn season, explants where callus developed on the base, were transferred to fresh media that enabled the rooting of 23% where no subculture was needed.

  8. Daniel Vasquez Valverde, Vandad Ravery Morovati, Eduardo Castro Arias and María Laura Arias Echandi

    Background: Flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes (gastroscopes) have been associated with patient infections and outbreaks, especially because of the high contamination they suffer during procedures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the presence of diverse bacteria, including pathogens on the surface of endoscopes before their use on patients having an Esophagogastroduodenos copy (EGD). Methods: 68 different gastro scopes used at a type A hospital in San José, Costa Rica, were analyzed in order to determine the presence of different bacteria that might potentially infect patients. The external surface of the insertion tube was analyzed before its introduction into the patient. Also, the disinfecting agent used was microbiologically tested. Results: The results obtained showed an important contamination of the gastro scopes with potentially infectious agents. The disinfectant solution, after 30 days of use also showed microbiological contamination. Conclusions: an important rate of contamination of gastro scopes with different bacteria, including potential pathogens was found. Additional efforts must be done to assure proper procedures for the cleaning and disinfection of this equipment in order to offer patient safety and diminish potential infections.

  9. Sarika Choudhari and Sudhir Dhekane

    In this survey, we proposed computer aided with open source platform detection system for the leaf spot detection on cotton crop. This system plays very important role to improve outcomes in farming because it is important sector in India. Lot of peoples are depends on the cotton crop. There are many diseases on cotton crop. Due to this disease there is chance of the decrease productivity of the crop. Soour aim is to develop leaf spot detection system by using artificial neural network. Early detection of this disease can helpful for the farmer to take preventive action.

  10. Dr. Ch. Lalitha and Dr. Krishna, V.S.

    Cow is worshiped as God in India and its products are having nutritional, medical and other important uses. The microbial consortium of Cow dung is used in bioremediation of metals, pesticides, pharmaceutical products, petrochemicals and biomedical waste. Cow dung is used in composting and used as fertilizer performs activities such as Sulphur oxidation and phosphate solubilisation. The metagenomics of cow dung is studied up to some extent. Cow dung slurry contains bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes namely Faecal Streptococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas Sp, Sarcina, Nocardia, Mucor Sp, Rhizopus Sp, Aspergillus, E.coli sp and Penicillium sp. It is used as mosquito repellent.

  11. Ruchika Duggal, Deepika Khakha and Atul Amedkar

    Alcoholism is a chronic illness with an insidious onset which may occur at any age and adolescent’s drinking behaviour has been the vital social issues in several countries. A pre experimental one group pre-test post-test design was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching program on knowledge regarding alcohol use and refusal skills among adolescents. Total 98 adolescents from selected schools of Delhi were enrolled. Planned teaching program (PTP) on knowledge regarding alcohol use and refusal skills was developed by focused group discussion. PTP was administered during pre-test and knowledge and refusal skills were assessed after one month of intervention. Data was collected from adolescents by using knowledge questionnaire and standardized drug refusal self efficacy-revised adolescent questionnaire. Data analysis was done using STATA 11.1 with the level of significance at p < 0.05. There was significant improvement in mean knowledge score of adolescents before (13.26) and after (20.58) administration of PTP and significant increase in mean refusal skill score was found before (96.83) and after (104.73) administration of PTP. Inverse correlation was found between age and subjects first learnt about alcohol with knowledge score. Knowledge level was significantly high in females, subjects studying in 11th standard, who denied any friend taking alcohol and who reported any neighbor taking alcohol. The refusal skills were significantly high in females, subjects who did not have any friend taking alcohol, who received information about alcohol through newspaper, radio or television. Study concluded that PTP on knowledge regarding alcohol use and refusal skills was very effective and viable method for improving adolescents’ knowledge on alcohol use and refusal skills.

  12. Dr. Umesh Jirange, Dr. Mohit Relekar and Dr. Mahmood Gulsha

    Aims: To assess awareness and practices regarding use of various contraceptive methods. Materials and methods: 100 women between the age of 18-45 living with their husbands and coming from rural area were interviewed. Their awareness about various contraceptive methods and practices were evaluated. Results: Out of the 100 women, Majority were between 21 to 25 years (45%), followed by 26 to 30 years (34%). Majority of women were illiterate 58% and literate were 42%. Source of knowledge about contraceptive 72% told it via, TV and Media, 38% from friends and relatives 27% had it through ANM and health workers and 11% from hospital. 98% had knowledge about the tubectomy, in the temporary method 92% knew about the copper T and only 20% were practicing amongst them, 90% were know about the pills and only 6% were practicing, 84% know about condom and only 23% were practicing , 26% had knowledge about injectable method of contraception and 2% were using them. 36% were never wanted to use contraception due to fear and Myths about it. 22% was not favoured by husband, 8% didn’t aware of any contraception methods. 6% didn’t used because of desire of Son. Conclusion: creation of awareness by improving female literacy along with proper counseling, education and awareness towards the contraception needs to be addressed.

  13. Baljit Dhillon, Ilze Hallman, Nadia Ali Muhammad Ali Charania, Karin Landt, Martha Hayes, and Leah L. Shever

    Falls during hospitalization are a major health care concern (Higaonna, 2014; Shmueli et al., 2014) even more so for inpatient psychiatry (Blair and Waszynski, 2013; Irvin, 1999; Vaughn et al., 1993). The purpose of this quality improvement project was to decrease falls and falls with injury on an adult inpatient psychiatric unit. The project had three key aims: 1) decrease falls and fall-related injuries in a cost-effective manner, 2) enhance communication by embedding the Falls Risk Liaison Nurse (FRLN) within a multidisciplinary team, and 3) increase nursing staff engagement and, promote critical thinking and behaviour. A tool was developed and utilized to capture fall risk-related information. It included the amount of psychotropic medication used in the last 24 hours, vital signs, clinical presentation/complaints, and nursing judgment. The medication profile of these patients was evaluated for appropriate adjustment. At the conclusion of a six-month project, the inpatient psychiatric unit fall rate was reduced from 4.22/1000 patient days to 2.24/1000 patient days. The fall rate with injury was reduced from 0.60/1000 patient days to zero. These results confirm that the multidisciplinary approach was effective in reducing the fall rate and falls with injuries.

  14. Disha Mondal

    “In the infinite dualism of death and life there is a harmony. We know that the life of a soul which is finite in its expression and infinite in its principle, must go through the portals of death in its journey to realise the infinite.”- Rabindranath Tagore The entire fabric of Tagore’s poetry is woven with the threads of Baul tradition and Vaishnava philosophy. Bauls and Vaishnavas share some common beliefs because the most significant influence on the Bauls has been that of Vaishnavism. In these two sects the dominant note is love. Next to Vaishnavism, Rabindranath was greatly influenced by the Bauls. Many of his later writings had an influence of Vaishnava Philosophy and Literature. In Bhanusimher Padaboli, one can trace his literary concepts having an influence of Vaishnava lyrics. On the other hand, in many of his plays such as Prayaschitta (1909), The Post Office (1912), Phalguni(1916) and songs we find the influence of Bauls. Both the tradition preach that God resides within man and the simplest way to achieve God is by love. Tagore was mesmerized by their ideas of achieving God. Thus, Tagore never welcomed Emancipation through sainthood. He was against the traditional conception of emancipation or Mukti because according to him Mukti lies in love. According to him love is the highest virtue. The faith of love which Tagore gets from the Vaishnavas is strengthened by the songs of the Bauls.

  15. Pavithra, S.P., Pooja, B., Kavya, V., Ashwini, A. and Aruna Rao

    The paper propose a survey conducted on the various methodologies and electronic system used to guide the blind people. Addressing the issues of People with Visual, Hearing and Vocal Impairment through a single aiding system is a tough job. Many modern day researches focus on addressing the issues of one of the above challenges but not all. The work focuses on finding a unique technique that aids the visually impaired by letting them hear what is represented as text and it is achieved by the technique that captures the image through a camera and converts the text available as voice signals. The paper provides a way for the people with Hearing impairment to visualize / read which is in audio form by speech to text conversion technique and we also provides a way for the vocally impaired to represent their voice by the aid of text to voice conversion technique. All these three solutions were modulated to be in a single unique system.

  16. Kiran Hussain, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Anthony Ball

    Introduction: Stroke is the third highest disease in the United Kingdom to cause death; despite the severity of this healthcare issue, the public are not aware of the main characteristics, treatment and prevention factors involved. Aim: This study was conducted at the University of Wolverhampton in November 2018, with the aim to investigate the level of stroke awareness within the local university population. Method: This research project included 50 participants which after providing informed consent, carried out the questionnaire to test their general knowledge regarding stroke. The sample ranged from various demographical characteristics such as, gender, age, ethnicity and occupation. The questionnaire comprised of sections which tested knowledge regarding UK stroke statistics, risk factors and causes, stroke treatment, prevention and aftercare. Results: From the data collected, the main findings indicated that although there was a satisfactory degree of knowledge about stroke within the study population, there are certain areas which require improvement to ensure all stroke patients and potential sufferers a better chance of recovery. From the demographical analysis, it shows that females and participants in the 18-34years age group scored a higher proportion of correct answers compared to males and the elder generation. Conclusion: Overall, further education would be recommended within the community to ensure all the population is able to access information regarding stroke. Factors such as language barriers and various educational programmes for different age groups should be taken into consideration to ensure that public health awareness about this serious disease is made successful.

  17. Humera Tariq, Ayaz Ahmed, Taimoor Raza, Khalid Jamal, Saad AKBAR and Asia Samreen

    It is crucial to handle missing or incomplete information obtained from various low level image processing tasks. Completion of such information requires foundation of typical mathematical, geometrical and linear algebra concepts. In this paper, emphasize is on completion of missing information in terms of detected pixels for expression recognition. Amongst seven standard expressions we chose to work with only Happy, Sad and Normal in this paper. Feature extraction, feature completion and trained decision tree model in XML format on novel and extended dataset has been demonstrated though classical edge detection and Bezier curve modeling. Experimental results show that the recognition rate of proposed system is 71% on CK data set, 76% on JAFEE dataset and 78% using PAKFE dataset for chosen principal emotions.

  18. Dr. Naveed e Sehar and Dr. Humer Tariq

    Purpose:-This study focused on the Effects of techno stress on LIS professionals in terms of Physical, Psychological, Emotional and Behavioral aspect, how these librarians cope with their stress and recommend the ways to manage with techno stress. Design/Methodology: The survey method was used. . The entire population (N=70) was selected as respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Cronbach Alpha used to check the reliability of the questionnaire. All four-hypothesis tested by linear regression analysis. Collected data were analyzed by Social Science Software SPSSv23.0. Findings:-This study revealed that librarians affected physically, psychologically, emotionally and behaviorally by the stress coming from technology. Further results demonstrate that most librarians felt backache, eyestrain, headache, professional jealousy, demotivating, depression, negative attitude towards computer, isolation, irritability anger. Based on linear regression analysis the entire four hypotheses are supported. On the other hand, the result revealed that librarians are not well aware to cope with techno stress. Improved ICT training/workshops, give technical support, and stress management interventions were recommended as an important process for reducing its effects and to avoid possible stress factor completely as much as possible. Originality/value: Credited to the findings from this study, majority of librarians and libraryassistants experience technostress and certain degrees of negative influence on theirHealth and productivity.

  19. Belin Tilija, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Anthony Ball

    Introduction: Community pharmacies are generally a first point of contact with 1.6 million people visiting a pharmacy in England each day. Pharmacists are defined as experts in medicines. The role of a pharmacist has advanced from ‘product-focused’ through medicine to a ‘caregiver’ where they provide person-centred care to ensure suitable prescribing. As highlighted by Mark Koziol, chair of the Pharmacists’ Defence Association, the profession of pharmacy is not only to handle prescriptions but to take an interventionist approach to move into a population health management role and save the United Kingdom healthcare industry millions of pounds. Aim: The aim of this project was to identify peoples’ perspective, on hypertension and the role of a pharmacist to manage hypertension. Methods: A mixed-methods health promotion study, questionnaire-based, followed by measurement of their BP, the study was conducted at the University of Wolverhampton (UoW), city campus. The sample was achieved through verbally inviting all those passing by the Millenium City Building main entrance (n=50). Results:Of the participants 50% were not aware of the free BP screenings offered in local pharmacies and 90% had never visited their local pharmacy for BP services. Although, the majority of the participants had adequate knowledge about the recommended BP reading and the complications of long-term hypertension, but the utilization of the services community pharmacies offered and their general knowledge about prevalence hypertension were minimal. Conclusion: Blood pressure screening currently occurs in a small number of community pharmacies and the utilization of this service remains low. The public is in favour of receiving health support and services from the pharmacists in the community setting, therefore; pharmacists should take this opportunity and consider increasing their blood pressure measuring services.

  20. Dr. Shaswata Karmakar

    The vitality of the periodontal tissues in health and disease depends strongly upon an adequate source of essential nutrients being available to the host. The epithelium of the dentogingival junction, the underlying connective tissues and periodontium, as a whole, are amongst the most dynamic tissues in the body. The maintenance of these tissues is dependent upon an adequate supply of nutrients that are considered to be either major or minor.

  21. Dr. Quratul Ain Arifa, Dr. Nadeema Rafiq and Dr. Tauseef Nabi

    Background: Nutritional and epidemiological transition over the past three decades has resulted in weight changes. The dramatic rise in childhood obesity is one of its adverse outcomes. Objectives: To assess the relationship of socio-demographic variables with overweight and obesity among children. Methods: This cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in school going children of both sex aged 6-14 years in rural and urban areas of Jammu region. After explaining the purpose of the study, students were interviewed by the investigator and needful information regarding socio-demographic variables collected. Following the anthropometric assessment, BMI percentiles were obtained from WHO age and gender-specific BMI charts. Among socio-demographic variables age, gender, residential area, type of school, type of family, education of parents, mother's occupation, family size and birth order were analyzed for their relationship with overweight and obesity. Results: Gender, residential area, type of school and mother's occupation were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Socio-demographic and socioeconomic factors affect the nutritional status of children and adolescents. Overnutrition as one of its adverse outcome needs to be addressed with priority so as to prevent the pandemic of obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  22. Dr. Anurita Saigal, Dr. Pooja Murgai, Dr. Sudarshan Kumar Sharma, Dr. Anchana Gulati, and Dr. Rajni Kaushik

    Bone marrow is involved in large number of diseases which primarily are not diseases of the hemopoietic system. The bone marrow biopsy is an important investigation in the work up of patients with malignancies that have a propensity to involve bone marrow. The aim of the study was to observe the clinical presentation and hematological profile of patients with metastatic bone marrow tumors. This highlights the importance of performing bilateral bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in such patients and significance of correlation of the aspirate and biopsy findings.

  23. Dhafer Al shaibani, Waleed Bakhadher, Saeed Bajafar, Badr Bamusa, Mohammed Binjubair, Mohammed Baties, Anas Ramadan and Mohammed Algamdi

    Glass ionomers were introduced to the profession 25 years ago and have been shown to be a very useful adjunct to restorative dentistry. Glass ionomer cement composed of a calcium – alumino – silicate glass powder and an aqueous solution of an acrylic acid homo – or copolymer. These cements possess certain unique properties that make them useful as restorative and adhesive materials, including adhesion to tooth structure and base metals, anticariogenic properties due to release of fluoride, thermal compatibility with tooth enamel, and biocompatibility.

  24. Dr. Kanishk Mudgil, Dr. Santosh Kumar, Dr. Arun Kumar Chauhan and Dr. Swati Gupta

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the previous studies that describe the effects of functional appliances and their efficiency in treating class II malocclusion. This review is limited to two appliances: activator and twin‑block appliances.

  25. Dr. Adeeba J. Mahmood

    Background: Thalassemia is a herieditary anemia resulting from defects in hemoglobin production. -Thalassemia which is caused by a decreas in the production of B-globin chains, affects multiple organs and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality Aim: 1.To study the radiographic skeletal changes in transfusion dependent thalassemia patients attending thalassemic center in Ibn_Alather Children Teaching hospital in Mosul and to correlate these changes with age. 2.To asses growth retardation in those patients clinically by using normal growth charts comparing them with our records of weights and heights Setting: The study was conducted in Ibn Al-Atheer Children hospital, Thalassemia center. Mosul city,Iraq from August2009_Octobar 2010 as prospective study. Patients and Methods: Five hundred patients whose age ranged between( 6month _32 year) were studied. Two hundered patients were examind by x-ray for forearm, hand, skull X-ray. 300 patients take for them Chest X-ray. Results: The age of the studied sample ranged between 6 month _32 years. The peak incidence of the patients in the age group 6 month _10 years (29.4%), male to female ratio 1:1.2. Fifty three percent from urban areas and 47% from rural areas. Seventy seven percent of patients diagnosed during the first year of their lifes. Sixty five percent of patients non compliant on chelating agent (desferroxamin). ninty percent their hemoglobin before transfusion range between 7-9gm|dl, 31% had hand bone changes: thinning of bone cortex, fusi form shape metacarpal and phalangyal bone with osteoporosis and localized lucency. Twenty nine percent had abnormal long bone changes highest percentage in the age group 11-14 years, no any case of desferroxamin – induced bone dysplstic changes,71% of patients had osteoporosis of ribs, no any case of thoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis. Fourty two percent of patients their weights fall below 5th centil and 56% of their height fall below 5th centil Conclusion: Radiological skeletal changes in our patients is high in comparison to other thalassemic patients in other studies which is due to poor compliance of these patients to both blood transfusion and chelating agents.

  26. Ambati Dharanija, Munish C Reddy, Pradeep Raghav, Shalu Jain, Stuti Mohan and Sourabh Jindal

    Treatment of class II malocclusions poses a major challenge for orthodontist. Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrognathism during active growth can be treated using removable myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliance are given in non compliant patient. The present case report shows efficiency of Powerscope in correcting mandibular retrognathism in a patient aged 14-year-old male patient with a chief complaint of irregularly placed upper front teeth. Diagnosis revealed retrognathic mandible, orthognathic maxilla, Class II skeletal base with average towards vertical growth pattern with end on molar and canine relation on both side, crowding in upper and lower arch, overjet of 6mm, overbite of 4 mm and maxillary mid line shifted towards right side by 1mm. The case was treated initially with MBT 0.22” prescription followed by Powrerscope. Stable and successful results were obtained with improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship. Power scope proved to be effective in achieving correction by combination of skeletal and dental changes, also reduces time and helps in managing non-compliant patients.

  27. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. khan Rafiya Nazir, Dr Mudasir Ahmad Bhat

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of outcome of non-surgical root surface debridement done along with adjective use of systemic antibiotics i.e. Azithromycin 500mg once a day for three days. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Twenty- nine patients were selected based on inclusion/ exclusion criteria, who were treated at the hospital and medicated with azithromycin from January 2014 to May 2015. Data was collected from their notes for base-line and after three months (3/12) reassessment. The patients were categorized according to depth of the pockets and behavioral factors like smoking and the differences between the baseline 3/12 reassessment were determined. Results: Good response of treatment was seen in the reassessment for the nonsmokers group (median of 39), whereas the smoker group showed a satisfactory difference between base-line and reassessment, showing a median of 24 that may correspond to the less number of subjects in this group. While a good difference was seen in the former smoker group showing a median of 35. Conclusions: Good response was seen in terms of pocket depth reduction, gingival health and patient compliance, with the adjunctive use of azithromycin with non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients treated for moderate to severe periodontitis.

  28. Surendran Achuthan

    The study investigates the prospects of India entering the global renewable energy market with the distributed energy generated by Indian household prosumers and commercial energy producers. The systematic review relied on a predefined search strategy, which allowed to select fifteen peer-reviewed articles in the English language for critical analysis. The study identified the following themes associated with the feasibility of the project: grid parity, economic barriers, policy targets, government support, solar and wind power development, and renewable energy certificates. The results of the study show that the number and severity of drivers for the country’s participation in the global RE market overweigh barriers to it. The study provides a clear perspective on Indian prospects of participating in the global RE trade, thereby opening avenues for future inquiry.

  29. Olkeba Assefa, Balina Fufa and Busha Taye

    The main target of this ethnographic study was to explore jaarsummaa conflict resolution mechanism in Ilu and Bunno Oromos. In the study, interview and focus group discussion were used for data collection in the informants’ natural setting. The collected data were analyzed from the folklore bearers and from observers’ perspectives. The finding revealed the following. First of all, the informants asserted that jaarsummaa conflict resolution practice is a component of Oromo Gada system. Secondly, kinds of conflicts should be treated by jaarsummaa system are small scales disputes like: farmland, husband and wife, use of resources and other social issues which does not include death issue which would be treated by abba gada of the area. Similarly, the elders agree that jaarsummaa resolve conflicts from ground than modern law court system. However, jaarsummaa has been in challenges since the introduction of Minilik II to the area which sanctioned no to exercise as before. Gradually, the practice lacks its originality. However, it could not disappear completely since it had basic foundation. Currently, the application of jaarsummaa conflict resolution is better than after Oromo Gada system was registered to UNESCO. Lastly, we suggest that Gumii Abbootii Gadaa of salgan Iluu Oromo have to teach the people gada values for good governance and development.

  30. Muhammad Ahsanuddin and Zohaib Aziz

    The flattening of the world, thanks to the cluster of profound socio-economic and politico-cultural changes, has created unprecedented challenges for organizational leadership and management. The fast-evolving global world of ours where challenges have to be continually met requires timely decision taken by the CEOs’ (Chief Executive Officers) who shape and give direction to world politics and economic order. In the light of this we have studied the decisions taken by the CEOs’ of goods producing firms’ and their decisions on firm’s productivity and profitability which in turn depend, to a great deal, on the CEOs’ salary structure. Better salary leads to influx of people from all over the world often leading to brain drain situation in developing countries. Globalization has created social disparities in the present economic system that are molded by the increasing polarization of work between people working in high paid knowledge sectors and others working in low paid sectors. Prior research has suggested that in a global environment capitalist benefit from other capitalists who pay higher salaries from the expansion of income. The salary data of 177 CEOs’ (Chief Executive Officers) for the year 1990 –published in the Business Week of June 6, 1991 has been analyzed to determine and correlate the effects of sales, market value (mktval), profit and CEOs’ tenure (ceoten) on the CEOs’ salary. The performance of goods producing firms where the CEOs’ served has been found to be strongly correlated with their salary intakes. The basic purpose of this research and study is to analyze the deciding factor in the salaries of top executives. The CEOs’ are the policy makers in all government and non-governmental organizations and their decision-taking greatly influences the performances of their institution. CEOs’ performance with respect to their salaries and other variables mentioned above is found to be the deciding factor as regards policy execution matters in goods producing firm’s performances.

  31. Abasolo, Cerelo B., Abasolo, Napoleon B., Canque, Olga F. and Oboab, Geronimo Jr. S.

    This study made use of the descriptive type of research to ascertain the effect of integrated students’ clubbing towards school performance and membership in Greek clubs among the Junior and Senior students. The researchers employed the short survey that requested specific information from the participants. The survey questionnaire supplied a list of the acceptable clubs for the participants to mark. It was found out that at the start of the implementation, the clubbing did not have any direction for if did not speculate its vision and mission nor projects and calendar of activities that would guide the officers and members of the things to do for the good of the club. The researchers also found out that there were existing clubs in the school that were created for the sake of clubbing only. Academic clubs had the highest pre-test mean and the lowest was the students involved in Greek group or fraternity. The difference was even more impressive because of the improvement of the students’ grade and the results of the non-involvement of students in fraternity after the implementation of students’ clubbing in school. This indicated that the integration of students’ clubbing was effective in helping the students to master and develop their skills and talents and the same time perform better in the activities and test. The 21st century learners are motivated to learn with the clubbing activities which provided them the opportunities to develop their talents, skills, leadership, creativity, and responsibility that led them to improve their academic performance and equipped them holistically to develop the 21st century skills.

  32. Bhagabana Sahu

    Jarada is an ancient zamindari estate of Ganjam district of Odisha. It was situated in 190 05’ Latt. and 840 33’ Long. It is about 16 miles from Ichhapur in a south westerly direction and 32 miles from Berhampur. It is bounded by the zamindari estate of Surangi, Chikiti, Badakhemundi and Jalanthara (now in Andhra Pradesh). Jarada is the Headquarter of this estate. It is a small village under Chikiti MLA Constituency of Patrapur C.D.Block. The village proper is very beautiful one bounded by the dense forests in south, the Jarasandha Hill of Mahendra Mountain in the north-west and a large tank on the east. The name Jarada is derived from two names – Jara and Daha. According to the local traditions and legends, there were two Sabara sardars namely Jara and Daha who were ruling over this area in early period. But one Khatriya prince Veerabhadra defeated and killed these two brothers and founded this kingdom and named it after the name of these two Sabara sardars Jara-daha. In course of time it came to be known as Jarada. This village is famous for its temple Parthasarathi where the presiding deity is Lord Jagannath.

  33. Hetal M. Mistry and Karishma D. Gavli

    Background: Old age is increasing; more population in future would be in old age. India being the one having more young population may in future have more old population. With aging, there occurs deterioration of physical health, cerebral pathology, changes in cardiopulmonary and autonomous nervous system. It also affects the cognitive ability of an individual, which causes changes to occur all over the body. Thus, affecting their activity of daily living , hampering their daily functions, self-care activities, getting dependent on others, lowering their self-esteem, staying more indoors away from society, recumbent to one position, and lots of overthinking and forgetting Important work. All this leads to development of psychological co-morbidity as in depression and/or anxiety and also affecting their functional capacity. As above 60 is rising rapidly and elderly population is facing majority of health problems due to aging with changes in the body, mind and thought process. So there arises a urge to find whether presence of one affects the other. Is there a relation between presence of psychological co morbidity and functional capacity in elderly? Objectives: Primary Objectives: 1. To find out presence of depression and anxiety in elderly by using Geriatric depression scale (GDS) and Generalized anxiety disorder 7 scale (GAD-7). 2. To find out functional capacity by using Six Minute Walk Distance Test. 3. To find out correlation of depression and anxiety on functional capacity Secondary Objectives: Comparison of functional capacity on depression, anxiety, mixed group and no psychological co-morbidity. Methodology: Study design was observational, correlational study, 60 participants were assessed in the study. The participants included had MMSE score above 24 and meeting the inclusion criteria. After the consent and MMSE score, the participants were given the scales Geriatric Depression Scale and Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 scale and later their 6 minute walk distance test was taken. Data was test for normality using the Shapiro-wilk test. As the data did not pass normality, the correlation was done using spearmen’s correlation test and coefficient of variance was used to compare the functional capacity between the groups. Results: The participants were distributed in group as follows Depressed 8(13%), anxious 6(10%), mixed 9(15%) and no psychological comorbidity 37(61.1 %). The functional capacity among groups were found to be highest in anxious (mean 84.9) and least to be in the mixed group (mean 69.7). The predominance in psychological co morbidity among genders was found to be in females 12(52%). The functional capacity among genders was found to be more in males (83.1%). There is a very weak correlation (r = -0.18) between GDS and Functional capacity and is statistically not significant (p=0.16). There is a very weak correlation (r= -0.14) between GAD and functional capacity and is not statistically significant (p=0.27). Discussion and Conclusion: In the study of 60 participants there were 30 males and 30 females of which 13% had depression, 10 % had anxiety, 13% had mixed and 61.1% had no psychological comorbidity. So there was a very weak negative correlation of functional capacity with depression and anxiety which was not statistically significant. Among gender female had more predominance to psychological comorbidity than male. And males had more functional capacity than females. As the participants belonged to good financial status, had retired from work and were involved in activity and were interested in taking care of one’s health. They had access to regular medication and health check-ups, and involved in social gatherings or meets and did not stay much indoors. They were joyful and satisfied with their lives. And so they did not present any psychological comorbidity and preserved their functional capacity. Though they had comorbidity like hypertension and diabetes mellitus, they took care for it and are not obsessed and dealing the situation, so showing no symptoms of depression. They might have got depression and/or anxiety in some earlier stage or might develop later, but at present they are not showing any symptoms.

  34. Dr. Rajesh Kshirsagar, *Dr. Priyadarshini Banerjee, Dr. Rajat Bhende and Dr. Vikram Singh

    Ludwig’s angina is an aggressive cellulitis affecting the submandibular and sublingual spaces bilaterally. Formerly, doomed to be fatal, the disease at present can be effectively managed by prompt airway secure, adequate antimicrobial coverage and surgical drainage. We report a case of Ludwig’s Angina, with a non odontogenic source, extending to the neck with elevation of the floor of the mouth resulting in dysphagia and restricted mouth opening. Regression of the disease was obtained by appropriate use of parenteral antibiotics and surgical drainage

  35. Dr. Muhamed Faizal and Dr. Aijaz Ahmed Khan

    The complications of chronic diabetes affect many systems including the nervous system wherein the peripheral neuropathy is the most common presenting feature and which if not controlled may necessitate limb amputation. Since the exact mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced peripheral neuropathy and its treatment are not completely known, the present study was aimed at an effort to further the information in this regard. After ethical clearance, 36 animals were divided into six groups having six rats each. The groups consisted of age-matched controls and experimental groups of two weeks, one month, two months, four months and six months duration of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). At the end of each experimental period, animals were euthanized and perfusion fixed with Karnovsky’s fixative. The blood serum was subjected to biochemical analysis and the sciatic nerve tissue blocks were processed for paraffin sectioning, routine and special staining for light microscopy. Biochemical, histomorphological findings and histopathological features revealed that the prolonged duration of hyperglycemia resulted in the raised serum creatinine, lowered serum total protein, reduction of myelinated fibers and remarkable thickening of endoneurial, perineurial and epineurial collagen. It is concluded that the biochemical alterations, change in the ratio of myelinated fibers and heaping up of collagen fibers at every level of organization appear to be important contributing factors for the deterioration of peripheral nerve functions in chronic diabetes.

  36. Dr. Sushma Singh

    Introduction: Infertility affects 10-15 % of couple in reproduction age group (novak, 13th edition, 2002). Ovulation dysfunction is a common cause of infertility. Approximately, 40% of female infertility is due to anovulation (Speroff et al., 1999). However, with the advent of USG, a simple and non invasive, more accurate method to study ovulation has been established. AIMS and objective: 1. To study the follicular dynamics after spontaneous and induced ovulation by non invasive method in infertile women. 2. To study the effect of various ovulation inducing agent on pregnancy rate. The above study by predicting the timing of ovulation can help in 3. Women undergoing intrauterine insemination 4. Timing of intercourse in infertile women 5. It wil also help to minimize the risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. Material and Methods: The present work was undertaken in dept of obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Radiology of VIMS, Pawapuri from Nov 2015 to 2016. Patients of infertility both primary and secondary were selected and tests were carried out to know the causes of infertility. Group I – constituted 25 infertile women with ovulatory cycle; Group II – constituted 25 infertile women with anovulatory cycle. Method of Induction: In all cases treatment was started from D2 of cycle for ovulation. For ovulation induction oral clomiphene citrate (50mg) D2 to D6 of menstrual cycle. (Regimen I) Those pts who failed to respond to Regimen I were put on a combination of (CC+FSH). Single dose of HCG (10000 IU) given IM when dominant follicle attained a diameter of 18 – 20 cm USG monitoring done from D10 on was of cycle to see the no of follicle, diameter of follicle, rate of growth and endometrial thickness. Couples were advised to live together from D10 -15 on alternate day. Result: The leading follicular diameter was significantly larger (22- 26) in CC stimulated cycle as compared to spontaneous cycle (16- 21). The ovulate rate and pregnant rate was higher with regimen II. Conclusion: It helps in prediction of timing of ovulation and correct prediction of timing of ovulation is critical for infertility therapies such as intrauterine insemination and timing of intercourse, and helps to increase the pregnancy rate.

  37. Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim Yaseen and Dr. Saad Shyaa Jasim

    Background: In revolution of functional endoscopic sinus surgery we need to found out new approaches to reduce recurrence after operation, and middle turbinate medialization is important step in this purpose. So we focus on some types of medialization like nothing or conchopexy and bolgraization. Objectives: To find out the effects of different types of middle turbinate medicalization in fess. Patients and methods: Comparative cross sectional study focus on middle turbinate medicalization in patients underwent fess operation in Al-Yarmook teaching hospital in a period between March 2017 to June 2018 in determined days in a week. Thirty six patients included in our study . after taking history and routine otolaryngological examinations were done and sent for imaging if needed . and when fess operation needed the patient included in the study. We collect the data in three categories , patients without middle turbinate medicalization, and patient with cocopexy i.e suturing of middle turbinate to septum ,and patient with bolgeraization which mean cross hatch of both septum and middle turbinate, and made the categories as time of operation , patient nasal patency , infection , adhesion in day one and after 1week and after 2weeks and after 1month and 3months and 6months. Results: In medialization by freer elevator male percentage is 58.33% to female 41.66%, and, 50% recurrence of sinusitis but no time spend. In medialization by conchopexy 25% are males and 75% females. and 16.6% sinusitis recurrence .and the extra time to operation is about 13 min. In medialization by bolgraization 66.66% were males and 33.33% females, and the sinusitis recurrence is 8.3%, the additional time is about 4 min. Conclusion • Females prefer less intervention technique in medicalization of middle turbinate • Boligraztion is the best result of medialzation type of middle turbinate. by less time consuming in comparison with cochopexy , and less recurrence Recommendations • Its better to do medicalization of middle turbinate in FESS surgery. • Bolgiraization is the best type of middle turbinate medialization. • The subject need further researches and studies about another types of medialization like by laser and harmonic and bipolar and others.

  38. Shubhankar Sule, Dr. Ravinder Kaur and Dr. Snehal Ghodey

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of Kinesiotaping on Agility of Football Players with Grade 1 Hamstring Strain. [Subjects and Method] Sixty professional football players with grade 1 hamstring strain were selected. The subjects were randomly allotted into experimental and control group (n=30 each). The experimental group received facilitation type of Y Taping to Hamstring muscle in stretched position while the Control group received sham taping to hamstring muscle. Agility was assessed pre and post taping for both groups using Agility T-Test. [Results] Experimental group showed significant improvement in T-Test when compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Kinesiotaping was found to be effective in improving Agility of football players with grade 1 Hamstring Strain.

  39. Dr. Yamuna, V., Dr. Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Lekha, K. and Dr. Ramesh, K. Nadiger

    Restoration of missing anterior teeth has wide range of treatment options. Fixed economic esthetic restorations are challenging. With the advancements in the dental material science and major improvements in adhesive dentistry, gave clinicians with an option of fiber reinforced composite-fixed partial dentures. They are economical, esthetically pleasing and metal free restorations. This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical performance of anterior fiber reinforced composite-fixed partial dentures using USPHS criteria.

  40. Dr. Yamuna, V., Dr. Roseline Meshramkar, Dr. Lekha, K. and Dr. Ramesh, K. Nadiger

    Restoration of missing anterior teeth has wide range of treatment options. Fixed economic esthetic restorations are challenging. With the advancements in the dental material science and major improvements in adhesive dentistry, gave clinicians with an option of fiber reinforced composite-fixed partial dentures. They are economical, esthetically pleasing and metal free restorations. This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical performance of anterior fiber reinforced composite-fixed partial dentures using USPHS criteria.

  41. Reet Choudhary, Amit Agrawal, Mehul Kapadiya and Soumendu Bikash Maiti

    Background: Flexible gastrointestinal Parotid fistulae is although infrequent, rare, uncommon post operative complication of surgical intervention in the temporomandibular or parotid region. Any injury to the gland results in development of fistula or sialocele management of which becomes challenging owing to difficulties with healing, tissue injuries, swelling and distress to patient. We present a case of post operative parotid fistula complication following surgical intervention treatment of subcondylar fracture. This paper presents a simple but effective and conservative method of treating this complication with the use of 9% hot hypertonic saline.

  42. Dr. Shubham Kumar Sharma, Dr. Mahesh Dave and Dr. Archana Gokhroo

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) has existed for millennia and remains a major global health problem. Among extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis is the most common type constitutes about 35%cases followed by pleural effusion (20%), bone and joint (10%), genitourinary TB (9%), TBM (5%), other (13%). Cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT), specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been recently introduced for detection of tubercular pleural effusion. It has an added advantage of detecting rifampicin resistance. Material and methods: With an aim to determine the role of pleural fluid CBNAAT in tubercular pleural effusion, the study was conducted in department of Internal medicine, R.N.T. Medical College Udaipur, Rajasthan. Patients with symptoms suggestive of pleural effusion were enrolled. Pleural fluid was drawn using standard procedure protocol and sent for CBNAAT test and routine as well as bacteriological examination. Results: 200 patients were included, with male to female ratio of 3.5:1. The most common affected age group was below 45 years and mostly from rural area (84%). 114 (57%) of 200 patients were underweight. Mostly were farmers and most were smoker. Most common morbidity was DM followed by COPD, HTN and HIV. In our study, most common symptom was chest pain. 52 patients had pulmonary involvement and 28 were sputum AFB positive. Pleural fluid CBNAAT was positive in 37 patients out of which 31 were sensitive to rifampicin. Conclusion: While the cytology of Pleural Fluid gives a very good estimation of the positivity status of a patient than CBNAAT as the higher cell count is suggestive of TB but NAAT helps in diagnosing both the positivity status as well as rifampicin resistant state of the patient. To conclude, CBNAAT has the potential to significantly improve and escalate the diagnosis of pleural fluid specimens at both hospitals as well as point-of-care settings in regions not only with high TB burden but also with overlapping HIV. Also, detection of Rifampicin resistance aids in prompt initiation of appropriate therapy and thus improving the overall quality of TB care.

  43. Sapna Chandran, L., Krishnapillai Rekha, Ramakrishnan Bindhu P. and Thomas Priya

    Pathology is a branch of medical science that help in diagnosing the disease by microscopic examination and revealing the information to render correct diagnosis and help in proper treatment planning. Recent advances in technology has put a significant impact in the diagnostic field of pathology. Introduction of slide less pathology also known as Virtual Microscopy or Whole slide imaging (WSI) is not mere an imagination but an upcoming and promising invention. It is highly demanded in everyday pathology as well as in educational, research purpose and bioindustry. Even though these advances are faced with significant challenges such as data storage, image compression, they also provide guidance to newer diagnostic approach. These can also minimize the interobserver variability, diagnostic dilemma, identifies the therapeutic pathways and predicts the patient responses to therapy. Hence the promise of digital pathology is not the simple transfer of an image to monitor, but rather an upgradation with information that cannot be garnered by human examination. This article aims to introduce and discuss the important aspects of this evolving technology.

  44. Dr. Angela Jency, A., Dr. Ramaprabha Murugan, Dr. Krithika, C.L. and Dr. Kannan, A.

    A compromised immune status can allow the growth of opportunistic pathogens to invade the body. Phycomycosis is an invasive fungal disease affecting the structures of the skin, air sinuses, orbit, and the brain. The leading predisposing factors include uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia, renal failure, organ transplant, long-term intake of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive therapy and AIDS. The signs and symptoms of intraoral phycomycosis are uncertain. We present an ideal case of phycomycosis with classical features involving the maxilla, invading deep into the zygomatic process and the lower border of orbit in a chronic uncontrolled hyperglycemic patient. The fulminant, non-specific nature of the disease makes the diagnosis and management quite challenging. Treatment includes a combination of surgical debridement of the necrotic debris along with administration of systemic antifungal drugs like Amphotericin, Posaconazole.

  45. Hafiz Saleem Faisal Shahzad, Sadia Ahmad, Misbah Sarwar, Faiz Rasul, Mariam Azeem and Hina Latif

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is a convenient and simple way of assessing obesity as obesity has a very negative impact on human health in the form of physical and mental health issues and mortality risk. Studying obesity among university students is really important as they are newly exposed to open society after passing school and have multiple dietary options. Their dietary habits can be controlled at early stage and thus multiple diseases’ risk can be prevented. Punjab University has multidisciplinary students and purpose of study was to assess their demographics and dietary habits. Objective: To determine association between dietary habits and body mass index among university students. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among students of the University of the Punjab, Pakistan. The study was approved by IRB of Department of Social and Cultural Sciences. After informed consent, a self-structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and dietary habits. Body weight and height was recorded and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m2 was defined as normal, <18.5kg/m2 as underweight, and 25-29.9kg/m2 as overweight. Appropriate statistical tests were used for analysis. Results: Among 200 participants 120 students were having normal BMI, 30 under-weight and 50 overweight. Factors such as low income, skipping meals, taking daily tea, less use of milk, eggs and meat were associated with low BMI. On the other hand, using snacks and junk foods, soft drinks, rice, and paratha had significant association with high BMI. When Chi square test was applied, statistical significant results were age(p 0.000), gender(p 0.004), weight(p 0.000), height(p 0.000), monthly family income (p 0.000), drinking milk(p 0.008), skipping lunch(p 0.000), eating fruits(p 0.006), rice(p 0.000), meat(p 0.000), eggs(p 0.002), butter(p 0.019), bread(p 0.000), lassi(p 0.000), vegetables(p 0.000), snacks(p 0.000), milk shake(p 0.000), soft drinks(p 0.000), fries(p 0.000) and type of snack used(p 0.000). Conclusion: More than 1/3rd university students were having abnormal BMI. This study augments the need of creating awareness in this specific group regarding beneficial effects of healthy nutritional values and importance of normal BMI.

  46. Hafiz Saleem Faisal Shahzad, Sadia Ahmad, Misbah Sarwar, Faiz Rasul, Mariam Azeem and Hina Latif

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is a convenient and simple way of assessing obesity as obesity has a very negative impact on human health in the form of physical and mental health issues and mortality risk. Studying obesity among university students is really important as they are newly exposed to open society after passing school and have multiple dietary options. Their dietary habits can be controlled at early stage and thus multiple diseases’ risk can be prevented. Punjab University has multidisciplinary students and purpose of study was to assess their demographics and dietary habits. Objective: To determine association between dietary habits and body mass index among university students. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among students of the University of the Punjab, Pakistan. The study was approved by IRB of Department of Social and Cultural Sciences. After informed consent, a self-structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and dietary habits. Body weight and height was recorded and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m2 was defined as normal, <18.5kg/m2 as underweight, and 25-29.9kg/m2 as overweight. Appropriate statistical tests were used for analysis. Results: Among 200 participants 120 students were having normal BMI, 30 under-weight and 50 overweight. Factors such as low income, skipping meals, taking daily tea, less use of milk, eggs and meat were associated with low BMI. On the other hand, using snacks and junk foods, soft drinks, rice, and paratha had significant association with high BMI. When Chi square test was applied, statistical significant results were age(p 0.000), gender(p 0.004), weight(p 0.000), height(p 0.000), monthly family income (p 0.000), drinking milk(p 0.008), skipping lunch(p 0.000), eating fruits(p 0.006), rice(p 0.000), meat(p 0.000), eggs(p 0.002), butter(p 0.019), bread(p 0.000), lassi(p 0.000), vegetables(p 0.000), snacks(p 0.000), milk shake(p 0.000), soft drinks(p 0.000), fries(p 0.000) and type of snack used(p 0.000). Conclusion: More than 1/3rd university students were having abnormal BMI. This study augments the need of creating awareness in this specific group regarding beneficial effects of healthy nutritional values and importance of normal BMI.

  47. Dalia M. Fahmy, Germeen A. Ashamallaha, Naglaa S. Al Housiny and Nancy S. Zeidan

    Background: Chrons is a relapsing remitting disease that affects children and demands a reliable diagnostic tool to detect active episode with minimum hazards. Objectives: i- to assess the reliability of MR enterography, quantitative and qualitative DWI measurements done by radiologists of different experiences in assessment of disease activity in children, ii to explore if diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) can substitute contrast enhanced images. Methods: Post contrast MR Enterography with DWI of 32 patients suspected to have active chron's disease were retrospectively evaluated by 3 radiologists with different years of experience. Magnetic resonance score ≥7 was used as reference of activity. Results: 21 patients had active lesions. There was almost perfect inter-reader agreement regarding graded DWI hyperintensity (ICC)= 0.93. There was significant moderate correlation between graded DWI hyperintensity and MaRIA (r = 0.64),mMaRIA (r=0.65). DWI hyperintensity had sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 95.5% in detecting active disease. Mean ADC for active lesions was 1.4 ± 0.2 × 10-3 mm2 /s. A proposed cut-off 1.67 x10-3 mm2/sec had sensitivity of 100%, specificity 62.5. There was significant moderate inverse correlation between ADC values and MaRIA, mMaRIA, mural thickness and wall edema, while there was no significant correlation between ADC and ulcers or relative contrast enhancement. The 3 readers did not find significant difference in lesion visibility between (DWI + ADC) and (post contrast images). Conclusions: MRE with DWI is a reliable tool that accurately assessed activity of chron's disease, regardless the experience of readers. DWI is comparable to post contrast images in detection of active disease.

  48. Marilyn George, Farhan Nadeem, Subin Samson, Nillan K Shetty, Abhinay Sorake and Ridhima Suneja

    Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder that occurs when a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep. There are basically two types of Sleep apnea (central sleep apnea and obstructive sleep apnea) where obstructive sleep apnea is the more common one. OSA is associated with interrupted breathing during sleep due to any obstruction due to repeated collapse of airway. This disorder can be life threatening as the oxygen supply to various parts of the body is substantially reduced. This review article sheds light on the various diagnostic methods and the management of OSA which includes the specific and non-specific treatment modalities. The various surgerical methods and oral appliances are also looked upon for the management of OSA.

  49. Mrs. Dhivya Chandriga, D. and Dr. Rose Rajesh

    Background of the study: The admission of an infant to the paediatric unit inevitably causes emotional stress for the parents and hence complicates parenting. Parents are partly influenced by hospitalization experience and by their own personal characteristics, past experiences and their relationship to the child. Parents relate their fears and anxieties to their children verbally or nonverbally. They need assurance that their child is receiving adequate medical treatment. They need information, to allow them to understand the child's medical status and treatment the child receives. Communication between parents and health care personnel is an essential part of the support offered to the parents and can reduce their emotional stress, effective communication is paramount between parents of sick neonates and the direct care providers. Parents need to participate in decision making regarding their child’s wellbeing. They value open and honest communication. Effective communication is recognized as a priority in the entire health care continuum especially in the paediatric units, since it directly affects the quality of child care, safety, outcome, parental perception and satisfaction. Methods: This study has assessed the perception of the parents whose child has been admitted in the paediatric units using semi-structured interview schedule Research approach- exploratory, Research design- descriptive, Sample-Primary care givers of the child admitted in the Pediatric unit, Sample technique- convenience sampling, Sample size-100, Tool semi-structured questionnaire to assess the perception. Results: The researcher has identified that majority (97%) of the parents had positive perception on communication on care given by health care personnel, whereas only 3% had partially positive perception and none of the parents had negative perception. Conclusion: The study reveals that there is no statistical association among the other variables, but the variables such as age of the child, occupation, type of family, birth order of the child, number of previous admission has an impact on the levels of perception because hospitalization is a stressor and the caregivers are from different backgrounds and with varied expectations. As health care personnel communication has a lasting impact during the child’s hospitalization. Thus barriers identified (Language used by the health care personnel, poor orientation and poor pre planned discharge) among doctors and nurses should be rectified to ease the stress of parents and thereby improve the quality of care.

  50. Dr. Abhishek Meena, Dr. Jyoti Tembhurne, Dr. Akshay Bhandari and Dr. Devesh Tiwari

    Porcelain laminate veneers are most conservative and esthetic treatment option for enhancing anterior esthetics. The success of veneers is mainly based on careful and controlled tooth reduction within the biological and mechanical principles of natural dentition. Laminate is viable conservative technique when compared with full crowns. Tooth colored thin layer material is placed on the prepared surface of the tooth for esthetically restoring small or large defects or intrinsic discoloration. Laminates are indicated in cases of fracture, discoloration, spacing, chipped enamel surfaces, etc. This article presents a series of three cases - (1) spacing between teeth, (2) fracture of teeth, and (3) discoloration of teeth. Porcelain laminates were planned for these cases. A step- by-step protocol was followed for fabrication of laminate veneers.

  51. Ms. Anita Angela Baptist and Mrs. Chanu Bhattacharya

    Anger need not be a negative expression. Anger is a normal human emotion that, when handled appropriately and expressed assertively can provide an individual with a positive force to solve problems and make decisions concerning life situations. Anger becomes a problem when it is not expressed and when it is expressed aggressively. The aim of the study is to learn to control anger by recognizing what triggers their anger, how behaviour contributes to a volatile situation. The number of and impact of violent incidents in mental healthcare settings can be reduced by the appropriate, therapeutic and effective use of the full range of interventions. This can only occur if adequate number of professionals are properly trained in the different techniques and organizations have robust systems for auditing and monitoring the prevention and management of violence.

  52. Dr. Priyanka Rai and Dr. Shilpa Shetty

    Purpose: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Hydrofluoric acid treatment on shear bond strength and surface characteristics of Titanium alloys. Methods: 3 dental luting agents representative of different compositional classes (Polycarboxylate, Glass ionomer, and Zinc oxide based cements) were used to evaluate their effect on Titanium-6Aluminum-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy surfaces. Samples were divided according to their surface etching with 9.6% Hydrofluoric acid (n=15 for each group). Group (1) Titanium alloy cylinders with acid etching. Group (2) Titanium alloy cylinders without acid etching. 30 pairs of cylinders were cemented together. Shear Bond strength was measured using a Universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5mm/min after incubation in a water bath at 37°C for 7 days. SEM was used to observe the representative specimens for the surface characteristics under 500X magnification. Results: Polycarboxylate cement showed significantly greater retention than all other groups (P<0.05).SEM examination showed surface pits on the Hydrofluoric acid etched Titanium alloy cemented with Polycarboxylate cement. Conclusion: Higher Shear bond strength and some chemical surface changes were observed in acid etched Ti alloy group cemented with Polycarboxylate cement.

  53. Dr. Naveed Anjum Qureshi and Dr. Viney Sambyal

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment for Cholelithiasis and is the most commonly performed operation of the digestive tract. Methods: Data of 860 patients who underwent LC at SMVD Superspeciality Hospital Katra from 1st May 2016 to 30th April 2018wasanalyzedretrospectively for comorbidities, Calots anatomy, conversion to open cholecystectomy, operative time, intra operative and postoperative complications and hospital stay. Results: Out of 860 patients, 697 (81.04%) were females and 163 (18.96%) males. The mean age of the patients was 49.5 years. Mean operative time was 65 min. 18 (2.09%) patients were converted to open surgery, 11 due to difficult dissection in Calot’s triangle (1.27%), one by bleeding from liver bed (0.12%), two patients (0.23%) had biliary leakage, one (0.12%) due to partial tear in common bile duct, one (0.12%) patient had bowel perforation at umbilical port, one patient (0.12%) was converted to open for suspicion of malignancy while one of the patients (0.12%) developed biliary peritonitis due to slippage of clips from cystic duct. Mean hospital stay was 3±1.5 days. Fifteen (1.7%) developed wound infection. There was no mortality recorded in this study. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a gold standard for management of gallstone disease that can be performed with acceptable morbidity.

  54. Asadu, A.N., Agbo, F.U., Asadu, C. L. A. and Onyeme, E.

    A socio-economic survey of farmers in five agrarian communities in Anambra State, Nigeria was conducted in 2017 to elicit the characteristics of the farmers in order to proffer solutions that can improve their productivity. Designed structured questionnaires containing over 100 questions were administered to a group of farmers in each location and individual household heads randomly selected the groups. Data were analyzed using simple statistics. Most of the farmers were in an active age group (31- 45yrs) with formal education and had farming as both their primary occupation and main source of income. Male farmers dominated the farming population. The land tenure systems identified were in decreasing order of importance: individual > family > community > government ownerships. Acquisition of land for agricultural purposes was not a challenge especially by purchase or lease or patrilineal inheritance. Cases of land dispute were few communities. Small-holder Farming System (SFS) was proposed in all the locations involving three cycles of rice production in a year. The average farm holding of ≈ 6 ha per farmer is well above the national average of < 2 ha. Only 54 % have had access to loans before but 92% of the farmers expressed the desire to have grants and loans. With adequate mitigation measures their limitations such as mechanization, provision of agrochemicals, mills, access road, loans and grants by the government, the area can produce sufficient rice to serve the entire states of the Southeast with excess for exportation to other states.

  55. Kotagiri Ravikanth, Anirudh Sharma and Deepak Thakur

    Formulations must be manufactured to the highest quality levels. In the pharmaceutical industry, process validation performs this task, ensuring that the process does what it purports to do. It is an essential regulatory requirement. According to Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the goal of validation is “To Establish documented evidence which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specification and quality attributes.” Process validation is to create robust manufacturing process that consistently produces a drug product with minimum variation that adheres to quality criteria of purity, identity and potency. In the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine. It is getting popularized in developing as well as in developed countries owing to its natural origin and lesser side effects. Herbal medicines are being manufactured on the large scale in Pharmaceutical units, where manufacturers come across many problems such as availability of good quality raw material, authentication of raw material, availability of standards, proper standardization methodology of single drugs and formulation, quality control parameters. Therefore, at present quality assurance is one of the thrust area for the evaluation of traditionally vv used medicinal plants and herbal formulations. Phytochemical constituents present in the polyherbal formulation act as the critical quality attributes and control variables which are essential to carry out the process validation. Development of authentic analytical methods which can reliably profile the phytochemical composition and help in validation of manufacturing process is a major challenge to scientists. Thus control of the process from the beginning to the end and quality assurance along the complete process chain is the key which will ensure the batch to batch consistency of finished polyherbal products. Results proved that manufacturing process stands validated as it met acceptance criteria.

  56. Neena K. Dhiman, Anjali Deswal, Dharvi Mahajan, Shashi Tyagi and Rashmi Saini

    An unfortunate consequence of industrialization and urbanization is the generation and release of toxic waste products in every resource. However, contamination of water with heavy metals poses a potential health hazard. Biosorption is a promising method for removing metal contaminants from waters in a low cost and environment friendly manner. Due to their high metal binding capacity, present study was carried to investigate the Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Nickle (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) contents in waters treated with biomass of coriander (Coriander sativum), peppermint (Mentha piperita) and wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium). The contents were determined by ICP-MS (Mass Spectroscopy). Percentage absorption of heavy metals by coriander followed the trend Mn (69%) >Co (43%)> Cr (33%)> Zn (18.7%)>Cd (16%)> Ni (10.6%)> Cu (1.6%), for peppermint Mn (20%)> Ni (15.9%)> Pb (13%)> Cu (9.7%)> Co(9.3%)>Cr (6%)> Cd (4.8%)> Zn (1%) and for wheatgrass Mn (99.5%)> Cr (76.4%)> Zn (61.3%)> Co (45.9%)> Cd (41.1%)> Ni (28.7%). Cr (5.8%). The maximum uptake of Cr (76.4%), Mn (99.5 %), Co (45.9 %), Ni (28.7 %), Zn (61.3 %), Cd (41.1 %) was reported in wheatgrass and Cu (9.7 %) in peppermint. Pb (13 %) however was absorbed only by peppermint. The study concluded that there is significant absorption of heavy metals in coriander, peppermint and wheatgrass and an awareness regime needs to be generated to employ these biomasses for phytoremediation of waters with heavy metal toxicity.

  57. Alaa Karkashan, Thi Thu HaoVan and Peter Smooker

    Evaluating the conformational changes of a modified viral protein could be the first step in generating a successful stable recombinant virus. This study demonstrates the effect of a small epitope addition into the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of theH1N1 influenza virus, which was compared with the wild-type protein. A hexahistindine (His6) tag was inserted intoa selected antigenic domain within thehaemagglutininHA1 subunit of the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 influenza virus. To investigate the stability of the recombinant HA protein, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used for the His6-HA protein and for the wild-type HA protein under physiological conditions. Analysis of the MD trajectories showed no significant differencein terms of stability between both systems after 100 nanoseconds of the MD simulation. The His6 tag influenza virus was then successfully generated using the helper virus-based method. The recombinant mRNA was positively detected amongst the wild-type virus population after three passages of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method. Our findings indicate that addition of a small epitope is less likely to affect virus stability and infectivity for up to several rounds. Finally, an affinity purification trial resulted in an eluted sample with a low virus amount, which most likely represents the isolated His-tagged virus; however, more investigation is required.

  58. Solomon Kebede

    Modeling and simulation are important tools often used for investigating the system's behavior in the industry and also in other fields of living. In this work, the steady state heights of the liquid in the storage tank was determined through plotting the heights of liquid as a function of time and the governing equations of flow of liquid in the tank was derived. The analytic solution and numerical solution obtained from the governing equations of liquid were compared. The steady state height of the liquid in the storage tank was 4.9585m analytically and numerically by using Euler method, the steady state height was 4.969m. At this height the acceleration of liquid is zero and flow rate is uniform. The conservation of volume and mass balance happened at this height.

  59. Feras Al adday

    Environmental and climate conditions are two very important factors that affect flexible asphalt pavements in roads. Asphalt Pavements (AP) are usually under continuous expansion and contraction effects from the nonstop increases and decreases of temperatures. As a result, AP structures are subjected to critical stresses and strains leading to cracks and defects. The physical and mechanical properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) must be improved to resist the thermal cracking defects that generally occur in a pavement’s asphalt. Meanwhile, many types and huge quantities of waste plastics and industrial polyethylene are being generated. These wastes are harmful to the environment. This research aims to improve HMA specimen’s properties by adding waste plastic bags and industrial polyethylene to pure asphalt with replacement percentages of 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% by total weight of asphalt. The optimal contents of additives to asphalt were found to be 4.6% and 4.1% for waste plastic bags and polyethylene, respectively. The effect of the short term freeze–thaw cycle on asphalt mixtures with and without additives was also studied. Durability curves and indexes were used to find the resistances of mixtures against freeze–thaw stresses. Three types of asphalt mixtures were prepared according to the Marshall method; all were exposed to freeze-thaw cycles according to the following timetable (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) cycles, where each cycle represent 48 hours (24 hours freezing and 24 hours thawing). The first durability index (FDI) for asphalt mixtures with polyethylene had a lower loss rate in stability in one day, at 30.86 %, followed by asphalt mixtures with waste plastic bags where the value of FDI was 38.59%, while asphalt mixtures without additives gave an FDI value of 55.22%. Adding polyethylene and waste plastic clearly improves the mixtures properties and in turn increases the durability of asphalt pavements.

  60. Prachi N. Kare and Vihang G. Pathare

    ‘Use and Throw’ policy adoption by users and manufacturers, lack of awareness and poor intermingled management practices, innovations and industrialisation has led to generation of E- waste which in coming years will be a considerable component Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). One of the major contributors of E- waste is engineering institutes due to mandatory provision of different facilities according to norms after IT and electronics sector. Engineering Institutes are being funded for development under different schemes for which the major purchase is of electronic gadgets. The quantity of E- waste as per AICTE norms is calculated theoretically and practically which comes out to be 0.334 tonnes / year for 7 years life cycle and 0.262 tonnes / year till the obsolescence of 2009 at institutes. If followed the norms of AICTE, the generation rate of E –waste can be kept still to minimum as compared to present rate of generation in future. This paper gives study of quantity calculation of E- waste generated theoretically and practically in WCE, Sangli which will further led to suggestion of optimisation for E – waste generated. This study will further be extended to suitable management of E- waste through a mathematical model for Engineering Institutes.

  61. Saidboboev Zokirjon Abdukarimovich

    The article is devoted to the problem of formation of geographical and cartographic traditions of Central Asia in Russia, especially in the XVII – XVIII centuries. This period was one of the fundamental researching of the Central Asian territories by Russian specialists. Given detail information about the cartographic and geographic sources, its contents and influence for the future researching of the region.

  62. Dr. Dayanandan, R.

    Livelihood of rural population in Ethiopia depends on agriculture. However, due to water shortage and variations in rainfall, there is not enough water for most farmers to produce more than one crop per year and hence there are frequent crop failures due to dry spells and droughts. In order to tackle this problem and to intensify agricultural production, irrigation development has been developed in different parts of the country. To improve smallholder productivity and to promote smallholder commercialization, the formation of People’s Organizations (Cooperatives) are also promoted all over the country. Thus, in order to utilize the water potential around Lake Ziway, irrigation cooperatives were organized to provide small scale motorized irrigation system through the government and NGOs with the aim of producing two to three times per year, increase members’ income, and to deliver farm inputs and sale of outputs on aggregate to boost members bargaining power. However, no systematic and organized assessment on the contribution and performance of irrigation cooperatives towards the above mentioned aims are made so far. Thus the main focus of this paper is to assess the performance of irrigation cooperatives and its contributions to the members in enhancing their livelihood. The required data for the study were collected from 12 irrigation cooperatives and 230 randomly selected cooperative members. Structured interview was used as data collection methods. Performance indicators were developed to evaluate the performance of sampled irrigation cooperatives. Also indicators were developed to weigh the contribution of sampled irrigation cooperatives. T-test and chi-square statistical tools were employed to assess the contributions of irrigation cooperatives. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify the factors determining the performance of irrigation cooperatives. The results indicated that the contribution of irrigation cooperatives in the area is significant and 78% of sample cooperatives are not performed according to the expectation. Out of ten variables included in the binary logit model, five predictors such as education, irrigable land size, additional income, market information and union membership are found to be significant effect on the performance of irrigation cooperatives. Therefore, the respective development actors such as government, non-governmental organizations and cooperative members should work together on the identified factors to progress the performance of irrigation cooperatives so as to manage the water resource sustainably.

  63. Pius Ochwo, Barbra Namirimo and Maria Assumpta Komugabe

    The purpose of this study is to examine socialization via Social Network Site (SNS) use in university undergraduate students as they approach graduation. It provides a description of undergraduate students’ SNS socialization from a mixed-methods approach. The main research questions include: (1) Is there a significant relationship between percent of undergraduate program completed and minutes of SNS use? and (2) What are the differences in the uses and perceptions of SNSs as students approach the end of their undergraduate programs? Student academic information (i.e., years of undergraduate program completed) was used to determine how progress across undergraduate years is linked to SNS use (i.e., minutes/day on SNSs) in a cross-sectional design. Data (n = 356) have been collected online from a survey-hosting website from multiple universities in Africa. The results show that as a student’s undergraduate program nears completion, SNS use increases as well, controlling for other variables.

  64. Ochwo Pius and Namirimo Barbra

    The study examined the effect of Gender and Social Economic Performance on Student Mathematics Performance. Data were from the Uganda National Examinations Board (UNEB) from the Primary Leaving Examinations (PLE) in the current academic year (n = 898). A Two-Factor ANCOVA was conducted to assess the effect of Sex (and SES) on student mathematics achievement controlling for mathematics pretest. The results indicate that there are significant differences between boys and girls on mathematics achievement controlling for prior mathematics ability. The adjusted means indicate that boys have higher mathematics achievement on average (M = 4.10, SE = .09) compared to girls (M = 4.61, SE = .12). Secondly, the pupils from higher SES (M = 3.38, SE = .14) have a higher math achievement as compared to their counterparts from low SES (M = 5.33, SE = .07). Note that the lower mean indicates better performance, and a higher mean indicates poorer performance on the PLE exams. (i.e., 1 is the highest score and 9 is the lowest score). These results seem to suggest the need to focus sex and poverty related interventions on students’ mathematics achievements.

  65. Sudhakar, P., Vijaya Naidu, B., Kiran Kumar, K.P. and Teotia, R. S.

    Propagation of a plant in efficient way is the prime act of any farming and plays vital role in its existence, survival and continuity in future course of action. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) being perennial in nature cultivated as seasonal crop for its foliage to feed silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) is mainly propagated through vegetatively and plays major role on the upliftment and socio economic conditions of the sericulturists. Therefore, proficient method of propagation not only saves farmers economy but also plays pivotal role on the future of sericulture. Keeping the above aspects two popular mulberry varieties such as V1 and G4 mulberry varieties were planted in winter i.e. during December, 2018 considering as one of the favourable season to raise mulberry nurseries at Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board, Ananthapuram, Andhra Pradesh. Each variety was planted @ 2500 cuttings and maintained properly for their survival. It was noticed that after 30 to 45 days of plantation G4 mulberry variety has recorded increased levels of sprouting (6.36%), survival (10.90%) compared to V1 mulberry var. Similarly 60 and 90 day after plantation the saplings growth of G4 was luxuriant and healthy recording an increased plant height (66.67%), sapling biomass (66.67%), sapling shoot weight (46.51%) and root biomass (128.57%) compared to V1. Further, G4 saplings have also exhibited their superiority in resisting various pest incidences such as millibug, thrips and leaf hoffers compared to V1 mulberry saplings indicating its susceptibility in resisting the seasonal pests incidents by recording 64.50%. The above results not only encourages the farming community for opting G4 mulberry variety as the best plantation of choice to raise nurseries but also opens avenues to adopt as standing crop as alternate to V1 mulberry as because G4 is not only a high yielding variety but also suitable for late age rearing as because the farmers are rearing chawki worm only. Hence, G4 can be considered as strong in nurseries, healthy against pests and most suitable for bivoltine silkworm rearing thereby encouraging the farming community for adoption and silkworm rearing for enhanced quality cocoon production.

  66. Sapana A. Rathod, Anil T. Patil, Sandhyarani B., Sukanya Bahirat and Devendrapratap M. Singh

    Background: Regenerative endodontic procedures are biologically based procedures which deals with the regeneration of pulp like tissue, idealistically the pulp-dentin complex. PRF has very significant slow sustained release of key growth factors like PDGF and TGF for at least 1 week and up to 28 days, which means, PRF could release growth factors with its own biological scaffold for wound healing process. This leads to the unique idea of using PRF as a capping agent for reparative dentin formation or as a biomaterial for apexogenesis. Method: A 9 year old boy reported to our department with a chief complaint of broken upper front tooth. Radiograph revealed an open apex with 21. The treatment plan included apexogenesis using Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) followed by MTA and composite restoration after 24 hours. Result: In the follow up of 3, 6 months,9 months and1 year the radiographs revealed gradual closure of apex. Conclusion: PRF can be a compatible material for apexogenesis and root maturation.

  67. Ibrahim Salih Mohammed Almaroof and Mohammed Tawfeeq Dhannoon Ibrahim Agha

    The research handles the training of workers and its types. Training is one of the most important strategic functions of human resource management, as it is one of the important reasons for the sustainability and success of organizations in the modern era, as well as its relation to the human resource, which is the basis of the work of any organization. The research is based on two aspects: the theoretical one, using the various researches and studies related to the subject of research, and the practical one, which is conducted by distributing the questionnaire to managers at all levels of management in the organization as a sample for research. The research aims to demonstrate the importance of training employees as an administrative science mission in improving the performance of the organization.In general, the study tries to answer the following questions. • Is there a clear vision of the management of the organization for the importance of training workers. • Is there a difference in the attitudes of respondents about the types of training prepared by the management of organizations. • Does the management of the organization in question depend on the criteria for evaluating its trainees.

  68. Leela, K. V., Suganthi, M., Vasanthamani, P., Amutha, C., Ravichandran, B. and Jayachitra, J.

    Introduction: Fungi causing otomycosis are mostly saprophytic in nature. Pathogenicity of fungi is attributable to presence of various virulence factors like biofilm formation, presence of enzymes like urease, phospholipase, hemolysin and production of mycotoxins like aflatoxin. Aim: To compare the toxigenicity, molecular and conventional methods in diagnosis of otomycosis. Methods: All clinically diagnosed and untreated cases of otomycosis were included in the study. History of otalgia, aural pruritus, ear discharge, diminished hearing, ear block, and tinnitus was elicited. Results: Biofilm production was seen with 6 isolates of Candida albicans (29%). Hemolysin was produced in 12 isolates of Aspergillus niger (23.53%). Aspergillus niger species showed higher production of Aflatoxins B1 and G1. 2 of the rare isolates were subjected to PCR followed by Sanger sequencing for speciation and identified as Cladosporidium cladosporioides. Conclusion: PCR and Gene sequencing are reliable methods for identification and speciation of rare fungi. Analysis of virulence factors showed biofilm formation in Candida. Production of Urease and Hemolysin were identified as virulence factors among Aspergillus species.

  69. Vora Vrishti, Dangi Ashwini and Deo Medha

    Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. When there is a build-up of glucose in the blood it may lead to acute and serious, long-term complications. Walking has been shown to reduce blood glucose levels and improve the Quality of life in subjects having Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Effects of Zumba have been studied and shown improvement in Quality of life in several neuro-musculoskeletal disorders. However as per our knowledge no study has been done till date to compare the effects of Zumba aerobic technique and Walking on blood glucose level and Quality of life in subjects having type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objectives • To study and compare the effects of Zumba aerobic technique and Walkingon Fasting blood glucose levels and Quality of life in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. • To compare the effects of Zumba aerobic technique and Walking with age-matched controls on Fasting blood glucose levels and Quality of life in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A convenience sample of 45 type 2 Diabetes Mellitus subjects participated in a prospective randomized control trial. Fasting blood glucose levels and Quality of life score was measured on day 1 and day 30 in group A which performed Zumba aerobic technique under supervision 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The scores were compared with group B which performed walking for 3 days a week for 4 weeks and group C which was the control group. Results: A statistically significant reduction in Fasting blood glucose levels as well as significant improvement in the Quality of life score was observed after 4 weeks of training in both groups A (FBS,QOL p - < 0.0001) and B (FBS,QOL p - < 0.0001) whereas in Group C is was statistically non-significant (FBS p - 0.2115,QOL p - 0.1689). Also, a statistically significant change was seen in both FBS and QOL score on comparison between groups A, B and C. (FBS p - < 0.0001, QOL p - 0.0419) Conclusion: Zumba aerobic technique and Walking are both effective in reducing the Fasting blood glucose levels and improving the Quality of life in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus where Zumba shows better results as compared to Walking and age matched controls.

  70. Mr. Vijay Burkule and Dr. Prakash Karmadkar

    Tipper is a truck application which is mainly used for construction activity, sand and stone carrying purpose across country and they are used for off road applications. In Maharashtra, western part is rich in terms of water availability because of flowing river and sand rich riverbeds, so sand is available. Secondly there are stone ores near Satara, Kolhapur, and Sangli region. Road construction is in full swing so stone crush is required and it is provided with the help of Tipper trucks which have got good gradability. These twin tyre vehicles bring material to customer from stone crush factories.

  71. Vijay Burkule and Dr. Prakash H. Karmadkar

    Many surveys are conducted by many people for Passengers and Drivers. Feedback is available on various web sites. But very less data is available on the most important link in the chain is bus owner who take the decision on bus purchase and invest his hard earned money. Bus owners are primary owners but passengers and drivers are influencers. PCMC is a newly developing smart city, it is also called as Detroit of India or Auto hub of India. Thousands of small scale, medium scale and large scale companies are located here. Millions of employees live here and infrastructure is developed for them-like hospitals schools and Government offices. Naturally lot of staff, school buses are required for public and private transportation. Manufacturers need to study the purchase motivators, customer experience, and usage pattern.

  72. Matthew Cyril and Emmanuel I. Orji

    This paper examined some of the major science skills and how their acquisition through skill-based approach to teaching and learning will promote empowerment and sustainable development. Nigeria is a member state of the United Nation (UN) and a signatory to many of the United Nation Development Programmmes (UNDP), among which are the Education For All (EFA), Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and of recent, the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). All these programmes are in a way aimed at making the world a better place for the present and future generations through education. Central among their targets is knowledge, skills acquisition, empowerment and sustainable development as captured in the Target Areas of SDGs goal 4. Whereas the critical elements of National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS) and the targets of the MDGs addresses basic science skills at lower level of education, the higher science skills also x-rayed in this study are at the heart of sustainable development. Hence, for empowerment and sustainable development to strive, it is recommended that science skills-based approach to science teaching should be incorporated in the teaching of science, and Science skills acquisition should be made to be an integral part of science instruction at all levels of learning.

  73. Pamela Andrea Paula, Juan León R. and Paulina Paula A.

    This article is focused on understanding how the potato crop behaves and captures the solar energy to be reflected, through the use of CANON SX260HS camera with sensor that capture the electromagnetic spectrum of the near infrared. This is captured during the phenological process of the potato crop Solanum spp. in its four stages of growth as: Vegetative Growth, Start of tuber production, Growth of Tubers and Maturation or Senescence, with a drip irrigationsystem. In each phenological stage we observe different behavior in the Reflectance of solar energy that is measured through the Normalized Vegetation Differential Index that ranges from 0.2 to 0.9. These results are obtained since irrigation sheets were applied according to the information on: three drainage lysimeters, evaporimeter tank and empirical formulas. In the field research, completely randomized blocks were designed with three treatments T1 = application of the irrigation sheet measured by lysimeter, T2 = application of the irrigation sheet measured with tank type A, T3 = application of the irrigation sheet calculated with formula with three repetitions of each.

  74. Dr. Himanshu Singh, Dr. Avijit Avasthi, Dr. Sanjay Talnia and Dr. Kundendu Arya Bishen

    Variety of syndromes shows number of manifestations in oral cavity. Knowledge of these syndromes and their manifestations is important as this will help in diagnosis and management of syndromes as well as dental diseases. In this review article, we are aimed at discussing various syndromes which predominantly shows oral manifestations.

  75. Gomathi Devi, L., Anitha, B.G. and Shyamala

    In the present study anchoring of hemin a protoporphyrin IX Fe (III) molecule on the surface of SrTiO3/SnO2 composite (H-(STO / SnO2)) is attempted. STO / SnO2 composite show activity under visible light due to the staggering band edge positions. However the activity under solar light is very poor. When hemin is anchored on the STO/SnO2 composite the activity increases by 22 folds. The activity can be further improved by the addition of H2O2 as an oxidant by 70 folds. This higher activity in presence of H2O2 can be due to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis, photosensitization and photo-Fenton process. The higher efficiency of H-(STO / SnO2) composite sample along with H2O2 can also be accounted to the efficiency of non-radiative electron-transfer through Inter System Crossing (ISC) from the excited singlet to triplet state which increases the life time of the charge carriers. Triplet state is more favorable than the excited singlet state for the transfer of electrons from the hemin molecule to the conduction band of H-(STO / SnO2) composite and in turn to the adsorbed oxygen molecule. The actual life time of singlet state is ̴ 10-9 s and the triplet state is ̴ 10-5 s. The process of electron trapping either by oxygen triplet or by Fe3+ ion in the hemin molecule (in the presence of H2O2) reduces the rate of recombination of photo generated charge carriers.

  76. Martin Maluki, Charles Orek and Thomas Akuja

    Soil fertility depletion is a major limiting factor affecting crop production in Kenya’s arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). In lower eastern Kenya, low crop yield has been associated with moisture deficiency and low usage of commercial fertilizers. Amongst unexplored solutions that can mitigate these constraints includes potential role of rhizobia in crop performance under water deficit conditions. Thus the present study analyzed the effects of drought stress on nodule formation, growth and yield of four legumes (beans, cowpeas, dolichos lablab and green grams) commonly cultivated in Kenya’s ASALs county of Kitui. The two seasonal field-based trials involved randomized complete block design with drought stress treatment (DST) induced through withholding total irrigation and well watered treatment (WWT) maintained as a control. Four blocks, each with four plots, were demarcated. The four legumes were randomly assigned to the plots and maintained under WWT. One month after planting (MAP), DST was randomly induced by withholding irrigation in two blocks while WWT was maintained in the other two blocks as controls. Upon termination of field experiment, root nodules were carefully harvested from each legume in both DST and WWT. The nodules were then cultured in the laboratory for isolations of rhizobia as well as preparation of an inoculant for specificity assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that plants subjected to DST had significantly (p≤0.05) less TND, NoP, lower LAI, more WIX and lower GYD compared to control or plants under WWT indicating the general deleterious impact of water deficit on legume nodulation, growth and yield. The reduced TND under DST could inhibit nitrogen fixation further lessening GYD in legumes. Amongst the legumes, green grams had significantly (P≤0.05) higher GYD, TND and least WIX, dolichos, lablab and cowpeas exhibited moderate performance of the three traits while beans showed the least TND, GYD and high WIX under DST. Under DST, Green grams had significantly (p≤0.05) the highest yield followed by Cowpeas, Dolichos lablab and Beans was significantly affected by water stress to give lowest yield. Generally, TND positively correlated with GYD and negatively with wilting (WIX), potentially implying that higher nodulation might have enhanced nitrogen fixation thus higher legume YLD and tolerance to water deficit. Based on observed performance i.e. wilting index, root nodules number per plant and grain yield, green grams was considered drought tolerant and beans drought susceptible, therefore this study recommends adoption and growing of green grams (variety KS-20) in the ASALs of Lower Eastern Kenya.

  77. Eman Saad Mohamed and Mervat Ahmed Ali

    Intravitreal administration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been found to be effective for inducing photoreceptor death and loss of retinal function. Due to lack of studies that investigate the changes consumed the lens during early steps of retinal degeneration, the aim of the present search is to give an approach for lens molecular structure changes in ATP rats model of retinal degeneration by using fourior transformer infrared technique. Fifty healthy albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Group I served as the control group and received intravitrial injection of saline. All other groups were received a single intravitreal injection of 2µL of 1 M ATP and decapitated after 1, 3 and 6 days, respectively. The results indicated that NHOH region was found to be dramatically affected in particular after one day of ATP injection where more vibrational mode was observed relative to control. These reflex more conformational changes which involve moiety of lens fiber. The detection of asymNH after 3 and 6 days of ATP injection indicated the increase of disorder of lens fiber. CH region shows that the symmetric vibration mode (symCH3) is sensitive to ATP injection as indicated by the fluctuation change in its band frequency and this band is associated with lens lipid molecule. The phosphate lipids were found to be sensitive by the ATP injection and this represented by the detection of symPO2vibrational mode in all ATP injected groups relative to control group. We concluded that ATP injection dramatically affect both protein and lipid moieties of lens fiber. Recommendation of a regular examination for whole eye especially lens in case of retinal degeneration not retina only.

  78. Al-Zahrani, S.H.M., Al-Zahrani, N.H., Alamodi, K.H. and Al-Refai, A.

    L-Asparaginase enzyme that proved clinically as a treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). This study focused on screening, optimization, and partialypurification of L-asparaginase. Six bacteriial strains isolated from six marine samples, screening was conducted on Glucose Asparagin agar m edium supplemented with L-asparagine and phenol red as an indicator dye pH7. Pink colour around the colony was a sign of L-asparaginaseactivitywas screeened for L-asparaginase production isolates. Resulting from16S rDNA sequencing of highest L-asparaginase production isolate was identified as Halomonasalkaliantarctica. Then, it was optimized the effect of nutritionaland inoculum sizeparameters. H. alkaliantarctica recorded maximum L-asparaginase production (126.67U/min/ml) in medium supplemented with asparagine 0.1% and 1% tryptoone without carbon source at pH8 inoculated with 20% of (3.020×107CFU/ml) incubated for 48h,in shaking incubator (150rpm). The extractted enzyme of H.alkaliantarctica was partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation 80%.

  79. Mohamed A. Al-Fredan

    The current study included investigated pollen grains morphology (mainlyexine sculpture) of seven species of the A steraceae family from the northern and eastern parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These plant species included Artemisia sieberi L, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip, Calendula officinalis L., Matricaria aurea Loefl, Picris abyssinca L., Rhanterium epapposum Oliv.and Tanacetum santolinoides D.C. The pollen morphology of seven Asteraceae plant species was investigated with light microscopy. Pollen slides were prepared using Wodehouse technique. Measurements were based on 25 -30 pollen grains per specimen. The pollen grains of the studied plant species are radially symmetric and is opolar. The pollen grains are oblate-spheroidal with the polar axes 18.5–23.4 µm and the equatorial axes 19.8–26.7 µm. The pollen grains of the plant species aretricolporate. The pollen grain of all species has echinate ornamentation. The spines have conical shape with a wide base tapering towards an apical section. The spine length ranges between2.1–3.5 µm and its width ranges between 2.6–3.8 µm. The overall exine thickness ranges from 3.7 - 5.1 µm, while intine thickness ranges from 0.37-0.81µm.It is clear that the external surface characteristics of the pollen and the presence of spines are important traits and can be used successfully for species taxonomic classification.

  80. Poonam Kanani, Bhavesh Gajera, Armi Patel, Ghanshyam Patil and Subhash Narayanan

    An efficient plant tissue culture methodology plays a significant role in genetic improvement associated with important regulatory genes. The present investigation was undertaken to develop a tissue culture system for cumin variety GC-2. Hypocotyl as an explant was inoculated into media supplemented with various concentrations of plant growth regulators for callus induction, proliferation, shooting and rooting. The MS (Murashige and Skoog) media with 0.1 mgL-1 BA (Benzylaminopurine) gave rise to callus induction, whereas upon increasing the concentration of BA (1 mgL-1) callus proliferation was observed. The growth regulator free B5 basal media supported shoot and root induction simultaneously.

  81. Dr. Ameen M. Muhammed, Dr. Vinay Chandra R., Dr. Geeta, I.B., Dr. Thokala Dhamodaran and Dr. Sachin Sha, S.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to measure and compare the compressive strength and micro hardness of Bulk-fill composite-light cure (Ivoclar vivadent)) with Cention-N-dual cure (Ivoclar vivadent) Material and methods: In this in vitro study, two different types of bulk-fill composites are used: Group 1: Bulk-fill composite (Ivoclar vivadent)-light activated (blue phase). Group 2-Cention-N (Ivoclar vivadent)-light activated (blue phase). Group 3-Cention-N (Ivoclar vivadent)-self cured. Ten samples of 4 mm height and 6 mm diameter in each group were made using a mold. The composites filled in the mold were photo polymerized using light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing unit for 20 seconds from top for group1 and group2.Specimens in Group 3 were kept for 4 minute for self curing. The compressive strength of the samples were tested on top surface using universal testing machine (Instron 3366, UK) at a cross-head speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The micro hardness value of each sample will be evaluated using Vicker’s micro hardness tester on top .Micro indentation was carried out using a 100 mN load with a 15 seconds dwell time. Then the data will be collected, tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Result: In this study we found that compressive strength of the Cention-N (270) (Light-cure) > Cention-N (215) (Self-cure) > Bulk-fill (129). Microhardness values of Cention-N (147) (Light-cure) > Bulk-fill (112) > Cention-N (82) (Self-cure). CONCLUSION: In this study Cention-N (Light-cure) had the highest compressive strength and microhardness. Cention-N (Self-cure) had more compressive strength than Bulk-Fill ,but had lowest microhardness. Bulk-Fill composite had the lowest compressive strength, they had micro hardness more than Cention-N (Self-cure). Cention-N also has anticariogenic activity, it prevents the secondary caries formation of the restored tooth. The future of restorative dentistry appears to be smarter and faster in the coming years with the advent of Cention-N.

  82. Perry Otchere, Hana Morrissey and Patrick Anthony Ball

    Background: OA is the commonest form of arthritis, affecting around 8.75 million people in the UK and a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. According to the charity Arthritis Care, approximately 27,000 arthritis sufferers are under 25 years of age and, of these, around 12,000 are children. Pharmacists play a significant role in recognising early signs of OA, as early diagnosis can prevent unnecessary damage and limiting problems in the future and providing advice on medicines and lifestyle measures to ease symptoms. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine any differences in the general understanding of osteoarthritis condition and the importance of adherence to its treatments amongst students of varying educational backgrounds and staff. Settings and Design: Cross section study done by distributed a well-structured questionnaire designed specifically to this study and distributed to a random sample of population in UoW. Methods and Material: A structured questionnaire was designed for data collection by the student researcher based upon review of literature under the guidance of the project supervisor. It includes four parts of 20 multiple – choice style questions and 1 question for any other comments regarding the study or OA. Questionnaire was distributed to those who voluntarily stopped at a stand display. Results: Out of 50 participants there were 17 (34%) males and 33 (66%) females with common age group (< 22) years with percentage of (46%), most of participants were Asian/Asian British 16 (32%).(60%) of participants have heard about OA. Questions based on general understanding of OA and treatments such as part of joint affected, some signs and symptoms and medications yielded poor results. However, questions based on some signs and symptoms, some non - pharmacological treatment medications and life style changes achieved higher results. Participants had limited knowledge of some non – pharmacological treatments used in OA. Conclusion: This study shows that students and staff have an average general understanding about OA. Education, advice and access to information about OA are important. More programs about risk factors, lifestyle changes, causes and complications of OA should be implemented especially during national health awareness day to educate students and staff about the condition.

  83. Mehtiyev R.K.

    An antiregular deformation is considered for an in-equal elastic material consisting of an infinite system of parallel identical circular fiber cylinders covered with a homogeneous cylindrical film uniformly covering the surface of each fiber and a binding medium weakened by a doubly periodic system of rectilinear cracks. The boundaries of the destruction of the composite are determined, which occur by the detachment of the fiber from the matrix, at the fiber-matrix interface. By varying the rigidity of the fiber with respect to the stiffness of the binder medium, the degree of viscosity of the composite as a whole can be controlled. The viscosity fracture equations for the stress intensity factor of a fibrous composite are obtained as a function of the nature of internal structural defects. A mathematical description is given of the strength of the composite both in detachment and in share. As a result, the stress-strain state of the fiber composite weakened by periodic linear cracks is determined.

  84. Mohammad S. Al-Hwaiti, Omar A. Al-Khashman, Mou’ath Al-Shaweesh and Aya H. Almohtasib

    Phosphogypsum is a waste by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry. The phosphate industry in Jordan has generated over 60 million tons of this waste material. Production continues at the rate of 3 million tons per year. PG, stockpiled at Eshidiya Mines and Aqaba Fertilizer complex site. The toxic heavy metal and radionuclides naturally present in the by-product phosphogypsum and their effect on the human health and environment has urged safe uses in agriculture, soil amendment, cement industry, and building construction.

  85. Zara Omar, Dr. Juniad Siddiqi and Dr. Bushra Shamshad

    The objective of this study is to examine the effects of mobile phone use on the study habits of University of Karachi students. The research was carried out using questionnaires distributed to 1200 students who own mobile phones .The questionnaires collected demographic information about the respondents, mobile phone type preferences, uses of mobile phones during study, predominant usage during study and information about challenges facing students in using mobile phones for study purposes. The results showed significant gender differences in several aspects of mobile phone use. The results also revealed that mobile phone use has negative and positive effects on the study habits of university students depending on usage patterns.

  86. Anil kumar Bhardwaj, Anita Kumari, Kashinath Hadimur and Patil, K.A.

    Introduction: Laghu sutashekhara rasa was prepared as per Rasatantrssara avam Sidha prayoga sangraha and efforts have been made to lay down analytical standards for laghu sutashekhara, which were not found reported till date. The parameter for standardization of laghu sutashekhara rasa are ,pH 7.6 , and disintegration time 22 min and dissolation time is 40 min, whereas hardness was 4 kg. Loss on drying was found to be 9.3% w/w, acid insoluble ash was 62.57 %w/w, water soluble extract was 42.95 % w/w and percentage of solubility is 18. Material & method: The aim of the present work is to standardization of laghu sutashekhara rasa and attempts to evaluate the Organoleptic characters, phytochemical study, phamacognostic study and physicochemical parameters like pH, Loss on drying at 105°C, Water soluble extract, Alcohol soluble extract, Total Ash, Acid insoluble ash etc. Result Results of organoleptic charcter, physical constant, elemental analysis ( XRD), phytochemical constituents & HPTLC contributes to establish standards for standardisation of laghu sutashekhara rasa. Conclusion: The phytochemical constituents & analysis of HPTLC reveals that the Laghu sutashekhara rasa contains most of the ingredients of all the raw materials. Results of organoleptic character, elemental analysis (XRD), phytochemical constituents & HPTLC contributes to establish standards for standardisation of laghu sutashekhara rasa.

  87. Satinderjeet Singh, Anil Lamba and Sivakumar Sai Rela Muni

    Cloud computing is a new computing model which enables individuals and organizations to attain access to huge computing resources without capital investment. It does mean that users can utilize computing resources in pay per use fashion. Transmissible cyber threats nowadays have been considered one among the major serious security problems in cyberspace. Several techniques were proposed to model, simulate and identify threats' sources and their propagation in large-scale distributed networks. Most techniques are based on the analysis of real networks dataset that contains sensitive information. Traditional in-memory analysis of these dataset always leads to data leakage because of system vulnerabilities. If the dataset itself is compromised by adversaries, this threat cost would be even higher than the threat being analyzed. To overcome this problem, in this paper, a new Distributed Security Shielded Execution (DSSE) for communicable cyber threats analysis using the Secure Identity Based Encryption (SIBE) technique is proposed. The purpose of the proposed work is to provide security sensitive operations then implemented properly in the Disef enclave. And to minimize potential Iago attacks in Disef system. To introduce a Novel SIBE unbreakable new key-value encrypted format integrated with the version number and update counter to prevent possible rollback and replay attacks. Also to secure a Disef system in high availability with multi-cloud support. The experimental outcomes showed that the proposed framework supports secure cost analysis and response time analysis of large network dataset and has comparable performance with systems that have no confidentiality and integrity guarantees.

  88. Anil Lamba and Hi Dr. Mani

    Cyber resilience is a rapidly emerging viewpoint that is attaining recognition. Unfavourable Cyber-attacks are those that oppositely influence the availability, integrity or confidentiality of IT network systems and related services and information. Prior research works have carried on data manipulation by an opponent as a concern, but their works failed to generalize the test cases. Many concentrated on devising attack vectors opposite to specific machine learning algorithms and applications, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. In our proposed work, an independent approach on resilience evaluation and the construction of adversary resilient classifiers using Cluster Tree Map (CTM) Algorithm is done. All data types in the domain of Cyber Network data analytics are focussed. The objective is to make an awareness of any such method capable of correctly modelling the creativeness and skill of cyber attackers and thereby developing unsupervised learning model. Better expected accuracy is attained by using Scalable Resilience Machine Learning Classifiers (SR-MLC).

  89. Stephy Joseph and Dr. Antony Viswasa Rani, A.

    Usually, Users are not aware of all the details about the hospitals, doctors, treatment or symptoms regarding the particular disease. For the small problems, users have to go personally to the hospital for a check-up which is time consuming and expensive. Also handling the telephonic calls for the complaints is quite hectic. Such problems can be solved by using medical Chabot which provides proper guidance for healthy living. The proposed medical chatbot functioning based on Natural language processing, topic modeling, aspect mapping and SVM which helps users to submit their queries about health problems, concerned specialists and get the suggestion about treatment and related services. The User can ask any personal query related to health care through medical chatbot without accessing the hospital in person. The proposed approach for medical chatbot has three phase processing. The first phase is the preprocessing stage which includes Natural language processing methods like word splitting, filter out punctuations, stop word removal and finally porter stemming is done to identify the root word. The second phase includes topic modeling, Aspect extraction and topic aspect mapping. Here the identified topics and aspects are mapped together and assigned to each categorized dataset and trained a machine with SVM. The third phase of the proposed approach is the trained system identifies the aspect from the human typed sentences in medical chatbot and these identified aspects matched with the database sets. And the chatbot redirected to matched dataset and retrieved the corresponding information and displayed in chatbot. Finally, check the efficiency of proposed work with different size of the medical conversation dataset and also the efficiency of the machine learning approach.

  90. Priyanka Sinha, Ambika Singh, Sahiba Ansari,Vandana Vishwanathan, Bharat Lodhi and Nikita Bundele

    To assess the toxic effects of three agrichemicalon earthworm Eisenia fetida to soil supplemented with different concentrations of the examined agrichemicalbased on the recommended agricultural doses. Their commercial formulations are: Glyphosphate [ N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine],Kamdhenu paudh vardhak, Cypermethrin {[Cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl]3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate} The test was conducted in earthan pots . All our findings indicated that E. fetida has a higher rate of growth . The effect of high concentration of pesticides effects growth of E. fetida. Results indicated that majority of farmers opted for vermiculture due to environmental consciousness, to save the soil health and for the upliftment of their status.

  91. Nandhini, C, Dr. Vimala Devi, M. and Suriya Gubendiran, K.,

    Intelligent decision is the key technology of smart systems. Data mining technology has been very important in decision-making activities. A Frequent item set mining (FIM), as an important step of association rule analysis is becoming one of the most important research fields in data mining. Weighted FIM in uncertain databases should take both existential probability and importance of items into account in order to find frequent itemsets of great importance to users. This system is intended to show the things occurred in between the searches happened in the place of client and server. The users can able to know about the process of sending ahttp request for the particular thing and getting a http response for that request. But no one can able find out the internal process of searching thousands of records from a large database. This system openlyvisible the internal process of the searching. The WD-FIM is failed to deliver the document based on their preference because the preference should be of any type like pdf, ppt, word document, text document, image and video To overcome the problem of WD-FIM it should be combined with User preference tree. This is a web based online project. The main aim of the project is a providing Learning Course to the user based on their preference. The algorithm should learn the user behavior and provide the preference type in ascending order. Many learning resource management system can offer basic course administration features, but their functionality isn't as robust. It also typically use users behavior to track learners competencies and recommend materials, but most systems lack the capability to deliver personalized materials to the user. Ex: Learning Resource Management should provide authoring, sequencing, and aggregation tools that structure content to facilitate the learning process.

  92. Tungalag Baljir, Jadamba Badrakh, Bolortuya Baljir and Ganzorig Banzragch

    The paper intends to present a case study report on how the ideas of Education for Sustainable Development were mainstreamed and integrated into national standards and curricula of basic and complete secondary education in Mongolia. First, we tried to give a proper definition of the terms such as ‘Sustainable Development’, ‘Education for Sustainable Development’ from Mongolian nomadic perspectives. The term ‘Sustainable Development’ in Mongolian context is, on the one hand, the integration of nature and quality of a matter (content and form), and on the other hand, it is the integration of ‘arga’ and ‘bilig’ (intelligence and practice). To live in one world, it is absolutely essential to stabilize the socio-ecological inequality for dealing with the urgent ecological crisis (Jadamba, B., Tungalag, B. 2015:26-28). Secondly, based on the Mongolian context, the study defined the most important elements covering the three pillars of sustainable development that were to be used as the main indicators for the assessment of ESD mainstreaming into standards and curricula of basic and complete secondary education in Mongolia. With the help of clearly defined elements, we revised the education policy documents, the existing standards and curricula for basic and secondary education in Mongolia; carried out an assessment of ESD mainstreaming into standards, and curricula of basic and complete secondary education in Mongolia; prepared recommendations on how to improve the mainstreaming of ESD in standards and curricula.

  93. Yumna Sajid, Samreen Fatima and Muddasir Uddian

    The dynamic and complex affiliation among price of Gold, Oil and inflation has attracted to the market practitioner and policy makers, from the last few decades. In order to gain the profit, investors consider as a secure form of investment against the unforeseen disasters. This study investigates the relationship between prices of gold, oil and inflation. We use secondary data of gold prices, oil prices and inflation covering the period from August, 2004 to January, 2017 of Pakistan. In order to examine the impact of oil prices and gold prices on inflation we use Vector Error Correction model. It is found that there is long term relation between the oil, gold and inflation via cointegration process. Moreover, empirical analysis shows that fitted VEC model is adequate based on portmanteau autocorrelation and Lagrange Multiplier test. Forecast of gold prices, oil prices and inflation for the next 12 months are computed through VEC model, FMAE is minimum as compared to FRMSE.

  94. Dr. Muzafar Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Shabir Ahmad and Dr. Ravinder Bhaget

    Aim: The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of whitening toothpaste in reducing extrinsic stain with conventional fluoride paste. Materials and Methods: Total of 33 patients with visible extrinsic dental stains were surveyed. Participants were divided into 3 groups according to different toothpastes used. Lobene Stain Index was measured at baseline, after 2 and 4 weeks. Results: The results at baseline during week 2 showed reduction in stain area in all groups, but the difference was not significant. When comparing the stain level changes after 4 weeks, it was evident that Elgydium Whitening group showed the greatest reduction in stain area; it was significant. (p = 0.005) and stain intensity (p = 0.03) Moreover, this paste exhibited significant reduction of stain intensity (p = 0.03). Changes in stain intensity and area throughout a four- week period were insignificant for Colgate Total Advanced whitening and Colgate Total toothpastes (p > 0.05).The evaluation of the questionnaire data revealed no significant difference in stain intensity or area between smokers and non-smokers (p>0.05).There were also no significant differences between subjects consuming tea/coffee every day and ones who do not (p > 0.05). It can be concluded that these habits did not influence our results. Conclusion: It was determined that whitening toothpastes can remove dental stains. Whitening toothpaste Elgydium whitening was more effective in reducing dental stains than conventional toothpaste Colgate Total and whitening toothpaste Colgate Total Advanced whitening.

  95. Dr. Bhagyashree K Bhadane and Dr Pradeep R Balage

    The more we are able to peer into the future, the better equipped we will be to prepare ourselves to do well in the environment ahead. It may therefore be interesting to look at trends we can expect in veterinary medicine in the upcoming years. Medical diagnostic technology has made rapid strides after the advent of computer. Many of the advances in human diagnostic medicines are translated into veterinary medicine in the developed countries. In brief, newer branches like Imaging, Radiodiagnosis, Telemedicine, Telesonography and Teleradiology have emerged.

  96. Dr. Pranay Kumar, Dr. Ankur Akela and Dr. Shweta Kumari

    Background: Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare and constitute 3-4% of all head and neck neoplasms1.The majority of all salivary gland tumors are in the parotid gland (70%)2 of these 80% are benign. OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology and various clinical presentations of the parotid tumors. Methods: 50 cases admitted to surgical ward of PMCH from sept.2016 to sept.2018 have been studied. In all cases a thorough, clinical history and physical examination were carried out. Basic investigations were done for all patients. Based on investigations cases were divided into benign and malignant neoplasms and were treated accordingly. In operated patients, the operative findings and method of management are recorded. Results: The majority of the cases belonged to 31-40 years age group (35%) with female predominance.70% cases were benign whereas rest 30 % were malignant. Most common clinical presentation was of painless swelling (70%). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common finding in pathology (80%) whereas Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most common malignant finding. Conclusion: Majority of the parotid tumors are benign with female predominance. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor in paortid. Commonest clinical presentation in both benign and malignant tumor was painless swelling.

  97. Dr. Karuna Gautam Kamble and Dr. Vishnu Vardhan G.D.

    Background and Objective: Surgical care has a role in treating a broad spectrum of diseases in the alleviation of human suffering. Upper abdominal surgery included gastrectomy, pancreatectomy, hepatic resection, cholecystectomy and splenectomy. Maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax) is an important indicator for assessing the strength of inspiratory muscles. Respiratory muscle training devices enhance respiratory muscle strength, endurance and exercise capacity. Pressure Threshold IMT devices are usually handheld devices with a spring load that is impeded with different intensities. Incentive Spiro meter is a form of ventilatory training that emphasis sustained maximum inspiration. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the effect of Threshold Inspiratory Muscle Training versus Incentive spirometry in participants with upper abdominal surgeries. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional comparative study was done with 30 participants with upper abdominal surgeries in the age group of 20 to 65.On Day 1 and after 2 weeks the maximal inspiratory pressure was measured using Hand Held Pressure Manometer Device (Pimax). Group Aparticipants received Threshold Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) and Group B participants received Incentive spirometry. The intervention was given for 5 days in a week for 2 weeks. The duration for each session was of 15-30 minutes which also includes rest periods. Data was analyzed using student Paired ‘t’ testand Unpaired‘t’ test. Result: There was extremely significant difference (p<0.0001) in Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (Pimax) in both the groups but Group A showed slightly more improvement were Threshold Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) was given as an intervention after 2 weeks. Conclusion: The study shows extremely significant improvement in Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (PImax) in both the groups. This study concluded that Threshold IMT has more effect than Incentive Spirometry in participants with upper abdominal surgeries.

  98. Ibrahim Mohammed Eisa, Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki, Omama Mohamed Abdullah, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Holie and Mohamed Mobarak Elbasheir

    Toxoplasma gondii is a unique intracellular parasite, which infects a large proportion of the world's population, but clinically uncommonly causes significant disease. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among retinitis patients in Khartoum state. Venous blood samples were collected from 90 patients whom are clinically diagnosed with retinitis from all ages during the period from October 2015 to January 2016. Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. ELISA giving an incidental rate of toxoplasmosis of (24.6%) (P.value= 0.031). The results showed significant differences between males (40.9%) and females (59.1%) (p.value=0.047) and all of these patients were above 50 years with strong correlation between eating raw meat and toxoplasmosis infection (p.value=0.0000).

  99. Dr. Vidhya Bharathy, S., Dr. Srinivasan, H., Dr. S. Loganathan and Dr. Jawahar Babu, S. and Dr. Tamil Selvi S.

    Background: Healing followed by the surgical removal of third molar is known to cause increased discomfort to the patients. Many theories and ideas have been idealized to reduce this discomfort. Traditionally, systemic antibiotics were used. But due to the phenomena of antibiotic resistance to multiple microorganisms we are constantly on the process of discovering new methods and modifying age-old methods for the better usage of antibiotics in future by either finding a supplement or an alternative. Ozone is one of such old methods which is found to be effective. It meets all the expectations as an alternative for antibiotics and also ful fills the application of it in the needed area alone thereby, restricting the systemic use of antibiotics. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is well known as the gold standard material for promoting healing.In this study, topical ozone gel and platelet-rich fibrin(PRF) are compared with the conventional method to evaluate their effectiveness in the healing of surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: A double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was designed involving the patients who required removal of impacted mandibular third molars. The sample size was estimated as 60 individuals with 20 in each group. Of the study groups, one received topical ozone without post-operative systemic antibiotics, another received metronidazole with PRF while the control group received systemic antibiotics. All the groups were prescribed standard analgesics for 3 days. Postoperatively, the patients were reviewed at 24 hours, 3rd day and 7th day. Results: Data were collected and analysis involved independent sample ‘t’ test. The study groups, ozone gel application and metronidazole with PRF demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in post-operative pain, swelling, and incidence of alveolar osteitis with increased mouth opening. No adverse effects of ozone gel were observed in any of the patients. Conclusion: In this study, it is concluded, that ozone can be considered as a potent topical antibiotic with healing property and also as an adjunct analgesic.

  100. Dr. Aun Taheri, Dr. Ajay Saxena, Dr.Pradnya Nikahde, Dr. Ankita Rajurkar and Dr. Rutuja Gawarle

    Aim: To compare the effectiveness of different file system to determine the apical diameter of canal, before and after coronal flaring in teeth with curved apical roots. Material and methods: 30 extracted premolar teeth with apically curved canals were divided into 2 groups (n=15). In group 1 hand k files were used and in group 2 Ni-Ti hand files were used. After access opening and obtaining patency with no. 6 k file, progressively increasing number of file sizes were introduced in the canal upto the working length passively until binding sensation is felt in the canal with the file. The last file to passively reach the working length was fixed and was observed under stereomicroscope and the digital image was recorded. Then, cervical flaring was done in the canals and the files were reinserted in the canals and again observed under stereomicroscope. The digital images were analysed using AutoCad software. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the mean diameter of files in group 1 (hand k files) and in group 2 (Ni-Ti hand files). Significant difference was found in the file diameter before flaring and after flaring in group 1 (k file) and in group 2 (Ni-Ti file). Conclusion: There is no difference between Ni-Ti hand files and k files in determining working width in apically curved canals.

  101. Dr. P. Genesta Mary Gysel, Uma, R. and Rajashree, P.

    Low back pain is a common, disabling musculoskeletal disorder in both developing and developed countries. Foot reflexology is referred as “medicine of the soul” as it is able to reach the root of physical or emotional problems. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of foot reflexology technique on reducing lower back pain among adults. Methodology: Study was conducted using True experimental pre-test and post-test control group research design among 50 adults (25 in control group and 25 in experimental group) who were selected using purposive sampling technique at selected villages under Kirumampakkam PHC, Puducherry. Data was collected by interview method using the pre-determined tool-Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire. Results: Through Mann-Whitney test, It revealed that the difference in median level oflower back pain of adults in experimental group (M=5) was lower in the post-test than in the pre-test (M=18) which is statistically significant (p<0.05). In control group, median level of lower back pain of adults between the pre-test and post-test (M=18, 20) was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The study findings revealed that foot reflexology technique is effective in reducing lower back pain among adults. Hence we recommended that foot reflexology technique can be used as an alternative non-pharmacological therapy for lower back pain.

  102. Anwesha Adak, Arpita Sarkar, Lopamoodra Das, Amit De, Subrata Saha and Subir Sarkar

    Fracture of anterior teeth is most common dental injury in children and young adult. There are different treatment options to manage the fractured teeth but reattachment is the most conservative and esthetic approach. The restoration of natural teeth color, form and alignment in these patients create a positive social and emotional response in such patients. In this case report a 12 years old female patient with fractured anterior tooth was reported. Reattachment of fracture fragment was done after completing endodontic treatment.

  103. Dr. Kasturi Chavan, Dr. Deepali samel, Dr. Prashant M. and Dr. Siddhesh, B.

    Root canal anatomy is highly complex and unpredictable. An awareness and thorough knowledge of internal and external root canal morphology contribute to the successful root canal treatment. Usually mandibular molars have two roots with three canals (Mesiobucccal, Mesiolingual & Distal). But in few teeth, the number of roots and canals vary. Mandibular molars can have an additional root located lingually (Radix Entomolaris) Or buccally (Radix Paramolaris). Clinicians should be aware of these unusual root morphologies in the mandibular first molar which needs strategic treatment as unfilled canals remain a nidus for infection and can compromise treatment outcome. This case series discusses endodontic treatment of Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris, which is a rare entity and poses as an endodontic dilemma for the clinician with respect to diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

  104. Dr. Amar Saharan, Dr. Rakesh Sharma, Dr. Aamir Hussain, Dr. Sumeet Charak and Dr. Nitin Choudhary

    Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the epidemiology of multifocal upper limb fractures and define any commonly occurring patterns. Patients: Patients included were those over the age of 13 years who presented to one orthopaedic trauma unit, in an eight-year period, and who sustained a multifocal upper limb fracture. Results: There were 83 patients with 171 multifocal upper limb fractures. Mean age 60 years; range 13 to 80 years. 78 patients had bifocal fractures and 5 had trifocal. The most common pairing of fourteen different combinations was distal radius and proximal humerus. All but nine patients had involvement of the proximal humerus or distal radius. The most common injuries were the two-part proximal humerus fracture, the simple intra-articular olecranon fracture and the extra-articular fracture of the distal radius with metaphyseal comminution. Conclusion: This study has shown that multifocal fractures of the upper limb are most likely to occur in the middle aged to elderly women who have had a fall from standing height. As previously demonstrated osteopenic fractures are increasing in incidence in developed countries, where the population is ageing, which implies that the incidence of multifocal fractures of the upper limb is likely to increase.

  105. Ms. Sindhuja and Prof. Dr. Jayestri Kurushev

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Interventional Module to enhance self-esteem among adolescents in selected Government schools, Puducherry. Objectives : to assess the pre-test and post-test level of self-esteem among adolescents in experimental and control group, to evaluate the effectiveness of Interventional Module on the level of self-esteem among the adolescents within the experimental group, to compare the effectiveness of Interventional Module on the level of self-esteem among the adolescents between experimental and control group, to associate the post- test level of self-esteem among adolescents with the selected demographic variables in experimental group. Methods: The research approach used for this study was quantitative approach and the design selected was quasi experimental design pre-test and post-test with control group. The researchers assessed the level of self-esteem among the adolescents studying in 8th and 9th standard by using a Rosenberg self-esteem scale. By using purposive sampling technique 130 adolescent’s whose self-esteem score was less than 50 percentile. 65 subjects were allotted to experimental group and 65 subjects were allotted to the control group. Interventional Module to enhance the self-esteem was imparted to experimental group for 8days for the duration of 1hour and no intervention was given to control group. Results: it was statistically significant at the level of p<0.001 and the post-test self-esteem score was associated with age, mother’s educational level, mother’s occupational, average travelling time, and leisure time activities and it was found significant at the level of p<0.001 . Conclusion: The study concluded that Interventional Module was effective in enhancing the self-esteem among adolescents in experimental group when compared to the control group.

  106. Dhivya, R., Prabavathy, S. and Dr. Renuka, K.

    Background: Cancer is seen to be the main cause for death in both developed and developing countries. A cancer diagnosis generates a higher sense of distress may lead to anxiety, depression or both. Depression is a common co- morbidity among cancer cases. Therefore, addressing the impact of depression with the help of complementary therapies is needed. In that, Zone Therapy have been doing their own fancy footwork on depression among cancer patients. It is of applying pressure to specific points in the feet, hand and ear. It helps to restore and maintain the bodies natural equilibrium. Aim: To evaluate the Effectiveness of Zone Therapy on Depression among Cancer Patients. Methods: Randomized controlled trial research design was used for this study. 50 samples were divided into 25 in experimental group who received Zone therapy and other 25 in control group who received routine treatment. Samples were selected using simple random sampling method. The data was collected, organized and analyzed in terms of both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The study result showed that, obtained T test value for pre test is 1.074 and post test is -3.158 and p-value is < 0.05. Conclusion: The study findings reveals that the zone therapy is effective to bring about changes in the level of depression among cancer patients in Puducherry Cancer Trust Hospital and Research Centre.

  107. Deepika, K., Prabavathy, S. and Renuka K.

    Background: Depressive symptoms are common mental disorders around worldwide. The prevalence of depression is much higher irrespective than in general population.Prison is a place where criminal persons are residing for many years which makes them to have severe depression,. Around 49% of women and 23% of male prisoners having Low Self- esteem and depression. Thus selected limbs of Ashtanga Yoga (Asanas and Pranayama) will provide a positive effect on enhancing self esteem and decrease the level of depression among prisoners. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of selected limbs of Ashtanga Yoga on Self-esteem and Depression among Male Inmates in Central prison. Materials and Methods: Pre Experimental Research Design (One group Pre- test Post-test). 42 Male Inmates were selected by Purposive Random Sampling Technique. The data was collected and pre test was done by Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Selected limbs of Ashtanga Yoga, namely Asanas and Pranayama techniques were administered for 30 minutes daily for 21 days and post- test was done. The data was analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The obtained paired t- test was -11.76 and 13.18 which is significant at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Selected limbs of Ashtanga Yoga (Asanas and Pranayama) were effective to bring about positive changes in the level of Self Esteem and Depression among Male Inmates in Central Prison.

  108. Subbiah Sathiyakani, Prabavathy, S. and Dr. Renuka, K.

    Background: Alcoholism is one of the major public health issues in both developed and developing countries. The harmful use of alcohol cause approximately 3.3 million deaths every year. Alcohol dependence is a chronic disease, in which a person craves for drinks that contain alcohol and is unable to control his drinking habit. Calisthenics exercise has been known to improve mental health while treating problems like Depression, Stress and Anxiety. Aim: To evaluate the Effectiveness of Calisthenics on Psychological parameters among alcohol dependents. Materials and Methods: True Experimental Research design was used for this study. Initially, 66 Patients were selected by Simple Random Sampling Technique. Among them, 33 samples were placed in the experimental group, who practised Calisthenics and the other 33 were placed in the control group, who received the routine treatment. The data were collected by using DASS- 21 scale questionnaire in pre-test and post-test, organized and analysed. Results: In both the groups, statistically highly significant results (p<0.001) were observed and most of the psychological parameters improved positively in the experimental group than the control group. Significant results were observed in the psychological parameters along with DASS-21 Scale scoring. Conclusion: This study findings indicated that the Calisthenics intervention proved to be statistically highly significant in the reduction of Psychological parameters among the Alcohol dependents under study.

  109. Dr. Uma Thakur and Prof. Mehra, B.L.

    Introduction: Kamala is one of the important common clinical entity in Ayurveda whose description appears to be most comprehensive and incorporates the disorders of hepatobiliary system of modern medicine. In Ayurvedic literature Kamala has been mentioned as a sequel of Pandu roga. It occurs when Pandu rogi takes more Paittikaharavihara1. Jaundice, a yellowish discoloration of tissue resulting from the deposition of bilirubin is the common presentation of patients with liver and biliary diseases. The liver diseases have remained a challenge to medical profession since many of the liver disorders may ultimately lead to irreversible changes. Liver function tests along with liver enzymes constitutes group of tests used to determine the state of liver function in a patient. Materials and methods: Literary material from Ayurvedic and Modern texts was compiled and assessment criteria was formulated.15 patients of age 10-70yrs were registered from OPD/IPD of R.G.G.P.G.A.C Paprola fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Drug, Dosage and Duration: One group of minimum 15 patients were treated with both the trial drugs i.e. Trivritchuran with Sharkara 4gm orally twice a day for 7 days and Kamalaharyoga- Liver tone syrup 10 ml TID for 30 days and Liver tone capsule 1 BD for next 30 days . Duration of trial was 60 days with follow up after every 15 days. Observations Effect of therapy on Subjective and Objective Parameters: Out of those 13 patients who completed the study;38.46% patients were completely relieved, 3 patients each with the percentage of 23.07% reported mild and moderate improvement, marked improvement in patients symptoms and biochemical improvement was found in 7.70% of patient and 7.70% reported no relief in symptoms and signs of disease Results and conclusion: Therapy has significant role in relieving symptoms and signs of the disease. It showed better efficacy on subjective criteria than biochemical criteria. No adverse effects were observed during the course of trial.

  110. Dr. Jignesh Tate, Dr. Varsha Jadhav, Dr. Prashanth Shetty, Dr. Prajakta Vhatkar Dr. PreetiPardeshi and Dr. Shrawani Chouhan

    Aim: To evaluate the adjunctive effect of Triphala gel with scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Subjects diagnosed with localized or generalized chronic periodontitis with pocket depth ≥4mm were selected for study. Two non-adjacent sites in different quadrants of the mouth were randomly divided into control sites and experimental sites.30 control sites were treated by SRP alone, and 30 experimental sites were treated with SRP followed by placement of 6% Triphala Gel in the periodontal pocket. Following parameters will be recorded at baseline and after 30 days:  Plaque index (Turesky- Gilmore- Glikman modification of Quigley Hein plaque index)  Gingival index.  Sulcus bleeding index  Pocket probing depth  Clinical attachment level.  Trypsin-like activity of “red complex” microorganisms by BAPNA assay Results: The test group exhibited a significantly lower mean score for the recorded parameters as compared to the control group. The difference between two groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The experimental local drug-delivery system containing 6% triphala can be effectively used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing and is more effective than scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of periodontal pockets.

  111. Dr. Anupama, C.H., Dr. Ravi Shankar, Y., Dr. Srinivas, K., Dr. Harikrishna, M., Dr. Shameen Kumar, P. Dr. Satyendra kumar, T.

    Purpose: The palatal rugae are a prominent stable landmark in the maxillary arch and its position lies constant throughout the life. Therefore it can be used as a guideline for the placement of artificial teeth in the maxillary arch. Materials and Methods: 150 subjects were randomly selected, 50 subjects of age group 20-40 years were taken for each arch form i.e. U shaped, V shaped and ovoid arch were selected and impressions were made. Materials used were maxillary dentulous casts, graphite pencil, metal scale, brass wire and divider. The length of palatal rugae, distance from palatal rugae to tip of canine, perpendicular distance from incisive papilla and midpoint of incisal surface to a line connecting 1st premolar and the distance from central incisor to incisive papilla were compared in all the 3 arch forms. Results: The length of 1st, 2nd and 3rd palatal rugae were statistically significant in ovoid, U and V shaped arches. The distance from end of first palatal rugae to tip of canine was more in ovoid arch when compared to U shaped arches and V shaped arches. The distance from incisive papilla to midpoint of central incisors in ovoid arch, U shaped arch, V shaped arch was not so significant. The Distance from posterior point of incisive papilla to perpendicular line connecting from premolars in ovoid, U shaped arch, V shaped arch was not so significant. Conclusion: In U shaped arches which appear broad mesio distally, square incisor teeth can be used. In ovoid arch, medium sized teeth were ovoid incisor teeth can be used. In V shaped arch as it is narrow and tapering mesio distally, tapering incisor teeth can be used. This study was therefore done to find out the position of teeth in relation to palatal rugae which in turn determines the selection of teeth accordingly.

  112. Dr. Parshant, Dr. Uma Thakur, Prof. B. L. Mehra and Prof. Vijay Chaudhary

    With the advent of improved health services and facility life expectancy of average human has increased significantly. Because of advancing age and erroneous life style the prevalence of degenerative diseases are on a rise. In old age, the Vata Dosha predominate that increases the susceptibility of individuals for various Vata Vyadhi which in turn reflects as pain and stiffness of the joints along with restricted motion to various degrees. Taila is considered as the best Shamana Aushadha for Vaatik Vikaras and it can be used both externally as well as internally. The present study will incorporate the Abhyanga (external application of Sneha) from various points of views and its utility in controlling pain and stiffness related to advancing age. This study is a humble attempt to compile all the scattered references related to the context and to make it useful or increase its practical utility.

  113. Dr. Nawar Yahya Hussain and Dr. Musab Mahmoud Al – Adwani

    This study was performed from November 2018 to the end of December 2018 to assess knowledge and awareness among a sample of paramedical staff regarding seasonal influenza vaccine in Mosul health workers .The results of demographic data of the studied sample showed that ( male : female ratio was (1:1.1 ) , more than half of the sample selected were females (52.8%), while males were (47.2%). The age of the studied sample at the time of study was between (20-57) years. The peoples of the sample were working in different health centers. The study revealed that there is significant association between paramedical staff education and their knowledge level for using the vaccine in preventive programs. No significant association has been found between (age groups, Gender, residence and working centers ) of paramedical staff and their knowledge. Results revealed that 16% of medical staff studied in Mosul received influenza vaccine, and 35.2% of sample who did not receive vaccine had a doubt about effectiveness of vaccine which is manly in medical staff 42% rather than 29% of sub staff, influenza vaccines are valid for one year only. The study recommendation is to intensify the general programs for health educations towards the importance of influenza vaccine for all paramedical staff(staff and sub staff).

  114. Aishvarya Hajare, Prashanth Shetty, Varsha Jadhav and Preeti Pardeshi

    Supportive periodontal therapy is the means by which proper maintenance and care can be given to the patient. Numerous studies have indicated that periodontal therapy in the absence of a carefully designed maintenance program invariably results in the relapse of the disease condition. Accordingly, periodontal care provided without a maintenance program deal with significant patient management and disease management issues. Hence supportive periodontal treatment forms an integral part of periodontal therapy, with all treatment accomplishments channeled into achieving a healthy periodontal status that can be effectively maintained. In this regard, supportive periodontal therapy becomes the most decisive aspect of dental treatment. This article gives an overview of the significance of supportive periodontal therapy in maintaining the integrity of the periodontium.

  115. Dr. Younis Pervez SK., Dr. Kalyan Satish R., Dr. Sreenivasa Bharath,T., Dr. Girija. S. Sajjan, Dr. Madhu Varma K. and Dr. Madhuri, S.S.

    Background: Forensic Odontology is a vital component of forensic science and one branch involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains. The aim of this study was to investigate whether endodontic obturation radiographs have a potential aid for forensic identification. Methods: Thirty periapical radiographs of patients having endodontic treatment of mandibular left first molars with three canals were selected randomly from the data bank of the digital X- ray system. The post-operative radiographs were considered as an ante-mortem data “Set 1”. Ten radiographs from the thirty were reprinted, labelled from (A-J) and considered as a post-mortem data “Set 2”. This post-mortem group of 10 radiographs “Set 2” would be compared with the ante-mortem group of 30 radiographs comprising “Set 1”. These two sets of radiographs would be examined by 80 dentally trained personnel. The thirty radiographs comprising “Set 1” and the 10 radiographs comprising “Set 2” were provided to each of the examiners who were asked to match the individual post-mortem radiographs (“Set 2”) with the ante-mortem radiographs (“Set1”). Results: The result demonstrated that 73 examiners achieved a success rate of 100%. Conclusion: If post-mortem radiographs are accurate duplicates of endodontic obturated radiographs then the unique shape of obturation can be used for forensic identification.

  116. Syed Saima, Muzaffar Ahmad Bhat and Dr Gazanfer Ali Shah

    Gingival recession is significantly more common among smokers, while cigarette smoking has been shown to negatively influence healing following periodontal therapeutic procedures as compared to non-smokers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking on the outcome of coronally positioned flap (CPF) in the treatment of Miller Class I gingival recession defects. Materials and methods: Ten current smokers (≥10 cigarettes daily for at least 5 years) and 10 non-smokers (never smokers), each with one 3 to 4-mm Miller Class I recession defect in an upper canine or bicuspid, were treated with CPF. At baseline and 6 months, clinical parameters, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), recession depth (RD) was determined. Results: Intra-group analysis showed that CPF was able to reduce RD and improve CAL in both groups (P < 0.001). Intergroup analysis demonstrated that smokers presented greater residual RD at 6 months and lower percentage of root coverage (60.09% versus 76.05%; P < 0.05). No smokers obtained complete root coverage compared to 30% of non-smokers (P < 0.05).

  117. Dr. Pradeep Kumar and Dr. Deepika Meesala

    Introduction: The significance of smoking in the hypertensive patient may be unappreciated. The risk of hypertension may be tripled in such patients. Tobacco addiction may also compromise the treatment of hypertensives. The contribution of nicotine to adverse cardiovascular events has been a concern, both among physicians and patients. Nicotine has also been reported to have adverse effects on endothelial function and may impair insulin tolerance, although the biologic relevance of these effects in individuals remains unclear. Materials and methods: the study was conducted in SVS Medical college, Mahboobnagar, for a period of 4 months. Study sample consisted of 100 chronic hypertensive patients diagnosed by general physician and nicotine dependence was assessed using a questionnaire and diagnosed according to ICD-10 RDiC criteria. Later, severity of nicotine dependence in these patients is assessed using Fagerstrom scale. Results: Nicotine dependence was more common in older group when compared to younger individuals with chronic hypertension. Male individuals were more affected with nicotine dependence when compared to female population which was statistically significant. Conclusion: In conclusion this survey demonstrates the increased incidence and prevalence of nicotine dependence in chronic hypertensive patients in North Telangana population. The severity of nicotine dependence is more affected by the socioeconomic status and urbanization. As the age of individuals increased, severity of nicotine dependence increased which was statistically significant.

  118. Tengku Liza Syahnas, Zulfendri and Destanul Aulia

    Background: Emergency Installation as the main gate for handling emergency cases in hospitals has an important function in efforts to save clients' lives, because in the implementation phase must refer to the basic principles of emergency care namely saving time is life saving with the measure of success of this thing is respond time for 5 minutes. Object: to explore the respond time in emergency installation health service at Haji Hospital Medan. Methods: A qualitative study with analytic description was used. Thirty informants were selected using total sampling in this study. The data were gathered in-depth interview. Analysis and interpretation used verbatim descriptions in Bahasa Indonesia and subsequently translated into English language. Results: The application of triage at Haji Hospital has been carried out but it has not had a Standard Procedure Operational about triage. Conclusion: It is recommended to the management to make SPO about triage. Thus, it facilitates and standardizes service standards at the emergency department. For further researchers to be able to conduct more in-depth research on patient satisfaction in obtaining emergency services at the emergency department.

  119. Bhat A Tanveer, Wani Y Nahida, Mir Mohsin, BabaFarooq Umar, Wani H Adil and Bhat A Hilal

    Background and objective: Diabetes is an increasing epidemic in India, and associated diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is its most common and disabling complication. As DPN has an insidious onset and heterogeneous clinical manifestations it is difficult to detect high-risk patients of DPN. Early diagnosis is recommended and is the key factor for a better prognosis and preventing diabetic foot ulcers, amputation, or disability. We conducted this study to study the scope of Semmes Weinstein Monofilament (SWMF) as a screening tool to identify these patients during the early course of the disease to provide a targeted therapy to modify the course of DPN. Methods and Materials: This was a case control study, comprised of 80 subjects.40 type 2 diabetic patients with clinical features of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and abnormal nerve conduction studies (NCS) were selected as cases and 40 age, sex and height matched healthy adults were included as controls. All were subjected to NCS and SWMF tests. Diagnostic values were calculated for SWMF test taking NCS as gold standard for diagnosis of DPN. Results: The SWMF had sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 75% respectively with a accuracy of 84% for diagnosis of DPN. Conclusions: SWMF is a good screening tool for detecting the presence of DPN in diabetes mellitus patients because of its high diagnostic value besides being noninvasive, low cost, rapid and easy to apply test. There is a significant correlation between the NCS and SWMF in the diagnosis of DPN.

  120. Naveen Kuzhikkattil

    Background: High prevalence of silicosis and associated comorbidities were seen in sandmine workers in kota. Aims: The present study analyse the clinico-radiological profile of respiratory involvement in sandmine workers of Kota with the help of digital chest xray and PFT findings. Study design: This is an open label cross section study conducted in NMCH, Kota among 250 randomly selected sandmine workers in the age group of 20 to 65 years over a period of one year from August 2015 to July 2016. Materials and methods: 250 selected subjects were recruited for chest xray and PFT .Xrays were evaluated for the presence or absence of opacities in the lung field and PFT parameters like FEV1,FVC and FEV1/FVC were evaluated. Stastical analysis: SPSS was utilised for descriptive stastics and logistic regression. Results: 113 out of the 250 patients were diagnosed with silicosis based on clinical, radiological and PFT findings. Prevalence was found to be 45.2 percentage .many additional comorbidities like pulmonary TB, COPD and malnourishment were also noted among sand mineworkers. Majority of the patients diagnosed had an exposure history of more than 10 years Smoking was found to be an additional risk factor during our study probably contributing to the comorbidities mentioned above. Conclusion: Study revealed a strong relationship between duration of exposure and radiological and PFT findings in silicosis and the inadequacy of protection measures employed at the work site along with lack of awareness about personal protection devices and education about the possible morbidities amongst the workers.

  121. Devika K., Haripriya A., Priyadarshini R., SriAkilaAnanthy R., Surendar A. and Rani S.

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in India, and its contribution to mortality is rising. According to WHO, most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol using population wide strategies and for successful prevention of cardiovascular diseases, knowledge is an important pre requisite. Hence this study aimed to assess knowledge and perception on risk for cardiovascular diseases among the ministerial staffs. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among ministerial staffs working in various departments (Administrative section, academic section and clinical departments) of JIPMER, Puducherry. 263 ministerial staffs were selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique. The data was collected by using modified structured questionnaire. Results: The study showed that majority 53.6% had moderate level of knowledge and most of them 87.5% had increased perception on risk for cardiovascular disease. There was no correlation between knowledge and perception. There was an association between levels of knowledge with family history of cardiovascular diseases and between level of perception with smoking status & family history of cardiovascular disease at p<0.05. Conclusion: The above findings reveal the importance of the need for implementation of awareness on cardio vascular risk factors and disease.

  122. Dr. Syed Saima, Dr. Gazanfer Ali Shah, Dr. Suhail Majid Jan and Dr. Roobal Behal

    Background: Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a specialized vascular tissue adequately present in buccal space and is close to the maxillary posterior quadrant. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the utility of pedicled BFP (PBFP) in the treatment of Class II and III gingival recession. Materials and Methods: Ten systemically healthy patients with age ranging from 35 to 55 years with Class II and Class III gingival recession in the maxillary molars were selected. Before the surgical phase, patients were enrolled in a strict maintenance program including oral hygiene instructions and scaling and root planing. A horizontal incision of 1–1.5 cm was made in the buccal sulcus of the maxillary molar region; buccinator muscle was separated bluntly to expose the BFP. The fat was then teased out from its bed and spread to cover defects adequately. It was then secured and sutured without tension. Clinical parameters such as probing depth, recession length, and width of keratinized gingiva were recorded at baseline and at 6 months postoperatively, and weekly assessment was done at 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and after 4 weeks for observations during the postoperative healing. Results: Treated recession defects healed successfully without any significant postoperative complications. Decreased gingival recession length from baseline to six months. values were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Percentage of root coverage average was 85%. There was a statistically significant decrease in length of recession. Conclusion: Pedicled buccal fat showed promising results as the treatment modality in the management of Class II and Class III gingival recession of maxillary posterior teeth.

  123. Mateus Trevisan and Alexandra Crispim Boing

    Background: Early diagnosis is the best way to reduce mortality and to improve the survival of women with breast cancer. In Brazil, there are few studies that provide detailed data on inequalities in the access of mammography. Objective: Investigate the inequalities associated with mammography in Brazil among women between 50 and 69 years of age. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Brazil. The outcome was access to mammography. The independent variables were: age, race/skin color, census region (urban/rural), macroregion, educational level, per capita income, coverage by health insurance and use of medical service in the last 12 months. Poisson regression was performed to test the association and calculate crude and adjusted models. Results: The prevalence of mammography was 54.2% (95%CI 53.1-55.3).The prevalence of non-mammographywas higher among women from the Northeast, living in a rural region, aged 60-69 years, with lower income and educational level and who did not have a health insurance. Conclusions: There are important inequalities in the access to mommagraphy in Brazil that need to be addressed by effective public policies.

  124. Mr. Protais Munyemana

    Rwanda has recognized customer care at the highest levels and began the first steps on the journey to improving customer care. To achieve this goal Rwanda needs a customer care strategy, a strategy to ensure that the public, private and voluntary (civil society) sectors provide excellent customer service (RGB, 2012). Delivering good services requires applying customer insight and focusing on what is delivered as much as on how the service is delivered. Deep insight into customers needs can reduce the time and money spent on contact that has no value and ensures that services are relevant and easy to use. This study is conducted to assess whether there is a link between the good step made by the Republic of Rwanda in good governance and service delivery campaign being undertaken through different initiatives

  125. Dr. Syed Shahid Zaheer Zaidi, Dr. Mustafa Hyder and Ms. Tehmina Faisal

    To know yourself, your strengths, weaknesses, do’s and don’ts is the most challenging task everyone has to face. To accomplish that task several psychometric tests are available but after finding the answer, “who are you?” the next step is finding the compatible career that can only be achieved by career counseling. Career counseling is required in order to build a pathway for students towards a career that not only provides a foundation to a successful profession but also compliment their interest, skills and talents. This research presents the findings of a study conducted to explore the significant need of career counseling among the students of different departments in University of Karachi in year 2019. The research method used includes data analysis, in depth interview and the survey through Judgmental sampling technique. Career counseling provides students the answer to explore and find the domain in which their expertise should be placed. The research aims to highlight the confusion and uncertainty students face while deciding for their career, when they have to choose their respective field without consultation and guidance. This research is used as a tool to identify that majority of the students is not aware with their life goals and objectives. Students are not properly educated about outcomes of the specific programs they are enrolled in, the scope and career opportunities in these fields, merely because of proper career counseling which is missing both at school and college level in Pakistan. In the absence of career counseling the students have no choice but to choose their field either under influence of others or simply based on availability. Thus, the research emphasizes the importance of career counseling among students.

  126. Subha Roy and Somasis Sengupta

    Channel Shifting is a natural phenomenon. But in the Bhagirathi Hooghly River System, the construction of the Farakka Barrage has completely disturbed the Dynamic Equilibrium condition of the river. Entry of excess water of the Ganga into the Bhagirathi Hooghly has suddenly rejuvenated the Bhagirathi Hooghly (B-H) and destroyed the stability besides increasing the discharge. As a result, B-H river formed oxbow lake and paleo channel. In this reason sediment logical character is changed in this river. So the resent study was conducted to correlate the phenomenon of channel shifting with the occurrence of sedimentary records. In this study we use different year (1975-2018) satellite image (ETM, ETM+, TM, LISS III, LANDSAT 7, LANDSAT OLI) and identified (using ARC GIS , ERDAS) how the channel of the B-H river has shifted over time and created paleo channels and oxbow lakes. Collected soil sample in some selected areas where channel shifting occurred in the B-H river. As a result, we see increasing sediment texture since 1970s and after the construction of the Farakka Barrage.

  127. Solomon Mekonnen and Dinku Gebeyehu

    The main objective of the study was to analyze how print media represented HIV positive persons. To do that, the researcher purposively selected Life 101 comic book which was prepared and distributed to almost all Ethiopian universities to create awareness and to educate universities’ students about HIV/AIDS. All episodes, 31, of the comic book were considered for the analysis. Besides, qualitative content analysis was employed to analyze the data gathered from the comic book. The analysis of comic book divulged that HIV positive persons were represented as persons who were sick, dependable, hopeless, loneliness, and worthless. In addition, they were represented as persons who were in crisis and who are dead or lifeless. Such negative representations of HIV positive persons in print media could adversely affect those who are already positive of HIV. Thus, it is recommended that print media’s messages should be well -designed to avoid unnecessary stigma and discrimination.

  128. Nguyen Ai Nam

    Rūpa is one of important parts of the ultimate truth from Buddhist perspective. It is closely related to the issue of mind. It can be said that once one understands the inner links between rūpa and mind, he or she can realize the truth which helps himself or herself to be free from suffering. In this paper, I only cover the main idea of the first part, that is, rūpa. It is necessary to have a comprehensive investigation of great matter in Buddhism, especially in Abhidhamma. Through it, one can have a wisdom on this important matter.

  129. Er Bikash Narayan Naik and Reader Suman Mishra

    Globalization as an ongoing process allows and promotes the development of economy of big countries as well as developing countries that are seeking their place in the global market. Interactive communication has been enabled between people, companies, civil society organizations and other institutions, whose needs can be met over the internet anywhere in the world and at any time. Also, professional and competent human resources are needed and therefore it is necessary to invest in new knowledge, innovation, new technologies and lifelong learning. In this environment, management sets its strategic goals through which it will be able to carry out the plans for the sale of products or services. Nowadays, a manager has to have interdisciplinary skills and lifelong education because only in this way it is possible to respond to the constant and rapid changes in the world. Global environment requires the continuous research, monitoring competition, innovation and the ability to change rapidly.

  130. Dr. Lamyaa Imran Ali, Dr. Abdulrahman Ismael Dakhel and Dr. Tareq Kannan Mohammed

    Background: Bacterial meningitis continues to be a serious, often disabling infectious disease, during the acute onset of meningitis, acute CNS complications can include seizures, increased intracranial pressure, cranial nerve palsies, stroke,cerebral or cerebellar herniation, and thrombosis of the dural venous sinuses, Long-term sequelae of meningitis result from direct inflammatory destruction of brain cells, vascular injuries, or secondary gliosis. Focal motor and sensory deficits, visual impairment, hearing loss, seizures, hydrocephalus, and a variety of cranial nerve deficits can result from meningitis, In addition to the variety of disorders mentioned earlier in this section; some patients with meningitis have mental retardation and severe behavioral disorders that limit their function at school and later performance in life. Aim of study • Early detection of possible post-meningitis complication. • To find the prognostic factors of those complication. Patient and method: Among one hundred twenty-three patients selected, One hundred fifteen patients enrolled in study after they met inclusion criteria, they are aged 1 month to 15 years, admitted to infectious department at Central teaching hospital of pediatrics in Baghdad/Iraq with acute bacterial meningitis, followed up after discharge over a 12 month period. Data were collected from the infectious follow up clinic in our center, Various data collected from history, examination, and investigation results for comparison to show the risk factors associated with developing complications. Results: Among one hundred fifteen cases enrolled in the study, Benign course patients (patients who developed no sequelae after meningitis) were 60 in number, complicated course patients were 55 in number, Prognostic factors found to be significantly related to the outcome in this study.these factors include:young age group (below 12 months) , prolonged seizure at presentation more than 72hours, various CSF parameters (CSF neutrophil predominance pleocytosis, high CSF protein more than 50mg/dl, low CSF glucose below than 40mg/dl, CSF culture positive results), a variety of serum laboratory findings ( positive C-reactive protein more than 12, leukopenia below 4000), and Streptococcus pneumoniae in blood culture is considered important in predicting complications. Conclusion: In conclusion, the age of less than 12 months and the clinical presentation on admission (occurrence of seizures especially prolonged one), as well as multiple CSF and serum laboratory findings were identified as the strongest predictors of neurological complications and may have value predicting which patients are prone to complication.

  131. Ramachandra, V.

    The present study is explored that invidious discriminations on the ground of the untouchables caste is being considered while handing out tickets. The Dalits in Karnataka comprise 23 per cent of the population. The Lingayats and the Vokkaligas have been dominant in Karnataka since time immemorial and the tussle for power between these two communities is no secret. Objectives are To analyze the symbiotic framework of dalith politics in Karnataka; and To study the Economic Inequalities of Scheduled cast in Kolar means for achieving their rights and privileges. Dalits also learned the art of direct action i.e., agitation, sit-ups, strikes, etc., which were very scantly used by them in the early part of their organizing.

  132. Dr. Potdar, V.V., Gaundare Y.S., Phadke, N.L., Dr. Khadse, J.R., Dr. S. A. Joshi, Dr. Marimuthu Swaminathan and Dr. Pande A.B.

    Gestation length (GL), the period from effective fertilization until calving, is a reproductive trait that significantly affects cattle breeding and production. The cow's age is the key environmental factor influencing gestation length. The objective of this study was to study the factors affecting the Gestation length indangi cattle. Dangi cattle is well known for its hardy nature and its ability to work hard under heavy rainfall conditions. The study was carried out during the period from June 2010 to May 2015 in Nashik and Jalgaon regions of Maharashtra. In total, 1093 dangi cattle calving were studied. Overall least square mean of gestation period of Dangi cattle maintained under field conditions was 282.18 ± 1.5days. Analysis of data suggested that Body score condition, sire and year of calving accounted for significant variation (P<0.01) in the gestation length whereas the effect of sex of calf, parity number, season of calving was not significant (P>0.01).Rainy& summer season, body condition of animals are factors contributed to prolonged gestation length. Optimal gestation length was determined in the rang eoffrom 268 to 300 days.

  133. Hezekiah Otieno Omolo and Enose M.W. Simatwa

    Students’ academic performance is measured by use of national examinations and these examinations are recognized as an important backbone of the education system. Examination outcome is used as the major basis for deciding a student’s ability and is used as a means for acquiring employment and academic advancement. The importance of education to both national and individual development is indisputable. Many students do not excel in national examinations in many countries around the world, Kenya included. The underperformance has raised alarm and efforts have been made to identify the factors that lead to this but the problem still persists. The Objective of the study was to determine the influence of principal’s leadership skills on students’ academic performance in Kenya. It was established that principals’ leadership skills highly influence students’ academic performance with overall mean rating of mean = 4.07, SD =0.55. The principals’ leadership skills accounted for 23.0% of the variation of the students’ academic performance in secondary schools as signified by the adjusted R square. 230. This implies that 77% of the variation in students’ academic performance was due to other factors which were not subject of this study. Since the influence was significant (P<.05) it means that students academic performance can be predicted by principals leadership skills. This data is significant to stakeholders in education and particularly the Directorate of Quality Assurance and principals of secondary schools.

  134. Hezekiah Otieno Omolo, Enose M.W. Simatwa and Alfred Otara

    Students’ academic performance in examinations is used to gauge the quality of the education system. Examination outcome has been used as the major basis for deciding a student’s ability and used as a means of acquiring employment and advancement in careers. The importance of education to both national and individual development is indisputable. Many students do not excel in national examinations in many countries around the world, Kenya included. In Kenya the dismal performance has raised alarm and efforts have been made to identify factors that lead to this poor performance but the problem still persists. Therefore, the purpose objective of the study was to establish influence of student factors on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools. It was established that students factors significantly influenced students’ academic performance. The student factors accounted for 9.2% of the variation of the students’ academic performance in secondary schools as signified by the adjusted R square. 092. This implies that 90.8% of the variation in students academic performance was due to other factors which were not the subject of this study. Since the influence was significant (P<.05) it means that students academic performance can be predicted by students factors. This data is significant to stakeholders in education and particularly the Directorate of Quality Assurance and principals of secondary schools.

  135. Shanthala S., Obula Reddy C., Kavitha BL., Padma M., Lokanatha D. and Prasanna Kumari

    Background: Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) is an aggressive disease, which differs from chronic myeloid leukemia in lymphoid blast crisis at both chromosomal and molecular level. The current study aims to study additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACAs) in Ph+ALL, with review on its prognostic implications. Materials and Methods: This is retrospective single group exploratory study, from 2014 to 2019. Cytogenetic information of 74 cases of Ph+ALL and their clinical information were obtained from the departmental records and case files. Cytogenetic analysis of samples was done in accordance with standard laboratory protocol. Results: Thirty out of 74 patients showed ACAs (40.5%). The median age of patients was 21years. ACAs were more frequent in females than in males up to 40years of age and reverse was true in older patients. Most frequent abnormalities observed were extra Ph, del(9p), add(19p), del(6q) and dic(9;12). Limited follow-up data for patients with extra Ph showed complete remission at median survival of 15 months and poor prognosis in an elderly patient with dic(9;12) as additional abnormality. Conclusion: The frequency and pattern of ACAs in our cohort of Ph+ALL patients were similar to standard available literature, with few exceptions. Long-term follow-up studies are recommended to analyze the prognostic significance of these ACAs in Ph+ALL.

  136. Dr. Entesar Mahmood Amer, Dr. Majida Kadhim Atiyah and Dr. Ahlam Mahdi Mousa

    The aim of the study was to prediction of sub-clinical infection as a cause of preterm- prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) and preterm labour. Maternal and cord blood for C-reactive protein (CRP) estimation as screening test and urine, high vaginal swab and placental swabs for culture and sensitivity as a confirmative test for sub-clinical infection. Thirty pregnant of (24-37) weeks gestation with PPROM as study group and 30 pregnant of same gestation age with intact fetal membranes but in labour. All submitted to CRP test, high vaginal swab, placental swab for C/S and cord blood for CRP. CRP positive in study group 18 cases (60%) and control group 8 cases (36.6%) for urine C/S in study group was 11 cases (36.6%) and in control group 2 cases (6.6%) for high the vaginal swab positive in study group 8 cases (27.3%) and in control group 3 cases (10%), CRP test, urine for C/S and high the vag. swab for C/S all were statistically significant. Cord blood CRP and placental swab for C/S were statistically not significant CRP test sensitivity was 78% and specificity was 62.5% So CRP test can used as screening test for infection.

  137. Muneera Gull, Zubaida Rasool, Danish Rafiq, Salma Gull, Salma Yaseen and Ishrat Younis

    Introduction: Esophageal cancer is a serious malignancy with regards to mortality and prognosis. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in trends. In India, the extremely high incidence rates of esophageal cancer have been reported from the state of Jammu and Kashmir which seems to fall in the Asian esophageal-cancer belt particularly from Kashmir. The unique personal and dietary habits and environmental factors in Kashmir have been related to this high risk. Immunohistochemistry is nowadays a simple, reproducible way to assess the expression of oncogenic factors in paraffin embedded samples from cancer tissues. It is therefore more and more used customarily to study the expression of new potential therapeutic targets and to determine which patients are the most liable to answer to these specific therapies. Aiims and objectives: To study the expression of.ER/PR, EGFR and HER-2 in esophageal carcinoma.and to study the correlation of above mentioned markers with pathological characteristics such as tumor type, grade and lymph node status. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study for a period of one and half years from June 2016 to December 2017 and retrospective study for three and half years from January 2013 to May 2016.The study was carried on resected specimens of esophagus over the period mentioned above. All esophageal carcinomas with or without nodal metastasis and other primary tumors of esophagus, tumors metastasized to esophagus and those who have received neoadjuvant therapy were taken. For the retrospective study, cases were taken from the records maintained in the Department of Pathology at SKIMS. Histopathological data was collected and relevant details were noted. Corresponding slides were collected and photographed wherever available. Prospective study comprised of fresh cases of esophageal carcinomas. In each case a brief clinical history was taken, along with other relevant investigations. The clinical data of the patient was recorded as per proforma. Samples were collected in 10% formalin for routine histopathological examination. After overnight fixation, the specimens were grossed with 3-4 sections taken from the tumor. Gross photographs of the specimen were taken. Sections from all resection margins were taken. The tissue was processed as per standard procedure for histological examination and 4-5 micron thick sections were cut on microtome and stained by routine haematoxylin and eosin stain. Immunohistochemistry was done in 30 Squamous cell carcinoma cases (out of a total of 86 cases) and all (12) Adenocarcinoma cases. After final microscopic diagnosis was made, the slides were photographed. Results: The study included a total of 98 cases received in our department and with the final diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma (SCC and AC). Out of 98 cases, 57 (58.2%) were males and 41 (41.8%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.39:1. Age range was 35-75 years. The maximum number of cases was in the age group of 45-54 and 55-64 years and the least number of cases was seen in the age group of 35-44 years. Mean age was 55.9+8.92 years. Dysphagia was the main presenting complaint in majority of patients (69.4%). Most of the tumors presented as ulceroin filtrative lesions (25.5%). Most of the tumors were in the size range of 3-5 cm (49%). Middle 1/3rd of the esophagus was the most common site (48%) followed by lower 1/3rd (37.6%). Among the 98 esophagectomy cases, 83 (84.7%) were diagnosed as SCC, 12 as AC (12.2) and 3 (3.1%) as squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Most of the tumors were well and moderately differentiated. Regional lymph node involvement was present in 25% cases. Distant metastasis was not seen in any case.11 (11.2%) cases had CRM involved by the tumor. Out of the 83 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 42 (50.6%) were T2, 39 (47.0%) were T3, 2 cases were in T1. Out of 12 AC cases, 11 (91.7%) were T3 and 1 (8.3%) was T2. Majority of the cases i.e.; 72 (73.5%) were in N0, 19 (19.4%) were in N1, 6 (6.1%) were in N2, 1 (1%) was in N3. Out of 86 SCC cases, 25 (29.1%) were in Stage IB, 24 (27.9%) were in stage IIA, 21 (24.4%) were in Stage IIB, 9 (10.5%) were in Stage IIIA, 3 (3.5%) were in Stage IIIB and 3 (3.5%) were in Stage 0. None of the cases was in Stage IV. One patient was in stage IA. Out of 12 AC cases, 7 (58.3%) cases were in Stage IIB, 3 (25%) cases were in Stage IIIB and 2 (16.7%) cases were in Stage IIIC. None of the cases was in Stage IV or Stage 0. Out of 98 esophagectomy cases, 32 (32.7%) had LVI and 29 (29.6%) had PNI. On immunohistochemistry; (IHC was done on 30 SCC and 12 AC cases), none of the 42 cases was positive for ERα or PR. For ERβ, among 12 adenocarcinoma cases, 9 cases were positive and among 30 SCC cases, 7 were positive. For EFGR, among 12 AC cases, 3 were positive and among 30 SCC cases, 17 were positive. For HER2, among 12 AC cases, 1 was positive and among 30 SCC cases, 2 were positive. Among 16 ERβ positive cases, 2 were in Grade 1, 7 in Grade 2 and 7 in Grade 3. None of the cases was of Grade 4. Among 20 EGFR positive cases, 3 were in Grade 1, 9 in Grade 2 and 8 in Grade 3. Among 3 HER2 positive cases, 1 was in Grade 1and 2 were in Grade 3. None of the cases was of Grade 2. ERβ positive cases were predominantly in N0 (8/16), followed by N2 (5/16). 2 cases were in N1 and 1 in N3. Among 20 EGFR positive cases, 7 were in N1, 6 in N2 and 7 in N0. Among 3 HER2 positive cases, 2 were in N0 and 1 was in N1. . Among the 16 ERβ positive cases, majority (7/16) were in Stage IIB. 3 were in Stage IIIB, 2 were in IIIC, 2 in IIIA and 2 in IB. None of the cases was in Stage IA or in Stage IV. Among the 20 EGFR positive cases, 7 cases were in Stage IIIA, 5 in Stage IIB, 3 in Stage IB, 3 in Stage IIIB, 1 in Stage IIA and 1 in Stage IIIC. . Among 3 HER2 positive cases, 2 were in Stage IIB and 1 in Stage IIA. ERβ expression had a significant correlation with tumor type. AC showed higher expression than SCC. EGFR had a significant correlation with tumor type, tumor grade and lymph node status. Summary and conclusion: The present study suggests that EGFR is a candidate for targeted therapy using anti-EGFR antibodies. Evaluation of EGFR overexpression detected by IHC may aid the selection of patients and prediction of sensitivity to adjuvant EGFR -targeted therapy for esophageal carcinoma. HER2 overexpression may also play a crucial role in the therapeutic management of both esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In present study, HER2 was positive in both ESCC and EAC. The sample size may have undermined statistical significance between HER2 and histopathological characteristics of esophageal carcinoma. Further studies may augment the understanding in this area.

  138. Aloisio Mateus Fiuza Sanha, Satyender Kumar and Pramod Kumar Sharma

    Turmeric as been long known for its medicines properties and it is the major source for curcumin and it helps in management of various health conditions such as antioxidant, inflammatory, hyperlipidemia, anxiety and metabolic syndrome. Despite these advantages when administered alone curcumin does not attain its full therapeutic effect because of its poor absorption, fast metabolism and rapid elimination. To overcome this barrier for its efficient delivery, curcumin was incorporated into phytosome technology by reacting it with cholesterol. The term phytosome can be divided into two parts, “phyto” means plant while “some” means cell-like. Phytosome is a evolving technology in which the phytochemical agent is bounded with lipid agent. Thus, it results in increased absorption, stability which leads to better bioavailability and therapeutic effect in the treatment of various health conditions as compared to delivery of the herbal compound alone.

  139. Shivu Jayadev, Bhushita Lakhkar, Bhushan N Lakhkar, Ramesh C Pattanshetti and Adiraju Karthik

    Background: The gold standard method considered to assess the severity of portal hypertension is the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). Patients with severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 12 mm Hg) are at risk for variceal bleeding, with mortality rates ranging from 20% to 35%. However, due to its invasiveness, it is gradually getting replaced by Doppler ultrasound where, Damping index (DI) reflects portal pressure and liver dysfunction. Spleen stiffness measurements by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography have been proposed as a new, non-invasive parameter for assessment of portal hypertension. Objectives: To assess value of spleen stiffness measurements by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in predicting the severity of portal hypertension. Materials and Methods: 130 clinically diagnosed cases of portal hypertension were included in the study. Spleen Elastography was performed by ARFI method to calculate the median shear wave velocity of the spleen. Results: In our series of 130 cases, the Spleen stiffness (SS) as measured by ARFI shear wave velocity ranged between 2.54 – 4.1 m/s with mean SSM of 3.14 ± 0.28 m/s. In our study, the Spleen stiffness cut-off value of 3.11 m/sec was considered as the better indicator to rule out the presence of severe portal hypertension with a sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 80% (p<0.05). Conclusion: Increased value of Spleen stiffness measurement by ARFI elastography has shown a strong association with the severity of portal hypertension.

  140. Dr. Nidhi P. Solanki, Dr. Kishan, K.V., Dr. Margi Parikh and Dr. Krushn Savaliya

    Aim: To compare the amount of apically extruded debris during preparation with NeoNiti (Neolix, France), Hyflex EDM (Coltene) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues Switzerland). Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted teeth were randomly assigned to three groups. The root canals were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions using the NeoNiti (Neolix, France), Hyflex EDM (Coltene) and ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). After that the apically extruded debris will be collected in preweighted Eppendorf tubes during instrumentation. The net weight of the apically extruded debris will be determined by subtracting the preweights and postweights of the tubes. The data will be statistically analyzed. Results: The results indicated that all instruments tested caused measurable apical extrusion of debris. There was a statistical significant difference between the amounts of debris extruded by the NeoNiti and the Protaper Next (P 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the amounts of debris extruded by the NeoNiti and Hyflex EDM, and between the Hyflex EDM and ProTaper Next rotary. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all rotary instrument tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The Protaper Next rotary file system extruded a significantly lower amount of debris followed by Hyflex EDM and NeoNiti.

  141. Senthil Kumar, P., Selvakumar, S., Gurkirpal singh, M. and Damotharan T.

    Ameloblastoma is a benign, true neoplasm of odontogenic epithelial origin It is usually asymptomatic and manifest clinically when lesion enlarges in size. It mostly occurs in mandible, maxillary involvement is quite uncommon. We are presenting a case of Cystic Ameloblastoma in a 45 year old female patient.

  142. Yogitha P, Shodan M. and Preetha J. Shetty

    Background: The contribution of print media in providing information and transfer of knowledge is remarkable with the advantage of making a longer impact on the minds of the reader and also has wide coverage in both urban and rural areas targeting a range of age groups. Objectives: To assess the quantity and quality of oral health related information in 4 leading Kannada daily newspapers in the region of Hubli-Dharwad. Materials and Methods: Oral health related content was recovered from these newspapers from April 2017 to September 2017 using 4 leading Kannada newspapers namely Vijaya Karnataka, Samyukta Karnataka, Prajavani and Udayavani. Level score index was used for the overall qualitative analysis of all information. Data were entered into a standard Microsoft Excel 2007 sheet for descriptive analysis. Results: Among 720 newspapers which were studied during the period of study Oral health related information was published 23times (3.1%).Out of which 30.4% was general oral health awareness,21.7% articles were on dental caries, 17.3% on periodontal diseases, 8.6%on malocclusion, 4.3% related to oral cancer. The remaining 17.3% was purely advertisements. In this sample overall qualitative assessment of the collected information using the level score index was 82.5%. Conclusion: Oral health related messages conveyed in regional print media are inadequate, but the quality of information published is accurate. As Mass media being an important source of health information to the general public; it can be better utilized by publishing articles frequently to create awareness on oral health.

  143. Dr. Moses, J., Dr. Mohamed Idris, Dr. Geeta, I.B., Dr. Sachin sha, S. and Dr. Ameen M Muhammed

    Background: Dentists, dental materials, and dental laboratories are exposed to different types of pathogenic microorganisms. Impression materials, impression trays, and poured stone cast have been said to be the main source of cross infection between patients and dentists. The aim of the present study consisted in evaluating the effectiveness of water washing and sodium hypochlorite disinfection in reducing the microbial load of alginate after mouth contact. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study twenty students voluntarily participated. The inclusion criteria were age between 21 and 24 years, and inexistence of systemic and salivary gland pathologies. For each participant, one impression was taken in alginate from the mandibular arch. These samples were submitted to water wash and sodium hypochlorite disinfection and to subsequent microbiological analysis. Statistical analysis included the analysis of variance for multiple comparisons (one-way ANOVA) followed by Student’s t-test. Results: After mouth contact, alginate microbial count increased from 1.72 ± 2.92 to 2.81 × 103 ± 5.36 × 102 CFU/mm2. It was seen that after water wash the microbial count decreased to 48.5% while after sodium hypochlorite disinfection the microbial count decreased to 99.99%. Conclusion: This study revealed that alginate impression can be effectively disinfected by sodium hypochlorite. Tap water rinsing reduces microbial load but does not eliminate the cross-infection potential of alginate impressions.

  144. Zubaida Rasool, Dr. Iqbal Lone, M., Huzaifa Tak, Nazia Bhat, Nuzhat Samoon and Kanika Gupta

    Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a rare subgroup of NETs with unique tumor biology, natural history, and clinical management. They account for about 1-2% PNETs with incidence 1/100,000. There is an increase by 5 times in the detection rate of NET′s in the last two decades, partly due to improved radiological diagnostic techniques. Histopathology provides an important prognostic information about these tumors Objectives: We present here six cases of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms Results: Of these 5 were non functional and 1 was functional (insulinoma).

  145. Dr. Umesh Jirange, Dr. Mohit Relekar and Dr. Mohammad Gulsha

    Aim: Aim of the study is to evaluate the role of Laparoscopy with hysterosalpingography in evaluation of patients with infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective clinical study is conducted Maharashtra Institute of Medical Education and Research (MIMER) medical college from Jan 2013 – Dec 2013. Results: Out of 50 cases of primary infertility, 38 (76%) were primary infertility and 12 (24%) were secondary infertility. The most common age group of primary infertility is 21-25 years and secondary is 26-30 years, With mean duration of 4.6 years for primary and 4.9 years for secondary infertility. Laparoscopic findings of ovary showed 7 cases (58.33%) of PCOD, 3 cases (25%) of simple ovarian cyst and 2 cases (16.67%) of chocolate cyst in primary infertility, while in secondary infertility PCOD was 1 case (33.34%), Simple ovarian cyst 1 case (33.33%) and chocolate cyst 1 case (33.33%). Laparoscopic examination of tubes in primary infertility showed 5 cases (13.15%) with unilateral block and 1 case (2.63%) with bilateral block, while in secondary infertility 2 cases (16.66%) had unilateral block and 2 cases (16.66%) had bilateral tubal block. On peritoneal examination in primary infertility, 7 cases (18.42%) had endometriosis and 2 cases (5.26%) had peritoneal adhesions, while in secondary infertility 1 case (8.33%) had endometriosis and 4 cases (33.33%) had pelvic adhesions. Laparoscopic examination of uterus in primary infertility showed 2 cases (5.26%) of myoma and 2 cases (5.26%) of uterine anomalies, While in secondary infertility 3 cases (25%) had myomas and 1 case (8.53%) had uterine anomaly. Conclusion: Laparoscopy is useful in the diagnosis of pelvic adhesions, endometriosis and external part of tube, fimbriae, Relations of tubes and ovaries. Hysterosalpingography is useful in the evaluation of endometrial and tubal pathology.

  146. Dr. Rajiv, B., Jadhav, Dr. Vijay, N., Dr. Mohit Relekar and Dr. Sharik, M.D.

    Background: Hemorrhoid is a common disease treated by various modalities of treatment and sclerotherapy is one of the hemorrhoidal treatment. Here we are presenting our experience of sclerotherapy in hemorrhoids. Aims: To see the effictiveness of sclerotherapy. Material and methods: This prospective study of 50 cases attending surgery opd in department of surgery at Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mayani, Satara, Maharashtra, India from Jan 13- Sep 2014. Results: Majority of the patients were male with 56% and most of the patients were in age group between the 31 to 40 years i.e. 32%. The most of the patients were garde 1 hemorrhoids i.e. 68% followed by grade 2 i.e. 32%. 72% of the patients were discharged on the day of procedure only. 43% of the patients return to the normal activity with in a week after procedure. Most of the patients has first normal bowel movement i.e. 88%. Following the procedure 82% of the patients had experienced mild pain. Conclusion: It is a safe procedure and more effective with less pain and least complications.

  147. Dr. Bindushree, E. and Dr. Sujatha Kamath Shibrur

    Background: Denture fractures are common, reflecting the fact that both impact strength and flexural strength of the material are barely adequate. Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of aramid and carbon fiber reinforcement in autopolymerizing resin used to repair heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate at 1mm and 3mm thickness respectively. Materials and methods: A total of 180, resin specimens using conventional heat polymerized PMMA resin and measuring (64mm×10mm×3.3mm) were fabricated in a preformed machined mold. A cantilever type bending forces was applied to each specimen till it fractured. The resin was relieved from bonding area to create 1mm and 3mm space. These fragments were realigned and repaired using conventional autopolymerizing resin and reinforced with carbon or aramid fibers. The specimens after repair were tested for impact strength using Izod type impact tester and for flexural strength using Universal testing machine. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results demonstrated that the mean impact strength values was significantly higher in polyaramid fiber reinforced PMMA repair group at 3mm thickness and the mean flexural strength values was significantly higher in polyaramid fiber reinforced PMMA repair group at 1mm thickness. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that fiber reinforcement improved the strength of repair of the fractured heat-polymerized denture base. The strength after repair may be influenced by the gap at the repair region.

  148. Dr. Mallika, Dr. Nidhi Aggarwal, Dr. Preeti Gupta, Dr. Aman Abrol and Dr. Neha Abrol

    Success in endodontic therapy depends on chemo mechanical debridement of the root canal system through the use of instruments and effective irrigant solutions which serve variety of purposes including antibacterial action, tissue dissolution, cleaning and chelating. Smear layer prevents the penetration of intracanal medicaments into dentinal tubules and influences the adaptation of filling materials to canal walls. Therefore the present study will evaluate the effect of different chemical and herbal irrigant solutions on the smear layer removal on root canal dentine. Forty single rooted human premolars were decoronated transversely at the cemento-enamel junction and the crowns were discarded. Roots were equally divided into groups according to the final irrigants used: Group 1: 17% EDTA, Group 2: Qmix, Group 3: Tea tree oil , Group 4: saline 5 % Ten root halves from each group were prepared. After standard preparation and final irrigation with the irrigants coronal, middle and apical thirds of the roots were examined for the smear removal from dentinal tubules using SEM. Data was obtained and the results were analyzed statistically.

  149. Dr. Rubina Hitawala, Dr. Surekha Bhalekar, Dr. Anand Kalia, Dr. Sudhamani S. and Dr. Prakash Roplekar

    Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung is a rare lesion which manifests as neonatal respiratory distress secondary to progressive expansion of the affected lung. Three distinct types have been described based on the size of the cysts and the microscopic appearance. The treatment of choice is excision of the affected lobe. The prognosis is favourable in the absence of pulmonary hypoplasia, foetal hydrops, or associated congenital anomalies.

  150. Khan Ishrat Younas, Ashfaq Hafiz, Samoon Nuzhat, Rather Rashid, Salma gull, Salma Yaseen, Muneera gull, Prableen Kaur and Asima Aijaz

    Introduction: A lymph node is an oval or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, present widely throughout the body. Lymph nodes lie along the course of lymphatic vessels. Most lymphadenopathy is due to a benign self-limited disease such as viral infections, and adenopathy is secondary to an increase in normal lymphocytes and macrophages in response to an antigen. Other less common mechanisms responsible for adenopathy include lymphadenitis, neoplasia or storage diseases. Tubercular lymphadenitis is one of the commonest causes in developing countries. FNAC allows the pathologist to see the cells aspirated from the lesion. In contrast to large bore needle biopsy techniques, FNAC does not allow evaluation of the morphology. In some instances, aspirated cells can be evaluated by flow cytometry or with immunologic markers. Methods: This study was conducted at the Sher-i-kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) Srinagar, Kashmir (India) in the Department of Pathology. The study was a prospective study of 2 years i.e. from June 2016 to May 2018. Cases presenting with lymphadenopathy where FNAC was done and underwent subsequent biopsy were studied. Results: This study included total of 120 patients who presented with lymphadenopathy. Out of 120 patients, there were 76(63.3%) males and 44 (36.7%) females. Male: Female ratio was 1.73:1. For Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma FNAC showed sensitivity of 97.22%, specificity of 96.55%, positive predictive value of 92.11% and accuracy of 89.74%. For Hodgkin's Lymphoma FNAC showed sensitivity of 85.71%, specificity of 98.84%, positive predictive value of 92.31% and accuracy of 97%. For Metastatic tumors, FNAC showed sensitivity of 91.67%, specificity of 98.81%, positive predictive value of 97.06% and accuracy of 96.67%. For Benign Lesions, FNAC showed sensitivity of 93.94%, specificity of 97.73%, positive predictive value of 93.94% and accuracy of 96.69%. Conclusion: FNAC proved to be a safe, accurate, inexpensive and patient friendly in the effort to establish diagnosis in patients with lymphadenopathy.

  151. Dr. Charanpreet Kaur Wadhwa, Dr. Priyanka Aggarwal and Dr. Shweta Bali

    Periodontal regenerative surgery aims at the recovery of lost tissues which further might lead to compromised esthetics, disturbed phonetics, and unpleasant appearance especially where aesthetic zone is the area of interest. Papilla preservation flap (Takei 1985) allows maintenance of intact interdental papilla in contrast to papilla splitting techniques. This case report aims towards assessment of papilla preservation flap in the treatment of a 27 year old female with generalized chronic moderate periodontitis leading to pathological migration in anterior esthetic zone, with 9 months follow-up.

  152. Bhat A Tanveer, Wani Y Nahida, Mir Ishaq and Wani A Hafiz

    Introduction: Impalement injuries are one of the rare presentations in the emergency department and present complex surgical challenges in management. Prompt transfer to tertiary center, pre-operative planning, and multispecialty involvement is crucial in the management of such cases. Case Report: We report a case of 40-year-old male who sustained impalement injury to big toe while digging a well with an iron rod which fell into the well from the ground. After quick assessment of vital parameters and ruling out major organ injury, wound extent was examined. The rod was successfully removed under directvision. The patient recuperated without sequelae. Conclusion: One should not get distracted by the appearance of the impalement injuries. After initial resuscitation, full trauma evaluation should be carried out before attending to local injury. Minimal manipulation, extraction of impaled object in operation theatre under direct vision, wound debridement and administration of antibiotics to prevent wound infection are pearls of the management of impalement injury.

  153. Dr. Rakesh Sharma, Dr. Amar Saharan, Dr. Maninder Singh, Dr. Rahul Mahajan and Dr. Sumeet Singh

    Surgical site infection is the greatest enemy to success of a surgeon eroding his pride and glory which is a dreaded complication and hence resulting in poor outcomes, increased morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, escalation of hospital expenditure and constrained relationship between the patient and the surgeon, placing an immense economic burden on the patient and the healthcare infrastructure. SSI is of multifactorial origin where Bacteria may access the surgical site through both endogenous and exogenous routes which is predominantly exogenous contacting during the initial operative exposure. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause. Implants provide a niche for such organisms where biofilms provide a safe environment for microbial replication. Various modifiable risk factors are there such as DM, Obesity, Malnutrition etc. Imaging not only confirms the diagnosis but also provides details about the extent, severity and any associated complications providing an objective and longitudinal method of monitoring treatment

  154. Ruchi Gupta, Ashvin G John, Midhun Ramachandran, Pudu Tirupati, Sushma Shan, Tony Jose and Arvind Bhateja

    According to West, a glide path is defined as a smooth radicular tunnel from the canal orifice of the canal to the physiologic terminus of the root canal. A glide path is achieved when the file forming it can enter from the orifice and follow the smooth canal walls uninterrupted to the terminus.Cleaning and shaping of the root canal is the single most important phase of endodontic therapy. The main goal of root canal instrumentation is to obtain a continuous tapering funnel flowing with the shape of the original canal from the coronal access to the apex and so the Glidepath is the answer. It is the starting point of radicular preparations. Without it,cleaning and shaping becomes unpredictable or impossible because there is no guide for endodontic mechanics.

  155. Dr. Yogesh Kukreja, Dr. Sai Aditya G., Dr. Nikhil Kumar and Dr. Taniya Roy

    Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease responsible for an estimated 59,000 human deaths and over 3.7 million disability-adjusted life years lost every year. Our country is endemic for the disease and every animal bite is suspected to be by a potentially rabid animal. The rate of rabies related death rate is 100% in unvaccinated patients and bites by dogs and cats must be considered as a “medical emergency” and the “life-saving” post exposure prophylaxis must be provided immediately. In the present case report we present a 2.5 yrs old male child with history of dog bite on face and in spite of being given rabies immunoglobulin and post exposure prophylaxis developed Rabies 15 days after the bite and succumbed to his disease.

  156. Dr. Naveed Anjum Qureshi, Dr. Viney Sambyal and Dr. Sanjay Sharma

    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia in adults has a morbidity and mortality ranging between 10% and 29%. Increasing age is associated with a higher mortality. The factors influencing the outcome in elderly patients are thought to be different from those in young adults. We, therefore, studied the clinical profile and predictors of outcome in adults with community-acquired pneumonias. Methods: 540 patients with community-acquired pneumonia were included in the study over a period of 12 months. A detailed history was obtained and physical examination done. A chest X-ray was done to establish the diagnosis and haematological, biochemical and arterial blood gas estimations were carried out. CECT Chest was done in selected cases. The data of survivors and non-survivors between 65 to 85 yrs were analysed to determine the clinical profile and outcome in these groups. Results: The clinical features, laboratory parameters and complications from pneumonia were analysed. Males were more commonly affected than females (1.5:1).8.5% of elderly patients succumbed tofulminant sepsis followed by pleural effusion (5.9%). Old age, history of smoking, presence of chronic obstructive airways disease, late presentation to hospital, systolic and diastolic hypotension, high blood urea, raised liver enzymes and development of septic shock were associated with a higher incidence of complications and a poorer prognosis. Inaddition, older patients with a poor outcome also had symptoms for a longer duration and a poor neutrophilic response to infection. Conclusion: The presence of certain factors leads to a higher incidence of complications and a poorer prognosis. These factors are good predictors of outcome. Identification and determining the clinical patterns of community acquired pneumonia helps in adoption of regionally optimized diagnostic approach.

  157. Anbu Meena, S., Parimala, D., Ramya, M., Annasamy Rameshkumar, Krithika, C.L. and Kannan A Ashokan

    Amelogenesis imperfect (AI) is an inheritable disease manifest as enamel defect. It affects both primary and permanent dentition. It seldom affects the dentin and pulp.Amelogenesis imperfecta shows wide range of variation starting from mild discolouration to complete abrasion as soon as the teeth erupt into the oral cavity. Enamel may show quantitative as well as qualitative defect in mineral and protein content. In this article we present a special case of amelogenesis imperfecta which shows a rare hypomaturative type with sporadic inheritance and we discuss about its mode of inheritance, types, clinical presentation, histopathological features and management.

  158. Abdalla A. Mohamed, Elhadi Araibi, Altayeb Elazomi, Fawzia Shawesh, Taher M. Abdelhameed, Wayel A. Almrabet and Elfatah M. Elnifro

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a primary cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. It is associated with the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies have shown that patients infected with HCV may show variance in their response to different antiviral therapies, which suggests that more information about HCV is very important to physicians to help them to improve their services to patients. The study aimed to survey the prevalence of HCV in western Libya. Material and Methods: A total of 216 blood samples were collected from patients referred to Zawia reference center laboratory, Surman hospital, and the Center of Blood Bank in Sabratha. Samples were detected as HCV-positive using ELISA test. Results: out of 216 patients ware 121 ware males (56%) and 95 ware females (44%). Their age ranged from 13 to 76 years, and they were distributed into four age groups, (1. 0-20 years, 2. 21-40 years, 3. 41-60 years, and 4. 60-80 years), thirteen of them were in the first group (6%), 86 in the second group (39.8%), 93 in the third group (43.1%), and 24 in fourth group (11.1%). All blood samples were subjected to ELISA test, and all of them were HCV positive. Conclusion: The HCV infections are mainly in the age range of 21 to 60 (about 82.9%), which are more subjected to risk factors since they are at the age of working. Furthermore, people older than 60 years represent only about 11.1%, which suggests that HCV infections were less common earlier. The data also showed that males and females are equally vulnerable to the infection.

  159. Siraveni Thirupathi, Chinnaiyan, P. and Sujeetha Chandrababu

    Coronary artery Disease is widely prevalent across the globe and high level of Cholesterol is the significant and well established single major risk fac¬tor associated with Coronary Heart Disease. Risk factors for coronary heart disease include health behaviour like physical activity, diet, weight and smoking and health factors like cholesterol, glucose control and blood pressure. Numerous international studies have been confirming the association of dyslipidemia with Coronary artery Disease in most of the world, coronary heart disease produce immense health, imposes high social, economic and personal burden in the globally. Studies described the use of cholesterol lowering agent decrease the occurrence of coronary heart disease. The current study aimed to describe and identify the biochemical and non conventional biomarker as risk factor in early prediction of coronary heart disease.

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