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Plagiarism Detection

IJCR is following an instant policy on rejection those received papers with plagiarism rate of more than 20%. So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies.

 

 

 

 

February 2012

  1. Rejoice, P.R. and Ravishankar, A.K.

    Objective: To evaluate the determinants of antenatal care utilization of scheduled caste women in Thiruvarur district, Tamilnadu. Methods: Multistage stratified random sampling technique was applied to select the respondents from the Thiruvarur district for the research purpose. There were 1164 households with the target population. Totally 1203 women in the age group of 15-24 were identified in all the five blocks. Thus, in all, 661 respondents were selected following circular systematic random sampling technique. Of these 661 respondents, 605 completed the questionnaire, 32 respondents declined to participate and 24 respondents completed scheduled that had to be discarded of substantial inconsistency, yielding a response rate of 91.5 percent. Results: Overwhelming majority of the SC women made at least one visit for the antenatal care service during their pregnancy episode (94.4 percent). Only ten percent of SC women received full ANC during their pregnancy period. As compared with illiterate women, women with higher education were about 16 times more likely to receive full ANC. The proportion of women who receive full ANC increased steadily and was positively associated with the wealth indexes, when compared to the poorest, the receiving pattern of full ANC on richest women 26 times higher. Conclusion: Education of women, standard of living index, birth order, exposure to mass media, distance between health care facility and home were significantly associated received complete ANC in the study area. Hence, improving ANC services could be a good strategy to promote status of pregnant mother as well the new born child.

  2. C.P Ukpaka, J. Odharo, and C. Akpado

    In this paper conventional data collection exercise was carried out to investigate the causes of equipment failure in Olefin plant using a series of interviews about the plants life for the past six years. The two variables used are the maintenance hour (X) and the loss in production during maintenance (Y). Mathematical approach of regression analysis was used to analyze the failure. The developed model was simulated to determine the intercept and the slop, which is the change in production loss that accompanies a unit change in maintenance hour. The correlation coefficient of maintenance hour and production loss and the standard error of the slope were computed. The simulated model reveals that the intercept is zero, the slope is 24, and the correlation coefficient is 1 and 95% prediction interval for the slope. Human error, depreciation and lack of maintenance after startup were considered as the contributing factors to the failure of industrial equipment.

  3. Hashni, T. and Amudha, T.

    Nature provides motivation to scientists in many ways. Scientists have started to realize that nature is a great source of inspiration to develop intelligent systems and techniques. Nature- Inspired algorithms is a kind of algorithms that imitate the problem solving behavior from nature. Consultant Guided Search algorithm (CGS) and Genetic algorithm (GA) are some of the Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms inspired from Nature. In this paper, Consultant Guided Search algorithm (CGS) was hybridized with Genetic algorithm (GA) and a new technique was proposed. The proposed Consultant Guided Search - Genetic algorithm (CGS-GA) was implemented to solve the benchmark instances of Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). The performance of the proposed CGS-GA was compared with CGS algorithm. Results have shown that the proposed CGS-GA has outperformed CGS in arriving at improved optimal solutions for various test instances of Quadratic Assignment Problem.

  4. Sunil, A. and Jagadeeswara Rao, S.

    Cadmium(II) catalyses dimerisation of o-Hydroxyphenylthiourea(OHPTU) to a yellow coloured disulphide, 1,1’-dithio-bis-N-(o-Hydroxyphenyl)formamide. Rate of formation of the coloured dimer increases with the concentration of cadmium(II) ions. Photometric and fluorometric methods were employed to study this reaction at pH 9.0 and the range of determination was determined to be 600ng.mL-1 - 30.0ng.mL-1 with a detection limit of 20.0ng.mL-1 using fixed time approach. The absorbance measurements were taken at λmax=416nm and the quenching effect of cadmium(II) on the fluorescence intensity of OHPTU was studied at λEm=520nm using Stern-Volmer plots. Effects of variation in analytical parameters and interference of associated metal ions in the catalysed oxidation of OHPTU were investigated. This method is fairly selective, sensitive, low in cost and free from pre-concentration procedures. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium(II) present in stream water, ground water, fountain water, tap water and sludge water samples.

  5. Eluozo, S. N., Ukpaka, C. P. and Udeh, N.

    Predictive model to monitor the spreading rate of crude oil in surface water environment was developed in this paper, this model were generated through an experiment performed, The experiments were performed to examine the rate of crude oil spread in surface water, This experiment yield allots of results, some of the results were applied to examine the rate of spread through graphs that were plotted, The generated model equation from the graph were resolved, the resolved equation yielded theoretical values, this values were compared to other measured values from different locations, both parameters generated the following model equations y =1.909x+20.24 with R2 = 0.999,y =9.968x-1.951 R2= 0.995,y = -1.988x +13.55 R2 =0.998,y = 9,977x-4.528 R2=0.999,y = -1.777x + 9.166 R2 =0.991, and y =3.635x +1.257 R2 = 0.987. This model if applied will predict the rate of spread of crude oil in surface water environment. The rate of marine habitats degradation in most rivers and lake is of serious concern, especially in developing nations were the level of environmental pollution of oil spill is very high, this model will go a long way in predicting the rate of pollution, and reduce the threat of life in the study area.

  6. S.V. Suresh Babu, D. Maheswar, G. Ranganath and Y.Vijaya Kumar

    The Integrated Reliability Models for Redundant Systems with multiple constraints for one mathematical function is established by applying Lagrangean approach, the related case problem is presented to find the component reliabilities (rj), the number of components in each stage (xj), stage reliability (Rj) and the System Reliability (Rs). The Lagrangean approach which is an effective procedure has got certain limitations in the sense that the number of components in each stage will be given only in real numbers, which is infeasible for implementation to real life problems. The purpose of this Paper is to optimize a class of Integrated Reliability Model for Redundant Systems with Cost and Weight as additional constraints apart from basic cost constraint. By taking the mathematical function rj = (cj/bj)1/dj the optimum component reliability, stage reliability, the number of components in each stage and the system reliability are determined after taking the pre-determined values of Cost, and Weight. In this work, an attempt is made to develop an integrated reliability redundant model for a Series – Parallel configuration subject to the multiple constraints. Generally reliability is treated as the function of Cost but in any given practical situation apart from cost, other constraint like Weight will have hidden impact on the reliability of the system. In this model the Lagrangean technique is implemented to determine the Cost and Weight as constraints. The model has yielded very encouraging results and it can be applied to any type of system, simple or complex. The advantage of this model is very flexible and requires little processing time.

  7. Prof. Dr.P.K. Srimani and Srinivas, A

    This paper an overview of the state of the art in the area of sentiment analysis is presented. Research is being carried out in this area. The approaches and techniques of sentiment analysis and its application in various fields are present here. Within we focus, on automated sentiment analysis using Natural Language Processing (NLP). In addition some sentiment analysis tools available to pinpoint the effect of specific issues on the customer perceptions are discussed, helping the vendors respond with appropriate marketing and PR strategies. It is concluded that the present work provides a platform for further research.

  8. P.K. Srimani and Mrs. S. Kavitha

    Hand gesture recognition system can be used for providing the interface between computer and human using hand gestures. The main objective of the present work is to develop algorithms for the recognition of thirty six static hand gestures in the American Sign Language (ASL). By employing a pattern recognition technique in which the orientation histogram is used as a feature vector for gesture classification and interpolation accurate results are obtained.

  9. Prof. Dr. P. K. Srimani F.N.A.SC, Mrs. Malini M. Patil, Prof.Dr.P.K.Srivathsa

    This paper mainly focuses on the performance evaluation of the three types of classifiers viz., Rule-based, Decision tree based and Baysian networks on Edu-data which is a large repository consisting of data related to technical education system; which is considered as a benchmark system for the study of Edu-mining. The three important stakeholders of the system are Student, Faculty and Management. The study comprises of 3 modules in student stakeholder, 3 modules in faculty stakeholder and finally an integrated module. Totally 3500 instances are taken for each module and the results of the present investigation predict (i) the optimal classifiers for each module.(ii) the accuracy and time complexity for all the classifiers and (iii)facilities to take the effective managerial decisions. No doubt the results of the present integrated approach provides a unique platform for making effective predictions at all the levels.

  10. Prof. Dr. P.K. Srimani and Sujatha, D

    This paper deals with a detailed study of asymptotic solution to bio-porous convection in a suspension of microscopic swimming phototactic algae. Experimental observations indicate that bio convection patterns are modified by illumination. This phenomenon will be observed in a large number of different algal species where the cells are denser than water and tend to swim upward on average. The continuum model for phototaxis and suspension shading was formulated in a porous medium. Here, the length scale of the bulk motions and the concentration distribution are large when compared to cell diameters and cell spacing. Pure phototaxis is a valid limiting case to consider in order to understand the complexities of the effects of photo taxis on BPC (bio-porous-convection) before moving in to a higher dimension. Further the diffusion tensor is a constant orthotropic tensor. The linear stability problem is discussed in detail and solvability conditions are derived up to the third order. Analyses for the two cases namely a) upper rigid and b) upper stress free boundary are discussed. Extensive graphs are drawn for the various computed results and the permeability number has strong influence on the inhibition and enhancement of bio convection.

  11. Tamil Selvi, S. Samuel Selvaraj, R.

    Rescaled range analysis (R/S analysis), detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) are widely-used methods for detection of long-range correlations in time series This paper employs R/s analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis method to investigate the trend of Northeast monsoon rainfall of Tamil Nadu time series. The data used for this analysis is from the year 1901 to 2004 through about 104 years. The different scaling exponents estimated by R/S method and DFA method indicates the same result of anti-persistence in the Northeast monsoon rainfall of Tamil Nadu.

  12. Somu Mageswari, Narayanan Nisha, John Santhosh Kumar and Kathavarayan Subramanian

    The monomer 4-benzyloxyphenylmethacrylate (4-BOPMA) was synthesized by reacting 4-benzyloxy phenol dissolved in methylethylketone (MEK) with mathacryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. The homopolymer and various copolymers of 4-BOPMA with acrylonitrile (AN) were synthesized by the free radical polymerization in MEK at 70 ± 1oC in nitrogen atmosphere using benzoylperoxide as initiator. The homopolymer and copolymers were characterized by various spectral techniques like IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The molecular weights of the polymers were determined by gel permeation chromatography. The glass transition temperature of the polymers were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the polymers were performed by thermogravimetric analysis in inert atmosphere. The monomer reactivity ratios were determined using the conventional linearization methods such as Fineman – Ross (r1 = 0.5858, r2= 0.2263), Kelen Tüdös (r1 = 0.5726, r2 = 0.1517) and extended Kelen Tüdös (r1 = 0.5691, r2 = 0.1880).

  13. Ademiluyi, J. O. and Arimieari, L.W.

    A sludge drying bed of 1.2m by 0.75m was designed and used in dewatering sewage sludge collected from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka waste water treatment plant. This was used in determining parameters necessary in the formulation of an equation for sludge filtration based on the concept of specific resistance using LMT dimensional analysis. The equation was used in determining the performance of sludge drying bed which is a natural means of sludge dewatering. This shows that the resistance to filtration for conditioned sludge decreases as the conditioner concentration increases showing that the derived equation is in consonance with Carman’s equation and it can be used in evaluating sludge dewatering parameters. The modified equation based on the concept of specific resistance can be adopted in sludge dewatering investigations as it seems to agree with already existing Carman’s filtration equation that the resistance to filtration for conditioned sludge decreases as the conditioner concentration increases. The results of the experiment showed that the sludge was filterable due to the calculated values of specific resistance.

  14. Sivasakthi Rajammal, T. and Muthumanickam, R.

    In the present investigation has been under taken in order to study the teacher effectiveness of school teachers in Chennai and Thiruvallur Districts. Teacher Effectiveness of school teachers’ scale was constructed and standardized by Kumar and Mutha (1974) has been administrated to a random sample of 900 school teachers. It is found that teachers significantly differ in teacher effectiveness in respect of gender, place of school, level of teaching and they do not differ in teacher effectiveness in respect of marital status, age, type of management, years of experience and monthly income of teachers.

  15. John K. M. Kuwornu and Freda E. Asem

    In this study, we examine the efficiency of regulated (poultry and eggs) and non-regulated (fruits and vegetables) Agricultural Marketing Co-operatives using profit estimations. Time series data that spans from 1984 – 2001 was obtained from various institutions in Canada for the analysis. A Translog production function was specified and the analysis was carried across the above mentioned Agricultural Marketing Co-operatives. The empirical results reveal that, in general, these the co-operatives do not have equal economic efficiency; each co-operative has its own level of efficiency. This result also suggests that the co-operatives may be operating with different kinds of technologies within the same sub-sector and across various sub-sectors. These results imply that each co-operative has its own level of efficiency. Equal and absolute allocative efficiency were also tested and the results showed that the hypothesis of equal or absolute efficiency is rejected for the two groups of co-operatives. This means that that the allocative efficiency of the co-operatives is not equal and neither are they absolute. The elasticities of the regulated co-operative (poultry and eggs) were less elastic as compared to those for the non-regulated co-operative (fruits and vegetables). Further, the results imply that the regulated co-operative did not exhibit any undue advantage over the non-regulated co-operative that might be attributed to supply management. The empirical results from the profit and efficiency estimations showed that the individual co-operatives are not technically or allocatively efficient. These results have policy implications regarding the management of co-operatives in the sense that supply-managed co-operatives may have to be more concerned about improving efficiency.

  16. John K. M. Kuwornu and Freda E. Asem

    In this study, we examine the efficiency of regulated (poultry and eggs) and non-regulated (fruits and vegetables) Agricultural Marketing Co-operatives using profit estimations. Time series data that spans from 1984 – 2001 was obtained from various institutions in Canada for the analysis. A Translog production function was specified and the analysis was carried across the above mentioned Agricultural Marketing Co-operatives. The empirical results reveal that, in general, these the co-operatives do not have equal economic efficiency; each co-operative has its own level of efficiency. This result also suggests that the co-operatives may be operating with different kinds of technologies within the same sub-sector and across various sub-sectors. These results imply that each co-operative has its own level of efficiency. Equal and absolute allocative efficiency were also tested and the results showed that the hypothesis of equal or absolute efficiency is rejected for the two groups of co-operatives. This means that that the allocative efficiency of the co-operatives is not equal and neither are they absolute. The elasticities of the regulated co-operative (poultry and eggs) were less elastic as compared to those for the non-regulated co-operative (fruits and vegetables). Further, the results imply that the regulated co-operative did not exhibit any undue advantage over the non-regulated co-operative that might be attributed to supply management. The empirical results from the profit and efficiency estimations showed that the individual co-operatives are not technically or allocatively efficient. These results have policy implications regarding the management of co-operatives in the sense that supply-managed co-operatives may have to be more concerned about improving efficiency.

  17. Obasanjo S. Balogun, and Joseph O. Fayeye

    Nigeria’s political landscape is faced with series of challenges and socio-political factors that portend hindrances to sustainable democratic governance. Over the years, the conduct of elections has been a problematic as violence remains the hallmark of Nigerian politics. Electoral violence has assumed a worrisome dimension in the Nigerian democratic system. Nearly all elections in Nigeria have been marred by violence.The spate of general election violence has formed a pattern resulting in threat to peace and order.The main objective of this paper is to assess the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in curtailing electoral violence and how they sustain democratic governance. The study used secondary data sources to analyze the issue of electoral violence and democratic governance in Nigeria. It concluded with policy options that could enhance the civil society organizations in playing more roles to forestall violence and sustain democratic governance in Nigeria.

  18. S. Bala, Dr. P. Balasubramanian and P. Baalachandaran

    The present study was carried out to the expectation of Students and Faculty members on using the library Resources and Services of G.V.N.College Library, Kovilpatti (India). The study mainly focused on the utilization of various resources, location of access, learn to access, experience of using e-resources and need for improving various skills in the usage of library resources and services. For this purpose the researcher prepared a well structured questionnaire as a tool for data collection and presented with useful percentage analysis and suitable table for presentation of data. On the basis of result, some suggestions have been put forwarded for improving the usage of library resources and services.

  19. Eric R Masese, Christopher M Nyenze and Edna N Masita

    In learning institutions such as public universities in Kenya, training of teaching staff is mostly emphasized in their manpower development policies. This is because training forms a major component of their job promotion. However, in recent past it has been observed that most non-teaching staff in many universities are engaged in self initiated staff training contrary to most universities training policies. This study therefore examined how job security, financial gain, desire to get a new job elsewhere, career development and university manpower training policy influence self initiated staff training among middle level staff in Moi University. Data for this study was collected from 100 Middle level employees of Moi University who were selected through multi-stage sampling technique using interview schedule. Quantitative data from closed ended questions were organized and analyzed using SPSS computer programme and presented in percentages. Qualitative data from open-ended questions were transcribed and analyzed manually. Inferential statistic such as Chi- square and spearman r correlation coefficient were used to test the relationship between variables. The study found that self initiated staff training was influenced by job security although the influence was not so strong. University manpower training policy was, however, found to negatively influence self initiated staff training while other factors such as financial gain, career development and desire to get a new job elsewhere did not have any influence. In conclusion, the study argues that self initiated staff training among middle level staff is influenced by desire of getting extra / more relevant skills which are deemed essential in meeting performance targets. Meeting performance targets is a major condition for continued job security for all employees who are in permanent and Pensionable terms.

  20. Shilaja, C.L. and Dr. Rennet Samson

    The Native American and Afro-American culture has been preserved over centuries through the medium of oral literature. They employ oral tradition to preserve and maintain their cultural and individual identities. Storytelling is a survival tactic, a way to preserve and maintain identity. Morrison and Erdrich retrieve through oral tradition their lost identity, which is not only their personal identity but that of their whole people. The oral tradition is rooted in the ancient voices of the tribes, their stories, myths and rites. It is their wish to write it down, to not only record and preserve the memories but also the cultural tradition in a voice of story telling that brings back the old recollections in their novels. Erdrich’s and Morrison’s storytelling reconstructs and transmits the past and present tribulations. Toni Morrison’s Beloved and Louise Erdrich’s Tracks have registered the oral tradition in their novels for the benefit of both the listeners and the readers. The paper presents the pattern of ideas in which Morrison and Erdrich capture the form and purpose of oral story telling.

  21. Sandipan Ghosh Tapas Dolui and Tithy Maji

    One of the fast growing urban centres of South Bengal is Barddhaman Town which is situated on the fertile Lower Damodar Floodplain (23°14′18″N and 87°51′39″E). Recently the urbanization process has been played a dual role in the socio-economic development and environmental degradation. The town has drastically increased its area and population size from 1970, as well as the urban healthy environment is deteriorated. This paper aims to analyse the environmental degradation in terms of pollution. So, we have been selected three aspects of urban pollution- Air, Water and Noise Pollution. Taking Pre-Monsoon and Monsoon measurements of SO2, NO2 and RSPM, we have found that there is high level of air pollution in the selected locations. Analyzing the chemical data of surface waterbodies and sediment samples of waterbodies, we have been traced the heavy metals’ concentration in few locations. Side by side, the silence zones and dense residential areas are very much suffered from noise pollution in daytime. At last combining those results, graphs and spatial coverages of pollutions we have been prepared a ward-wise pollution risk map of Barddhaman Town using Geographic Information System.

  22. Truphena E. Mukuna

    Educational curriculum development is a shared responsibility amongst parents and teachers, especially in ECDE, where both must work very closely to lay a firm foundation for the child. This paper examines the challenges faced by pre-school teachers and parents in curriculum development process, and ways in which parents and teachers can enhance a partnership in early childhood curriculum development. A descriptive research design was adopted. The data sources were: a parental involvement questionnaire for pre-school teachers, a parental involvement interview schedule for the pre-school parents, and document analysis. Simple random and saturated samplings were employed for the pre-school parents and teachers respectively. Multiple data analysis methods were used. Although pre-school parents and teachers wanted to be involved in early childhood curriculum development, teachers did not know the specific activities of involving parents. Furthermore, the partnership was hampered by barriers to parental involvement in early childhood curriculum development emanating from both parents and teachers. The study recommended: employment of pre-school teachers by the Teachers Service Commission and of Quality Assurance and Standards Officers with the knowledge base on early childhood to enforce practice of early childhood education policy and review of the pre-school teacher.

  23. Truphena E. Mukuna and Francis C. Indoshi

    This paper examines the role of parents and perceptions of both parents and teachers towards early childhood development based on a study conducted among preschool parents and teachers at Mumias Town, Kenya. The descriptive research design was adopted. The data sources were: a parental involvement questionnaire for pre-school teachers, a parental involvement interview schedule for the pre-school parents, and document analysis. Simple random sampling was done for the pre-school parents and saturated sampling for pre-school teachers. Multiple data analysis methods were used. It emerged that both teachers and parents held positive perceptions towards parental involvement in early childhood curriculum development. Teachers indicated that their teacher-education courses did not equip them with knowledge and skills on parental involvement strategies while parents indicated that in most pre-schools, teachers had a negative attitude towards parental involvement in instructional activities. Parents were involved at the curriculum implementation level when they paid fees, provided teaching and learning materials, interacted with teachers, supported children with homework and assisted with child discipline at school. The study recommended, among other things, an adult literacy programme for pre-school parents; early childhood education parental awareness programme.

  24. Kubakaddi Basavaraj and Dr. M.D. Krishna

    “For a Corporation to be convicted of a crime, the prosecution must prove that one or more agents committed all elements of the crime. This is relativity easy to do if a crime has occurred in a small organization, but the structure of large organization can make prosecution difficult, particularly where mensrea is an element of the crime. Where evidence of multiple guilty agents exists, the defense can exploit this ambiguity to create reasonable doubt as to each agent”

  25. Vishnuvarthanan, M., Rajesh Panda, Ilangovan, S. and S .K. Nayak

    Optimization of cycle time in injection molding plays a vital role in manufacturing of plastic parts to improve the productivity of the process. At the same time it should not affect the quality of the final product. This paper describes the cycle time optimization of Hinge Locator – Guided support plastic part, through a repeated number of analyses which was carried out by Moldflow simulation software. The process parameters like cooling time, Injection time are optimized in which it contributes more in the cycle time. Experimental verification has been done with new optimized parameters in Injection molding machine. The results of the experiment showed a way to achieve the purpose of optimizing the injection molding machine in a sensible and cost efficient way

  26. Beatrice. E. Imo, Keren Mburugu and Olive Mugenda

    This paper examines how consumer preferences and buying practices affect apparel trade within a liberalised market in Nairobi, and the awareness level of apparel traders of these preferences. Data were collected using interview schedules and observation checklists. A random sample of 90 apparel traders was drawn from Kenyatta, Jericho and Central Business District market centres in Nairobi. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS®). Results showed that all traders had some level of formal education. The main types of apparel sold were: New Imported and Custom-tailored. Majority of the traders targeted women as their main clientele because they were considered the most willing buyers. They also stocked apparel for men and/or children for more profit. Chi-square analysis showed that the traders’ age, position held in business and source of fabric/clothing significantly influenced the types of apparel they sold. Moreover, the type of apparel sold was affected by consumer preferences for those imported because locally-produced apparel did not meet consumers’ needs in terms of quality and variety. The Ministry of Trade and Industry should formulate mechanisms to enable apparel traders’ easy access to information on existing trends and policies that affect their businesses.

  27. Keror Isaac Kipruto

    This paper explores the role of micro-finance institutions in alleviating poverty among small-scale wheat farmers in Kenya. The paper discusses the utilization of loans from micro-finance institutions by small scale farmers in growing wheat to illustrate how farmers improve their living standards and to a large extent alleviate poverty among themselves. The paper uses data obtained in a six-months study carried out in five locations in Moiben Division, Uasin Gishu County, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. The data to which this paper is based were collected through survey method, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), informant interviews, observation, and secondary sources. A total of 200 small-scale wheat farmers selected using simple random sampling participated in this study. The data obtained were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The paper argues that although micro-finance institutions provide small-scale wheat farmers with opportunities to acquire loans, the loan amount being offered is inadequate for wheat production given the fact that wheat production mainly uses capital intensive technology. As a result, small-scale farmers use low quality seeds, fertilizers and chemicals which result into low yield, low revenue income and consequently low standard of living. The paper concludes that investing loans from micro-finance institutions in small-scale wheat production does not result in sufficient income revenue; hence tend to promote and not alleviate poverty.

  28. Ranjit Kumar Panda, Jyoti Prakash Dhal and Subash Chandra Mishra

    This paper presents the work carried out for the improvement of mechanical properties of fly ash compacts by adding a binder. Here we added sodium silicate as a binder to the different weight fractions of fly ash, sand, gypsum and lime mixture and then compacted. These compacts were treated in normal water at different temperatures for seven days. Then compressive strength and microstructure for the different compacts were investigated. It was observed that the compressive strength of the fly ash compacts increased with addition of sodium silicate and the particles were dispersed and deviated from their globular equiaxed shape to multifaceted type in microstructure.

  29. Thomas Njoroge Kinga, Mary W. Kariuki and Teresia W. Njonge

    Counselling is a helping profession which involves caring for people with complex psychological and emotional needs. Working closely with people in pain, agony, grief, bereavement, trauma and other complex psycho-social needs often infects the counsellor with a patient’s sadness, a condition often referred to as psychic poisoning or vicarious traumatization. This leads to a form of stress called burnout, a state of emotional depletion, lost ideals and purpose. Despite the levels of burnout that counsellors are predisposed to rarely is attention devoted to counsellors’ psychological wellbeing. Major associations for counsellors all over the world are in agreement that burnout is inevitable and for this reason they make counsellor supervision a compulsory part of their code of ethics. Without adequate supervision, counsellors suffer burnout, may get impaired and fail to contribute optimally to the client. This paper investigates the role of counsellor supervision in managing burnout among counsellors in Kenya. A few suggestions of how counsellor supervision may help in managing burnout are also included in this paper.

  30. Veena, S and Krishna Kumar, R

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of using a CAELL instructional program of English grammar, the Degrees of Comparison, under the Cognitive Load theory framework on the achievement of IX Standard school students. The sample of the study consisted of 240 students distributed randomly on three experimental groups and three control groups. The instruments of the study were an instructional software program for teaching the Degrees of Comparison and an automated assessment is incorporated in the module itself. An Analysis of covariance was used to find out the significance of the Variables Vs Goal-free effects on the students’ achievement in the Degrees of Comparison. The findings of the study revealed that: 1. there were statistically significant differences on Cognitive factor Goal- free problem effect on the students' achievement on post- scores in grammar attributed to Computer Exposure (At Home, School& Both) of the experimental group. The difference is significant on the Experimental group students those who have Computer Exposure with respect to Goal –free problem effect.2. There were statistically significant differences on Cognitive factor Goal-free problem effect between the students' achievement on post- scores in grammar attributed to Gender of the experimental group. The difference is significant on the experimental group students based on gender with respect to Goal-free problem effect. In light of the findings of the study, it was recommended that English Language teachers could use CAELL instruction programs under the Cognitive Load Theory framework.

  31. M A Hashem, Umme Salma, Md Jahedul Islam, Reaz Mohammad Mazumdar, Golam Kabir

    Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which can eventually lead to blindness. It is an ocular manifestation of systemic disease which affects up to 80% of all patients who have had diabetes. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors associated with retinopathy in Type 2 diabetes of Bangladeshi subjects. In this study with a standardized selection procedure a total number of 60 diabetic patients without retinopathy and 41 diabetic patients with retinopathy were purposively enrolled from the Chittagong Diabetic Hospital. Diabetic retinopathy was diagnosed by retinal color photography. Anthropometric and different biochemical parameters such as Glucose, Triglycerides, Total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and HbA1c which were measured by standard methods. Compared to those without retinopathy, diabetic patients with any retinopathy were significantly older and they were (52.73±10.33 versus 60.13±9.40 and the p value was <0.001), had longer duration of diabetes (5.04±4.4 and 8.85±3.52 and the p value was <0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (126.67±13.86 versus 135±14.5 and the p value was =0.005) and poor glycemic control (8.73±2.12 versus 12.4±2.22 and p value was <0.001). The mean serum cholesterol (P<0.001), serum triglycerides (P <0.001), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P =0.020) concentrations were higher and High density lipoprotein (HDL) (p<0.001) was lower in subjects with diabetic retinopathy compared with those diabetic without retinopathy. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that after adjusting for age, gender, BMI (Body Mass Index), duration of diabetes, and smoking HDL cholesterol (OR = 0.898, 95% CI 0.815, 0.989, P = 0.028) and serum triglycerides (OR = 1.024, 95% CI 1.004, 1.044, P = 0.014) were associated with Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). Serum triglycerides and HDL are significantly associated with retinopathy in type 2 Diabetic subjects, independently of the traditional risk factors, longer duration and glycemic control.

  32. Raj, G.P.

    Stormwater runoff, Petroleum Hydrocarbon plumes are found abundantly near big cities and heavy coastal population settlements. These hazards cause deleterious effects on the population in many ways directly or indirectly. Hence these pollution hazards are important and the coastal administrations and population need to be aware of such a danger lurking very close to them. These hazards due to their small size, dynamic and episodic in nature are difficult to be visualized or to sample using in-situ traditional scientific methods. Natural obstructions like cloud cover and complex coastal circulations can hinder to detect and monitor such occurrences in the selected areas chosen for observations. This study takes recourse to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery because the pollution hazards are easily detectable as surfactants are deposited on the sea surface, smoothing capillary and small gravity waves to produce areas of reduced backscatter compared with surrounding ocean. Therefore we are suggesting that SAR imagery, that delivers useful data regardless of darkness or cloud cover, should be made as an important observational tool for assessment and monitoring marine pollution hazards in the areas close to big cities and other developed coastal regions.

  33. Daniel M. Mwamidi, Shem M. Mwasi and Abdrizak A. Nunow

    Taita community in Kenya inhabits the Taita-Taveta County of which two thirds is occupied by Tsavo East and West National Parks. There is increased human-wildlife conflict which has led to losses of properties as well as lives of both human and wildlife. Despite wildlife management efforts by the Government, these conflicts are on the increase thereby their threatening livelihoods. The community’s indigenous knowledge on human-wildlife conflict minimization is fast disappearing as it remains in the custody of a few community elders and if not documented may soon disappear. This study documents this knowledge through qualitative interviews with elders living within the parks’ neighborhood. Data analysis showed elders’ explanations on the important role of indigenous knowledge in minimizing human-wildlife. However, for successful utilization of indigenous knowledge for this purpose to be realized, this study recommends its use in synergy with scientific knowledge in the management of wildlife and the County.

  34. Akintola, A. I; Ikhane, P. R; Laniyan, T. A; Akintola , G. O; Kehinde -Phillips, O. O and Ojajuni, P. O.

    Petrographic and geochemical evaluation of pegmatite bodies occurring as discontinuous dykes have been studied in Komu area of southwestern Nigeria, with a view to determine the compositional characteristics that may be related to Ta-Nb mineralization potentials. They are found intruding semi discordantly, the older assemblages of granite gneiss, amphibolites and semi pelitic schist. These Precambrian pegmatites bodies are usually coarse grained in texture. Thin section study reveals that they contain mainly quartz, muscovite mica, plagioclase (albite), microcline as the main minerals while tourmaline and beryl occur in subordinate amounts. Opaque minerals, mainly ilmenite, magnetite and tantalite are of accessory constituents. A total of thirty samples comprising whole rock pegmatites and mineral extract of muscovite mica were analyzed for major, trace and rare earth elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) geochemical method which show the pegmatite samples to be generally highly siliceous with Sio2 values ranging from (46.14-76.71%) with an average of 62.47% in the whole rock samples, and it also ranges from (45.28-57.50%) with an average of 48.34% in the muscovite extract samples. while Al2 O3 content could be as high as 30.72% in the muscovite extract samples and 21.06% in the whole rock samples depicting the complexity of the pegmatite rock. However, Fe2O3, TiO2, and P2O5 contents are generally low (less than 5%). The samples are fairly enriched in Rb, Ba, Sr, Zr and the rare metals Ta, Li, and Nb. Albitization is indicated by Na/K ratio which are greater than (1.0) in most of the samples and Ti-Sn-Nb-Ta discriminate plot. Variation plots of K/Rb versus Rb, Ta versus Rb, Ta versus Nb, Ta versus K/Cs, Ta versus Cs+Rb and Ta versus Cs discriminant plot indicate the potentials of rare metal mineralization. On most of these diagrams, the samples plot close to those of Tanco deposits which are known to contain appreciable levels of Ta-mineralizaton, it also compares favourably with the pegmatite samples of Noumas, Central claims, Silver leaf and Odd west deposits which are known to contain fairly low level of Ta mineralization endowments.

  35. Perumal Bhavani, Dharmalingam Sangeetha

    A novel composite electrolyte membrane, composed of sulfonated poly styrene ethylene butylenes poly styrene (SPSEBS) and zirconium phosphate (ZrPO4), was fabricated for fuel cell applications. Zirconium phosphate was prepared in–house by the reaction of zirconium oxychloride with phosphoric acid. It possesses appreciable proton conducting and donating characteristics along with excellent thermal stability and compatibility with the polymer membrane. In the fabrication of membranes, SPSEBS and ZrPO4 in tetrahydrofuran was thoroughly mixed and subsequently solvent evaporated. They were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, DSC and UTM (Universal testing machine). Their ion-exchange capacity and water uptake increased with the increase in the content of ZrPO4, but the methanol cross-over favourably reduced. The proton conductivity was in the order of 10-2 S/cm which is an excellent result for application in fuel cells. The dispersion of ZrPO4 in the polymer matrix was uniform as evidenced by the SEM images. The fuel cell performance of the composite membranes was tested using 25 cm2 cell unit.

  36. Naveen Kango and Swetlana Nagal

    Metagenomics involves isolation, amplification, cloning and screening of DNA extracted from environmental samples. This direct approach that surmounts the need of cultivating microorganisms has opened up novel facets in biological research. In the absence of appropriate cultivation methods, more than 99% of microbial diversity awaits disclosure. Metagenomics transcends conventional genomics by a direct and comprehensive approach of analyzing a collective metagenome rather than individual genomes. Metagenomic analysis of human and insect gut, acid mine drainage, water bodies etc. have indicated possibility of finding novel organisms, bioactive molecules, pathways and has exposed the nature, role and dynamics of microbial communities in these niches.

  37. Tanveer Mehedi Adyel, Syed Hafizur Rahman, S.M. Nazrul Islam, Hossain Md. Sayem, Mala Khan and Mohammad Moniruz Zaman

    Various types of dyes, polymers, resins, salts and pigments are widely used in the textile industries which influence different properties of Electrocoagulated Metal Hydroxide Sludge (EMHS), generated by Electrocoagulation (EC) technique during wastewater treatment. In this study, geo-engineering properties (moisture content, specific gravity, Atterberg limit (plastic limit, liquid limit, plasticity index, liquidity index) and linear shrinkage) of EMHS from a textile industry and EMHS amended soil were investigated by standard method (British Standard Method 1377) to find the potentiality for using as building material. EMHS contained very high limit of all geo-engineering properties compared to soil. Very high iron content in EMHS, dissociated from anodes used in wastewater treatment, increased the specific gravity. Linear shrinkage showed strong positive correlation with plastic limit, liquid limit and plasticity index. It was found that EMHS can be feasible for making building materials i.e., blocks or bricks, as a substitute of soil for up to 30%. Use of EMHS as building blocks may reduce environmental disposal problem of sludge and initiate sustainable management of sludge in long run.

  38. D.K. Sharma, M.K. Ahmad, S. Ansari and B.A. Ansari

    The present study is aimed to investigate the changes in activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in liver, ovary and muscle of Zebrafish after exposure to 96 h LC5, LC10 and LC20 of synthetic pyrethroid Deltamethrin and neem based formulation Achook. It was found that the activities of ACP and ALP in treated fishes was significantly reduced (p<0.001) in response to treatments of both the pesticides compared with controls. The activity of ACP was reduced to 91, 96 & 92% of controls (100%) in liver, ovary and muscle, respectively for Deltamethrin whereas 96, 98 & 97% for Achook treated fishes after LC5 exposure for 4 days. Also, the activity of ALP was reduced to 65, 60 & 57% of controls (100%) in liver, ovary and muscle respectively after 16 days exposure to LC20 of Deltamethrin. The reduction in ALP activity was 75, 65 & 67% of controls in liver, ovary and muscle, respectively due to Achook at the same concentration and exposure period as that of Deltamethrin. There was a concentration and time dependent inhibition in the activities of both ACP & ALP enzymes after 4, 8, 12 & 16 days of exposure to both the pesticides. The natural pesticides may not be treated safe to the fish and should be used with great cautions.

  39. S. Tamilenthi and R. Baskaran

    The present study area (Cauvery river basin) lies between 77o 43’ 54’’ E to 79o 35’ 55’’ E longititude and Latitude 10o 10’ 0’’ N to 11o 10’ 6’’ N. The basin area is demarcated from the survey of Indian topographical map No.58 I/2 (1:50, 000, 1972) and it covers the area about 3397 sqkms. Morphometric analysis and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Cauvery basin, Salem district, Tamilnadu, India. Digital elevation model (DEM) is used to determine the features of drainage networks and slope of drainage network and to determine the characteristics of basins. The foregoing analysis clearly indicates some relations among the various attributes of the morphometric aspects of the basin helps to understand their role in sculpturing the surface of the region.

  40. Ibandarisuk Lyngdoh and Highland Kayang

    Accelerated pollution of rivers and streams because of human activity are a concern throughout the world. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of coal mine drainage on streams of Jaintia hills, Meghalaya, India. The water quality status and microbial distribution and diversity of streams were assessed for a period of two years. Diversity indices revealed a decline in terms of microbial abundance and composition. Clustering and ordination analysis clearly separated reference site from coal mine affected sites. Low dissolved oxygen, low pH, high sulphate, iron are some characteristics of coal mine impacted sites. These patterns are the result of a combination of rampant dumping of untreated wastes exacerbated by geologic, topographic, climatic and land use factors.

  41. Anupama P. Pathak and Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    The terrestrial and perennial hot spring is located at Unkeshwar village of Nanded district, India is unique amongst presently active systems, the physicochemical characteristics of this hot spring. Water samples were collected from Unkeshwar hot spring. The hot springs was free of any algal growth and dirt. The natural temperature, pH, DO, COD, sulphate, sulphite and chloride were analyzed. The hot spring water have supported different thermophiles.

  42. Bhavadharini Balaji and Sylvia Subapriya, M.

    Sports nutrition plays a significant role in the advancement of the knowledge available to the athletic community and hydration is of special importance as a part of the preparation, participation, and recovery of every athlete from the stress of training or competition. Twenty five each of female athletes (physical education students) and non athletes respectively from Avinashilingam University for Women and male athletes and non athletes from Karate Association and Rotary Club of Coimbatore respectively were selected. Socio economic background was elicited using questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry, biochemical tests, clinical examination and dietary survey. Fluid intakes were recorded, average intake was recorded. Fitness tests (athletes) for cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, agility and strength were carried out. Computer assisted nutrition education materials. (Power point) and a booklet were developed. Education was imparted on sports nutrition and hydration and its effect on nutritional knowledge was ascertained. Sixty nine per cent male athlete, 84 per cent male non athlete, 80 per cent female athlete, 88 per cent female non athlete had optimal systolic pressure. All male athletes and female athletes and 84 per cent male non athlete and 96 per cent female athlete had normal blood glucose level. Diet of athletes lacked in major foods and nutrients and non athletes was high in fats and sugar. None of them consumed suggested quantity of fluids per day. No contaminating microbes were present in the fluids consumed by the subjects as proved by Total plate count test. Majority of athletes showed average to excellent performance in all four physical fitness tests. Knowledge pertaining to sports nutrition and hydration was very low before nutrition education (4.56-5.4). Education on sports nutrition and hydration imparted to the athletes and non athletes showed increase in knowledge scores (11.24-11.56).

  43. Sharan Badiger

    Echocardiography has been established as the procedure of choice for the detection, confirmation and serial follow-up of patients with pericardial effusion. The criteria and their sensitivity for the diagnosis of pericardial effusion are reviewed.

  44. Ananda Vardhan Hebbani, Roopasri Ranganatha and John Barnabas

    The undertaken exercise was to analyze the exacerbating effect of common salt on the antibacterial activity of Coleus aromaticus, a commonly found medicinal herb in India. Water, ethanol, acetone and salt water (1.2% NaCl) extracts of Coleus aromaticus were examined for their antibacterial efficacy by disc diffusion method on both Gram positive (viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram negative (viz. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. Results of the study disclosed that the salt water extract of the leaf exhibited a profound antibacterial activity on both Gram type of bacteria, in comparison with the other extracts. The results thus support the age old practice of consuming the leaf in combination with salt, as a better smoothening (anti tussessive) agent against throat infections and a natural cure for tonsils.

  45. Ananthan, S. A. and Narayanan, V.

    Ru/TiO2 and Pt/TiO2 were prepared by impregnation method and reduced at two different temperatures, 375°C (LTR) and 575°C (HTR) for 4 hours. The catalysts were characterized by BET surface area, TPR, HRTEM, XRD and XPS techniques. It was found that the XRD of Pt showed fcc crystalline structure, which is uniformly dispersed with an average particles size of 2.9-4.0nm and zero valence metallic state. The catalysts and their activity and selectivity evaluated in liquid phase selective hydrogenation of citral in a semi-batch Parr reactor at 90°C and a hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa and solvent medium of a isopropanol during 6 hours. Amongst the studied catalysts, 1.5%Pt/TiO2 reduced at 575°C had presented higher selectivity in terms of citral towards unsaturated alcohols (Geraniol and Nerol). This is the influence of strong metal supported interaction (SMSI effect) of supported catalysts reduced at 575°C and selectivity to activate C=O hydrogenation increased.

  46. Shivakumar P. Banakar., Thippeswamy, B., Naveenkumar, K.J. and Thirumalesh, B.V.

    Present study was followed with the aim that selection of more efficient strains of fungal species from the forest soils for the production of industrially important fungal cellulase under submerged fermentation (SmF). Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic fungal strains from the nutrient enrichment method yields 22 fungal species. More efficient eight fungal strains were selected based on the rate of zone of clearance on the CMC agar plates by Congored test. Production of cellulase was studied in Czapek broth supplemented with 2% CMC at an optimal conditions of temperature 28±1ºC, pH-7.0 and 5th days of incubation under shake culture. Maximum Corboxymethyl cellulase activity showed by Penicillium pallidum (0.059±0.001 U/mL), Aspergillus terreus (0.056±0.001 U/mL) and Trichoderma viridae (0.052±0.003 U/mL). Filter Paperase activity by Penicillium pallidum (0.057±0.001 U/mL), Trichoderma viridae (0.054±0.002 U/mL) and Aspergillus terreus (0.050±0.005 U/mL) than the other isolates. Soluble crude proteins were maximum by Penicillium sp. (170±5 µg/mL), Penicillium pallidum (170±2.64 µg/mL) and Aspergillus niger (170±2 µg/mL) and partial purified protein was maximum by Penicillium pallidum (115±2 µg/mg), Cunninghamella echinulata (80±2 µg/mg) and Trichoderma viridae (75±2.64 µg/mg) than the other isolates at 5th day of incubation.

  47. Thomas Njoroge Kinga, Mary Kariuki and Teresia Njonge

    Counselling is an emotionally draining occupation that expose counsellors to overwhelming levels of burnout. To overcome this inevitable professional hazard, the counselling profession provides for counsellor supervision as the mechanism to mitigate against high levels of burnout. Counsellor supervision takes three main forms including individual, group and peer supervision. This paper examines the relationship between relationship between the three forms of counsellor supervision and level of burnout among VCT counsellors and seeks to establish which of the three forms of supervision has the greatest influence in managing the levels of burnout. Data was collected from a sample of 174 VCT counsellors in 13 counties which had the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence in kenya. The chi square test and factor analysis were used in the analysis of data . The study established that a relationship existed between the three forms of counsellor supervision and levels of burnout among VCT counsellors. It also established that individual supervision counselling had the most significant influence on level of burnout followed by peer and group supervision respectively. The study recommended that VCT counsellors increase their frequency of counsellor supervision particullary individual supervision and that organizations dealing with VCT counselling should increase the number of counsellor supervisors inorder to increase access to more intensive supervision, measures which would contribute significantly towards managing levels of burnout among the practitioners.

  48. C.P. Ukpaka

    The sinusoidal characteristics of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation upon the influence of momentum transfer in dry season of pond system were studied. Both frequency and time responses are used to elucidate the dynamics characteristics of sinusoidal input. The process used for illustration purposes is the continuous discharge of effluent wastewater into a batch reactor (pond) of which the transport of the contaminants within the system is dependent of velocity, frequency and time. Having noted that, the phase lag, output characteristics and process time influence the biodegradation process as well as the momentum transfer, this paper show how sinusoidal input of momentum transfer influence the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon in pond system.

  49. T. Gnanasambandan , S. Seshadri and S. Gunasekaran

    Quantum chemical calculations of molecular geometries, vibrational wavenumbers and thermodynamical properties of Levamisole was carried out using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid functional B3LYP with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The study is extended to calculate the HOMO-LUMO energy gap, polarizability, ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness and electro negativity of Levamisole. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by HF and DFT calculations are in good agreement with the experimental FTIR and FT Raman spectral data. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The experimental spectra also coincide satisfactorily with those of theoretically constructed spectrograms.

  50. Poongodi, M., Manjula, L., Pradeepkumar, S. and Umadevi, M.

    Thousands of people die every year because of cancer due to limitation of medical sources and unable to use the existing sources effectively. Loss of patients can be reduced by using the numerical (quantitative) techniques in the system of Medical and Health. Cancer is a genetic disease which is developed by the abnormal cell increase and cell growth as a result of DNA damage and cells being out of the Program. The earlier cancer is diagnosed, so the treatment would be that successful. In this study, the risks of getting cancer for selected pilot people will be discovered by applying the mamdani Fuzzy Logic Model and suggestions will be submitted to the persons to eliminate these risks. In order to resolve the problem, the available figures have been evaluated; leading method and sample have been presented together with fuzzy logic model as a new modality. The reason for selection of fuzzy logic model in this study is that the system uses fuzzy logic model enables to provide effective results depending on uncertain verbal knowledge just like logic of human being. When received good results from the study; our system will make a prediagnosis for the people who possibly can have risk of getting cancer due to working conditions or living standards therefore; this will enable these people to take precautions to the risk of cancer. Besides, the contribution of fuzzy logic model in the field of health and topics of artificial intelligence will also be examined in this study.

  51. Emmanuel Amankwah and Hamidatu S. Darimani

    This research is to evaluate biogas production and slurry using organic solid wastes for agricultural and rural development. Solid wastes management have been a major challenge for Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) as the organizations responsible for managing wastes in their communities. The major challenges identified are the lack of separation of wastes, low technological know-how, inadequate landfills and lack of basic infrastructure for managing the wastes. The research involved a visit to various regional and district capitals to observe waste management challenges; a thorough review of literature on solid wastes and biogas technology. It was observed that about forty percent of solid wastes are not collected and heaps of wastes have become common in some of the cities. The research also revealed that the solid wastes are mostly collected and disposed without treatment and such wastes contain over fifty percent organic matter. It was also discovered that so much money is spent on wastes management alone which has a toll on the MMDAs especially AMA. The research indicated the process involved in the conversion of organic solid wastes component into energy and slurry for agricultural productivity and rural development. The research outlines the energy content of organic solid waste, composition and application of the biogas and the digested slurry. It further stated the measures to ensure sustainable biogas project and concluded with suggested recommendations.

  52. Nithya, R., Velumani, A., Senthil Kumar, S.R.R. and Ganesan, K

    Pollution of surface water has been growing incessantly in India particularly due to the indiscriminate discharge of waste water from various sources without using any water treatment techniques. Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment (GWSSA), 2000 reported that the water related diseases kill a child every eight seconds and are responsible for all illness and death in the world. The scarcity for good quality drinking is increasingly becoming a rising issue and has invited attention. Hence, in this paper an attempt has been made to study about water quality of the Sulur tank which is located at 11.030N and 77.130E of Coimbatore district, India. The tank is heavily polluted due to domestic waste water discharge. The water quality of the tank was analyzed by collecting samples from a point on weekly basis from December 2010 to March 2011. The various physio – chemical and biological parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Total Hardness, Turbidity, Alkalinity, Nitrate, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium Hardness, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Dissolved Oxygen are analyzed experimentally as per the Indian Standards. The range of the test results obtained are as follows pH (7.2-9.1) , Electrical Conductivity (1330 – 1946.9 µohm/cm) , Turbidity (0.4 – 0.7 NTU) , Total Dissolved Solids ( 770 – 4801.20 mg/l) ,Total Suspended Solids ( 0.3 – 4.5 mg/l) ,Total Hardness ( 48.2 – 237.15 mg/l) , Alkalinity (360 – 900 mg/l) , Nitrate ( 0.56 – 5.17 mg/l) , Calcium Hardness (100 – 156mg/l) , Magnesium Hardness (48 – 105.6 mg/l) , Biological Oxygen Demand ( 18 -29 mg/L) , Chemical Oxygen Demand (98 – 220 mg/l ) , Dissolved Oxygen (17 – 25 mg/l). These parameters are important factors for accessing quality of water. The variation in the test result is due to domestic discharge to the tank and seasonal condition. Using the results, the regression equations are established using SPSS 16. The parameters were correlated using Principal Component Analysis method by which, the highly correlated parameters (r>0.5) were formulated into regression equations. The results useful for the rapid and reliable monitoring measures are essential for keeping a close watch on water quality and healthy environment. The obtained equations are programmed using .NET. Thus the framework helps to predict the future state of water quality easily.

  53. Shankar, C.

    An attempt was made to know the impact of power point presentation on teaching of drawing skill in zoology subject in students’ achievement. For that the investigator, randomly selected 50 students having equal metal ability and split-up into control group and experimental group. Traditional method of teaching of drawing skill was given to control group and Power point presentation method of teaching drawing skill was given to experimental group. A test was conducted for both the groups and subjected to statistical analysis like descriptive (Mean, S.D) and differential analysis (t-test). It shows that experimental group scored better than control group. The power point presentation method of teaching drawing skill is far better than traditional method of teaching drawing skill.

  54. Deepake Ujwala Sheshrao, Komple Trupti Devidas and Dr. G. Gyananath

    TridaxprocumbensLinn.andArgemonemexicanaLinn. are the two important medicinal plants used in the present study to determine the colonisation frequencyof endophytic bacteria, actinomycetes&fungi and antimicrobial activity of fungi. The endophytic fungi from leaves,stem and roots of both the plants were identified based on the morphology and characteristics of fungal spores. The crude extracts of fermentation broth of endophytic fungi were prepared in ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and water for testing against pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicansby agar well diffusion method. The ethyl acetate and diethyl ether extracts of Aspergillusflavuswere found to inhibit the growth of both Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria. The diethyl ether extracts of Aspergillusfumigatusshowed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans.The data shows that endophyticAspergillusflavusobtained from Tridaxprocumbensappears to show broad spectrum antimicrobial properties.

  55. Annie Deborah Harris, S. and Ramalingam, C.

    The development of metagenomics has emerged as an alternative approach for the conventional screening of microbial genomes from the natural environment. Metagenomic analysis provides broad information on the structure, composition and gene functions of various environmental microbes. It has been successfully applied to screen novel enzymes from the uncultured microbes in the environment. The soil metagenomic approach relies on the direct isolation of environmental DNA. The main application depends on the construction of a metagenomic library in a suitable vector and host with subsequent high-throughput screening. This review focuses on the metagenomic approach for exploring novel enzyme discovery.

  56. Mirza Zaheer Baig and Smita M. Dharmadhikari

    Lignocellulosic biomass includes wheat straw, corn stover, rice straw, cotton stalk etc. which are renewable resources of energy. These agricultural lignocellulosic wastes are attractive substrate for production of bioethanol. The main challenge for producing ethanol from lignocellulosic wastes is the conversion of lignin containing polymer in to delignified monomer. Acid hydrolysis is conventional process for this conversion. To avoid undesirable side reaction and minimize the environmental issues, the acid hydrolysis has divided in to two steps involving the treatment with concentrated acid in first step for decrystallization followed by dilute acid hydrolysis. In the present work effectiveness of different concentration of sulphuric acid on cotton stalk has been studied and solubilisation of fermentable sugar and specifically dextrose were checked at regular interval of time. The result of this study show that 75% H2SO4 at fixed sample-acid ratio of 1:2 (by weight) followed by dilution up to 1N, steam treatment at 121oC for 30 min. and heating up to four hour at 90oC gives maximum yield of glucose (0.24 g/g of biomass) and fermentable sugar (0.45 g/g of biomass).

  57. Jitendra Kumar Pal and Major Singh

    Interaction of genotype and explants with medium, for their in vitro plant regeneration via shoot induction in eggplant (Solanum melongena) to select an elite cultivar with high shoot regeneration frequency for establish a protocol for commercial use in growing tissue culture industries, has been studied. Hypocotyls , cotyledon and leaf explants of six commercially grown Indian cultivars, Pant Rituraj, Punjab Sadabahar, IVBL-9, IVBR-3, IVBR-1, BRSPS-14, which vary in shape, size and color were used in this study. A combination of BA 0.5 mg L-1 and Kinetin 0.5 was found to be optimum for shoot regeneration from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants while BA with IBA was found to be optimum for leaf explants. Genotype, explant and genotype- explant interaction had highly significant effects on shoot regeneration with genotype making use of maximum effect on shoot regeneration. IVBR-1 was found to be most responsive genotype for regeneration of shoots from hypocotyls and cotyledon among the genotype while Punjab Sadabahar was found to be most responsive for regeneration of shoots from leaf explants. Among the explants hypocotyls yielded the maximum number of adventitious shoots followed by cotyledon and leaf. Rooting of regenerated shoots was achieved in basal MS medium. Complete plantlets were transferred to soil after initial hardening for 2 weeks under 70-80% relative humidity.

  58. Dr. Sreevalsan J. Menon, Dr. V. K. Raju and Ms. Simmy V.V.

    M-agriculture (Mobile agriculture) is a phenomenon of mobile enabled agricultural development for leveraging mobile services to enable agricultural development. ATIC ( Agriculture Technology Information Centre) of the KAU (Kerala Agricultural University) initiated a project on M-agriculture in 2011 using the e-SMS platform developed and offered by Kerala State IT Mission. ATIC had been sending short agricultural messages of 160 characters, twice a week, to around 12,500 farmers across the state of Kerala. A study was conducted on a sample of 110 farmers selected randomly from the list of 12,500 farmers registered with ATIC. Interview was conducted over mobile phones. In the design and treatment of content for mobile alerts, constraints encountered were (a) limitation of message to 160 English characters (b) message incompleteness (c) seasonal relevance (d) multiplicity of crops in homesteads (e) unintended distortion of messages and (f) inability to use local language. Content of the SMS was primarily sourced from scientists involved in extension activities other than from those involved in basic research. In dissemination through mobile phones, since the personal motivation component is rather weak mere information/knowledge is just not enough for farmers to act. It is the human touch that helps in persuading and motivating farmers to adopt technologies and practices. Messages triggered verbal interaction than message forwards. With regard to message categories, farmers preferred scientific agricultural practices to information about new varieties and expert contact information. The need of the hour is to provide requisite information at the requisitioned time and mobile phones do cater to this particular aspect.

  59. Vem T.S, Adisa J. O, Oyero S.K, Egbujo E.C, Golit W.N and Golwa P

    Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease associated with the development of cervical premalignant lesion. There is a connection between transmission of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) and HPV, therefore the possibility of cervical premalignant lesions among women. This study therefore undertook to detect HPV in HIV infected women to establish the correlation. Methodology: One hundred (100) women infected with the Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) and one hundred (100) non - infected women were used for the study. Cervical smears were collected from each of them and stained using the standard Papanicolaou’s method and then examined microscopically for HPV haloes. Result: The prevalence of HPV among HIV positive women in the study was 9.0% .The prevalence of HPV among HIV negative women was 6.0%. Prevalence rates according to age revealed 12.5 % and 11.0% in ages 21 – 30 and 31 – 40 years respectively, while 41 – 50 and 51 – 60 years recorded 6.7% and 5.2% respectively. No infection was recorded above ages 60 in HIV positive women. Among HIV negative women, a prevalence rate of 6.7% and 8.3% was recorded in ages 21 – 30 and 31 – 40 years respectively. Ages 41 – 50 years recorded 4.2%. No HPV infection was recorded above age 50. Conclusion: Infection with HIV is an important risk factor for HPV and the development of HPV associated lesions

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EDITORIAL BOARD

Luai Farhan Zghair
Iraq
Hasan Ali Abed Al-Zu’bi
Jordanian
Fredrick OJIJA
Tanzanian
Firuza M. Tursunkhodjaeva
Uzbekistan
Faraz Ahmed Farooqi
Saudi Arabia
Eric Randy Reyes Politud
Philippines
Elsadig Gasoom FadelAlla Elbashir
Sudan
Eapen, Asha Sarah
United State
Dr.Arun Kumar A
India
Dr. Zafar Iqbal
Pakistan
Dr. SHAHERA S.PATEL
India
Dr. Ruchika Khanna
India
Dr. Recep TAS
Turkey
Dr. Rasha Ali Eldeeb
Egypt
Dr. Pralhad Kanhaiyalal Rahangdale
India
DR. PATRICK D. CERNA
Philippines
Dr. Nicolas Padilla- Raygoza
Mexico
Dr. Mustafa Y. G. Younis
Libiya
Dr. Muhammad shoaib Ahmedani
Saudi Arabia
DR. MUHAMMAD ISMAIL MOHMAND
United State
DR. MAHESH SHIVAJI CHAVAN
India
DR. M. ARUNA
India
Dr. Lim Gee Nee
Malaysia
Dr. Jatinder Pal Singh Chawla
India
DR. IRAM BOKHARI
Pakistan
Dr. FARHAT NAZ RAHMAN
Pakistan
Dr. Devendra kumar Gupta
India
Dr. ASHWANI KUMAR DUBEY
India
Dr. Ali Seidi
Iran
Dr. Achmad Choerudin
Indonesia
Dr Ashok Kumar Verma
India
Thi Mong Diep NGUYEN
France
Dr. Muhammad Akram
Pakistan
Dr. Imran Azad
Oman
Dr. Meenakshi Malik
India
Aseel Hadi Hamzah
Iraq
Anam Bhatti
Malaysia
Md. Amir Hossain
Bangladesh
Ahmet İPEKÇİ
Turkey
Mirzadi Gohari
Iran