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February 2020

  1. Adeeb S. Hattar

    Background: The main objective of this paper is to explore strategies of effective U.S. banks leaders used to identify efficiency changes during a financial crisis. Methods :Data consisted of semi structured interviews. All interpretations of the data were subjected to member checking to ensure trustworthiness of interpretations. Results: Based on the methodological triangulation of the data collected, 3 of the main themes that emerged were excellent management skills and strong decision making, staff education and reduction, and expenditure reduction. Conclusion: The implications for positive social change include the potential to avoid bank failures in the future, resulting in a stronger and more robust economy, thus sparing taxpayers the burden of bailing out failing banks.

  2. Mg. Manaces Gaspar Santos, Phd. Alba Pupo Kairuz, Fabián Viteri Pita and Héctor Narváez Quiñonez

    The financial activity represents the set of elections or economic decisions that materialize in the realization of income and public expenses. It has been observed that public servants in Ecuador transgress the budgetary provisions established in the general budget of the State, so the objective of the investigation is concretized in carrying out a legal analysis on the transgression of the activities contained in the legal provisions of the general budget in Ecuador; The qualitative-quantitative methodology, analysis of statistical data from document review and observation were used within the methodology. Among the most relevant results, the dynamics of total expenses in the economic activity of the Ecuadorian State could be corroborated; that is, oil revenues fluctuate due to the prosperity plan between 2.6% and 2.4% of the national proforma; in the case of tax revenues, a prosperity plan between 14.4% and 13.5% of the national state proforma is required, and non-taxation ranges between 3.6% and 3.3% of the budget proforma. Likewise, those that correspond to transfers are framed in the prosperity plan between 0.3% and 0.5% of the national state proforma.

  3. Dagne Shibru and Alemante Amera

    Much of gender inequalities in society are related to empowerment issues. Measuring women empowerment has become relevant indicators to measure half of the dimension of gender inequalities. The primary aim of this study is to use quantitative data to measure women empowerment to understand trends of gender inequities in the SNNPRS. The study used data collected by governmental and international organizations. The findings indicate that women empowerment in field of politics, social and economy have been substantially rewarding. Nevertheless, the political, educational and labour participations gaps between women and men changed little. The findings also suggest that much remain to be done by development actors at regional, national and international levels to steer the direction of development policies in away to reduce gender inequalities. In this regard, establishing gender disaggregated data at national and sub-notional levels have become crucial to design meaningful development policy and strategy to achieve gender equality as one of the integral parts of sustainable development goals.

  4. Vinodkumar, K.

    The indication of economic development of a nation, Real Estate is having an important role to play. In case the real estate business is in boom that result in the development of economy. Hence it is one of the important and sensitive sector having wider impact in many sectors of the economy, it should be regulated in any economy.

  5. Hiwot Mesele and Mesfin Tebeje

    This study was designed to investigate the challenges and opportunities of women in self-employed jobs. A qualitative, descriptive study was employed by randomly selecting 97 women and three key informants from the three kifle-ketemas of Sodo Town. A survey questionnaire and checklists were used for sample respondents and focus group discussions, respectively. To analyze the quantitative data that was gathered through a questionnaire, descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency and percentages were used. The qualitative data was analyzed through case analysis and content analysis. The results indicate that the great number of respondents had middle age; demographic and socio-economic characteristics limit women’s economy in self-employed jobs and women begin their job for various reasons. Challenges, such as socio-cultural constraints, lack of enough capital for the job, shortage of working place, regular increment of rental house, lack of market information and market access, lack of saving habit, problem of benefit or wage, lack of business skill and lack of entrepreneurship training are the major challenges that affect self-employed women’s job Therefore the conerned bodies should give attention to solve the challenges that affect women's participation in self-employed jobs in the area.

  6. Annie A. Parmis, Jenissa L. Jovita and Jessa A. Dalagan

    This research was a study on Filipino students enrolled in German Language for approximately three (3) months within a semester with regard to their translation skills (German-English), views on code switching, and their English speaking proficiency. Descriptive research method was used in which the first set of respondents composed of 76 students were given a Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS) and a Translation Skills (TS) tests before and after watching two German-subtitled English music videos. Results showed that respondents’ scores had improved after watching the subtitled music videos. This implies that watching music videos has a positive influence in the translation skills of the respondents, and that considering videos with subtitles in a foreign language course can help students facilitate their learning process. The outcomes of the study offer a valuable means of establishing and developing a teaching tool strategy in foreign language teaching. The second set of respondents composed of forty (40) students selected at random from the first set of respondents (76) were given a survey questionnaire on code switching and a speaking proficiency test in English. Results showed that 72.5% of the respondents have “very high” level of code switching, 25% “high” and only 2.5% “moderate”. Furthermore, in the speaking proficiency test result, 45% of the respondents scored “satisfactory”, 40% “need improvement”, and 7.5% scored “good”, and another 7.5% scored “excellent”. However, results indicated that there is no significant relationship between the respondents’ views on code switching and their English speaking proficiency. This implies that respondents have a tendency to speak in straight English if they are required especially when taking an English speaking proficiency test. They would just code switch for better understanding, and not necessarily because they do not know how to speak without switching codes. It can be further concluded that they know how to speak a certain language without any language shifts.

  7. Abada, Michael Ifeanyichukwu, Omeh, Paul Hezekiah, Odo, Marcel Tochukwu and Abada, Chika F.

    The imperative to revisit the effects of public debt management strategy in Nigeria is necessitated by the fact that the country is currently under severe revenue pressure arising from her volatile macroeconomic environment and uncertain global economic outlook. This is due to the structural subsidence of the international price of crude oil. Debt sustainability has for decades been a topical issue in Nigeria because of the recurring and divergent issue on the debt problem and the resultant challenges and contradictions on Nigeria's development. This is despite the assurances given by the Debt Management Office on the sustainability of these debts. The study, therefore, set out to examine whether the debt refinancing strategy adopted by Debt Management Office has a positive impact on employment generation in Nigeria and ascertain whether the regulation of sub national government borrowings facilitates the development of infrastructure in Nigeria. The study utilizes Rational Choice Theory while adopting qualitative content analysis with data majorly driven from secondary sources. The study finds out that the debt restructuring strategy has temporal respite due to the inability of the capital loan projects to regenerate revenues for its repayment as it is either misappropriated or mismanaged of which the consequences are debt accumulation. Thus, the study, therefore, recommends for viable ways of generating internal revenues and a legal framework for adequate monitoring of sub national governments.

  8. Mr. Sidney Kawimbe

    With the flagship success of m‐Pesa in East Africa financial services via mobile devices has become an important tool to facilitate the financial inclusion of the previously unbanked population in Zambia particularly. Attempts to provide a landscape of academic research findings at the intersection of mobile financial services, financial inclusion, and development have been rather scant. To determine the key issues and gaps in the current academic research, this study conducts a systematic review of 21 academic research papers and 4 government and non-government documents vis‐à‐vis the nexus of mobile financial services, financial inclusion, and development. The results show that the extant literature addresses three major clusters of topics: delivery, environmental factors, and the impact of mobile financial services. Still in the nascent stage of research, the topics covered in the literature indicate a bias towards institutional and individual preconditions for the implementation of mobile financial services, rather than actual supply and demand by users, and its impact on society. The choice of research method also shows limited variety and depth. This study contributes towards understanding the existing research on mobile financial services for financial inclusion in Zambia and findings will help succor the research gaps for future study.

  9. Meena B.S., Kritika Tulani, Nupur Hooja, Alka Batar, Surabhi Arora, Smriti Bhargava Kisnaram and Neha Singh

    Background: Prenatal care needs to be focussed to reduce the adverse effects in pregnancy and improve the outcome. Prepregnancy obesity might be a risk factor for hypertensive disorder of pregnancy which causes fetal and maternal morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the relationship of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with the occurrence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). Method: The descriptive type of observational study was done at a tertiary care centre . Women were included in the study at their first visit before six weeks. The prepregnancy weight was used to calculate the BMI. Blood pressure measurements, routine examination and investigations were done at every visit. 45 women who developed HDP were considered as cases. Equal number of normotensive women were taken as controls. Data collected was analysed. Results: Out of 45 cases 57.7% were overweight, 31.1% were normal weight, 11.1% were underweight whereas of 45 controls, 20% were overweight, 55.55% were normal weight and 24.44% were underweight. The associations were statistically highly significant Conclusion: Since maternal obesity is a risk factor for it, prepregnancy reduction in weight would significantly help in reducing the risk of developing hypertension in pregnancy.

  10. Meena B.S., Surabhi Arora, Nupur Hooja, Alka Batar , Kritika Tulani , Smriti Bhargava Kisnaram and Neha Singh

    Background: Severe maternal anaemia is associated with negative impact on the iron indices of the newborn besides complications like growth retardation or fetal distress. Objectives: To correlate the degree of maternal anaemia with iron indices of the newborn. Method:The descriptive type of observational study was done at a tertiary care centre . Anaemic and non anaemic pregnant women admitted in labor room after 24 weeks gestation for delivery were selected. Delivery was conducted and cord blood sample of the neonate was taken for iron indices study. Results: Mean haemoglobin was 17.8 gm% in neonates of non-anaemic mothers whereas it was 14.1 gm% in neonates of severely anaemic mother’s. Neonatal serum total iron and ferritin levels decreased and total iron binding capacity increased with increasing severity of maternal anaemia. The associations were statistically highlysignificant (p value-0.05). Conclusion: Newborns of anaemic mothers also should also be screened for anaemia and timely interventions taken so as to decrease under five mortality and morbidity.

  11. Abhaya S. Mahadik, Arijit Kumar Das and Abhijit D. Diwate

    Background: Open heart surgery patients usually develop pulmonary complications such as atelectasis, pneumoniain early postoperative period. Literature reported that to prevent or reduce these complications we can use Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) therapy techniques with Conventional Physiotherapy Treatment (CPT). Methods: The study design was Randomized Pilot Study. 20 patients included (n=20), 10 patients in each group, Control and Interventional group. Control Group received CPT while Interventional Group received CPT with Blow Bottle PEP (BBPEP) on Post-operative Day (POD) 1 and 2, twice a day and oxygen saturation noted pre and post treatment. Unpaired-t test was used. Result: The therapist made cost-effective and easily BBPEP therapy showed a short-term improvement in oxygen saturation with significant p-value 0.03. Conclusion: BBPEP device is effective in improving oxygenation in early POD i.e. on 1st and 2nd after open-heart surgery.

  12. Susheel Kumar and Pant, B.R.

    India is a developing country in the world, where industrialization and urbanization is growing at a very fast pace but there is a downside to increase the number of slums in urban areas. An urban residential area with large number of populations containing high number of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons is called slums. There are several different reasons for formation and growth of slums in different parts of Indian city. Rapid rural-to-urban migration, economic stagnation and depression, large number of unemployment, severe poverty, imbalance economy, forced or manipulated ghettoization, poor planning, politics, natural disasters and social conflicts are the main causes for development of slums. It works as a barrier to the urban economy, where environmental and cultural pollution is increasing from one of the other unplanned slums, on the other hand, by increasing its crime, urban poverty, ill-health, illiteracy and low living standard, in this condition their continuous development is not possible. It has profound effects on sustainable development of the cities. The positive effect of the slums is very partial, whereas the negative impact is very huge A total of 65.49 million slum inhabitants live in 13.92 million household in India are affecting to urban sustainable development. In the present investigation, data was collected from 20 slum houses of Mohalla Janakpuri after analyzing the data it was found that 90% of houses were earning less than 5000 rupees per month and a big part of employees were unskilled workers. Out of the total samples the percentage living below the poverty line was 25% and only 32% population was literate. During the study it was found that 5 children were working as child Labor. At local scales of Muzaffarnagar city the social and physical aspects were analyses and a more holistic analysis of the problem was done in this paper, which can potentially lead to a deeper understanding and consequently better approaches for tackling the challenge of slums. This research paper is a partial effort to analyze the impact of slums on quality of life and economic growth of the city.

  13. Mr. Ernest Xavier Selvakumar, A., Ms. Kalaiselvi, Mr. Karthikeyan, Mr. Prabakaran R., Mr. Sheik Abdulla, A., Ms. Sneha, Ms. Thenmozhi P., Ms. Thulasiammal P., Mrs. Angelin Mary sheela, S. and Mr. Vadivazhagan Rathinam

    An observational study was conducted to assess the compliance to the use of surgical safety checklist in elective surgeries at JIPMER, Puducherry. Background: Surgical service is one of the fundamental health care services given in the health care system. Over 234 million operations performed annually worldwide and this yearly volume now exceeds that of childbirth. The surgical complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and pose a major financial burden to the patients and healthcare provider. A strong safety culture that enhances patient safety initiatives has been reiterated in the healthcare system and safety of surgical care is a global concern. As a part of different effort modalities world health organization lunched “safe surgery saves lives campaign”. Around 1800 institutions are now reported to be using the checklist worldwide. The potential for surgical safety checklists to improve safety and outcomes and generate substantial cost swings has attracted global interest. The compliance to surgical safety checklist has many positive effects towards attaining a quality patient care. The effectiveness includes a protective patient environment, reduction in mortality and morbidity, a well co-ordinated teamwork and communication among the health care professionals. Aim: The present study aims to assess the compliance to the use of surgical safety checklist in elective surgeries. Method: The Descriptive Observational design was used in the study with 384 samples of elective surgeries through Convenient Sampling technique. The data was collected in all the Operation Theatres except emergency OT’s for a period of 3 months with help of standardized surgical safety checklist. Results: From the observation about 22.39% of elective surgeries had excellent usage status of surgical safety checklist, 53.9% had very good compliance, 10.41% had fair compliance and 13.28% had poor compliance on usage of surgical safety checklist. There is a significant association between usage status of surgical safety checklist and type of surgery (p<0.05). From the comparison of overall score of the checklist in relation to type of surgeries, major surgery has greater compliance (with mean score 20.96+2.76) than the minor surgeries (with mean score 19.17+3.00) in usage of surgical safety checklist. The total score of different items in time out (item 6-15) and sign out (item 16-25) were statistically significant (<0.05). In relation to the major surgeries, time out phase 193(8.6+3.95) and sign out phase 193(8.4+ 1.6) were observed analytically. There was highly significant difference between sign in items (1-5) with regard to major surgeries 193(3.95+1.7) and minor surgeries 191(4.12+1.5). Conclusion: The study revealed that the level of usage of the surgical safety checklist for elective surgeries was very good. Majority of elective surgeries had very good compliance; a few of elective surgeries had fair and excellent compliance to surgical safety checklist. There was the significant association between the usage status with the type of surgery. The usage of surgical safety checklist shows Time out and Sign out phase had significantly associated and were followed mostly in major surgeries.

  14. Girish Nandan, Neelam Gupta, Anchal Bhola, Jasbir Singh, Neetu and Mehak

    Molluscum contagiosum occurs worldwide. It is seen most commonly in children, but it may be found in persons of allages. It consists of a variable number of small, discrete, waxy, skin-colored, domeshaped papules, usually 2 to 5 mm in size. A 19 year old male patient presented to the ENT OPD with complaint of small nodule in the mucocutaneous junction of nasal septum for 6 month. Histopathology of excised nodule revealed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, elongation of rete ridges, ulcer formation and follicular plugging. Stratum corneum and stratum malpighian shows presence of eosinophilic intracellular molluscum bodies.

  15. Usman, M., Natala, A.J., Jatau, I.D., Ogo, N.I., Balogun, E.O., Alayande M.O. and Mahmuda, A.

    Dogs have been identified as the main reservoirs of Leishmania in many parts of the world and play a very important role in the maintenance of the parasite and its transmission to humans and other susceptible hosts. This study was conducted with objective of determining the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis in three selected Local Government Areas (Wamakko, Sokoto South and Kware) of Sokoto state, Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 316 dogs and the separated sera were tested for Leishmania spp IgG antibodies using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Total number of seropositive dogs was 11 showing overall seroprevalence of 3.5 % all from the adult dogs. Based on sex, female seropositive dogs account for 3.8% as against males (3.0%). Hunting dogs recorded higher seroprevalence (3.9%) compared to companion dogs (1.7%). There was no significant association between age, sex, use of dogs and seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis (P > 0.05). Highest seroprevalence was recorded in Wamakko L.G.A (5.9%), followed by Sokoto South L.G.A (2.7%) and the lowest was recorded in Kware L.G.A (2.6%). There was statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between seroprevanlence of canine leishmaniasis and dog location in the three L.G.A. From this study, we have been able to show evidence of the presence of canine leishmaniasis in parts of Sokoto State, Nigeria. This poses serious possibility of increased risk of the disease transmission to both human and animal population in the study area.

  16. Aceituno Alexandra, M., Vogt Esteban A., Lazo Ana M. and Collado Antonio, R.

    There are several microorganisms that can cause lung lesions in patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii or Staphylococcus aureus, among others. Rhodococcusequi is an emergent microorganism associated to opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals, especially in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). There is not an established regimen to treat this microorganism, neither the duration of it. This report describes a case of Rhodococcusequi lung infection in a HIV patient.

  17. Vladlena Vladimirovna Garmaeva, Dr. Maria Vasilievna Kushnareva, Nina Vasilievna Kleymenova and Dr. Galina Mikhaylovna Dementyeva

    We examined 48 premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 20 healthy premature newborns. We determined the level of lactate and pyruvate in blood serum, as well as the activity of the Krebs cycle enzymes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (α-GPhDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a quantitative cytochemical method by reaction with nitrofiolet tetrazolium. The development of RDS in premature newborns was accompanied by severe lactatacidosis on the background of hypoxemia and violations of bioenergetic processes at the cell level. These disorders were characterized by dissociation of the activity of peripheral blood lymphocyte dehydrogenases involved in the energy-forming process. There was a decrease in SDH and LDH activity with an increase in α-GPhDH activity in most newborns. To normalize the processes of bioenergy in infants with RDS, it is advisable to develop methods of pharmacological correction.

  18. Subash Palanisamy and Dr. Ramamoorthy Veyilmuthu

    Background and Purpose: Electrical stimulation has been used in clinical practice to accelerate wound healing for which positive results have been reported in clinical studies. The Purpose of the case report is to document the clinical effects of application of microcurrent stimulation in healing of pressure ulcer in a chronic bedridden patient. Case Description: The Patient was a 53 year old male who was diagnosed to have Cerebro vascular accident with Intraventricular hemorrhage and subsequent hydrocephalus underwent external ventricular drainage and Ventriculo peritoneal shunting before one year. Current evaluation demonstrated primary impairments of muscle weakness in right upper and lower limbs associated with activity limitation of bed mobility and ambulation. The patient also had secondary impairments of grade IV pressure ulcer in the sacral region. A plan of care was developed to focus on the management of primary and secondary impairments along with application of microcurrent electrical stimulation for management of pressure ulcer. Outcomes: The patient had benefits with significant reduction in the surface area of the pressure ulcer following 8 weeks of microcurrent stimulation. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) showed a significant change from a score of 15 at week one, to a score of 6 at the end of 8 weeks. Discussion: Pressure ulcers are one of the most common issues in the elderly and immobile individuals, which constitute a major psychological and physiological burden with reduced quality of life. Among the treatment options, this research report focuses on the beneficial effects of Microcurrent electrical stimulation, based on its results in pain control, edema control and wound healing.

  19. Dr. Madhurima, E., Dr. Srinivasa Rao, C.H., Dr. Suneetha, N., Dr. Satyanarayana, O. and Dr. Rajaram, G.

    Introduction: Peripheral intravenous catheter associated blood stream infections are a cause of nosocomial infections which can lead to substantial patient morbidity and increased health care costs. I took this study because more studies are only on central venous associated blood stream infections and PVC-BSI is submerged. Aim: To determine colonizing bacteria on peripheral intravenous catheter & their associated blood stream infections and to determine their antibiotic susceptibilities. Methods: Fifty patients from different medical intensive care units and post operative patients in maternity ward were included in study, conducted in department of microbiology, SVMC, tirupati. Five cms of peripheral venous tip should be cut aseptically placed in sterile container and 10ml of blood from another vein inoculated to BHI broth after 48 hrs of catheter insertion and processed according to conventional microbiological techniques Results: out of fifty patients fourteen showed positive tip culture and of which four showed positive blood cultures. Most common organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Enterococci. Most of them Multi drug resistant pathogens. Conclusion: Even though peripheral venous associated blood stream infections shows low incidence, it is remarkable in terms of patient morbidity and their safety. From the point of view of quality of care we recommend that hospitals emphasize increasing improvement initiatives with in a wider total quality process that includes adequacy of venous access, optimal insertion care maintenance & management of intravenous therapy.

  20. Dr. Khairi Awad Hamad AL-Khaffaji, Dr. Eman Noari AL-Ani and Dr. Heba Zaid Mohammad

    Objective: to analyze patients with renal failure and show the most encounter Complication in patients in our locality. Design: prospective study in US evaluation of patients with renal failure. Setting: the study was conducted in the radiological unit, Ibn Senate aching hospital, over the period from October 2005 – October 2006 Methods': all patients were examined by US (3.5 MHZ probe). Main result: A- 34 case (56.7%) male and 26 case (43.3%) female. B- 1case (1.7%) is due obtrusive causes and 59 cases (98.3%) are duetonon -obtrusive causes C- 5 case (8.3%) are acute renal failure and 55case (91.7%) are chronic renal failure. Conclusion: US is of great value in the diagnosis of renal failure and insufficiency and provide Complete information no need for preparing patients therefore it is considered an optional method in diagnosis of renal insufficiency and failure.

  21. Dr. Pratiksha Premdas Sahare, Dr. Gangadhar S. A, Dr. Abhijit Deshpande and Dr. Kapil Pal

    Severely resorbed ridges, narrowing of arches and increased interarch distance engender difficulties for prosthodontics. The severely resorbed maxillary and mandibular edentulous arches that are narrow and constricted with increased interarch space provide decreased support, retention and stability. Increased inter‑ridge distance often creates a clinical problem due to heavy‑weighted maxillary prosthesis and solution for the same is hollow maxillary denture. To fabricate a hollow denture many materials are used ranging from sugar, salt, catheter and putty. The main disadvantage of all these techniques is that the opening has to be sealed with self-cure material which will be a potential site for microleakage and the junction between the auto polymerized and heat polymerized portions of the denture cause increases risk of seepage of fluid into the denture cavity. In this article a unique technique is used to fabricate a one-piece hollow maxillary denture which will abolish the main disadvantage of microleakage.

  22. Maryam Mouamin, Ghita Badou, Hicham Yahyaoui, Imane Benjelloun, Mohamed Raissi, Mustapha Ait Ameur and Mohamed Chakour

    The solitary plasmocytoma is a rare entity corresponding to a proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells, isolated or accompanied by multiple myeloma, bone or extra-bone seat. The multiple localization of plasmocytomas is even rarer. It represents less than 5% of all plasma cell neoplasias. The diagnosis is based on the discovery of a localized tumor, made up of monoclonal plasma cells cytologically identical to those of multiple myeloma. We report the case of a patient, 63 years old, with no particular pathological history, followed for two swellings of sternal and frontal localization evolving for 4 months and whose anatomopathological study concludes with a plasmocytoma. Biochemical exploration found hypercalcemia associated with a monoclonal peak at protein electrophoresis. The patient was referred to us for a spinal cord invasion. The study of the morphology on a spinal smear revealed the presence of a plasma cell level not exceeding 5% but which were all dystrophic in particular by the presence of a flamed cytoplasm and intra-cytoplasmic vacuoles hence the interest a second sample. The biology laboratory plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and monitoring for possible myeloma transformation. The prognosis is generally favorable but remains conditioned by the risk of progression to multiple myeloma.

  23. Parnaz Shams

    This significant industry is vulnerable to extreme climate occurrences owing to majority of its action being complete by substantial work done by individuals. Although a number of researches have been done over the influences of extreme weather happenings, for example, flooding, rain and high temperature controlled study has been directed on the influences of rainfall and hot climate environments. The rainfall offers a fairly various danger outline to construction, unlike extreme climate actions, for instance, hot weather and flooding that state physical difficulties to work over the place. However, both hot weather and rainfall have destroyed the construction business. Besides, construction conditions have been made owing to opposing climate states. Along with hot weather and rainfall which are being estimated to happen more commonly in the upcoming years, this industry may hurt far from any other trade throughout the phase. This makes the requirement to examine approaches that would let construction accomplishments to advance in the course of rainfall and hot weather state stages with lowest influence on construction plans. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the climate change and the influence it brings on construction plan in the Iran. The data collection approach was arranged survey and the objective population includes customers and four groups of specialists who were engineers, quantity assessors, builders, and architects.

  24. Kiruthika, V. and Dr. Sumathy, V.

    The Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) communication paradigm in 5G networks provides an effective infrastructure to enable different smart city applications like public safety applications. In future smart cities, dense deployment of wireless networks like Wi-Fi, WSN and MANET etc., can be integrated with 5G networks using CRN communication. CRN communication enables direct communication between nearby User Equipment using cellular or ad-hoc links, thereby improving the spectrum utilization, system throughput, and energy efficiency of the network. In this paper, we propose a Software Defined Cognitive Radio Network (SD-CRN) architecture where a centralized Software Defined Network (SDN) controller with cognitive ability communicates with the Cloud Head (CH) using in-band technology and the Cloud Head communicates with the User Equipment using Out-of-band technology. This architecture works in case of infrastructure damage and also helps to maintain communication between victims and first responders by forming mobile clouds with active devices having higher signal strength. Next, we propose Dynamic Hand Over Algorithm with Interference Cancellation (DHAIC) for providing adaptive handoff whenever link failure occurs. In addition, interference cancellation is further performed by this algorithm between each CRN group to cancel the interference caused by the devices during emergencies.

  25. Ritesh Yadav and Purushottam Bhawre

    The ionospheric Slab thickness is a very important parameter for the study of the neutral temperature and electron density profile; it can be related directly to the scale height of the ionizable constituents. The variability of ionospheric slab thickness at high latitudes during the high solar activity period 2005, we have selected a high latitude station Casey (66.30 S, 110.60 E) in the southern polar region. The results show that the diurnal variability of slab thickness shows that the night time values are higher than the day time values. A significant difference is observed between the day time and night time values during equinoxial months. The diurnal variability at Casey during the high solar activity period is also characterized by a pre sunrise peak in some months which does not occur around the same time as well as is not pronounced during the other months of year. The monthly variability of slab thickness at high latitude follows the semi-annual type of variability with two peaks during the month of March and September. The value of slab thickness is highest during the equinox while least in the summer season. We also notice that the night time values of slab thickness are higher than the day time during all the seasons. The pre sunrise peak is much pronounced during the summer and equinox seasons. The monthly variability of slab thickness follows a very good association with X-ray flux (1-8Å) and EUV flux (26-34nm) and very weak association with the F10.7cm. The correlation coefficients of slab thickness with F 10.7 cm, X-ray Flux (1-8Å) and EUV Flux (26-34nm) are 0.28, 0.58 and 0.60 respectively.

  26. Rohan Bhagat and Dr. Sushilkumar Chaudhari

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the Earth's crust and trace amounts are always present in biological materials. They are defined more specifically as electropositive elements having a density greater than five. Through consumption of vegetable crops, dietary exposure to several heavy metals including Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg), Zinc(Zn) and Copper (Cu), has been recognized as a risk to human health. The study was carried out to understand the source and magnitude of heavy metal contamination in soil and various kinds of vegetables like potato, red amaranth us, spinach, carrot, cabbage, tomato and brinjal at Thane, Maharashtra where these vegetables are grown. The concentration of Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in the study area soil are higher than that of standard level. The Lead (Pb) in vegetables was found to be higher than the permissible limits of different International standards. Except lead, it is concluded that nearly all the samples did not exceed the Intentional Food Standards maximum level (ML). If contaminated soil and vegetables contribute to a progressive gathering of these metals in food chain there might possible to deep alternations of ecosystem with possible noxious effect on human health. Our study highlights that vegetables growing soil containing higher amount of metals that could be transferred into edible parts of the plant, so study area should be monitored regularly to avoid health risk of human being due to exposure of toxic level.

  27. Dr. Athanatius Ifeanyi IBEH (Ph.D)

    The study focused on the evaluation of the implementation of senior secondary schools mathematics curriculum in Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi State. Four research questions are posed to guide the study, and three null hypotheses are formulated and tested at 95% confidential level. Evaluation research design was adopted in the study. The design was chosen because of the evaluative nature of the study. The population is made up of all the teachers teaching mathematics and SSS students in all the public secondary schools in Abakaliki Education zone totally 119 schools, 142 teachers and 43,323 students respectively. The sample size is made up of 74 mathematics teachers and 600 students using purposive sampling Technique. Two instruments were adopted for the study - proforma and observational checklist. The proforma helped the researcher to collect data of the qualification of the sampled mathematics teachers and also yield data that was used to answer the research question one and for testing null hypothesis one. Observational checklist for collecting data of content coverage of mathematics curriculum, availability of mathematics instructional materials and extent of the utilization of the recommended assessment practices. Proportions, mean and standard deviations were used to answer the research questions while z-test and chi-square statistics were used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 significant levels. The findings of the study shows that for the proportion of qualified mathematics teachers, out of the 74 mathematics teachers only 46 of them which is the proportion of 0.62 or percentage of 62% is qualified. The mathematics curriculum content coverage is fairly covered with mean coverage of 2.41. It is significantly below an average since the expected bench mark of 2.50 as recommended in Ho2. Result also shows that out of 25 listed mathematics instructional materials only one is sufficiently available while 8 are insufficiently available and 16 is not available. This situation certainly does not enhance effective teaching and learning. Based on the findings of the study the following recommendations were made; Government should ensure that more qualified mathematics teachers are employed. Vice principals academics and principals should ensure that mathematics teachers sufficiently cover the mathematics curriculum content. Government should ensure that adequate mathematics instructional materials are provided apart from chalk, chalkboard and textbooks.

  28. María Fernanda Acuña Ávila and Daniel Antonio Muñoz González

    Early stimulation is a set of means, techniques and activities that are used in children from birth to six years of age and in order to develop the ability to interact with their environment as well as promote health and individual well-being. Thus, the objective of the following communication is to inform the findings of implementing recreational activities as a strategy to improve sphincter control in early education students of a kindergarten in the city of San Francisco de Campeche. To do this, we will proceed to observe the characteristics of the children of the school, investigate gross motor skills, playful activities will be selected, applied to achieve sphincter control and finally the expected advances will be evaluated. It is concluded that the stimulation is of great relevance and that a significant improvement in the control of sphincters can be determined and with it, the decrease in the use of diapers during the mornings.

  29. McWinner Yawman

    The aim of this study of to review the relationship between Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction as reported by different authors within the last 10 years. Seven different relationships are reviewed in this study. It begins by describing Organizational Climate and Employee Commitment, then continues with Organizational Design and Employee Commitment, Leadership Communication and Employee Commitment, Teamwork, Culture and Employee Commitment, Motivation and Job Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance, and finally Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction. The author concludes that within the past 10 years, researchers agree that a positive organizational Climate tend to lead to higher commitment from employees and vice versa.

  30. Er. Gagandeep Kaur and Er. Parvinder Kaur

    With the growth of computer vision, digital image processing is necessary to provide a clear image to the user. In existing technique only improve detect the main components of an images of FERET data sets of different versions but In proposed research we are try to improve the detection of main components of an image and recognize it and also try to improve the accuracy and transparency of the various images of different versions.

  31. Nagaraj, A., Ramesh Naik, P., Raghuveer, S. and Amala, G.

    A series of new thiazolidinones with barbituric acid scaffolds 5(a-j) were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, B. sphaericus, S. aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes, C. violaceum) and also antifungal activity against C. albicans, A. fumigatus, T. rubrum and T. metagrophytes. The antibacterial activity of compounds containing 4-hydroxyphenyl (5c), 2,6-difluorophenyl (5g) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- phenyl (5i) groups on thizolidionone ring showed considerable activity against tested bacterial strains. Compound, contain 4-chlorophenyl group (5c) and 4-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl (5h) showed better activity against Gram-positive (except B. Subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (except C. Violaceum). Similarly, compounds containing 4-methylphenyl (5b), 3-nitrophenyl (5f) and pipernyl (5j) were active against B. sphaericus, and S. Aureus, respectively. The antifungal evaluation of 5(a-j) indicates that the compounds 5e and 5i which contain 4-hydroxyphenyl and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl respectively showed considerable activity against all the fungal strains.

  32. Dastagiri, M.B. and Naga Sindhuja P.V.

    New technologies and scientific knowledge are allowed scientists to explore nature in many ways which made new discoveries and inventions. Inventions and discoveries by Academics, Researchers, Professors, Doctors, Intellectuals, Specialists, Sages, Dons contributed to the development of universe and mankind. Nomadic man able to plan colonize mars and moon and trying to find God. The study is based on the frame work of explorative and meta-analysis of great eminent personalities who contributed to the Universe. The study found that world revolutionizing discoveries are the result of a creative minds and inventions. The study found that different aspects such as faithfulness about god, man, mind, mortality, immortality, laws, fraternity, equality, freedom of speech, socialism, beauty of nature, thinking perceptive, hypnotism, discovering of species, finding of atmospheric gases, experiments, world history, ruling of countries, power, free trade, inflation, interest rate, exchange rates, business cycle and creation of formulae were justified by eminent scholars in different points of view. The study concludes that great inventions in different fields have come from various countries across the world. The eminent personalities view helped in expanding the universe by changing our world by their ideologies and creations. Integration of various scientific disciplines should be mandatory to understand and predict the future of the universe. There may be a chance to misuse the technology for commercial purpose personally or to show the power of the country. Hence government and people should be alert for any uncertain situations which arise from technology.

  33. KOUASSI Kouamé Séraphin, KOUAME Bosson Antoine, MAMYRBEKOVA-BEKRO Janat Akhanovna and BEKRO Yves-Alain

    This reseach was conducted to contribute to the values of medicinal and aromatic plants of Cote d’Ivoire. As such, we carried out the phytochemical composition of essential oil from Enantia polycarpa and Clerodendrum polycephalum baker by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), estimate the antioxidant activity per spectrophotometer and finally achieve some antimicrobial tests upon reference strain of the Swiss center in Cote d’Ivoire. Thus, we identified 96.61% of the total composition of essential oil from Enantia polycarpa leaves which is mainly made up of oxygenated compounds (45.45%) followed by sesquiterpenes (42.42%) and monoterpenes (12.12%). The main compounds are β-Elemene (27.14%), γ-Elemene (23.46%) and α-Pinene (6.43%). Concerning essential oil from Clerodendrum polycephalum leaves, 95.84% of the compostion was identified. It is mainly composed of sesquiterpenes (69.04%) followed by oxygenated compounds (23.80%) and monoterpenes (7.14%). The main compounds are Caryphyllene (30.27%) and Germacrene D (23.96%). The IC50 of essential oil from Enantia policarpa and that of Clerodendrum polycephalum are respectively 0.27 (±0.05) mg/mL and 0.73 (± 0.2) mg/mL. The vitamin C taken as a reference has an IC50 of 0.06 (±0.003) mg/mL. Moreover, the antimicrobial tests have revealed that the essential oil of Clerodendrum polycephalum leaves has got no effect upon the tested strains. The essential oil from Enantia polycarpa has got no effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida tropicalis but has got an inhibitory activity on Bacillus subtulis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimirium, Klebsielle blse, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

  34. Muneeb Tawheed

    Purpose Objective: The study aims to examine the mediating effects of product returns on the relationship between green capabilities and closed-loop supply chain adoption. Methodology: The collected data included 203 responses. Purposive sampling technique was used. This study targets the supply chain professionals of Karachi, Pakistan. Findings: The results showed that integration capability has significantly positive impact on adoption of CLSC activities (and product returns. In the similar context, recovery capability has significantly positive impact on adoption of CLSC activities and product returns whereby, product returns significantly and positively related to adoption of CLSC. However, manufacturing capability has significantly positive impact on adoption of CLSC activities and manufacturing capability has negatively insignificant impact on product returns. Implications: The findings of this research show that the volume of product return does not have mediating effects on the association between the capability of manufacturing and the adoption of CLSC. This shows that the capability of manufacturing has direct impact on the adoption of CLSC. Manufacturers do not have any incentives to make investment in the capabilities of manufacturing to manage the returns of products that can motivate to adopt CLSC. There is a need for firms too to develop associations with the institutions, NGO and also with their market competitors in order to manage the lifecycles of their products in a CLSC.

  35. Surya Shekhar Das

    Traditionally, mangrove plants have been used medicinally in diverse cases like to treat infections, relief pain and purify blood and as antioxidant. Avicennia officinalis is a folk medicinal plant used mainly against rheumatism, paralysis, asthma, snake-bites, skin disease, hepatitis, leprosy and ulcer. Phytochemical constituents from Avicennia officinalis leaf extracts were determined qualitatively. Crude extracts of the plants under study were screened for the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, diterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, saponins, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. Avicennia officinalis was tested for bioactivity against seven bacteria.

  36. Geze Gensa and Mesfin Tebeje

    Low land productivity due to land degradation in the form of soil erosion is one of the leading challenges in improving the performance of smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia. This study attempted to assess the factors affecting the adoption of sustainable land management practices and to evaluate the effect of sustainable land management practices on household income in the study area. Primary data were collected through interview schedule and checklists were used for focus group discussions and key informants interviews. 122 respondents were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, binary logit model and independent T-test were used to analyze the data. The model output revealed that family size, farm size, household income, age of the household head, land topography and access to market have a significant positive effect on the adoption of sustainable land management practices (SLMP). The computed independent T-test for the mean income difference was statistically significant between adopters and non-adopters; suggesting that adopters were in a better-off position to improve their livelihood. Therefore, policymakers should give attention to factors that significantly influence the adoption of sustainable land management practices in the area.

  37. Reji R.K, Uma Devi, Sudha Shukla, Ananya Dixit, Akanksha Pandey and Abhirami S.

    Background: India leads the world with largest number of earning the dubious distinction of being termed the “Diabetes capital of the world”. A pre experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching program on knowledge regarding selected self care practices among the Diabetic patients of a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow. Methodology: The subjects consisted of 30 patients suffering from DM type 2. Non probability purposive sampling using structured questionnaire was administered to the subjects to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching program. A structured health teaching program was conducted by using appropriate audio visual aids. The tool consisted of three parts, section A with socio demographic data, age gender, qualification, trade occupation, duration of illness. Section B about the knowledge regarding DM type 2 and section C on knowledge regarding selected health care practices. Results: Study findings revealed 50% of the respondents were in 40 – 46 years age group. Most of the subjects ( 40% ) were educated up to primary school, majority of the subjects (30%) had Rs 30,000 as monthly income. Approximately 16 %, 66% and 18% of respondents had good, average and poor level of knowledge respectively. The present study elicits that in pre test maximum (50%) had excellent knowledge,40% with Adequate Knowledge and rest with Minimum regarding self care in DM. In post test maximum (60%) had excellent knowledge and 40% with good knowledge regarding self care in DM.

  38. Machado Maliza Mesías Elías, JayaBaldeón Kevin Daniel and Diego Fabricio TixiTorres

    El organismo internacional del Sistema de Naciones Unidas, en los sistemas de salud impulsa la utilización de la medicina tradicional, utilizados para prevenir, diagnosticar y eliminar los desequilibrios físicos, mentales y sociales, basados en experiencias y observaciones prácticas ancestrales en armonía con la naturaleza, tiene el propósito de prevenir y tratar enfermedades a través de la activación de las propias capacidades o recursos biológicos naturales con que cuenta nuestro organismo. Actualmente el uso de fármacos químicos es una problemática de carácter global que afecta a países desarrollados como en vías de desarrollo, considerando que los antibióticos constituyen uno de los principales medicamentos de mal uso con repercusiones ambientales más graves. Este problema tiene especial importancia en países subdesarrollados, donde la mortalidad por enfermedades infeccionas ocupa los primeros lugares; en Ecuador el problema es mayor, existe escasa o nula regulación de autoconsumo. El Objetivo de la investigación es determinar la mala utilización y el daño que generan los antibióticos químicos en sus usuarios, con el afán de reducir su abuso, evitando daños en la calidad de vida. La investigación es bibliográfica y de campo, tiene como resultado socializar a los estudiantes, personal docente y administrativo de UNIANDES Riobamba, la aceptación a métodos alternativos para el control, tratamiento y prevención de enfermedades. Se concluye que el accionar de la medicina química es rápido y eficaz, generalmente los químicos usados curan dolencias, pero perjudican otros órganos sensibles de nuestro cuerpo, por lo que su constante uso no es recomendable.

  39. Seyoum Alemu, Yared Tesfaye and Kabna Asefa

    A weed survey was carried out during 2014 and 2015 main cropping seasons with in two agro-ecologies (Mid land and Low land) of Guji zone, Southern Oromia, to assess the distribution and importance of cereal crop weeds as well as to investigate the most dominant weed flora in cereal crops. For this survey, data was collected from four agro-ecologically representative districts where two districts were selected from each agro-ecology purposively. From each districts four Peasant associations were selected and totally, 80 fields were assessed during this survey. Collected data was tested using quantitative and descriptive tools. Accordingly, a total of 42 weed taxa belonging to 18 plant families were identified. Among these families, Gramineae, compositae, polygonaceae and Rubiaceae were the most abundant families recorded during the investigation. Snowden Polistachia, Avena fatua, Bromus pectinatus Thunb, Phalaris paradoxa L, Setaria pumila, Digitaria abyssinica, Galansoga Palviflora, Guizotia Scabra, Tagetes minuta L, Bidens pilosa L, Bidense pachloma , Parthinium hystrophorus L., Polygonum Nepalense , Oxygonum sinuatum, Rumex abyssinica , Andropogon Abyssinicus, Lauracaea Cornuta, Galium Sporium were the most frequent species (68%) followed by Snowden Polistachia (51%). Furthermore, most of farmers(90%) in mid and low land districts mentioned Setaria Verticillata (L.)and Setaria Pumila as important weeds which are the most abundant, frequency and dominant weed species of cereal crops. at both Mid land and Low land agro-ecologies of Guji Zone. In general, this study would provide basic information's regarding the situation of cereal crop weeds in different agro ecologies of Guji Zone that could serve as corner stone for future research on weed.

  40. Mr. Arun Prakash, A.

    The main aim of the study is to select a list of companies from the basic indices of NSE like Nifty50, Next50 and Small Cap 50, to create a portfolio of the companies with respect to the indices selected for the study which results in 3 different portfolios. Portfolio 1 represents 29 scrips selected from Nifty50, Portfolio 2 represents 30 scrips selected from the Next50 index, and Portfolio 3 represents 34 scrips selected from Small Cap index. After creating the portfolios, Each scrip under each portfolio will be invested with Rs.1,00,000, each scrip in each portfolio will be given equal weightage so the total investment will be Rs.29,00,000, Rs.30,00,000 and Rs.34,00,000, under Portfolio 1, 2 and 3 respectively. To prove the factor that the returns of the created portfolio has beaten the index returns the price data of all the scrips for the past 10 years were taken and the returns were computed for the portfolio year on year and from 2008 to 2018.

  41. Zerhun Ganewo Galato

    This study was conducted with the aim of identifying the impacts of the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security, asset accumulation and annual income. The intervention areas of the project are in improving the overall livelihood of rural poor households. Even though the project has been implemented since 2005 in Ethiopia, its impact on food security, asset accumulations, and household income have not well studied. Both primary and secondary data were collected and analyzed. The primary data was collected from 154 PSNP beneficiaries and 174 non-beneficiaries. Secondary data was used from previous related literature and office reports. Descriptive statistics and econometric model of propensity score matching (PSM) were used to analyze the collected data. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that there are significant mean differences between PSNP beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries in terms of the number of months with food shortage, educational status, contact with development agents, and family size. Since the project gives priority for female-headed households, more than half of beneficiaries (64.94%) were female-headed households. Moreover, the mean difference of outcome variables for samples before matching the households for daily caloric intake per adult equivalent (t=6.68), asset accumulations (t=7.05) and annual income (t=5.44) was statistically significant between PSNP beneficiaries and non-beneficiary based on the results of t-tests. Similarly, the result of PSM confirmed that the ATT of PSNP beneficiary households increased the total calorie intake per adult equivalent by 738.27 Kcal which was significant at a 1% significance level. Similarly, there was a statistically significant mean difference between the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries groups regarding asset accumulations and annual income in birr of 29652.7 and 26732 birr respectively. The sensitivity analysis result showed that the impact results estimated by this study are insensitive to the unobserved selection bias of gamma value 3.5. Therefore, since the impacts of the project were found positive, it is better to widen the implementation of the project to other food prone areas of Ethiopia.

  42. Dr. Rajeshkumar Upadhyay and Dr. Bakshi Om Prakash Sinha

    Assessor/Auditor key responsibility is assessment/ audit of testing & calibration laboratories, management system, manufacturing process, service, or documentation procedure has all the requirements for standardization and quality assurance. Assessors/auditors are appointed are responsible for the assessment/audit of the conformity assessment body. The assessors are appointed or hired by accredited body (AB) on regular basis or add assessors/auditors in panel. It is prime responsibility of an assessor/auditor, to assess/audit of any CAB, impartially, in comfort environment, free from undue pressure and fair reporting. A good assessor/auditor should be professional competent and experiences of the system. Attitude & behavior is the other name of quality. Knowledge of procedures of quality management in the fields testing, calibration, inspection or certification based on practical experience and/or successful participation in relevant training, courses and able to communicate/write in the required languages both verbally and in writing. Simultaneously, any assessor/auditor should refrain from to tell solution to laboratory representative, for laboratory improvement, then it will count consultancy and it is violation of impartiality.

  43. Dr. Pushpa Sharma, Dr. Meena Ajay Aras and Dr. Vidya Chitre

    The management of completely edentulous patients with xerostomia with sunken cheek, pose a significant challenge to the prosthodontists. The overall goal of rehabilitating such individuals is focused on improving phonetics, esthetics, proper occlusion and masticatory function. Salivary reservoirs are often incorporated in the dentures of xerostomic patients to hold and dispense the artificial saliva. The major disadvantage of the conventional salivary reservoir is the reduction of the tongue space. This article describes the fabrication of the salivary reservoir in a patient with sunken cheeks and shallow palate, in which the esthetic correction of the sunken cheeks was achieved together with minimal encroachment into the tongue space. Additionally, neutral zone impression technique for the resorbed mandibular arch and recording of palatogram was also done

  44. Pragya Tiwari

    Motivation is an internal process that makes a person move towards a goal. Raising the motivation and status of teachers as well as retaining high-quality teachers is therefore vital to improving education. Motivation refers to the resolution of achieving a goal, marked by goal directed behaviour. When we refer to someone being motivated, it implies that the individual is trying hard to perpetrate a certain task. However, motivation alone can’t suffice to complete that task with utmost efficiency. Ability having the skill and knowledge to perform that task is also significant in this regard. Sometimes it becomes the determinant of effectiveness keeping the importance of motivation in consideration this paper tempts to study the effect of motivation on the performance of teaching staff. The target population of the study are teachers having least one year of teaching experience. A sample of teachers was selected and was administered a questionnaire to obtain primary data. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis methods. The results obtained indicate that if employees are positively motivated, it improves both their effectiveness and efficiency drastically for achieving organizational goals.

  45. Du’aa a. Hammody, Khulood Makki and Jazaaer Jasim Mohammed

    Anomalies of the urinary tract rank third to fourth among congenital malformations and are most frequently associated with other congenital malformations elsewhere in the body. This study is intended to shed light on the role of Ultrasound in the diagnosis of most of these diseases either alone or sometimes in conjuction with other tools of investigations in different age groups and in utero as “ prenatal diagnosis”.

  46. Dr. Abdul Aziz Zauba Mansour, DU’AA A. Hammody and Khulood Makki

    A prospective study was carried out on 64 children admitted with accidental kerosene ingestion in AL- Khansa teaching hospital for children in Mosul in the period from the first of July 1999 to the 31 1st. of December 1999. Most children (73.4%) were one to three years. And male to female ratio was 3:1. The most common presenting symptoms were cough 55 (85.9%), dyspnea 51 (79.7%), vomiting 41(64%), and drowsiness in 13 (20.3%). Fever appeared Later on (more than 6hours after ingestion of kerosene) in 32 (50%) of patients and continued for 2-8 days. Forty two patients (75%) developed kerosene aspiration pneumonitis within 6hours after ingestion of kerosene which was diagnosed mainly by radiological examination rather than by clinical findings. Right basal infiltration was the commonest radiological finding.40.6%. Vomiting seems to be the major risk factor for development of pneumonitis which is found in 85.4 % of those who developed vomiting (p=0.01). Routine. antibiotic were given to all admitted patients and have been found that it has no role in decreasing the duration of fever. (p>0.05) One patient deterioated rapidly and died within few minutes after arrival. All patients improved clinically and radiologically within 3-10 days, complete radiological recovery did not take place until 12-28 days in as inany as (60%) of patients.

  47. Adhiraj Ghosh, Chirantan Maity, Saikat Sen, Sayantan Ghosh, Rajarshi Banerjee and Dhritiman Mukherjee

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a variant of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with low malignant potential. The most common site of occurrence was the buccal mucosa followed by the mandibular alveolar ridge and gingiva. The treatment of oral verrucous carcinoma remains controversial. Whenever possible surgically, total excision and skin or mucosal grafting is recommended. Here we present a case report of oral verrucous carcinoma which was treated with wide local excision followed by reconstruction with split thickness skin graft.

  48. Parthipan, G. and Dr. Shanthi, K.

    Atlantia racemosa (Rutaceae) is a small tree or shrub, differing from the other species of Atlantia and it is always unarmed, found in the lower mountain regions of Ceylon, in Southern India and in the western peninsula from the Concan to Travancore. Plant fruit pulp paste works as an antidote to Cobra bite while the leaf juice is taken internally to treat acidity. Leaf decoction is externally applied on itching skin. Seed oil of this plant is used to cure paralysis and chronic rheumatism. Anatomical characters are potentially useful to identify small fragments of commercially important herbal products as well as toxic plants that may be of relevance in forensic investigations. In this investigation, we screen the taxonomical characters execute the identification of Atalantia racemosa with anatomical studies of leaf in order to provide a scientific basis for this important medicinal plant, which these observations on microscopical characters confirmed that A. racemosa has apparent anatomical distinctiveness and peculiarities which differentiate with any adulterant taxa.

  49. Abeer Yahia Mahdy and Awad Mohammed Al-Qahtani

    Background: Assessment of clinical competence of safety polices and procedure great importance when evaluating the expected safety outcomes in nursing college. All faculty, staff, and students must know and practice the safety guidelines at all times while using the labs. Failure to adhere to general guidelines can result in disciplinary action. Aims: Assess and Establish Laboratories policies and procedures to provide instructions in maintaining safety for students, staff and faculty while using the nursing laboratory. Methods: To achieve aims of this study, Descriptive co relational and intervention study design was utilized to conduct this study in medical surgical laboratories at the faculty of nursing, Njran University, KDSA. The study sample included, all the available staff who teach and supervise the medical surgical nursing (n=6) and students (n=100). Two Tools was used in this study: the first part was demographic feature of study sample, the second part was assessment of satisfaction of staff and student. Results of this study showed (73 .0%) of staff and clinical instructors indicated that the the good ventilation, and 89%for lighting and 83 emergency staires and gate, 73%is good electrical system Most of staff member who scenarios. Conclusion: The infrastructure is good rater than other.

  50. Dr. Chatar Singh Negi and Abhishek Negi

    The Indian retail industry has come forth as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries contributing 10 percent of the country*s GDP and 8 percent of its employment. India is Asia*s third and the fourth largest retail market globally offering massive investment opportunities. Organised retail in India has seen a continuous influx of players in to the market, but not all of them have tasted success yet because of factors like having initial investments that are required to break even with other companies. The Indian retail market environment is also ever changing with evolving consumer behaviour. Consumer experiences play a decisive role in their buying decision. Over the last decade we have gone from a liner retail focused model to today*s iterative, digital-centric model of customer behaviour. Retail branding has become complex due to the presence of dual layered of objectives-stablishing a differentiated positioning of the retailer and its own line of goods, secondly, making the positioning attractive enough for successful off take of other manufactures brand. India*s favourable macro-economic indicators, investor friendly policies and rapid growth in consumption are driving the growth of the retail sector in the country as a whole.

  51. Jamaluddin Ahmed, M., Afrin, Ayesha and Imran Hossain Mollah, M.

    A new spectrophotometric reagent 2-Hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde-orthoaminophenol has been synthesized and characterized. A very simple, ultra-sensitive, highly selective and non-extractive new spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) at nano-trace levels using 2-Hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde-orthoaminophenol (HNA-OAP)has been developed. HNA-OAP has been proposed as a new analytical reagent for the direct non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of arsenic (III&V). This novel spectrophotometric reagent reacts in a slightly acidic (0.00016-0.0004 M H2SO4) aqueous solution with arsenic(III) in 20% N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to produce highly absorbent red chelate with has an absorption maximum at 505 nm. The absorbance intensity of the metal-chelate reaches a constant value (after heating for 5 min at (45±5) 0C within 15 min and remains stable over 24 h. The average molar absorption coefficient and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 2.46×104 L mol-1cm-1 and 5-ng cm-2. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.01 – 60-mgL-1 of As, having a detection limit of 1-ngmL-1; the quantification limit of the reaction system was found to be 10-ngmL-1 and the RSD was 0-3%. The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 3:2 (As: HNA-OAP). A large excess of over 60 cations, anions and complexion agents (like, chloride, phosphate, azide, tartrate, oxalate, SCN- etc.) do not interfere in the determination. The developed method was successfully used in the determination of total arsenic in several certified reference materials (alloys, steels, ores, human urine, hair, nails, bovine liver and sediments) as well as in some biological fluids (human blood, urine, hair, nail and milk), soil samples, food samples (vegetables, fruits, rice, corn and wheat), solutions containing both arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) speciation and complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for assessing groundwater, biological, food and soil samples were comparable with both ICP-OES & AHG-AAS and were found to be in excellent agreement. The method has high precision and accuracy (s = ± 0.01 for 0.5 mg L-1).

  52. Onuoha Chibuike Martins, Nnadi Leonard C. Amadi E.C. and Charles Ikerionwu

    Information Security, as the word says, has always meant securing assets and providing controls and procedures to resist damage or potentialimpact on the system(s) under consideration. This definition as isunderstood in security circles has various potential inferences and istypically understood in the defensive sense. Protect the network, protect the server, protect the logs, the list never ends. Honeypot is a security mechanism whose value lies in unauthorized or illicit use of that resource.It is a resource which is intended to be attacked and compromised to gain more information about the attacker and his attack techniques. They are a highly flexible tool that comes in many shapes and Sizes. However, this paper examines the different types of honeypot and their levels of interaction with the attacker. This paper attempts to examine a honeypot environment using Tcpdump packet sniffer through SSH client.

  53. Dr. Savitha Sathyaprasad, Dr. Krishnamoorthy S.H. and Dr. Vinisha Vinod

    An edentulous smile might look appealing in an infant but its persistence is a serious cause of concern for the parents and the child. Loss of teeth will negatively affect the child's ability to chew, and may affect his or her self esteem. The management of tooth loss in children is distinct from that of adults as the children are in growing stage and the morphology of primary tooth is different from permanent. It has always been a challenge for pedodontist to come up with the best way to replace missing teeth. Mini implants is now used in pediatric dentistry for replacing missing teeth. It becomes a promising alternative to crown anchorage, especially in oral rehabilitation of growing patient due to its simple ways to use, versatility and great biocompatibility. It provides good aesthetic and functional results which improves the child’s quality of life, social integration and increases the self-esteem.

  54. Kunal Singh

    • Pheochromocytoma is a rare Paraurethral cysts are rarely encountered in urogynecologic practice. • There is no consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of paraurethral cysts. • We present our experience of 5 cases to describe the diagnosis and management of paraurethral cysts.

  55. Kunal Singh

    Prostate cancer invasion to the rectum mucosa as T4a disease is common scenario, but as rectal mass quite uncommon. Findings in the patient reported here emphasize the importance ofthe relationship between urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms in detecting prostatic neoplasms in older malepatients.

  56. Kunal Singh

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine secreting tumor originating usually from adrenal medulla and produces signs and symptoms due excessive catecholamine secretion from tumor. A young male patient of 32 year age presented with febrile episodes, dullache on left upper quadrant of abdomen, episodic headache and weakness for last 2 months. Clinical suspicion of pheochromocytoma was confirmed by vitals monitoring and CT scan of abdomen. After having two weeks of preoperative preparation with alpha blocker and beta–blocker, open surgical removal of pheochromocytoma was done. Preoperative fluctuation of BP was well managed by IV fluid overload, intravenous Phentolamine, intravenous Esmolol and intravenous Ephedrine. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and BP regains to normal range from 1st postoperative day. Pheochromocytoma is a rare cause of hypertension. If the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is delayed or missed, the consequences could be disastrous, even fatal; however, if a pheochromocytoma is identified, it is potentially curable, as being one of the causes of surgically correctable hypertension.

  57. Dr. Anagha, N.P., Dr. Maria Priya Paul, Prof. Dr. Nandini Manjunath and Dr. Divya Shetty

    Endodontic-periodontal combined lesion is a clinical dilemma because, arriving at a differential diagnosis and deciding a prognosis is difficult. An untreated primary endodontic lesion can become secondarily involved with periodontal breakdown, which may clinically present with unusual signs and symptoms. This can delay the diagnosis and formulating the correct treatment. This case report describes the diagnosis and treatment protocol for an Endo-perio lesion of primary endodontic with secondary periodontal involvement.

  58. Dr. Sathe NilamUttam Dr. Gupta Vani Krishana Dr. Srinivas Anup and Dr. Chiplunkar Dhanashree

    Cysticercosis is infestation by the larval form of pork tapeworm, Taenia Solium. Humans acquire it by ingestion of contaminated water or uncooked pork. These larvae penetrate the gastric mucosa and are absorbed into the blood vessels or lymphatics and are distributed in the body. The most commonly affected system is the central nervous system leading to neurocysticercosis. Very rarely it can be deposited in muscles and cause symptoms. We present a rare case of cysticerci in the masseter, temporalis & pterygoid muscles of the left side leading to isolated myocysticercosis.

  59. Tekalign Negash Kebede

    The purpose of this study was to assess inventory management practices in the case of manufacturing firms in Hawassa City. The study adopted a descriptive research design which allowed the collection of primary and secondary data through structured questionnaires and document review respectively. Purposive sampling approach was employed to identify fifty (50) employees directly involved in inventory management operations. The collected data was analysed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 23 and Microsoft Excel 2016 Software. The study revealed that the company under investigation experiences a lot of inventory management procedures to keep their stock always available to meet customer demands. They have a very good inventory management practices. However, it was revealed that, for some of the companies faced with serious long lead time challenges due to bureaucratic procedures in ordering parts leading to the cancellation of purchase orders and losing customers. Finally, it is recommended that the companies have to remove some of the bureaucratic management styles to cope up with the dynamic marketing environment and exist for a long period of serving their customer.

  60. Naga Vaishnavi, C. and Sruthi Reddy, C.

    There has been always a strong debate between professionals of the practicing world of architecture and the educationalist and theorists in architecture about the importance of theory and its impact in practice as the young graduates find it very difficult to readily adopt to the world of practice even after professionally qualified as architects. In this regard research is being conducted and trying to identify the factors leading to this Gap. we are trying to “Rationale of Application of Theory Inputs in Architectural Practice”. This paper is the first part of the study and is only a review paper based on literature review and perception of various architects in regard of what is theory in architecture and its importance.

  61. Dr. Vijaya Doddaiah, Dr. Suresh Harikumar, Dr. Karthik Krishna, Dr. Jaya Swathi and Dr. Ramesh Thygaraja

    All healthcare urinary tract infections are caused by instrumentation of urinary tract. Catheter associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) has been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, hospital cost and length of stay. It is usually caused by multidrug resistant strains; require higher antibiotics and these strains may spread to other patients. Duration of catheterization is directly related to the development of bacteriuria. Aim of the present study is to, identify CAUTI in relation to age, sex, department wise, days of catheterization, to isolate the aetiolological agent and their antibiogram. To identify various risk factors in the causation of CAUTI and to bring down the incidence of CAUTI. Out of 384 catheterized patients(185 males, 199 females) majority of them belongs to the age of 61-70 (23.18%) followed by 19-30 (19.27%) years. CAUTI as per definition was found in 2 patients with rate of 1.56 /1000 catheterised days. The causative agents were Esch. Coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae which were multi drug resistant. Infection prevention policies are stringent in this institution, which helped infection control team to keep low incidence of CAUTI in the present study. This study provides baseline information in the context of incidence of CAUTI, to identify causative bacteria and their antibiogram for prophylactic and empiric therapy in these patients.

  62. Dr. Mayur J Gawande, Dr. Chandrashekhar Bande, Dr. Neha Khodaskar, Dr. Manu Goel, Dr. Pavan Rathod and Dr. Poonam M. Gawande

    Introduction: A Dental implant placement is a surgical procedure in which component of implant interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture. A successful implant placement in aesthetic zone is depends on the health of the person receiving the treatment, drugs which affect the chances of osseointegration, density of bone and the health of the tissues in the mouth. Implant placement in the anterior maxilla remains a challenge to surgeons because of functional and aesthetic results. Dental implants may be used to replace single or multiple teeth, or provide abutments for complete dentures or partial dentures. This case report study is representative of such instance, when following the correct guidelines, a successful outcome is made possible when aesthetic result is prime concern. The aim of this article to present case report with replacement of missing anterior teeth in compromised site with Dental Implants and bone graft to obtain desirable result in aesthetic zone. Case Report: A 30 year male patient visited to the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery at, Nagpur with chief complaints of loss of upper front teeth due to trauma 2 year back. On detailed intra oral examination revealed that missing teeth on 11,21 & 22 regions. After proper treatment planning endo-osseous implant followed by Alloplast bone graft was placed and guided tissue regeneration membrane was placed on the labial bony surface in defect area. Conclusion: The case report includes the planning, execution and outcome stages of an Implant in the anterior maxilla. Implant therapy fulfil both functional and aesthetic concerns of the patient as it is considered a primary treatment modality Before surgical placement of a Dental Implant, the adequate hard and soft tissue must be available. The clinician must consider the time needed for Implant Osseo integration (total integration of Implant within the Bone) and soft-tissue healing around the implant, creation of emergence profiles, occlusal loading forces in relationship to progressive masticatory forces on the final restoration.

  63. Akhmad Farid Gaftan

    Background: The whole of Government is a response to the symptoms of structural devolution, disaggregation, fragmentation and single-purpose organization as a result of the implementation of the New Public Management. The whole of government implemented in government agencies in Indonesia began to be carried out in stages. This has the aim so that the performance can improve the quality of public services, more effectively and efficiently. The purpose of this research was to find out the important factors felt during the whole of government implementation in the basic training institutions. Materials & Methods: This research used quantitative approach to count statistical explanatively. The number of samples of this study was 65 people through the saturated sampling technique. The analysis technique used multiple linear regression, t-test, and coefficient of determination test. Result and Conclusion: The result of this research can be concluded that: 1.) The coordination has a significant positive effect on the whole of Government implementation; 2.) The integration has a significant positive effect on the whole of Government implementation; 3.) The proximity and involvement have a significant positive effect on the implementation of the whole of Government. So the participants have high optimism about the implementation of a whole of government that is applied to the workplace agency based from the interview identification result.

  64. Longpoe Hentuang Henry LL.M, B.L, LL.B

    Peace education is a fundamental component of peace building. With the experiences of ruptured peace and conflict recovery in some areas peace education becomes an imperative in Nigeria. All segments of the society would gain from peace education where values, moral rectitude, tolerance and method of resolving any dispute peacefully and in a spirit of respect for human dignity and non-discrimination are inculcated in the minds of the citizenry. The study adopts the Theory of Learning to Abolish War Model of Reardon, B. and Cabezudo, A. which argues that peace can be taught to children by promoting culture of peace and abolishing culture of war. The study recommends that Nigeria should make peace education a compulsory subject and course in institutions of learning across board, make workable legal and institutional framework for peace education with adequate budget backed by political will for appropriation and implementation of peace education. The study concludes that Nigeria stands to reduce incidences of conflict and violence when peace education is prioritized. ‘Since war begins in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that defense of peace must be constructed’ - Preamble to the UNESCO Constitution.

  65. Aijaz Panhwar, Ateeq Rehman Memon, Azhar Naeem, M., Syed Zain ul Ibad, Aftab Kandhro, 1Nusrat Jalbani, Siraj ul Haque, Mehtab Ahmed, Aijaz ul Haq and Sofia Qaisar

    Assessor/Auditor key responsibility is assessment/ audit of testing & calibration laboratories, management system, manufacturing process, service, or documentation procedure has all the requirements for standardization and quality assurance. Assessors/auditors are responsible for the assessment/audit of the conformity assessment body. The assessors are appointed or hired by accredited body (AB) on regular basis or add assessors/auditors in panel. It is prime responsibility of an assessor/auditor, to assess/audit of any CAB, impartially, in comfort environment, free from undue pressure and fair reporting. A good assessor/auditor should be professional competent and experiences of the system. Attitude & behavior are the prime factors of quality. Knowledge of procedures of quality management in the fields testing, calibration, inspection or certification based on practical experience and/or successful participation in relevant training are the main features of a good assessor. Further assessor must be able to communicate/write to either remove non-conformity or improvement. However whenever there is any such situation assessor/auditor may guide with multiple type of leading options instead of direct solution. A direct solution may be taken as consultancy and violation of impartiality.

  66. Manju, P.K.

    English language has emerged as the most sought after second language in the world. Mother tongue is learnt quite automatically, whereas a second language is learnt consciously. Learning a second language is a painful process and it requires a lot of practice. A second language is learnt, mainly to use the target language in the society. As stated in the theories on language acquisition by Noamchomsky and Stephen Krashen, second language acquisition demands a comprehensible input for its proficiency. The advent of Smart classrooms in schools of Kerala laid the foundation for an easy and interesting way for second language learning. Conscious and legitimate use of technology can create an acquisition rich environment in the English classroom, boosting up the sensory experiences of the learners. This paper intends to explore the enormous application of technology in enhancing second language acquisition.

  67. Endashaw Sisay Sirah and Dr. Showkat Ahmad shah

    Okun found that amid the period 1947-1957 remained a reverse correlation between economic progressas well as unemployment within US. Okun assessed that a 3 per cent increment in genuine GNP would lead to a one per cent diminish within the unemployment rate. Here the impartial think about stands to see the link of economic growth and joblessness rate from 1984-2019. The strategy which connected on this ponder is amended Dickey-Fuller test and auto-regressive distributed lag model. The consider result inferred, there's critical positive short run relationship between economic growth and joblessness in Ethiopia; in lengthy it is unswerving but immaterial. The researcher prescribes that the government ought to increment economic growth which basically to capture more unemployment rate, this moreover offer assistance the government to dodge a positive relationship between those two variables.

  68. Niyonzima, T., Nshimiyimana, F.X. and Habiyaremye, G.

    Today the competition for scarce water resources in many places is intense. Managing water as an economic good helps to achieve efficient and equitable use, and ensuring sustainability of water resources. This paper focused on investigating the water production and pricing in Rwanda to improve clean water accessibility. The findings showed that the amount of water produced increased from 38818228 cubic meters in 2012 to 43558705 cubic meters in 2016. The change in number of customers with water connections in the same period has risen from 118393 customers to 175646 customers. The price changes according to the amount of water used in order to influence water accessibility and management. Therefore, pricing water contributes to development of water sector, improving water supply and maintaining water infrastructures countrywide. Strengthening the capacity of existing water treatment plants will lead to ensured production and supply of the required volume of clean water on daily basis.

  69. IJA Mohammed Ismaila, JACOB Danjuma and JIBRIL Adamu Muhammad

    The study brought into focus the effect of population growth on Housing in Minna metropolis. Questionnaires were used for data collection in the six (6) randomly selected areas - Bosso, Maitumbi, and Tunga (High population density areas) G.R.A, Bosso Estate and Tunga Low-cost (Low population density areas). The statistical method employed in analyzing the data was linear regression analysis. The study revealed that increasing population growth, inconsistency and slow speed of implementation of government housing policies, tight and inadequate mortgage facilities and high cost of building materials are responsible for shortage or inadequate housing in Minna. The result of analysis shows that there is significant relationship between number of occupants and total habitable area, number of occupants and total number of rooms; in both low and high density zones. And it also shows that there is no significant relationship between population density and total habitable area, population density and total number of rooms. It was recommended that population should be controlled and directed by the government through the development of hinterlands and rural areas; government should encourage private sector's participation in the provision of housing through the provision of incentives and enabling environment for investment; and also the professionals in the building environment should ensure continuous planning and must be proactive in reacting to events.

  70. Neha Suyal, Vedamurthy R., and Mohammad Sarfraz

    Under-nutrition remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children globally, which is directly or indirectly related to knowledge and practice of the mothers regarding child feeding. Haldwani region is also having more undernourished children in the Uttarakhand state. Therefore, the present study was performed to assess the knowledge, practice, and attitude of the mothers regarding weaning which is the major factor for nutritional deficiency in the infants. A mixed research approach and descriptive survey design were adopted among 50 mothers selected through a purposive sampling technique. The majority of the mothers (60%) showed adequate knowledge on the weaning concept and its starting time but were less informed regarding breastfeeding routine. Half of the mothers knew the need for hygiene (50%) and proper cooking practices. The mothers showed a positive attitude in the areas like weaning process, diet, position & hygiene. The present study concludes that mothers require detailed knowledge regarding weaning practices and the attitude in order to improve the nutrition status of the children.

  71. Makeche Chinyama Mauris, Mudenda Hangoma Gordon and Katongo Cyprian

    Growth and mortality of Oreochromis niloticus of the Kafue Floodplain fishery was investigated between September, 2015 and November, 2015. Three stations that represent the major ecological habitats of the Kafue Floodplain fishery were selected. These were: Kafue Road Bridge (swamp), Namalyo (lagoon) and Kakuzu (riverine). Fish specimens were collected using gillnets that were set in the evening and hauled the next morning. Length measurements were taken from each fish specimen using a fish measuring board. Weight was measured using and electronic balance to the nearest one gramme. One-way Analysis of Variance was performed on all quantitative data using Statistix 9.0 software. Oreochromis niloticus showed a growth coefficient (k) of 0.22.The exploitation ratio was 0.4, implying that the decrease in Oreochromis niloticus catches in the Kafue Floodplain fishery cannot be attributed to over-fishing but may be due to natural mortality.

  72. Dr. Sounder Raj, K., Nagaranjini, P., Dr. Avinash, N. T., Dr. Anuraveendran, Dr. Sreeshma, C. S. and Dr. Gagan Malode

    Large oro-facial defects causes serious functional as well as cosmetic deformities. Acceptable cosmetic results usually can be obtained with a facial prosthesis. This article describes prosthetic rehabilitation of a 41 year-old male having a left orbital defect with heat cure acrylic resin material. The resultant facial prosthesis was structurally durable and aesthetically acceptable with satisfactory retention.

  73. Urvashi Chongtham and Antara Roy

    Background: Non-fermenting gram negative bacilli are a group of aerobic, non-spore forming bacilli. They are ubiquitous in nature, inhabiting soil, water and also present in the hospital environment. NFGNB accounts for nearly 12-16% of all bacterial isolates in a clinical microbiology laboratory. The important members are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii. They cause various infections such as septicaemia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, surgical site infections and meningitis. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of non-fermenters in various isolated clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross sectional study was done between August 2018 to July 2019 to isolate NFGNB from various clinical samples received from OPD and IPD for culture and sensitivity in the department of Microbiology, JNIMS, Imphal. The non-fermenters were identified using standard methods and antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed to determine the sensitivity pattern of the isolates. Results: A total of 162 isolates of non-fermenters were identified from various clinical samples processed during a period of 1 year. Pus (51.3%) was the commonest sample from which NFGNB were isolated, followed by sputum (20.9%), urine (16.60%), catheter tip (5.5%), blood (4.9%), ear swab (1.6%). Out of 162 isolates, the most common organism isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (57%) followed by Acinetobacterbaumannii (25%). The most effective drug in this study was found to be Imipenem which showed sensitivity percentage of 86%. Conclusion: The present study highlights the importance of speciating NFGNB and to know the resistance pattern of carbapenems so as to establish strict antibiotic policies.

  74. Dr. Bhoje .P.M., Mrs. Gaikwad J. S. and Mr. Gaikwad, S. S.

    The incidence of ABO & Rh blood types varies among different population groups. The knowledge of the distribution of ABO & Rh blood groups is essential for effective management of blood banks, transfusion purposes, in population genetic study, transplantation, hemolytic disease & resolving certain medico–legal issues, of disputed parentage. Our aim was to determine the distribution of different blood groups in girl students in Y.C.W. M. Warananagar. A study was conducted at Zoology Department laboratory in Y.C.Warana Mahavidylaya over a period of two years – 2016 and 2017. During study, some Rh –ve girl students were found. The study of blood groups have a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank, transfusion services and hemolytic disease. Present study concluded that most prevalent Rh negative blood groups are B & O while AB is rare blood group amongst the girl students in Y.C.Warana Mahavidylaya, Warananagar.

  75. Osama Abdallah, Ashraf Negm, Abdelhamid Haraga, Sayed Elmokadem and Nasser Tawfiyk Elshamy

    Introduction: Damage-control surgery is abbreviated surgery performed to control a patient’s life-threatening illness. It minimizes the time during which the patient is exposed to coagulopathic stimuli, hypothermia and acidosis in the operating room in favour of returning the patient to the intensive care unit as expeditiously as possible for a full resuscitation. Aim: Evaluation of efficacy and safety of dynamic wound closure system in open abdomen Methods: Between March 2018 and March 2019, 12 patients with severe peritonitis and abdominal trauma were stabilized by laparotomy and the developed open abdomen was treated by dynamic wound closure (ABRA SYSTEM) after a variable period of ICU admission with strict following of the protocol of damage control surgery (DCS). Results: The mean duration ICU admission before ABRA application was 5 days. The mean duration of ABRA application was 15days. The average width of the abdominal defect was 15 cm. The average length of defect was 20 cm. Delayed primary abdominal closure was accomplished in 8 patients without further surgery. Incisional hernia with a small abdominal defect developed in 2 patients. Skin graft was applied over wide defect in 2 patients. Conclusion: Abdominal re-approximation by dynamic wound closure system is safe and effective, however it is very pain full and needs more analgesic support.

  76. Rahul Vijayvargiya, Singh, V.B., Vipin Singhal, Meena, B.L., Subash Kumar and Harish Kumar

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the degree of albuminuria is not necessarily linked to disease progression in patients with DN. Several studies that have explored the relationship between systemic inflammation and vascular disease. Neutrophil-Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) may be considered as a marker of chronic inflammation. Methods: This was a cross sectional study which was conducted in Sardar patel medical college and associated group of hospital, Bikaner from November 2016 to October 2018 over 303 type 2 diabetes mellitus patient who fulfill inclusion and exclusion criteria. NLR was calculated by analyzing differential leukocyte count in complete blood picture. Albuminuria was detected by CHEMSTRIX-AG TEST STRIP by dipstick method. Results: Out of 303 patient 168 cases had their urine albumin positive while 135 cases had urine albumin Nil. when both group compare for complete blood count parameter haemoglobin had a non significant (p>0.05) relation with urine albumin while TLC, Neutrophil, ANC, Lymhocyte, ALC and NLR had a highly significant (p<0.001). In present study, mean NLR in normoalbuminuria was 1.720.49 and for microalbuminuria it was 2.430.57 (p<0.001). Conclusion: Microalbuminuria was found to be one of the earliest marker for DN. However, recent studies have shown that albuminuria is a less precise predictor of overt nephropathy risk than originally thought. . The results of our study have shown that there was a significant relation between NLR and DN. NLR is a simple, inexpensive test. Therefore, NLR may be considered as a predictor and a prognostic risk marker of DN.

  77. Yibeltal Yihunie

    This review paper was initiated to review the Ethiopia’s response to the existing climate variability and change. Climate variability and change have been occurring in Ethiopia. Evidences showed that there is an increase in temperature and spatial and temporal rainfall variability has been increasing. The changing climate has led to recurrent droughts and famines, flooding, expansion of desertification, loss of wetlands, loss of biodiversity, decline in agricultural production and productivity. Ethiopia had shown many efforts to combat climate change in the different parts of the country. Promoting conservation agriculture, home gardens and traditional agro forestry systems, harvesting non-timber forest products, protected area systems, a forestation and reforestation programs, renewable energy sources, livestock selling and production are among the mechanisms for mitigating and adapting climate change in Ethiopia as a response.

  78. Malama Sidiropoulou and Lasa, E.A.

    International research associates transformational leadership applied by the school leader with the effective teaching of the teacher. Differentiated teaching is considered a holistic way of approaching the learning process and a vital component of effective teaching. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether Greek teachers differentiate their teaching according to their students' interests and needs and whether transformational leadership influences this implementation. The sample of the research consisted of 147 secondary education teachers in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. The results revealed that the 73.5% of teachers apply differentiated teaching. There was also a statistically significant but weak positive correlation between the three sub-factors of transformational leadership, charisma, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation, with differentiated teaching. Principal’s charisma has the highest positive correlation than the other two sub-factors and can predict the application of differentiated teaching at 9.3%. The findings of the research could be used to train potential principals in transformational leadership practices.

  79. Dr. Parthkumar K Thakkar, Dr. Neeta Bhavsar, Dr. Ekta Shah, Noopur S Shah, Jahnavi R. Acharya, Priyanka A. Mansata, Dr. Anuj V. Mansata and Dr. Vaidehi A. Bhatt

    “Information technology (IT) is defined as capabilities offered to organizations by computers, software applications, and telecommunications to deliver data, information, and knowledge to individuals and processes.” IT has made a tremendous impact on how we carry out our personal and professional work effectively and efficiently. IT is promising in many ways as compared to traditional methods used in clinical care, education, research and can also provide many innovative approaches to overcome barriers. IT will always be exciting and one will adapt to this ever-changing landscape. This review focuses on applications of IT in dentistry for clinical care, dental education, patient education, research, administration, electronic dental records, tele-dentistry, design and production, digital radiography and digital photography.

  80. Niladri Sekhar Bhunia

    2 year old child presented with acute onset respiratory distress after ingestion of multiple Dapsone tablets accidentally. Relevant blood investigations revealed methemoglobinemia. Child responded with freshly prepared Inj. Methylene Blue and discharged after 7 days.

  81. Dr. Jagruti J. Gulati, Dr. Tushar B. Patil and Dr. Ashish Yadav

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the conventional method of incision and drainage with an alternative method of the incision and drainage with primary closure with or without drain. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 patients admitted to our hospital were randomly divided into two groups Group A: -includes 50% patients of total sample size in study by conventional method of incision and drainage only. Group B: -includes 50% patients of total sample size in incision and drainage with primary closure with or without drain. Results: Closed group patients required less analgesia post-operatively, had lesser time to heal, lesser duration of hospital stay, lesser number of dressing changes, lesser pain during dressing change, better scar and not much rate of recurrences than the open group. Conclusion: Primary closure with or without negative suction drain can be a alternative technique over the conventional incision and drainage method of acute abscesses according to this study.

  82. Dr. Swathi S Amin, Dr. Bhaskar V., Dr. Geeta S. N. and Dr. Rashmi S.

    Background: Introduction of IMRT techniques for the treatment of Head and Neck carcinomas (HNSCC) has given better dose conformity and sparing of the organs at risk (OARs). Disadvantage of fixed angle IMRT is longer radiation delivery time and increased patient exposure to low dose radiation. Recently, VMAT has been developed which enables IMRT-like dose distributions to be delivered using a single rotation of the gantry and thereby reducing the treatment time. This study is undertaken to compare VMAT (single and double arcs) and IMRT plans for dose homogeneity, dose conformity and ability to spare OARs in HNSCC. Aims and objectives: • To compare IMRT and VMAT (Single and double arc) techniques in terms of tumor coverage, conformity and doses received by normaltissues. • To compare the treatment delivery time between IMRT and VMAT (single arc and double arc) in terms of monitor units(MUs). Methods and Materials: Between January 2014 to December 2015, 43 patients with nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, hypoharyngeal and laryngeal cancers were taken. IMRT, VMAT single arc and VMAT double arc plans were generated. Comparison of doses using dose volume histogram (DVH) was done. Doses to normal structures, tumor coverage and dose homogeneity and dose conformity was compared. Results: VMAT double arc plans had a superior homogeneity index(HI) equal to (0.1 ± 0.01) [p = 0.001] and best conformity(CI95%=1.2±0.16)[p= 0.02] compared to single arc plans with a HI of (0.1 ± 0.02) and slightly inferior conformity(CI95% = 1.3 ± 0.17) and IMRT plans with a HI of (0.1 ± 0.16) and least conformity (CI95%= 1.3 ±0.23). The average MU needed to deliver the dose of 225cGy per fraction was (637 ± 117.6 MU) [0.001] and (600.7 ± 113.95 MU) for double arc and single arc as against (1121.7 ± 390.27 MU) for the IMRT plan. The average number of monitor units was reduced by 53% for VAMT plans and double arc plans required only 10% more monitor units than single arc plans. Interpretation and Conclusion: VMAT double arc proved a significant sparing of OARs without compromising target coverage compared to IMRT. Hence VMAT is a fast, safe and a better treatment option in our comparison for HNSCC that uses lower MUs compared to IMRT.

  83. *Dr. Rashmi S., Dr. Sai Snehit,C., Dr. Bhaskar, V., Dr. Geeta, S.N.

    Primary thyroid mucosa associated lymphoid tissue(MALT) lymphoma is a rare extranodal Non Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL)of the thyroid. It is most common in females, has an indolent course and mostly asymptomatic making the early diagnosis more challenging. There are no optimal guidelines for the management of thyroid MALT oma. We are presenting a case of unresectablethyroid MAL Toma treated with definitive radiotherapy. Patient is under complete response since 24 months of definitive radiotherapy. We emphasise the role of radiotherapy as single modality of treatment in early unresectable thyroid MALT omas with good local control.

  84. Adjoby Cassou Roland, Gbary-Lagaud Eléonore, Alla Christian Hervé, Koffi Soh Victor, Kakou Kouadio Charles, Angoi Aya Virginie, Kouamé Arthur Didier, Loba Okoin Paul José and Abauleth Yao Raphael

    Objective: The objective of our study was to analyze fetal prognosis during delivery from below in the presence of a cord circular in a country with bad medical care. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical aims relating to delivery from below with an umbilical cord circular. The study covered a period of 3 years from January 2016 to December 2018 and took place at the Teaching Hospital of Cocody. Results: the frequency of deliveries from below with a circular cord was 3.3%. The average age of the population was 28 with extremes of 17 and 42 patients were evacuated in 69.3% of the cases and, the presence of the cord circular was specified in 41.7% of the cases. Our patients were nulliparous in 39.9% of the cases. Among them, 63.8% had performed at least 4 ANCs. In 57.7% of cases (263/456), an emergency caesarean section had been decided before delivery. At birth, the umbilical cords were short (<50cm) in 2.6% of the cases, normal (50 to 70 cm) in 94.8% of the cases and long (> 90cm) in 2.6% of the cases. 19 neonatal deaths were observed (4.2% of cases). Neither fetal weight nor hours of labor were found as determinants of stillbirth in this association. Conclusion: Delivery from below is possible when the umbilical cord circular is unique, as long as there is rigorous monitoring of the labor of delivery and that emergency caesareans section once decided, are performed within a reasonable time.

  85. Lopamoodra Das, Arpita Sarkar, Dhrubojyoti Banerjee, Anwesha Adak, Subrata Saha and Subir Sarkar

    Mixed dentition is the most crucial period because early treatment would correct the occlusion as well as ensure normal development of teeth and jaws. Interceptive procedures not only simplify but also eliminate the need for the later treatment procedures. A most important advantage of early interception is that the majority of the malocclusion can be corrected non surgically and without the extraction of permanent teeth. This article presents three cases of correction of malposed teeth in the mixed dentition period using a 2x4 appliance.

  86. Renu Bala Sroa, Sunakshi Sharma, Jagvinder Singh Mann, Navjot Singh Khurana, Daminder Singh, Balpreet Kaur and Sonal Maurya

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and microleakage of class II cavities in maxillary premolars restored with Cention-N, with and without an adhesive, silver amalgam and bulk fill composite resin. Settings and Design: This was an in vitro study. Materials and Method: A total 120 maxillary premolars were selected and divided into four groups (30 each) according to the filling material used - Group 1- Class II cavities restored with silver amalgam, Group 2- Class II cavities restored with bulk fill composite resin, Group 3- Class II cavities restored with Cention N without an adhesive, Group 4- Class II cavities restored with Cention N with an adhesive. Half of Samples were subjected tothermocycling and immersed in methylene blue dye. Samples were then sectioned longitudinally and evaluated for dye leakage under stereomicroscope. Remaining half were tested for fracture resistance under universal testing machine. Recorded results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results of this study showed that Cention Nwith an adhesive showed the highest fracture resistance and lowest microleakage score followed by Cention N without an adhesive and bulk fill composite resin (Tetric N Ceram). While the specimen restored with silver amalgam showed least resistance to fracture and highest micro leakage. Statistical analysis of fracture resistance showed a highly significant difference between the groups and statistical analysis of microleakage showed a significant difference amongst the groups. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it may be concluded from the present study that Cention N when used with an adhesive provide highest resistance to fracture and lowest micro leakage amongst all the groups and thus it is suitable for posterior teeth restoration in class II cavities as a good alternative to amalgam and posterior composites.

  87. Yared Tesfaye, Yibekal Alemayehu and Kiya Adare

    Field experiment was carried out at Adola District during the 2018 main cropping season to investigate the effect of blended NPS and N fertilizers rates on yield components and yield of teff and to identify the economically feasible rates of blended NPS and N fertilizers for high yield of teff production in the study area. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of four levels of blended NPS (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg NPS ha-1) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg N ha-1) fertilizer rates. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of the results revealed that total tillers (TT), productive tillers (PT), thousand kernels weight (TKW) and lodging index (LI) were highly significant (P<0.01) for the main effect of NPS as well as the main effect of N; while aboveground dry biomass yield (BMY), grain yield (GY) and straw yield (SY) were highly significant (P<0.01) only by the main effect of NPS. The maximum TT (1291 plant m-2), PT (1192 plant m-2), BMY (10038 kg ha-1) GY (2162 kg ha-1), TKW (0.3549 g), SY (7876 kg ha-1) and LI (70.83%) were recorded at the highest rate of blended NPS (150 kg NPS ha-1). Similarly, the maximum TT (1232 plant m-2), PT (1138 plant m-2), TKW (0.3446 g) and LI (66.67%) were recorded at the highest rate of N (69 kg N ha-1). The interaction of the two fertilizers were also highly significant (P<0.01) for days to 90% maturity (DM) and panicle length (PL) and significantly (P<0.05) affected by days to 50% panicle emergency (DPE) and plant height (PH).The highest DPE (49 days) and DM (86.33 days) were obtained from unfertilized (control) treatments. Maximum PH (105.72cm) and PL (43.33 cm) were recorded at combined application of 150 kg NPS with 69 kg N ha- 1, respectively. Economic analysis result showed that combined application of 150 kg NPS and 46 kg N ha-1had gave highest economic benefit of 61315.41 Birr ha-1 with the marginal rate of return of 852.50%. Therefore, use of 150 kg NPS and 46 kg N ha-1 was recommended for production of teff in the study area.

  88. Premalatha, M. and Lakshmi, S.

    The objective of this research was to probe the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin–Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride method respectively. Antioxidant activities of C. angustifolia plants were tested on the basis of ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), radical scavenging assay, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, Super oxide radical scavenging activity, Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity and Metal chelating activity. Similarly, antibacterial activities were performed by disc diffusion method and MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) against Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginaeand Erwiniachrysanthemi. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in ethyl acetate extract of C. angustifoliawas 78.9±1.36 mg GAE/g and 53±2.45μg RE/g respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of C. angustifolia showed significant antioxidant activity. Similarly, the study on antibacterial activity of ethyl acetate extract of C. angustifolia revealed inhibitory activity. However ethyl acetate extract of C. angustifolia showed higher inhibitory zone against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae and Erwiniachrysanthemi (16, 15.6 and 14.4 mm). This research work has made it clear that ethyl acetate extract of Cassia angustifolia possess excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activity and the extracts can be more widely used in developing countries for the prevention and treatment of ageing and infective related diseases and may be considered as good source for drug discovery.

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